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Editorial Board

Editor in Chief
Adesoji Oni, Ph.D.
University of Lagos, Nigeria

Associate Editors
M Sultana Alam, Ph.D.
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI)
Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

Djuwari, Ph.D.
Director, Language Laboratory
STIE Perbanas, Surabaya, Indonesia

Roel Palo Anicas, DAEM


Gordon College
Olongapo City, Philippines

Publishing Manager
Dennis P. Mausisa,Ed.D.

Resident Editor
Charmaine Bedayo

Managing Editor & Website Administrator


Criseldo C. Calinawan, MSIT

AIM AND SCOPE

The SMCC Higher Education Journal aims to publish original research from
faculty and external experts dealing on various disciplines in higher education such
as but not limited to Teacher Education, Business Administration, Criminology,
Computer Science, Information Technology, Tourism, Hotel and Restaurant
Management and Liberal Arts.
SMCC
Higher Education Research Journal

ISSN Print: 2449-4402 Volume 4 August 2017

Published by Saint Michael College of Caraga


Nasipit, Agusan del Norte
Philippines

All rights reserved 2017


SMCC Higher Education Research Journal

Table of Contents

1 An Analysis of Grammatical Errors in the Conversation


of the Third Grade Students of Tourism Department
of SMK Negeri 1 Kupang, Indonesia
Yandry Diana Dethan

16 Rhetorical Moves in Introduction Sections


of Academic Journal Articles
Djuwari

28 Socio-Economic and Personal Factors as Predictor of Agricultural


Information Utilization among Farmers
Egenti, M.N.

40 Teaching Staff Supervision and Capacity Building for Quality


Secondary Education Delivery in Rivers State of Nigeria
Florence N.d. Ekeh & Sunday T. Afangideh

56 Sociological and Philosophical Analysis of the Influence


of Educated Mothers on the performance and wellbeing of Pupils
in Nigerian Schools
Titi Christianah Falana & Adesoji A. Oni (Ph.D)

77 The Effects of Using Multiple Bits of Intelligence Approach


in Developing Students Verbal Intelligence in Storytelling
Maria Regina Jaga

88 Using Audio Visual Media to Increase


the Writing Skill of Students
Angela Maricimoi

102 Teaching Indonesian for Immigrants in Kupang


Januar Jemy Tell & Serlinia Rambu Anawoli

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112 Stimulating Bilingual Students Divergent Thinking


Tiarma Marpaung

121 Item Analysis of English Final Semester Test of the Third Year Students
of the English Department of SMAN I Kupang
Waldetrudis Mbewa

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EDITORIAL POLICY

The frequency of issue is once a year. The efficiency and effectiveness of the editorial
review process are critically dependent upon the actions of both the research authors
and the reviewers. An author accepts the responsibility of preparing the research
paper for evaluation by independent reviewers. The responsibility includes subjecting
the manuscript to evaluation by peers and revising it prior to submission. The review
process is not to be used as a means of obtaining feedback at early stages of developing
the research paper.

Subscription Policy
The SMCC Higher Education Journal is accessible through institutional
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individual subscriptions at www.journals.smccnasipit.edu.ph by registering in the
journal of your choice.

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Retraction is an act of the journal publisher to remove a published article from
the digital file due to post publication discovery of fraudulent claims by the research,
plagiarism or serious errors of methodology which escaped detection in the quality
assurance process. Complaints by third party researchers on any of the grounds and
validated by the editorial office trigger the retraction but only after the writer has been
notified and allowed to present his side in compliance to due process.

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If the Journal receives a complaint that any contribution to the Journal infringes
copyright or other intellectual property rights or contains material inaccuracies, libelous
materials or otherwise unlawful materials, the Journal will investigate the complaint.
Investigation may include a request that the parties involved substantiate their claims.
Peer Reviewed Journal

The Journal will make a good faith distribution whether to remove the allegedly
wrongful material. A decision not to remove material should represent the Journals
belief that the complaint is without sufficient foundation, or if well founded, that a legal
defense or exemption may apply, such as fair use in the case of copyright infringement or
truthfulness of a statement in the case of libel. Journal should document its investigation
and decision. If found guilty after investigation, the article shall be subject to retraction
policy.

Policy on Use of Human Subjects in Research


The Journal will only publish research articles involving human subjects after the
author(s) have verified that they have followed all laws and regulations concerning the
protections afforded human subjects in research studies within the jurisdiction in which
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approved by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB). In the case of exempt
research, the IRB must have deemed the research protocol exempt. A certificate of
approval by the IRB must be submitted along with the manuscript.

Policy on Conflicts of Interest


The Journal will only publish articles after the author(s) have confirmed that they
have disclosed all potential conflicts of interest.

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice


The SMCC Higher Education Journal is committed to upholding the highest
standards of publication ethics and takes all possible measures against any publication
malpractice. All authors submitting their works to the SMCC Higher Education
Journal for publication as original articles attest that the submitted works represent
their authors contributions and have not been copied or plagiarized in whole or in part
from other works. The authors acknowledge that they have disclosed all and any actual
or potential conflicts of interest with their work or partial benefits associated with it.
In the same manner, the SMCC Higher Education Journal is committed to objective
and fair double-blind peer- review of the submitted manuscripts for publication and
to prevent any actual or potential conflict of interests between the editorial and review
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to providing swift resolutions to any of such type of problems.
Reviewers and editors are responsible for providing constructive and prompt
evaluation of submitted research papers based on the significance of their contribution
and on the rigors of analysis and presentation.
SMCC Higher Education Research Journal

The Peer Review System


Definition. Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an
authors scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the
same field. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (and often narrowly
defined) field who are qualified and able to perform impartial review. Peer review
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Type. The double-blind review process is adopted for the journal. The reviewer(s)
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Recruiting Referees. The task of picking reviewers is the responsibility of the
editorial board. When a manuscript arrives, an editor solicits reviews from scholars
or other experts to referee the manuscript. In some cases, the authors may suggest the
referees names subject to the Editorial Boards approval. The referees must have an
excellent track record as researchers in the field as evidenced by researches published
in refereed journals, research-related awards, and an experience in peer review. Referees
are not selected from among the authors close colleagues, students, or friends. Referees
are to inform the editor of any conflict of interests that may arise. The Editorial Board
often invites research author to name people whom they considered qualified to referee
their work. The authors input in selecting referees is solicited because academic writing
typically is very specialized.
The identities of the referees selected by the Editorial Board are kept unknown to
research authors. However, the reviewers identity can be disclosed under some special
circumstances. Disclosure of Peer Review can be granted under the following grounds:
as evidence to prove that the published paper underwent peer review as required by
the University for ranking and financial incentives, for regulatory bodies such as the
Commission on Higher Education, Accreditation of Academic Programs among others.
Request for peer review results shall be made in writing.
Peer Review Process. The Editorial Board sends advance copies of an authors work
to experts in the field (known as referees or reviewers) through e-mail or a Web-based
manuscript processing system. There are two or three referees for a given article. One
is an expert of the topic of research and one is an expert in research and statistics who
shall review the technical components of the research. These referees return to the board
the evaluation of the work that indicates the observed weaknesses or problems along
with suggestions for improvement. The board then evaluates the referees comments and
notes opinion of the manuscript before passing the decision with the referees comments
back to the author(s).

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Criteria for Acceptance and Rejection. A manuscript is accepted when it is (1)


endorsed for publication by 2 or 3 referees, (2) the instructions of the reviewers are
substantially complied; (3) ethical standards and protocols are complied for studies
involving humans and animals; and (4) the manuscript passed the plagiarism detection
test with a score of at least 80 for originality, otherwise the manuscript is rejected.
The referees evaluations include an explicit recommendation of what to do with the
manuscript, chosen from options provided by the journal. Most recommendations are
along the following lines:

Unconditional acceptance
Acceptance with revision based on the referee recommendations
Rejection with invitation to resubmit upon major revisions based on the referees
and editorial boards recommendations
Outright rejection

In situations where the referees disagree substantially about the quality of a work,
there are a number of strategies for reaching a decision. When the editor receives very
positive and very negative reviews for the same manuscript, the board will solicit one or
more additional reviews as a tie-breaker. In the case of ties, the board may invite authors
to reply to a referees criticisms and permit a compelling rebuttal to break the tie. If the
editor does not feel confident to weigh the persuasiveness of a rebuttal, the board may
solicit a response from the referee who made the original criticism. In rare instances, the
board will convey communications back and forth between an author and a referee, in
effect allowing them to debate on a point. Even in such a case, however, the board does
not allow referees to confer with each other and the goal of the process is explicitly not
to reach a consensus or to convince anyone to change his/ her opinions.

Comments
The SMCC Higher Education Journal welcomes submission of comments on
previous articles. Comments on articles previously published in the journal will
generally be reviewed by two reviewers, usually an author of the original article (to assist
the editor in evaluating whether the submitted comment represents the prior articles
accuracy) and an independent reviewer. If a comment is accepted for publication, the
original author will be invited to reply. All other editorial requirements, as enumerated
above, apply to proposed comments.

Technology-based Quality Assurance


English Writing Readability. Readability tests are designed to indicate comprehension
difficulty when reading a passage of contemporary academic English. To guide teachers
and researchers in the proper selection of articles that suit the comprehension level of
users, contributors are advised to use the Flesch Kincaid readability test particularly the

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Flesch Reading Ease test. The interpretation of the score is as follows:

Score Notes
90.0 100.00 Easily understandable by an average 11 year old student
60.0 70.0 Easily understandable by 13 to 15 year old students
0.0 30.0 Best understood by university graduates

Gunning Fog Index. Developed by Robert Gunning, an American Businessman


in 1952, Gunning Fog Index measures the readability of English writing. The index
estimates the years of formal education required to understand the text on a first reading.
A fog index of 12 requires a reading level of a US high school senior (around 18 years
old) or third year college / university in the Philippines.
Plagiarism Detection. Contributors are advised to use software for plagiarism
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licensed software to screen research articles of plagiarism. The standard set is 95 percent
original to pass the plagiarism detection test.
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ID.

GUIDE FOR AUTHORS

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1. Organize the paper following these major headings: Title, Author(s) and address
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3. Leave two spaces before and after the major headings and two spaces before and
after the sub-headings. Do not use footnotes rather use endnotes if required by

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the discipline.
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Percentage and Decimal Fractions: In nontechnical copy, use the word percent in
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5. If the paper refers to statutes, legal treatises, or court cases, citations acceptable in
law reviews should be used.

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Conclusions
Conclusions should briefly answer the objectives of the study. They are not repetitions
of the discussions but are judgments of the results obtained.

Literature Cited
Every manuscript must include a Literature Cited section that contains only those
works cited within the text. Each entry should contain all information necessary or
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Submission of Manuscripts Authors should note the following guidelines for
submitting manuscripts:
1. Manuscripts currently under consideration by another journal or publisher
should not be submitted. The author must state upon submission that the work
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5. Vital information is available at this websites: www.journals.smccnasipit.edu.ph
and www.ejournals.ph.

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ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

An Analysis of Grammatical Errors


in the Conversation of the Third Grade
Students of Tourism Department of SMK
Negeri 1 Kupang, Indonesia
YANDRY DIANA DETHAN
http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-8482-9486
dethandeeyan@gmail.com
Universitas Nusa Cendana: Kupang
Kota Kupang, Indonesia

ABSTRACT

The spoken and written language cannot be separated from grammatical rules
because the grammatical rules of a language play an important role to convey and
receive the message. This study aimed to answer the following questions: What were
the types and the most of the grammatical errors in the conversation of the third-
grade students of Tourism Department of SMK Negeri 1 Kupang? The method of
analyzing data was descriptive analysis. The study was conducted at SMK Negeri 1
(State Vocational High School) Kupang in the school year 2011/2012. The subjects
of this study were the third-grade students of Tourism Department. In collecting the
data, they were given some topics, and they were asked to make a simple conversation
with their partner. The conversations were recorded. The data were analyzed using
linguistic category taxonomy. It could be concluded that (1) the types of grammatical
errors in conversations were: morphological and syntactical errors. (2) the most of the
grammatical errors in conversations were: (a) Syntactical errors consisted of 198 errors
or 83.90% and (b) Morphological errors consisted of 38 errors or 16.10%.

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KEYWORDS

Error, Error Analysis, Grammatical, Conversations, Kupang, Indonesia

INTRODUCTION

Communication is the process of transferring the message. It cannot be separated


from the language because the language has an important role in humans life, such as
thinking, communicating ideas, and negotiating with the others. Finocchiaro in Bustan,
2013, p.2, defined language as a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permits all
people in a given culture or other people who have learned the system of that culture,
to communicate or to interact.
Finochiaros definition showed us that language is a primary means of communication
belonging to people used for fulfilling their basic needs. As the primary means of
communication belonging to people, language functions as a foundation to unify the
family, a group of society, and even a nation as a whole. This function reveals that
the use of language as the primary means of human communication belonging to
people as a speech community includes not only understanding and speaking, but also
listening and responding to the feedback towards the message sent in the process of
communication (Fransiskus Bustan, 2013, pp. 12-13).
Various ways can represent language. But in generally, language is divided into two
modes; they are spoken language and written language. Spoken language is a language
where speech sounds come out from the speakers speech organs, while written language
is a language that uses symbols that are called letters to represent the sounds of speech.
The spoken and written language cannot be separated from grammatical rules
because the grammatical rules of a language play an important role to convey and receive
the message. It would be impossible to learn language effectively without knowing the
grammar because grammar helps learners to identify grammatical forms, which serve to
enhance and sharpen the expression of meaning.
Grammar in speaking is still considered as the most difficult part of a language, and
the learners tend to make errors in using language. Errors in foreign language learning
are the cases which are difficult enough to avoid, but they are the most natural thing
in the process of learning. Even, one affirms that without error there is no progress.
What the error-as-progress conception is based on Chomskys idea that a child generates
language through innate universal structures.
Dulay, Burt, and Krashen (1982: 130) defined errors as the flawed side of learner
speech or writing which deviates from some selected norm of mature language
performance. They further discussed that errors might be distinguished based on the
causes: errors caused by factors such as fatigue and inattention are performance errors,
and those caused by lack of knowledge of the rules of the language are called competence
errors.

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According to the explanation above, it is important for the teacher to make errors
analysis to the students improvement Moreover in the spoken language.

FRAMEWORK

Grammatical
As explained before that language cannot be separated from grammar either spoken
or written the language. To most people, the word grammar can be defined in many
ways. For the grammarian, it has often been meant as the analysis of his language, or
one he has mastered, to discover its rules of property, that is, what may and may not
be said in the particular language. For the general public, grammar has been the study
of correctness, that is, rules that claimed to tell the student what he should and should
not say to the speak the language of the socially educated class.
According to Lado in Putri (2009), the definition of grammatical structure is the
pattern of arrangement of the word in sentences and the patterns of arrangement of
words group, words, stress, etc. sentences occur in sequences and each language has its
system for the ordering of sentences in sequences.
Wilson in Rean (1971: 102) stated that grammar of a language is the system of
devices which carry the structural meanings of that language in speech and writing. This
system specifies the way words in a given language are related to each other.
Susan Hunston in Gomes (2008) stated the basis of four main features of spoken
language: spoken language happens in real time, and it is typically unplanned, spoken
language is most typically face to face, spoken language foregrounds choices which reflect
the immediate social and interpersonal situation, and spoken, and written languages are
not sharply divided but exist on a continuum.
Based on those definitions, the writer concluded that grammar is one of the
important systems of a language to make up sentences to help the user of that language
in the delivering their ideas and messages correctly.

Conversation
Conversation is semantic activity, a process of making meanings. Taking turns
in any verbal interaction, participants of conversation negotiate meanings as well as
their reactions to the world and attitudes to each other. Nowadays, the conversation is
systemic functional linguistics outlined in the work of Michael Halliday (1970: 142) and
further developed by Martin (1992), Enggins and Slade (1999: 131-151) and others.
One of the basic claims of the systemic functional approach is that language looked as
performing three major functions: ideational (represent the experience), interpersonal
(sustain interaction between people using language), and textual (create connected and
coherent discourse).
Another important feature of the systemic functional model is the description of the
language regarding sets of choices of meaning where a set of options (e.g. singular/ plural

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member, positive/ negative plurality, etc.) make a system. Thus systemic functional
linguistics aims to describe meaning potential the linguistic options that are available
for constructing meanings in particular contexts.

Error
There are several definitions related to errors. Dulay, Burt, and Krashen (1982: 130)
characterized blunders as the imperfect side of learner discourse or composing which
digresses from some chose standard of develop dialect execution. They additionally
talked about that mistakes may be recognized in light of the causes: blunders brought
about by variables, for example, exhaustion and negligence are execution mistakes, and
those created by absence of information of the guidelines of the dialect are called ability
mistakes.Brown (2000:257) also made a distinction between errors and mistakes based
on the sources: a mistake indicates a failure to utilize a known system correctly whereas
an error reflects the competence of learner.
As stated by Brown, an error is different from a mistake, so we have to be careful to
differentiate them. James (1998: 83) also stated that a mistake could be self-corrected
if the deviation is pointed out to the speaker and error cannot be self-corrected. Errors
occur because of many things.
Brown (2000) points out four sources of errors for the learners of a new language;
they are (1) Transfer interlingual. It refers to the linguistic system upon which the learner
can draw; (2) Transfer intralingual. Predominance characterizes it on interference in
the early stages of language learning, but once learners have begun to acquire parts of
the new system, more and more intralingual transfer generalization within the target
language is manifested; (3) Context of learning. It refers to the classroom with its
materials in the case of school learning or social situation in the case of untutored
second language learning; and (4) Communication strategy. It is defined as an element
of an overall strategic competence in which learners bring to bear all the possible facets
of their growing competence to send a clear message in the second language.
Richard et al (1992) mentioned that the studies of errors are used in order to (1)
identify strategies which learners use in language teaching, (2) identify the causes of
learners errors, and finally (3) obtain information on common difficulties in language
learning as an aid to teaching materials (cited in Khansir 2008). For the study of error in
a foreign language, the class will be very helpful for teachers to reveal both the successes
and the failures of teaching/ learning process.

Types of Grammatical Errors


Linguistic Category Taxonomy, Dulay, Burt, and Krashen (1982: 146) classified errors
according to both the language component and the particular linguistic constituent the
error affects. In this study, language components are limited to morphology and syntax,

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which follow Politzer and Romirez model as a guideline, Politzer, and Romirez, who
studied 120 Mexican-American children learning English in the United States, classified
the errors into the following types:

Morphology
1. Indefinite article incorrect
- a used for a before vowels
- a used for a
2. Possessive case incorrect
- the omission of s
3. Third-person singular verb incorrect
- failure to attach s
- wrong attachment of s
4. Simple past tense incorrect
a. Regular past tense
- the omission of ed
- Adding ed to the past already formed
b. irregular past tense
- regularization by adding ed
- substitution of simple non-past
- substitution of past participle
5. Past participle incorrect
- the omission of ed
6. Comparative incorrect
- use of more + -er

Syntax
1. Noun Phrase
a. Determiners: omissions of the article, substitution of definite article for
the progressive pronoun, use of possessive with the article, and use of
wrong possessive.
b. Nominalization: simple verb used instead ing and preposition by
omitted.
c. Number: substitution of singular for plural and substitution of plural
for the singular.
d. Use of pronouns: omission of the subject pronoun, omission of the
dummy pronoun it, omission object pronoun, the subject pronoun
used as a redundant element, alternating use of pronoun by number as
well as gender, and use of me as a subject.
e. Use of prepositions: omission of preposition and omission of to be.

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2. Verb Phrase
a. The omission of the verb: omission of main verb and omission of to be.
b. Use of progressive tense: omission of being, replacement of ing by the
simple verb form, and substitution of the progressive for the simple
past.
c. Agreement of subject and verb: disagreement of subject and verb phrase,
disagreement of subject and number, and disagreement of subject and
tenses.

3. Verb and Verb construction: embedding of a noun-and-verb construction in


another noun-and-verb construction, the omission of two in identical subject
construction, the omission of two in the verb-and-verb construction, and
attachment of the past marker to the dependent verb.

4. Word order: repetition of the object and adjectival modifiers placed after
noun
5. Some transformations
a. Negative transformation: formation of no or not without the auxiliary
do and multiple negations.
b. Question transformation: omission of auxiliary
c. Their transformation: use of is instead of are, the omission of there, and
use of it was instead of there was.
d. Subordinate clause transformation: use for so that and use of indicative
for conditional

In the classification of the errors in this study, the writer used Politzer and Romirez
Linguistic Category Taxonomy as a guideline, that it was not followed strictly as it was,
but rather, the modification was made to adjust to the field data. While to describe the
errors, Surface Strategy Taxonomy was used to show the ways surface structures were
altered. There are four categories proposed by Dulay, Burt, and Krashen (1982: 50),
namely: omission, addition, misformation, and misordering.

Tenses
In English Language, Tenses have an important role because it is impossible for us
to be able to use the language without knowing the tenses of the language. The use of
tenses is related closely to the use of Verbs that are one of the components of parts of
speech.
Concerning about the tenses, generally in English language, there are three kinds of
Tenses in English, they are:

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a. Present tense : Simple Present Tense, Simple Present Continuous Tense, Present
Perfect Tense, and Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
b. Past Tense : Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, Past Perfect
Tense, and Past Perfect Continuous Tense.
c. Future tense : Simple Future Tense, Future Continuous Tense, Future Perfect
Tense, and Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

Part of Speech
There are eight types of part of speech: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs,
prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aimed to find out the effect of using multiple bits of intelligence approach
in developing students verbal intelligence, especially in storytelling in second-semester
students of Artha Wacana Christian University

METHODOLOGY

The researcher used the descriptive method to describe the grammatical error in
the conversation of the third-grade students of Tourism Department of SMK Negeri
1 Kupang. Then, the researcher classified the errors using linguistic category taxonomy
and described the errors using surface strategy taxonomy.
The total population of this study was 72 students which they were the third-grade
students of Tourism Department of SMK N 1 Kupang. For samples were chosen 12
students using random sampling. After that, they were divided into six pairs. Each pair
chose one topic that prepared by the writer then the writer asked them to make a simple
conversation based on the topic that given. Their conversations were recorded using
tape-recorder.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

FINDINGS
To The types of grammatical errors in the six conversations based on the linguistic
category taxonomy can be seen as follows:

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Table 1. The Result of Analysis


TOTAL
No Linguistic Category
(F) %
A. Morphological Errors
1. Possessive case 3 1.27
2. Third person singular 5 2.12
3. Basic verb 13 5.51
4. Simple Present 2 0.85
5. Present participle 3 1.27
6. Simple past 1 0.42
7. Past participle 3 1.27
8. Verb 1 0.42
9. Noun 3 1.27
10. Adverb 1 0.42
11. Adjective 1 0.42
12. Modal auxiliary 2 0.85
Total of Errors in Morphological Category 38 16.10
B. Syntactical Errors
1. Noun Phrase
1.1. Determiner 13 5.51
1.2. Number 10 4.24
1.3. Pronoun 26 11.02
1.4. Preposition 20 8.47
Total Errors in Noun Phrase 69 29.46
2. Verb Phrase
2.1 Verbs
2.1.1. Simple present tense 13 5.51
2.1.2. Present progressive 1 0.42
2.1.3. Simple past tense 24 10.17
2.1.4. Past progressive 4 1.79
2.1.5. Present perfect tense 9 3.81
2.1.6. Simple future tense 8 3.39
2.1.7. Modal auxiliary 1 0.42
2.2 Agreement of Subject and Verb
2.2.1. Disagreement of subject and number 2 0.85
2.2.2. Disagreement of subject and tense 6 2.54
Total Errors in Verb Phrase 68 28.81
3. Verb-and-Verb Construction 7 2.97

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TOTAL
No Linguistic Category
(F) %
Total Errors in Verb - and Verb Construction 7 2.97
4. Some Transformations
4.1. Negative transformation 5 2.12
4.2. Question transformation 7 2.97
4.3. Passive transformation 2 0.85
Total Errors in Some Transformations 14 5.93
5. Miscellaneous
5.1. Word Order 24 10.17
5.2. Conjunction 7 2.97
5.3. Fragment 9 3.81
Total of Errors in Miscellaneous 40 16.94
Total of the whole errors (38 + 69 + 68+ 7 + 14 + 40) 236 100

The table above shows the distribution of all the error types, their frequency of
occurrences in each conversation, and the total number of occurrences of each type of
errors. The most of the grammatical errors in the conversation of the students were in
syntactical errors compared to morphological ones, morphological errors comprising
16.10%, whereas syntactical errors are comprising 83.90% of all the errors occurring
in the six conversations. The predominant morphological errors were the basic verb or
the unmarked verb used after infinitive to and modal auxiliary which is made by the
addition of third singular inflection; past tense, past participle, and present participle
inflections.
Syntactically, the most predominant type was the Noun Phrase category, which
had 69 errors or 29.24% in all the conversations. Within the Noun Phrase category,
the formation of Pronoun constituted the most predominant type of errors: 26 errors
or 10.02%. It is particularly related to misformation, addition, and omission. Within
the Verb Phrase category, Simple Past Tense comprises the predominant type, having
24 errors which are the misformation and substitution of simple past tense to simple
present tense.
The miscellaneous category has 40 errors or 16.95% which are predominated by
word order with the missing of subject-verb inversion, the addition of the unnecessary
words, and substitution the words are the most predominant type, having 10.17%
errors.
The transformations have 14 errors or 5.93% which predominated by question
transformation which has seven errors or 2.97%.
The last is verb-and-verb construction. It has seven errors or 2.97% in the students
conversation.

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DISCUSSION

There were two types of errors found in the six conversations: morphological and
syntactical errors. They would be discussed as follows:

Morphological Errors
Morphological errors involved the use of possessive case, third person singular, basic
verb, simple present, present participle, simple past, past participle, verb, noun, adverb,
and modals. In Possessive Case Incorrect, some students omit the possessive inflection
{-s}. In Third Person Singular Incorrect, some students failure to add {-s/ -es} in verb
after the subject of the third person singular. In Basic Verb Incorrect, students add the
third person singular {-s}, past tense inflection {-ed}, and present participle inflection
{-ing}. Similarly, the present participle inflection {-ing} and {-s} inflection is added to
the basic verb form after the infinitive to. In Simple Present Tense Incorrect, a student
adds third person inflection {-s} for the second person singular after the subject, and
student one adds past tense inflection {-ed} for the verb of simple present tense. In
Present Participle Incorrect, students omit and misform of present participle {-ing}
inflection that is made by the students in the conversations. In Simple Past Incorrect, a
student failure to attach {-ed} inflection after verb for the regular verb. In Past Participle
Incorrect, students substitute present participle inflection {-ing} for past participle {-ed}
in complement participle sentence. In Verb Incorrect, there is a student adds {-ous}
after the verb in the conversation. In Noun Incorrect, students omit or substitute the
nouns forming derivational suffix {-ed}. In Adverb Incorrect, the omission of adverb
inflection {-ty} is done by a student in the conversation. The incorrect use of adjective
occurs in only one sentence, which involves the addition of an adjective-forming suffix.
The incorrect use of Modal Auxiliary occurs as the third singular inflection {-s} is added
to the modal auxiliary will and can as they are found in data (e.g., if your father can not
continue).

Syntactical Error
The syntactical errors, based on linguistic category taxonomy, were classified into five
main categories. (1) Noun Phrase. Errors in Noun Phrase involve the use of determined,
number, pronoun, and preposition. Errors in noun determiners are mostly the omission
of indefinite article before a singular countable noun. While cases of substitution occur
when many are substituted too much for money. Errors in numbers fall into the use
of the plural noun, the omission of the plural inflectional suffix {-s/ -es}. Errors in
pronouns fall into three subtypes: omission of objects and relative pronoun, substitution
of the subjects, and addition or misformation of own for the reflexive pronoun. Errors
in preposition also consist of three subtypes: omission of a preposition, the addition
of the unnecessary preposition, and the last involves the use of incorrect prepositions,
where an incorrect preposition is used to substitute for the intended one as shown in

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data analysis; (2) Verb Phrase. There are two subcategories of errors in Verb Phrase. The
first subcategory is Verbs and the second is Agreement of Subject and Verb. Errors that
are related to Verbs are classified into seven types based on the different tense: Simple
Present Tense, Present Progressive, Simple Past Tense, Past Progressive, Present Perfect
Tense, Simple Future Tense, Modal Auxiliary. Agreement of Subject and Verb occurs in
Disagreement of Subject Tense and Disagreement of Subject and Number.
Errors in simple present tense constituted the major type of errors in Verbs, which
can be classified into three subtypes: the omissions of being, etc., additions of being, and
substitutions the auxiliary verb. While Errors in Present Progressive fall into omission
of being. The most of the errors in Simple Past Tense are misformation of the form of
simple past tense which is replaced by simple present tense resulting in simple present
used in the context showing relation to the present time. Another problem involves the
omission of being and addition of being. Errors in simple Present Perfect Tense are the
omission of having, and substitution of having or has for the other auxiliary verb. Errors
in Simple Future Tense involve omission of the using modal auxiliary and misformation
of a base form, which is replaced by past participle. Errors in Modal Auxiliary fall into
the omission of being. Errors in Agreement of Subject and Verb fall into disagreement
of the subject and tense, subject and number; (3) Verb-dan-Verb.Errors in verb and
verb construction occur in the students conversation involve the use of the verb want,
which should be followed by to + V1 and omission of to be that means menjadi in
Indonesia; (4)
SomeTransformation.There are three types of transformations that occur are
Negative Transformation, Question Transformation, and Passive Transformation.
The formation of negative transformation involves the omission of verb auxiliary and
multiple negations. Question transformations are mostly the omission of auxiliary
verbs. The errors are found in the students conversation fall into misformation of the
past participle and omission of auxiliary verb; and (5) Miscellaneous.Errors in word
order because of the students misuse of subject-verb inversion, repetition meaning, and
addition the unnecessary words. The problems in fragment are an incomplete sentence
in the conversation. And errors in conjunction fall into the use of the conjunction
although together with the conjunction but in the same sentence, substitution of but,
too.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the findings of an analysis of grammatical errors in the conversation of the


third-grade students of Tourism Department of SMK N 1 Kupang, the findings can be
concluded as follows:

1. The types of grammatical errors in the conversation of the third students of Tourism
Department were: morphological and syntactical errors. The morphological errors

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involve the use of possessive case, third person basic verb, simple present, present
participle, simple past, past participle, verb, noun, adverb, adjective, and modal.
While the errors in syntactical involve the use of Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase, and
Agreement of Subject and Verb, Verb-and-verb Construction, some transformation,
and miscellaneous.

a. Noun Phrase consisted of the use determiner, number, pronoun, and preposition.
b. Verb Phrase consisted of the use of simple present, present progressive, simple
past, past progressive, present perfect, simple future, and modal auxiliary.
c. Agreement of Subject and Verb consisted of the use of disagreement of subject
and number, disagreement of subject and tense.
d. Transformations consisted of the use of negative transformation, question
transformation, and passive transformation.
e. Miscellaneous consisted of word order, conjunction, and fragment.

2. The most of the grammatical errors in the conversation of the third-grade students
of Tourism Department were:
a. Syntactical errors consisted of 198 errors or 83.90% which are predominated
by Noun Phrase: 69 errors or 29.24%, and followed by Verb Phrase: 68 errors
or 28.81%, Miscellaneous: 40 errors or 16.95%, Transformations: 14 errors or
5.93%, and the last was verb-and-verb constructions: 7 errors or 2.97%.
1.) Noun Phrase was predominated by a pronoun: 26 errors or 11.02%,
and followed by a preposition: 20 errors or 8.47%, and determine 13
errors or 5.51%.
2.) simple past tense predominated verb Phrase: 24 errors or 10.17%, and
followed by simple present tense: 13 errors or 5.51%, present perfect
tense: 9 errors or 3.81%, simple future tense: 8 errors or 3.39%,
disagreement of subject and tense: 6 errors or 2.54%, past progressives:
4 errors or 1.69%, disagreement of subject and number: 2 errors or
0.85%, present progressives: 1 errors or 0.42%, and modal auxiliary
verb: 1 error or 0.42%.
3.) Verb-and-verb construction had seven errors or 2.97%.
4.) Transformations were predominated by question transformation: 7
errors or 2.97% and followed by negative transformation: 5 errors or
2.12%, and passive transformation: 2 errors or 0.85%.
5.) Miscellaneous was predominated by word order: 24 errors or 10.17%,
and followed by fragment: 8 errors or 3.81%, and conjunction: 7
errors or 2.97%.

b. Morphological errors consisted of 38 errors or 16.10% which are predominated


by basic verb: 13 errors or 5.51%, and followed third person singular: 5 errors or

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2.12%, possessive case: 3 errors or 1.27%, present participle: 3 errors or 1.27%,


past participle:

3. Some errors or 1.27%, noun: 3 errors or 1.27%, simple present tense: 2 errors or
0.85%, modal auxiliary: 2 errors or 0.85%, simple past: 1 error or 0.42%, verb: 1
error or 0.42%, adverb: 1 error or 0.42%, and adjective: 1 error or 0.42%.

Some error types found in Politzer and Romirezs, however, did not exist in this
study, such as Comparative incorrect, Nominalization, and Their Transformation. On
the other hand, some error types found in this study do not occur in the guideline
classification, such as errors in infinitive present perfect, basic or common verb, simple
future, modal auxiliary, and passive transformation.

LITERATURE CITED

Azar, Betty Schramper. 1993. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Ed: Inggris
Indonesia. Jakarta Barat: Binarupa Aksara.

Brown, J. D. 2000. Principles in Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice
Hall.

Bustan, F. (2013) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Unpublished teaching material.


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Cahyono, Bambang Yudi. 1995. Kristal Kristal Ilmu Bahasa. Surabaya: Airlangga
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Carter, R. 1997. The New Grammar Teaching in Investigating English Discourse.


Routledge, London.

Corder, S.P. 1974. Error Analysis. In J. Allen and S. P. Corder (eds.), The Edinburgh
Course in Applied Linguistic. Vol.3. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dulay, H. & Burt, M. & Krashen, S. (1982). Language Two. New York: Oxford
University Press.

Gomes, J. 2008. An Analysis of Grammatical Errors in the Conversation of the Fifth


Semester Students of English Education Study Program Faculty of Teacher Training
and Educational Science Widya Mandira Catholic University in the Academic Year
of 2008/2009. (Unpublished Thesis). Kupang: UNWIRA.

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Halliday, M.A.K. 2002. On Grammar. London : Peking University Press.

Halliday, M.A.K. 1994. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Ed: 2nd. London:


Peking University Press.

Hancock, Craig. 2005. Meaning Centered Grammar: An Introductory Text. London:


Equinox Publishing Ltd.

Hornby, A.S. 2005. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University
Press.

James, C. 1998. Errors in Language Learning and Use: Exploring Error Analysis.London
and New York: Longman.

Kaplan, Jeffrey P. 1989. English Grammar Principles and Facts (second edition). United
States: Prentice Hall International.

Khansir, A. A. (2008). Place of Error Analysis. INDIAN LINGUISTIC.69.195-123

Knapp, Peter and Megan Watkins. 2005. Genre, Text, Grammar. Sydney: UNSW Press.

Lado, Robert. 1961. Language Testing: The Construction and Use of Foreign language
Test. London : Longman Group Limited.

Mei Lin Ho, Caroline. 2003. Empowering English Teachers to Grapple with Errors in
Grammar. Tesol (online), Vol.9. No.3, (http// itesl.org/).

Politzer and Ramirez. 1973. An Error Analysis of Spoken English of Mexican Pupils.
New York: Oxford University Press.

Putri, Dewy. 2009. An Analysis of Grammatical Errors Found in the Conversation of


Native Speakers. (Thesis). Medan: University of North Sumatera.

Rean, Leonard F, Walker Gibson, dan Kenneth G. Wilson. 1971. The Play of Language.
London: Oxford University Press

Richard, J. C. 1974. Error Analysis. England: Longman Group Ltd.

Sapir, Edward. 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. Ottawa:


Foreign Language Teaching and research Press.

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Selinker, L. 1992. Rediscovering Language. Longman Group: UK Limited, Essex.

Tarigan, Henry Guntur dan Djago Tarigan. 1998. Pengajaran Analisa Kesalahan
Berbahasa. Bandung: Aksara.

Trahey, M and L. White. 1993. Positive Evidence and Preemption: Studies in Second
Language Acquisition.

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SMCC
ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Rhetorical Moves in Introduction Sections


of Academic Journal Articles

DJUWARI
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1717-4448
djuwari@perbanas.ac.id
STIE Perbanas Surabaya
Indonesia

ABSTRACT

In applied linguistics, studies on rhetorical moves using genre analysis approach have
been prevailingly done. This type of research uses documents of research articles (RAs)
for analysis. This research tries to explore the rhetorical moves in introduction sections
of academic journal articles with two different discourse communities: Technology
and Economics. It also attempts to provide the writers, especially the novice writers
with general knowledge of rhetorical moves of two different discourse communities:
10 of technology RAs and the other 10 of economics RAs. These documents are taken
by purposive sampling based on certain criteria. Thus, it a qualitative research using
documents as the data for analysis that is also considered content analysis. The analysis
is based on the genre analysis approach with CARS as the instrument. All inferences
are derived from the results based on the CARs. The result shows that there are some
differences of CARS adopted by the authors of the two discourse communities. Therefore,
it is vital for the writers to pay attention to the rhetorical moves of introductions of these
two different discourse communities. The researcher recommends that the prospective
writers adopt these CARs for better adaptation to these two discourse communities
when expecting to write the same RAs in these two publications.

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KEYWORDS

Applied linguistics, genre analysis, CARS, discourse community, Indonesia.

INTRODUCTION

Studies on rhetorical moves of research articles (RAs) have been paid attention by
the linguists recently. It can be done solely by analyzing certain texts written by a certain
discourse community such as Biology, Technology, Economics, Business and other
specific discourses. However, studies on the same efforts are also done by comparing
different texts of different discourse communities. The results of both have contributed
to the development of knowledge related to writing styles or genres.
For a study on specific generic of a certain discourse community was done by
Swales (1992) on Biology in its sub-genre that is abstracts of the RAs on Biology. She
also conducted this research on the sub-genre of introduction. When alluding to the
near examination, the sub-sort of Introductions was likewise done by Najjar (1989)
Taylor and Chen (1991) which was identified with the presentation of RAs by Brazilian
Portuguese which was found to take an example not quite the same as the bland learning
of the code that is CARS demonstrate (Create-A-Research-Space display), though
Introduction in English was found to tails it intently.
For example, the CARS related to the introduction that is of its part of setting up the
domain, finding an examination specialty, and possessing a specialty, in many studies
and cross-disciplinary have provided diversities in findings. Like Swales (1990) in the
analysis of abstracts, she found differences when compared to the introduction, as well
as the discussion sections. It deals with the model, specifically on the rhetorical structure
of RAs Presentations in hard science diaries in Malay. She found that Move 2 of CARS
model (setting up the specialty) was missing in the greater part of the Malay articles in
her corpus.
Due to the fact above, the researcher in this present study attempt to reveal whether
there are also differences among the authors of technology RAs and Economics RAs.
This research endeavor strictly focuses on revealing the rhetorical moves of introduction
sections as the sub-genres of the RAs. Besides that, this study provides a theoretical basis
for writing introduction based on the findings. Since the previous studies also presented
differences, the findings of this study are also assumed to provide differences. However,
the most important expectation of this study is to provide generic knowledge as the
alternative to be implemented but not strictly as the fixed judgment.

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FRAMEWORK

2.1 Genre-Based Approach


The genre-based approach has been prevailingly used by the linguists for exploring
the rhetorical moves of written texts. More importantly, as the academic are mostly
dominated by the research articles (RAs), the researchers have also conducted some
studies to reveal the generic structure of such RAs. The previous field as the basic
knowledge related to this effort was the approach of teaching English for Specific
Purposes (ESP). ESP was and has been focused on the registers and patterns of linguistic
realizations such as the typical vocabulary and the styles of written expressions in typical
fields of sciences. The results of such studies can also be used for making policies in
teaching foreign language for second language learners.
While this ESP approach was and has also been done concerned with the typical
characteristics of texts, the genre-based approach focuses on the rhetorical moves. For
example, Bhatia (2001) suggested that there are at least four distinct competencies,
though systematically related areas that an ESP learner needs to develop to get over his
or her lack of confidence in handling specialist discourse.
According to Bhatia (2001), the learners in ESP have already possessed an adequate
competence their general everyday functions. However, they are as yet asked for to create
four zones, for example, an) Understanding of the Authority code, b) Familiarity with
the progression of expert types, which incorporates the logical structures and substance,
c) Specific settings they react to and the traditions they tend to use in their reactions,
lastly, d) A capability in the control of master classifications to react to the exigencies of
new and novel circumstances.
Based on the above evidence, it is essential for anyone especially the non-native
speakers of English to acquire the knowledge of the code. This code is related to the
acquisition of genre knowledge associated with the specialist culture, sensitivity to the
cognitive structuring of specialist genres. From this knowledge, they are expected to be
able to exploit generic knowledge of a repertoire of specialist genres so that they can be
knowledgeable with the discourse of the RAs in a specific field of science. The most
common terms are the discourse community that the RAS are adopted in the language
realizations.

2.2 Four Stages of Language Acquisitions in Genre Studies


It is obvious that each of the four stages for language acquisition is important for the
non-native speakers of English to acquire. Therefore, novice writers are also obligatory
to get such competencies. In a genre-based approach, especially in writing skill, these
four competencies are essential. These for competencies understand the knowledge of
the code, genre, cognitive structure, and exploiting the generic knowledge.

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1) Knowledge of the Code


First, it is the knowledge of the code. The knowledge of the code, of course, is
the pre-requisite for developing communicative expertise in specialist or even everyday
discourse. Most of the ESL programs all over the world aim to achieve this with varying
degrees of success. However, it is important to note that an almost perfect knowledge
of the code is neither necessary nor sufficient for successful ESP instruction, though it
does seem to be a popular myth that we language teachers often believe. This myth has
gained popular currency among many ESP teachers who believe that any form of ESP
work requires almost perfect competence in the use of the code. Where teachers hold
such a belief, further ESL instruction invariably incorporates tedious remedial teaching,
often resulting in less than satisfactory consequences. We often fail to recognize that if
seven to eight years of ESL instruction have failed to equip the learner with this desired
level of competence, further remedial work, because of its essentially repetitive nature,
will be far less effective.
The other side of the myth is that if somehow second language learners can be given
the so-called underlying linguistic competence, and at that point there is no compelling
reason to create ESP skill in light of the fact that the learners will have the capacity to
adapt to the stream of new data in any subject train, similarly as a local speaker does.
This case, best case scenario, is by all accounts terribly exaggerated and, even from a
pessimistic standpoint, truly defective. The claim appears to lay on the fairly guileless
suspicion that the principle distinction between the regular utilization of dialect and
authority talks lies in the utilization of pro lexis.
However, a great part of the work done in talk and sort investigation in expert and
scholastic settings over the most recent two decades recommends that there are central
contrasts in the utilization of lexico-linguistic, semantic-pragmatic and discoursal
resources in specialist genres. In this case, Wilkin (1981), describes more about
syllabuses related to functional and notional categories, and he presents some examples
of grammatical categories, semantic-grammatical, and functional-notional categories.
Thus, grammatical categories and the functions in communication are vital in genre
analysis.

2) Genre Knowledge
The second, it is the securing of learning genre. To partake in a pro informative
occasion, one must familiarize oneself not just with the open objectives of a specific talk
group additionally with the open objective situated purposes related to the particular
utilization of types. Along these lines, before learners embrace any objective driven
informative action, they have to end up noticeably mindful of suitable expository
techniques and traditions commonly connected with the master talk group they seek
to join. Class information of this kind is a type of arranged insight, which seems, by all
accounts, to be inseparable from expert journalists procedural and social learning.

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Learners need to gain sort information, procedural information (which incorporates


an information of devices and their uses and also their teachs strategies and interpretive
system), and social information (in the feeling of commonality with the logical and
reasonable setting) to end up plainly better-educated disciples. Fairclough as in Bhatia
(1993) contends that a class suggests a specific content sort, as well as specific procedures
for delivering, conveying, and expanding writings. These activities of processes to
produce, distribute, and consume the texts are related to the discourse community with
their convention.

3) Cognitive Structures
The third, it is the effect ability to psychological structures. Having comprehended
the objectives of the pro group and to some degree disguised a portion of the traditions
related to pro types utilized by them, the learner will then need to get comfortable
with the way dialect is ordinarily used to accomplish these objectives and informative
purposes. Additionally, learners should misuse these traditions in light of evolving
socio-subjective requests in particular expert settings or certain novel circumstances and
purposes. This can be created by sharpening learners not exclusively to the non-exclusive
structures and substance in particular kind messages additionally to their rising reactions
to changes in social practices.
Recent research in the study of a variety of academic and professional genres (Bhatia,
1993) demonstrates that in spite of the fact that there can be vast ranges of cover in
the utilization of lexico-linguistic assets crosswise over different expert settings, there
unquestionably are particular employments of lexico-syntactic elements which convey
commonly sort particular values in specific settings. Swales as in Bhatia (1993) has
examined the utilization of definitions in understudy writing in science, course readings
in financial matters, and enactment and found that the appropriation, the shape, and
the utilitarian esteem these definitions convey contrast profoundly in the three classes.
More recently, Bhatia (1993) has found that the use of nominal in advertising,
scientific, academic genres, and legislation differs significantly regarding their form,
distribution, and discoursal values. These and comparable discoveries of this nature
demonstrate that similarly as certain lexical things have pro implications in particular
expert sorts, various syntactic structures may likewise convey class particular limited
values notwithstanding their general implications arranged in linguistic use books.
Therefore, it is basic that the master learner ends up noticeably mindful of confined
parts of semantic code notwithstanding the general fitness he or she requires in the
dialect. Classification based linguistic clarifications raise learners familiarity with the
justification of the content sort that they are required to peruse and compose. Instead
of essentially figuring out how to peruse and deliver a bit of content as a PC does,
understudies ought to build up an affectability to the traditions to guarantee the sober
minded achievement of the content in the fitting scholastic or the expert setting.
As Swales (1990) noticed, a sort focused approach is probably going to concentrate

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understudy consideration on logical activity and on the hierarchical and semantic


methods for its achievement. In such an effort, as suggested by Vergato (2004) modality
and lexical analysis, e.g., verbs, preposition, conjunction and the like are also important
to be recognized.

4) Exploitation of Generic Knowledge


The fourth, it is the exploitation of generic knowledge. It is only after learners have
developed some acquaintance or, better yet, expertise at the levels discussed above, that
they can confidently interpret, use, or even take liberties with specialist discourse. The
first three stages mentioned above mostly involve understanding conventions, whereas
this last stage includes exploiting and taking liberties with conventions to achieve
pragmatic success in specified professional contexts.
The four stages of acquisitions above are prominent in determining how well the
writers or the linguists attempt to analyze discourse community using genre analysis.
Without such concept of understanding, it is impossible for them to get in touch with
some sensitivity of the linguistic repertoires of a certain language used by a certain
discourse community.

2.3 Basic Approach of Genre Analysis


Genre analysis has gained its serious attention in applied linguistics, especially when
referred to the school of linguistics of Sydney. It pays so much attention to the research
articles (RAs). In practice, for example in language teaching, Dudley (1995) argues
that by having the knowledge of genres on specific RAS, the learners can benefit from
the results of this genre analysis. When dealing with students of ESP classes, according
to Dudley, the basic philosophy of genre approach is entirely consistent with an ESP
approach.
With genre approach, the learners or novice writers are s assumed to have a focus on
certain genre knowledge. This is part of a short-cut method of raising their proficiency
in a relatively limited period of learning new knowledge of writing. For that reason, the
imparting of the genre knowledge involves increasing awareness of the conventions of
writing. By the same reason, they can produce texts by following the conventions as
done by a certain discourse community. Thus, genre analysis appears a very efficient
approach to becoming a well-formed and suitably structured to native-like speaker
writers.
It really promises that knowledge of organization, arrangement, form, and rhetorical
moves of RAS of certain discourse communities can systematically lead to knowledge of
subject matter (Belcher 1995) as in Dudley (2001) and also Gosden (1992). By basing
on this argument, it can be implied that rhetorical moves as the macro-textual elements
of writing products are highly valued. Like Belcher, another proponent that is Torrance
et al. (1993) also as in Dudley (2001), stated that a genre approach is an effective means
of increasing writing proficiency.

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It is asserted that the moves in genre are considered important elements. These
elements are obligatory when the text is to be acceptable as a given RAs applied by a
certain discourse community. In more specific manner, rhetorical moves of the RAs of
certain discourse communities, including the sub-genre of introduction are essential for
the novice writers. However, for those who are experts, such knowledge of rhetorical
move provides them with understanding more varieties of writing styles.

2.4 Rhetorical Moves of Introduction


Dudley (2001) mentions that Swales model for article introductions, as he found,
suggests that there are four basic moves in Introduction of writing such as the following:

Move 1: Establishing the Field


Move 2: Summarizing Previous Research
Move 3: Preparing for Present Research (often by identifying a gap in previous re
search)
Move 4: Introducing Present Research.

These four moves are the examples of knowledge to be learned because they are
present in the majority of the introduction analyzed. That is a logical sequence of moves
in which, once a choice has been made to follow a certain route, the writer is obliged to
follow a certain sequence of moves.
Having knowledge of such rhetorical moves (introduction of research articles)
above, any writers can benefit from these elements for writing purposes related to the
introduction of research articles. Without an understanding of such rhetorical moves,
it is impossible for the writers to be able to write appropriately for the discourse
community as intended in such unique language organization. Also, it is stated that
such rhetorical moves are found in some introductions of research articles. In general,
such knowledge can be implemented, and then, as Bhatia (1987) suggested, exploited
for being dynamic. That is the intention of genre knowledge that the writers are still
optionally (without ignoring the obligatory) to be creative in writing

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study attempts to explore the rhetorical moves of introduction sections of the
academic journal articles. First, it tries to find out how the rhetorical moves of the
research articles of technology. Second, it tries to reveal how the rhetorical moves of the
introduction section of the research articles of economics.

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METHODOLOGY

Genre approach is used for underpinning the theoretical research basis. Therefore,
it is a qualitative research, and it can also be considered a content analysis is analyzing
the documents as the data for the research. The documents are taken from the RAs of
international journals from different fields of science: Technology and Economics.
Purposive sampling takes the documents of RAs based on the assumptions as the
criteria. It is based on the assumptions such as the RAS has been published in the
international journal, and they are already online, listed in EBSCO. (as suggested by the
committee of the reviewers. They are assumed to have their academic level because they
have been reviewed and edited as well as published for the intellectual consumption.
They are the readers worldwide. There are 20 RAS with their sub-genres of introduction
sections. These 20 RAS are 10 of technology RAs and 10 of Economics RAs.
The procedures are as follows: (1), the RAS of each discourse communities are
analyzed using the instrument of CARS adopted from Swales (1990) in Habibi (2008)
which is also done by Hyland (2002) related to genre of abstract and also by Khany and
Tazik (2010) of which they are in the genre-based analysis: rhetorical move exploration;
(2) From this instrument, the rhetorical moves of the two RAs are presented and
compared in a table; (3) The results of the analysis are discussed and inferred. In other
words, inferences are made based on the evidence as presented in the tables.

Table 3.1. An Instrument of CARS for Technology


Moves CARS Technology Total
1 Establishing the Field
2 Summarizing Previous Research
3 Preparing for Present Research (often by
identifying a gap in previous research)
4 Introducing Present Research.

Table 3.1. b Instrument of CARS for Economics


Moves CARS Economics Total
1 Establishing the Field
2 Summarizing Previous Research
3 Preparing for Present Research (often by
identifying a gap in previous research)
4 Introducing Present Research.

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Table 3.1. C Comparative Instrument of CARS for Economics


Moves CARS Technology Total Economics Total
1 Establishing the Field
2 Summarizing Previous Research
3 Preparing for Present Research (often by
identifying a gap in previous research)
4 Introducing Present Research.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1. Results of Technology CARS


It looks that all articles in technology RAS completely comply with the CARS as
stipulated by Swales (1992). All of the introduction sections are chronologically ordered
in steps using CARS as found in some previous studies. Therefore, this result provides
evidence that the rhetorical moves in introduction sections have common regarding
ordering the rhetoric using CARS system.
Swales (1992) and Hyland (2002) discovered that academic articles or research articles
(RAS) are mainly written by a certain discourse community. With this community. The
prospective writers can get along with the community by adapting to their common
linguistic styles. In this case, it is the styles of ordering the rhetorical moves using the
genre characteristics as they implemented in their RAS.
For example, when looking at the result of this study, especially in connection with
technology RAS, any prospective writer should use this general finding for contributing
to the community in their academic writing or research articles. In that case, writing
an introduction section for all articles submitted to the journal of technology to this
journal publication should be ordered using CARS as presented in Table 4.1.
This journal publication is derived from EBSCO which published the journal
articles of technology as presented and used as the data analysis in this study. By the
same reason, it is evident that the rhetorical moves of introduction sections for the
technology RAS are characterized using CARS ordering system. For that reason, to
those who want to submit their articles for publication in this journal should follow this
CARS in the introduction section.

Table 4.1 Results of Technology CARS


Moves CARS Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Establishing the Field x x x x x x x x x x 10
2 Summarizing Previous Research x x x x x x x x x x 10
3 Preparing for Present Research (often x x x x x x x x x x 10
by identifying a gap in previous
research)

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4 Introducing Present Research. x x x x x x x x x x 10


TOTAL 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 40
Note: The example of analysis result is presented in Appendix 1

2. Result of Economics CARS


Like the technology CARS in the introduction section, the economics CARS in its
introduction section appears to be the same even though there is one unique rhetorical
move which is ordered in overlapping position.
In general, both technology and economics CARs of the introduction are the same.
It means that the CARS as found in the previous studies are also found in economics
CARS in this study. However, the unique ordering system is found in only one article
in economics CARS. The author of article no 8 and no 8 put his fourth CARS of
Introducing Present Research in the article no 8, not the last rhetorical move. He still
has five rhetorical moves completely in the introduction section using CARS system.

Table 4.2 Results of Economics CARS


Moves CARS Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Establishing the Field x x x x x x x x x x 10
2 Summarizing Previous Research x x x x x x x x x x 10
Preparing for Present Research
3 (often by identifying a gap in x x x x x x x x x x 10
previous research)
4 Introducing Present Research. x x x x x x x x x x 10
TOTAL 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 40
Note: The example of analysis result is presented in Appendix 2

Table 4.3 Results of Comparative CARS between Technology and CARS


Technology Economics
Moves CARS Total
Total rhet Total rhet
1 Establishing the Field 10 10 20
2 Summarizing Previous Research 10 10 20
Preparing for Present Research (often by
3 10 110 20
identifying a gap in previous research)
4 Introducing Present Research. 10 110 20
TOTAL 40 40 80

The total rhetorical moves of both technology and economics CARS in their
introduction section for each slot of CARS is 10 rhetorical moves. This means that
both RAS are using CARS systems as found in the previous studies, especially as it was

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asserted by Swales (1991). In this case, all the authors of the 2o articles for 10 authors
of technology RAS and 10 authors of economics RAS are still consistent with following
the CARS system in their introduction sections.

CONCLUSIONS

It can be concluded that the CARS of introduction sections found in the previous
studies is still used by the authors of technology RAS and economics RAS in their
introduction sections. However, there is one article in economics RAS with his CARS
in his introduction section, but the order is different. This appears to be unique due to
the last (the fourth rhetorical move) of the CARS is introduced in the third rhetorical
move position.
In general, they comply with the CARS as existed in the previous studies, and both
of the two RAS in this study are consistent with this CARS system in their introduction
section.

LITERATURE CITED

Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., and Razavieh, A. 2002. Introduction to Research in Education
(6th edition). Belmont, CA: Wardsworth/ Thomson Learning.

Bailey, Stephen. 2005. Academic Writing: A Practical Guide for Students. New York:
RoutledgeFalmer.

Budiono, B. 2005. Epistemic Modality in Scientific Writing by Indonesian Graduates


of the Department of English Language Education. Unpublished dissertation, 2005,
State University, Malang.

Candrasegaran, Antonia and Kirsten Schaetzel. 2004. Think Your Way to Effective
Writing. Singapore: Prentice Hall.

Daiker, D. et al. 1994. The Writers Options (the 5th Ed.). New York: Harper College
Publishers.

Djuwari, Djuwari.How to Write an Abstract: A Strategy to Organize Your Thought.


Malang: Inspira Publishing Company.

Gosden, H. 1992. Discourse functions of marked theme in scientific research articles.


English for specific purposes, 11(3), 207-224.

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Habibi, P. 2008 Genre Analysis of Research Article Introductions across ESP,


Psycholinguistics, and Sociolinguistics. International Journal of Applied Linguistics.

Halliday, M.A.L. 1994. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Second Edition.


London: Arnold Publishing Company.

Hayland, K.1992. Genre Analysis: Just Another Fad?, in English Teaching Forum,Vol.30,
No.2, pp. 14-17.

Hayland, Ken. 1999b. Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Textbooks,


English for Specific Purposes, 18 (1), 3-26.

Activity and Evaluation: Reporting Practices in Academic Writing. In J. Flowerdew


(ed.). Academic Discourse (pp. 115-130).

Jordan, R.R. 1997. English for Academic Purposes: A Guide and Resource Book for
Teachers. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Khany, R., Safavy, M., & Tazik,K. 2010. Realization of Pragmatic Markers In Persian.

Latief, M.A. 1990. Assessment of English Writing Skills for Students of English as a
Foreign Language at the Institute of Teacher Training and Education IKIP Malang
Indonesia. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Iowa: University of Iowa.

Lyons. J. 1977. Semantics (Vol II). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Randolph, Quirk, 1985. A Comprehensive grammar of the English language. London:


Longman Swales, J., 1992

Seidman, I. E. 1991. Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers
in Education and the Social Sciences. New York: Teachers College, Columbia
University.

Sorensen, Mary Nell. 2012 Summary of Logical Connectors http://faculty.washington.


edu/marynell/grammar/logicalconnectors.html

27
SMCC Higher Education ResearchSMCC
JournalHigher Education Research Journal
ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Socio-Economic and Personal Factors


as Predictor of Agricultural Information
Utilization among Farmers

EGENTI, M.N.
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8456-8917
egenti.mn@gmail.com
Department of Lifelong Learning and Continuing Education,
Faculty of Education,
University of Lagos
Lagos, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Utilization of Agricultural information among rural farmers is a major challenge


facing governments, rural development experts, and stakeholders across Africa. Thus,
this study was conceived to examine socioeconomic and personal factors as a predictor
of agricultural information utilization among rural farmers in Imo State Nigeria. The
descriptive survey research design was adopted in conducting the study. Three research
questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population of
the study was made up subsistence farmers in all the three senatorial district in Imo
State -Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was self-designed validated survey
questionnaire developed by the researcher. Data collected were analyzed using multiple
regression. The findings from the study showed that all the socio-economic variables, as
well as the personal factors when taken together, were effective in predicting farmers use
of agricultural information. The observed F-ratio (F-statistics =56.216) was statistically
significant at, p<.05 given 7 and 423 degrees of freedoms-an indication that the
effectiveness of a combination of the independent variables in predicting farmers use
of agricultural information could not have occurred by chance. The magnitude of the
relationship between farmers use of information and a combination of the independent
variables is reflected in the values of coefficient of multiple correlations (0.694) and

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multiple correlation R2 (.482). It may, therefore, be said that about 48.2% of the
total variability in farmers use of agricultural information is accounted for by a linear
combination of the personal and socio-economic variables. Based on the findings, it was
recommended among other things that there is a need for change agents to identify and
use farmers preferred media of information delivery, as this is likely to facilitate their
acceptance and use of information presented to them.

KEYWORDS

Agricultural Information, Rural Areas, Farmers Personal Factors and Socioeconomic


factors, Nigeria

INTRODUCTION

There is a consensus among Nigerian policy makers, her development partners,


and experts in Nigerian agriculture that the wealth of the country can substantially be
derived from agricultural production (Opara, 2010). It is believed that the small scale
farmer holds the key to the realization of this possibility. However, the average Nigerian
small scale farmer is poor, none- literate, and lacks access to most basic social amenities,
as well as improved varieties of inputs and modern farming implements (Ohaeri, 2015).
The consequence of these has been low production and productivity. The agricultural
sub-sector of the economy accounts for about 4 1.5% of the countrys Gross Domestic
Product (Olawunmi, 2014). This is in contrast to the -4.82% contribution of the oil
sub-sector. The oil sub-sector accounts for over 95% of the nations total revenue from
2009-2012 (CBN, 20013). The problem, according to Bello (2013), is that as many as
65% of the countrys population is producing 4 1.5% of the GDP. This shows that the
percentage of Nigerians engaged in agriculture is more than the world average of 45.7%
(Ama, 2005). The implication of this is that the productivity of this sub-sector of the
Nigerian economy is quite low. The consequence is that food production is not keeping
pace with the countrys population growth rate. While the annual rate of population
growth is estimated at between 2.5 and 3%, that of good production is between 1
and 1.5%, Opara (2010). This is consistent with Munyuas (n.d.) findings that while
agricultural yields in developing countries continue to decline despite technological
innovations, their population continues to expand beyond food production capacities.
The performance of Nigerian agriculture so far indicates that the farmers have
neither used nor absorbed most of the technologies being introduced to them (Atande,
2009). This appears to be the case considering the findings of Anyikwa (2014) which
showed that there existed a wide gap between farmers improved technology yields
and farmers traditional technology yields. This scenario may be attributed to the
gap between available agricultural information on improved practices and its use in
particularly in the rural areas since majority of subsistence happens in the rural areas.

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Thus, in agricultural information use studies, it is usual to investigate the personal and
social characteristics of farmers to understand their relative influence in the farmers
information use behaviors (Onu, 2001). First of all, information use is dependent on
the capacity of the user to access information and later use it. This capacity is dependent
on certain cultural, socio-economic, personal, political and geographical variables. It
also includes the appropriateness of the information, the credibility of the information
channel, and the information providers characteristics (Opara, 2010).
Nelemaghan (2011) believes that one of the prerequisites for information use is its
accessibility. Information may be physically accessible but may not be intellectually
so. Some users possess the intellectual capacity might suffer from lack of the financial
capacity necessary for the physical accessibility. This introduces the factors of illiteracy
and poverty as militating variables in information use. Exposure to education permits
an individual to control the rate of message input and develop the ability to store and
retrieve information for later use (Sheba, 2013). For certain technical information, the
retrieval capacity may be quite important (Mohammedali, 1977). Education enables
the individual to know how to seek for and apply information in day- to-day problem
solving. This is because as the individual gained the ability to read, he is able to extend
the scope of his experience through the print media.
The mere provision of agricultural information to farmers does not guarantee its
use. One his is because a host of social, economic, and psychological factors influence
the rate of agricultural information use (Surry, 2013; Akande, 2009). It is against this
background that the study was conceived to examine the effect of socioeconomic factors
and some personal factors as a predictor of utilization of agricultural information among
rural agricultural farmers in Imo State.

Statement of the Problem


For far too long, a variety of agricultural extension methods has been in use in
teaching rural farmers and in assisting them to solve their farming problems. The
extension has hardly exerted the desired impact in educating rural farmers and in
improving rural agricultural performance:
Nor has its objective on accelerated food production, assess and utilization of
agricultural information been achieved going by poor knowledge of local farmers on
issues relating modern farming, the high cost of food items and increasing food insecurity
in the country. Uzoma (2010) argued that most rural farmers have remained traditional
and primitive in their production systems, which have led to declining yields, poor
incomes, hunger and chronic poverty despite many decades of operation of agricultural
extension as the core farmer education approach to educating rural farmers. A critical
examination of available literature indicates that previous researches, despite their scope
and perhaps depth are yet to examine the role personal as well as socio-economic factors
of farmers about agricultural information utilization. The few ones that attempted to
do also did not provide empirical evidence of the chronological order and strength of

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any relationship between farmers use of agricultural information, (personal) factors


agricultural productivity. This gap gave the background on the need to bring into focus
research which seeks to use a multivariate analytical procedure to explain farmers use
of agricultural information regarding their personal and socio-economic characteristics
about agricultural productivity in the rural areas.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to examine personal and socio-economic


characteristics of farmers as a predictor of the use of agricultural information in rural
areas.

Specifically, the study will;


1. Determine if personal factors such as gender, education, age among others will
predict local farmers utilization of agricultural information
2. Determine if socio-economic characteristics of local farmers has a significant
effect on farmers utilization of agricultural information
3. Determine the joint contribution of personal factors and socioeconomic
characteristics of local farmers on their level of utilization of agricultural
information.

Research Hypothesis

The following research hypothesis guided the study:


1. The personal factors of farmers do not equally contribute to the prediction of
farmers use of agricultural information in rural areas.
2. Socio-economic characteristics do not equally contribute to the prediction of
farmers use of agricultural information in rural areas.
3. Personal and socio-economic characteristics of farmers when taken together do
not significantly predict the farmers use of agricultural information.

METHODOLOGY

The research design adopted for this study is the ex-post facto type. The target
population for the study comprised all local farmers in the three senatorial zones
of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 450
(150 respondent each) subsistence farmers from the three senatorial zones across 12
local government areas. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire
titled: Socio-economic and Agricultural Information Questionnaire for Rural Farmers
(AIQRF) developed by the researcher. A reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained
for the instrument using the Cronbach alpha coefficient (r). A total of 450 copies of

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the questionnaire were directly administered to 450 local farmers across the 12 states
in the three senatorial zones of Imo State under study. The data collection lasted for
10 days with the use of some undergraduate students from Imo State University who
served as assistants. Out the 450 questionnaires administered, a total of 430 copies of
the questionnaire (representing 95.6%) were returned and used for data analysis. Data
collected were coded and analyzed using multiple regression.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1: Multiple Regression Analyses showing the relationship between Personal and
Socio-Economic Variables on Farmers Agricultural Information use.
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate

1 .695(a) .482 .473 .52255


a. Predictors: (Constant),

Table 2: Analysis of Variance showing the relationship between Personal and Socio-
Economic Variables on Farmers Agricultural Information use.
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 107.452 7 15.350 56.215 000b

Residual 115.505 423 .273

Total 222.957 430

The results show that the use of all the variables of personal and socio-economic
variables (age, gender, educational qualification, years of farming experience, preferred
media, indigenous agricultural knowledge system, social participation, income, tenancy
status, size of land cultivated, marital status, and part- or full-time farming) to predict
farmers use of agricultural information yielded a coefficient of multiple regression
(R) of 0.695 and multiple regression square (R2) of 0.482. The results also show that
analysis of variance of the multiple regression ANOVA was statistically significant since
F statistics 56.216 at, p<.05 given 7 and 423 degrees of freedoms.

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Table 2: Relative Contribution of the Independent Variables to the Prediction


S/N Variable Beta (b) SE (b) -ratio
1 Gender 0.072959 4.95813 0.603
2 Age 0.34369 2.185062 0.277
3 Educational Qualification 0.271508 1.75446 2.19S4
4 Years of Farming Experience 0,160856 1.487583 1.55
5 Marital Status 0.241909 9.670391 2.189*
6 Part- or Full-Time Farming 0.032048 4.962468 0.28 1
8 Tenancy Status 0.149136 6.047861 0.92
9 Size of Land Cultivated 0.075815 2.983931 0.541
10 Income 0.329815 1.002141 2.644*
11 Preferred Media 0.262797 21.371563 2.152*
12 Social Participation 0.168218 2.967827 1.415
* Significant at the 0.05 level

The findings of the present study reveal that the twelve personal and socio-economic
variables. When taken together was effective in predicting farmers use of agricultural
information. The observed F-ratio is significant at the 0.05 level an indication that the
effectiveness of a combination of the independent variables in predicting farmers use
of agricultural information could not have occurred by chance. The magnitude of the
relationship between farmers use of information and a combination of the independent
variables is reflected in the values of coefficient of multiple correlations (R= .695(a)) and
multiple correlation R2 (.482) as shown in Table 1. It may, therefore, be said that about
48.2% of the total variability in farmers use of agricultural information is accounted
for by a linear combination of the all the personal and socio-economic variables. With
regards to the extent to which each of the independent variables contributed to the
prediction, the value of the t-ratio associated with respective variables as shown in Table
2. The results indicate that each of the following variables: Educational qualification
(V3), Marital status (V5); Income (V18); and Preferred Media (V27) contributed
significantly to the farmers use of agricultural information. Furthermore, the values of
the standardized regression weights associated with these variables (as shown in Table
3) indicate that variables 18 (income) is the most potent contributor to the prediction
followed by variable 3 (educational qualification), variable 5 (marital status), and
variable 27 (preferred media) in that order.

Discussion of Findings
Personal factors, as well as socio-economic variables, play a significant role in the
overall life of average human being. Thus findings from the study revealed a significant
correlation between income and agricultural information use among the present
day farmers in Imo State. This finding is consistent with the findings of previous

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investigations such as Opara, (2010), Osuji (2013), Atala (2014). Income is crucial
in agricultural information use because the higher the income of the farmer, the more
likely he would seek and obtain information for to better his production and life. With
improved income, the farmer will be better disposed to spend more on recommended
farm practices that would further increase his farm earnings. However, most of the
small-scale farms in Nigeria are poor and have little or no access to credit facilities. They,
therefore, have no access to modern farming inputs which involve huge capital outlay
that is far beyond their financial resources. Poverty is the denial of opportunities and
choices (UNDP, 2013). The poverty profile of Nigeria is so high that the World Bank
Group (2016) considered it crucial for targeted efforts aimed at reducing the depth and
severity of poverty in all regions of the country.
Findings from this study also reported that Formal education in this study was
measured by the highest educational qualification attained. Findings from the table show
a positive correlation between educational qualification and agricultural information
use. This is consistent with results of previous studies such as those of Osuji (2013),
and Atala (2014). However, it is inconsistent with the finding of Chikwendu et al.
(2016). All the same, the result of the present study is not surprising, because exposure
to education permits an individual to control the rate of message input and develop the
ability to store and retrieve information for later use. For certain technical information
such as that dealing with agricultural innovations, the retrieval ability may be quite
important. Education enables the individual farmers to know how to seek for and apply
information on improved farm practices. This is because as the individual gained the
ability to read, he can extend the scope of his experience through the print media. An
illiterate farmer is apathetic and lacks choice, and according to Flyvberg (2000) and
Mabogunje (2009), lack of choice is due largely to lack of knowledge which can be
epistemological, technical or prudential. It is widely acknowledged that farmers with
basic education are more likely to adopt new technology and become more productive.
With basic education, they are better equipped to make more informed decisions for
their lives and their communities and to be active participants in promoting economic,
social and cultural dimension of development (UNESCO, 2013.). It is, therefore,
possible to expect educated farmers to have a favourable attitude toward change.
As indicated in Table 3, marital status was also significantly associated with
agricultural information use. One of the most important factors affecting the level of
production and productivity on peasant farms is the composition and size of farming
family. The finding is not surprising considering the finding of Igben (2018) that
reported that married men and women were into farming than unmarried in Imo State.
This is because married farmers are more likely to be under pressure to produce more,
not only for family consumption hut also for sale. Their desire to produce more could
lead to agricultural information seeking and use. Similarly, the availability of family
labor could be an incentive to the married farmer to cultivate more crops and to use
agricultural information.

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Findings from the study also revealed that the use of preferred media contributed
significantly in predicting agricultural information use by farmers. This result perhaps
emphasizes the fact that communication is at the heart of any change process in society.
Particularly in the farming community, communication of farm information provides
a major breakthrough from the traditional to modernity. This position is consistent
with the view of Savile (1965) in which he reported that if the aim of the agricultural
extension is to find out what the farming community feels. It needs and what problems
are involved, then the extension agent needs to first identify farmers preferred media
for agricultural information provision. This will enable the information provider
to re-examine the sources of information, which are currently used in disseminating
farm practices information to farmers. Meyer(2000) also noted, the manner in which
information is communicated, will largely determine whether the user community will
react positively to it or not. The result of an investigation by Meyer (2000) shows how
the information behavior of traditional people was unwittingly applied to encourage
a group of traditional farmers to produce food for their consumption. The incoming
information was better understood and used by the group because the messages were
communicated in a way with which they could identify. Therefore, Meyer (2003) noted
that rural people used to oral tradition have their peculiar way of handling information
that is closely related to their social and cultural background. This makes choice of
appropriate medium very crucial in agricultural information delivery. Djojomartono
and Pertini (2008) note that no one medium is best. The selected medium, they argue,
must be adapted to the message, target audience and the social-economic environment
of the farmers.
The statistical results of the present study show that eight of the twelve independent
variables did not significantly associate with agricultural information use. However, in
previous studies such as that of Chikwendu et al. (2016), age and years of experience in
farming were found to have significantly associated with information use. Furthermore,
Atala (2014) found that age and social participation significantly associated with
agricultural information use. The differences in the results of the present study and
results of some of the previous ones may be accounted for by the variation in the
personal, social, economic, and cultural backgrounds of the farmers who participated in
these studies, as well as differences in time and environment.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study has shown that educational qualification, marital status, income,
and preferred media contributed significantly to the farmers use of agricultural
information. On the other hand, social participation, reliance on indigenous knowledge,
tenancy status, gender, the size of land cultivated, years of fanning experience, part-
or full-time farming, and age. Did not correlate NIH agricultural information use.

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SMCC Higher Education Research Journal

However, the twelve personal and socio-economic variables, when taken together were
found to be effective in predicting farmers use of agricultural information.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are made based on the findings of the present study.
More attention should be given to the socio-economic conditions of the small scale
farmers. Where these conditions remain poor, the farmers are unlikely to be active
participants in development. Specifically, effective poverty reduction programs should
be initiated and religiously implemented. Political patronage should not be allowed to
hamper the success of such programs.
There is urgent need to intensify adult literacy campaign among the rural dwellers.
Literacy is capable of making people more conscious and receptive of innovations. As
a corollary. Agricultural literacy centers should be established and maintained in rural
communities not only to provide reading materials to the neo-literate but also to attend
to the information needs rural farmers
There is a need for change agents to identify and use farmers preferred media of
information delivery as this, is likely to facilitate their acceptance and use of information
presented to them.

LITERATURE CITED

Ama, L.O. (2005). Information and agriculture in Afric. In Ama, LO,, Kaniki. AM.,
Ojiambo, J.B. (Eds.) Agricultural information in Africa. (1-1 1). Ibadan: Third
World Information Services.

Akande, SO. (2009). A study of agricultural research system of Nigeria. NISER


Monograph Series No. 6. Ibadan: Nigeria Institute of Social and Economic Research
(NISER).

Atala, I.K. (2014). The relationship of socio-economic factors in agricultural innovation


and use of information sources in two Nigerian villages. Nigerian Journal of
Agricultural Extension, 2(1 & 2).

Atala, I.K., et al. (2002). The impact of the Training and Visit (T & V) system of
extension on adoption of farm innovations and farm output in Kaduna State.
Nigeria -Journal of Agricultural Extension, 7(1&2).

Bello, Adamu (2002). Agriculture contributes more to Nigerian economy. This Day,
7th August, 26.

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Central Bank of Nigeria (2014). Nigerias GDP hits N18.O7trm in 2006. Retrieved
April 11, 2007 from line.com.

Chikwendu, DO., et al. (2016). Adoption of improved technologies for millet


production by farmers in Borno State of Nigeria. Samaru Journal of Agricultural
Research, 13, 73-8 1.

Djojomartono, M., & Pertini, S. (2008). Present status of information technology


uutlization in Indosian agriculture. Bogor: The Asian Federation for Information
lechnology in Agriculture.

Flyvberg, B. (2000). Aristotle, Foucault, and Progressive Phronesis: An applied ethics


for substainable development. In Earl R. Winkler and Jerrold R. Combs (Eds.)
Applied ethics: A reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

lgben, MS. (2018). The Nigerian farmer and agricultural institutions: An assesnin1
lh:clw Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER).

Krejcie, R.V., &Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30.

Mabogunje, A.L. (2009). Nothing profits more: social knowledge and national
development. Paper delivered at the 11th General Assembly of the Social Sciences
Council of Nigeria held at Abuja on April 4th, 2017

Meyer, H.W.J. (n.d.). Information delivery and rural development. Retrieved March 8,
2007 from http://www.googles.com.ng.

Meyer, H.W.J. (2000). The transfer of agricultural information to rural communities.


Unpublished doctoral Dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Meyer, H.W.J. (2003). Information use in rural development. The New Review of
Information Behaviour Research, 4, 109-126.

Mohammedali, U.N. (1977). Practical agriculturists, literacy and agricultural


information in East Africa. Libri, 27(4).

Munyua, H. (n.d.). Information and communication technologies for rural development


and food security: lessons from field experiences in developing countries. Retrieved
April 19, 2017 from http://www/fao.org/sd/CD DIRECT/CdreOO5 56 .htm.

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Neelameghan, A. (2011). Some issues in intbrmation transfer:a Third World perspective.


IFLA Journal 7(1), 8-18.

Olawunmi. A. (2007). Agriculture witnesses 5.1% average GDP growth in 6 years.


Retrieved Jvlarch 8, 2007 from bp/www.busincssdayonlinc.com.

Oiui, DO. (2001). Communication and adoption of improved soil conservation


technology by small scale farmers in Imo State of Nigeria. Journal of West Africa
Farming Systems Research Network, 2.

Osuji, LU. (2013). Institutional factors associated with adoption of new farm techniques
among farmers in Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, 1(2)
35-43.

Oluwatosin, O.B. (n.d.). Establishment of knowledge bank in an indigenous community


in Nigeria. Retrieved May 3rd, 2007 from htip://www.asa2000.anthropology.ac.uk/
oluw/oluw.hml.

Ozowa, V.N. (2005). Information needs of small scale farmers in Africa: the Nigeria
example. Quarterly Bulletin of the International Association of Agricultural
Information Specialists, 40(1).

Rogers, EM. (2005). Diffusion of innovations. 4th ed. New York: The Free Press.

Savile, HA. (1965). Extension in rural communities. London: Oxford University Press.

Sheba, N.R. (2013). Using the library for problem solving in African agriculture.
Information Development, 13(3), 132-134.

Surry, Daniel W. (2013). Diffusion theory and instructional technology. Retrieved May
21, 2007 from htp://wwwgsu.edu/wwwwitr/docs/diffiision.

UNDP (2013). Human development report. New York: Oxford University Press.

UNESCO (2013.). Rural development. Retrieved February 27, 2017 from http://
portal.unesco.org/education/ev.ph-URID=27554&URLDO=DOTOPIC&U.

Voh, J.P. (1976). An exploratory study of factors associated with adoption of


recommended farm practices among Giwa farmers. Samaru Miscellaneous Paper
No. 73.

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World Bank Group. (2016). Nigeria: Target communities for effective poverty
alleviation. Findings, African Region, No. 68. Retrieved May 3, 2007 from http\
vwv,vvorldhank.org/afri/Cindings/llglish/find68.htm.

Yayock, T.U., & Misari, S.M. (2000). Translating research adoption in Africa. Paper
delivered at the Regional Workshop on agricultural research, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria,
13-17 August.

39
SMCC Higher Education ResearchSMCC
JournalHigher Education Research Journal
ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Teaching Staff Supervision and Capacity


Building for Quality Secondary Education
Delivery in Rivers State of Nigeria

FLORENCE N.D. EKEH


http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5282-0962
florence.ekeh123@gmail.com
Department of Educational Management
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Nigeria

SUNDAY T. AFANGIDEH
http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-4627-3472
sunday.afangideh123@gmail.com
Department of Educational Management
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Nigeria

ABSTRACT

This study examine teaching staff supervision and capacity building for quality
secondary education delivery in Rivers State of Nigeria. Two (2) research questions and
2 hypotheses were answered and tested in the study, respectively. The design for the study
was the descriptive survey, while the population was all the 512 public junior and senior
secondary schools in Rivers state, with a corresponding principal population of 512, from
where 205 were selected as sample, using the stratified random sampling technique. The
participants of the study responded to a validated 19- item instrument titled Teaching

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Staff Supervision and Capacity Building for Quality Secondary Education Delivery
Scale (TSSCBQSEDS), designed by the researchers, in the modified 4-point Likert scale
model, with a reliability index of 0.95, obtained using the Cronbach alpha statistics.
Mean scores and weighted mean scores were used in answering the research questions,
while z.test statistics was used in testing the hypotheses, at 0.05 level of significance. The
findings of the study show that teachers supervision and capacity building activities
enhance quality secondary education delivery and that there is a significant difference
between the mean ratings of junior and senior secondary school principals on how the
supervision of teachers enhances quality education delivery and no significant difference
between the respondents on how teacher capacity building enhances quality education
delivery: It was therefore recommended that school administrators should maintain the
current tempo in educational supervision apart from continuously building the general
capacities of the teachers to bring them in tune with current professional requirements.

KEYWORDS

Teaching Staff, Supervision, Capacity Building, Quality Education Delivery, Nigeria

INTRODUCTION

Globally, education systems are instrumentalities for introducing the young, needy
and interested into the worthwhile knowledge, skills and values of the society, from
one generation to another. This proposition implies that the school system is an agent
of socialization. Apart from the school system, socialization takes place in many other
social systems. These include the families, churches, mosques, age grades, clubs, among
others. However, education in these other groups is largely informal and are handled by
adults, church leaders, imams, group leaders, club leaders, among others. In the school
system, education takes place in both formal and informal settings. While the formal
aspects of it are handled by the teachers as students are made to internalize the contents
of the formal curriculum, the informal aspects take place as they (students) are made to
pass through the hidden curriculum, through their interactions with other members of
the school system.
One key thing to note is that, in the school system, whether on the formal or informal
aspects, there must be a leader, who should directs the affairs of the internalization
processes. These leaders should show leadership by making sure that learners are
introduced into the knowledge, skills and values of the society. These leaders in the
education system are teachers.
Another very important issue to note is that, whatever the leaders of the internalization
processes lead learners to learn and acquire should be of good quality and properly

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deliver same to the clients of the school system. This should be the case at all levels of
education i.e the basic, post basic and tertiary levels of education. This brings to the fore
the concept of quality education delivery.
Quality education delivery is an educational construct that has three other
constructs. The first is the issue of quality, which connects what is good, in order and is
well done. The second component is that of quality education, which refers to the type
of education that has what it takes in terms of input, processes and output, to address
the problems and concerns of society. Thirdly, there is the construct of quality education
delivery, which refers to the process and conditions necessary for the propagation and
attainment of quality education.
For the teacher to succeed in delivering quality education, the teacher needs to
be supervised by experienced teachers and also be made to undergo capacity building
programmes to ensure quality presentation of lessons and be in tune with current
professional requirements. This may be explained in the fact that, studies, such as those
of Ekeh (2015) and Afangideh and Aleru (2013), have shown that there is a significant
relation between professional development programmes like supervision and capacity
building and quality education delivery in schools.
Based on the foregoing, the proceeding reviews will be on supervision and capacity
building of teachers as instrumentalities for quality education delivery in schools..

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of the study was to investigate into teaching staff supervision and capacity
building for quality secondary education delivery in Rivers State of Nigeria. Specifically,
the study sought to.
Ascertain how supervision of teachers classroom activities enhance quality education
delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.
Ascertain how capacity building programmes for teachers enhance quality education
delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.

Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in the study:


i. How does the supervision of teachers classroom activities enhance quality
education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.
ii. How do capacity building programmes for teachers enhance quality education
delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.

Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested in the study at 0.05 level of significance:

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Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of junior and senior
secondary school principals on how the supervision of teachers classroom
activities enhances quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State
of Nigeria.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of junior and senior
secondary school principals on how capacity building programmes for teachers
enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of
Nigeria.

FRAMEWORK

Supervision of Classroom Activities and Quality Education Delivery


Supervision is an administrative strategy that has been in use in many areas of
human endeavours. Supervision enjoys wide appeal and usage in fields like education,
management, engineering, public administration, medical organizations, among
numerous others. Conceptually, it is a little difficult to give the meaning of supervision,
because of the interplay of a related concept. To put the matter in proper perspective, the
researchers are referring to the concept of inspection. Though the concept of supervision
has great relationships with inspection, they remain two different things, especially as
they are used in the field of education, and therefore deserve different conceptualization.
Literary Webster Dictionary (2013), defines supervision as the action or process
of watching and directing what someone does or how something is done or the action
or process of supervising someone or something. These presentations suggest that
supervision involves more than one person, which ideally, should be the supervisor and
the supervisee. Quite differently, inspection is interested in quality control and therefore
likes fault finding.
In the field of education, supervision is one of the functions of administration,
concerned with guiding the day to day action of people, working in the organization,
by stimulating, directing and co-ordinating their activities and creating a good working
relationship, to ensure that they work towards the achievement of the goals of the
organization (Madumere-Obike, 2004). The scholar furthers that, supervision is the
process of providing an effective leadership that promotes the achievement of the
aims and objectives of education. It is no wonder, Udeozo (2003) states that the aim
of supervision is to stimulate, guide, oversee and appraise all factors that will lead to
enhanced teachers quality and acceptable educational outcomes.
In the field of education, supervision plays two basic important functions. These
are supervision of instruction and supervision of personnel. For Madumere-Obike
(2004), supervision of instruction is defined as a way of helping teachers become self
directed. The scholar, extolling Ukeje (1992) opinion that it is developing in them the
necessary and positive attitudes, skills, and information that will make them be prepared

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SMCC Higher Education Research Journal

to willingly contribute to the solution of educational and instructional problems and


provide a favourable setting for students learning.
In the opinion of Ukeje, supervision of instruction can conveniently be seen as
the aids or assistance which teachers need in terms of contents, methods, strategies,
techniques, and information, to be able to do their works, well. However, supervision
of personnel means mobilizing and motivating subordinate staff of the school, to enable
them achieve the full realization of the goals and objectives of the school. In a different
development, Ndidi (2003), notes that supervision is needed to extensively supervise
teachers in Nigeria, where many of the practicing teachers are not professionally trained,
due to the urgent need to produce teachers for the mass education programmes. It is
also on record that supervision is made for processing and training of student teachers to
enable them acquire the actual teaching-skills. These must have made Glickman (1990),
to comment that behind every successful school is an effective supervision programme.
Glickmans perception is in consonance with the theme of this study, which regards
instructional supervision as one of the administrative techniques, that can be used in
making a teacher to grow in the teaching profession and therefore contribute to the
delivery of quality education which the society craves for.
In line with the foregoing proposition, supervision as a professional development
instrument for teachers can only succeed in developing the teacher if the school
administrator makes use of appropriate supervisory techniques (with their inbuilt
benefits) in his school supervisory programmes. In tune with this, Nnabuo, Okorie,
Nwideeduh, and Uche (2006), identify these models of supervision to include
classroom visitation, inter- school visitation, workshop, micro-teaching, team teaching
and research-models. These models have also been corroborated by Ogunsajo (1983),
as those which can help in developing the teacher for better performance in the school
system.
In the interim, whether teacher supervision in group or individually can assist in
teachers professional development for effective performance, as Dollansky (n.d) reports,
it is a serious matter for academic investigation. This is what the review is prepared for,
as the result is expected in the later part of the study.

Capacity Building Programmes and Quality Education Delivery


In contemporary society, the art and science of teaching has assumed dimensions
unprecedented in human, scientific and technological history. These dimensions are
experienced in the curricula contents, methods of delivery, teaching techniques, display
of instructional resources, interactions with and between teachers and students and
with colleagues and school administration, methods of communication and transfer of
information, among numerous others. About a decade or two ago, the Nigerian secondary
school teacher had nothing to do with teachings relating to AIDS education, but today,
he or she has to do it, the teacher never had to use Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) to relate with colleagues, students and school administration, the

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teacher never needed the white board nor the opaque projector to present information
to his/her students and other clients. Today, he or she has to do all of these, if he or
she has to remain relevant in the system, without going into what may be referred to as
professional extinction.
Quite unfortunately, these teachers, were not given trainings in their pre-service
teacher education programmes to accommodate these new social, scientific and
technological demands. Therefore, these teachers do not become irrelevant to themselves
and the system, they need capacity building programmes, that should help to update
their professional knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed for the effective
performance of the teaching job in this digital age.
Conceptually, capacity generally refers to the number of things, people, that a
container or space could hold (Vroom, 1982 as cited in Nnanna, 2011). Capacity
building may therefore be seen as planned development of (increase in) knowledge,
input rate, management skills, and other capabilities of an organization, through
acquisition of incentives, technology and/or training. (BusincssDictionary.Com,
2013). Put in another way, reports that, capacity building is often referred to as the
strengthening of the skills, competencies, and abilities of people and communities
in developing countries, so that they can overcome the causes of their exclusion and
suffering. The conceptualizations of capacity building presented so far, point to the
fact that organizations and individuals need capacity building, if they must get out of
present unfavourable conditions. This is in tandem with the position by Azikiwe (2008)
that capacity building is planning for people to acquire, knowledge and advanced skills
that are critical to individual empowerment, countries economic growth and their
standard of living.
As it concerns the education system, and in agreement with the positions taken by
scholars and organizations cited so far, capacity building is the ability of the education
system to help students and other members of the school system to meet more
challenging standards. This position is suggestive of the fact that if the capacity of the
education system or any other system is insufficient for accomplishing a desired goal,
capacity may be increased by improving the people or workers (e.g individual teachers).
In this study, capacity building is focused on teachers and it is an aspect of teachers
professional development, whose importance, has to do with updating the knowledge,
skills, and attitudes of teachers, in line with present requirements in the performance of
their teaching and managerial activities.
The reader of this review may wonder why the researchers are taking this position,
but when references are made to Carpenter (1989), Shulman (1996), and Wineberg
(1988), (as cited in CPRE Policy Brief, 1995), the reader may be persuaded to agree that
teachers need knowledge of the subject, curriculum, students and general and specific
subject pedagogy in order to help students. Issues of this nature may therefore explain
why most capacity building programmes strategies in education, today, target individual
teachers. At the level of the individual, capacity building requires the development of

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conditions that allow individual participants to build and enhance existing knowledge
and skills, and therefore call for the establishment of conditions that will allow
individuals to engage in the process of learning.
As have been established, capacity building is a professional development strategy,
and possesses inbuilt relevance for quality service delivery, that has been proven by quite
a number of scholars, commentators and researchers. The proceeding part of the review
is therefore meant for such presentations and analysis.
According to Cole (2006), capacity building benefits the organization and workers,
through the provision of skilled personnel for the organization, increased knowledge
and experience for the employees, improvement of existing skills, improvement in
productivity overall, ensuring greater commitment on the part of the staff and personal
growth opportunities for staff. Studies by Anya (2000), Amadi (2007), and lheme,
(2004) (as cited in Nnanna, 2011), show that, capacity building programmes help
to equip the teachers with higher ability for conflict resolution and maintenance of
good staff relation. It is no wonder, Miller and Stunter (1998) (as cited in Nnanna,
2011), conclude that capacity building programmes help the teachers to ensure that
the standards of education are enhanced, ensure that teachers provide quality education
and enable teachers to impact on the school environment, the parents, other staff, the
society and the students.
Also, Igwe (1996), observes that capacity building programmes like the Sandwich
courses organized in Nigerian universities and Colleges of Education help teachers to
acquire degrees and higher certificates. This must have influenced Ukeje (1999), who
demonstrates that capacity building programmes provide teachers with the necessary
skills to motivate the students. In yet another entry, Farrant (1990), concludes that
capacity building programmes equally inculcate in teachers the main qualities, which
make the teachers to be successful.
Apart from the presentations in the preceding section of the review, capacity
building makes it that performance of menial duties are not degrading, apart from
helping the teachers to continue to learn (Eyioha, 2003) (as cited in Ekeh, 2015), just
as Eleazu (2001) (as cited in Nnanna, 2011) has it that, in as much as teaching is
child centered, the capacity building programmes help the teachers to play vital roles
in the much orchestrated child-centred education. For Castetter (2006), capacity
building programmes help teachers to lean and broaden their intellectual horizon, and
to enhance their self esteem and confidence, so that, they can impact positively on all
aspects of education. These and others can therefore confirm the findings by Omukaogu
(2008) (as reported in Nnanna, 2011), that teachers need capacity building to enable
them handle innovations, such as, continuous assessment practices, nomadic education,
life-long education and the fundamental basics of the Universal Basic Education and
the Millennium Development Goals, apart from enabling the teachers to be abreast of
developments in these areas to learn more and enrich their information base. Capacity
building programmes for teachers, in the contribution by Afangideh and Aleru (2013),

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should include activities that would give teachers, skills in power point presentation,
team works skills, research skills, computer training skills, training in the use of the
white board, classroom management skills, collaborative research strategies, special skills
to handle smart students, public relation skills, internet usage skills, sign language skills
and smart decision making skills.
Presentations made so far are more theoretical, apart from research reports which
have also become obsolete. However, whether there is a point of association between
capacity building programmes for teachers and quality education delivery is the reason
why this literature has been prepared.

Statement of Problem
Current thinking in school administration, as it concerns the administration of
the teaching personnel is that teachers who are exposed to professional development
programmes, like supervision and capacity building, can make valid contributions to
the delivery of quality education. This thinking has influenced the extra emphasis on the
need for development programmes for teachers.
However, it is quite surprising that, stakeholders in education, among them
administrators, teachers, students, community people, government and significant
others still complain that schools seem not to be succeeding in their determination to
deliver quality education to clients of the school system, despite the renewed emphasis
on supervision and capacity building for teachers. The researchers therefore felt the
need for a study to determine whether supervision of teachers classroom activities and
capacity building programmes enhance quality secondary education delivery at the
secondly level of education in the face of the complaints.

METHODOLOGY

The design for the study was the descriptive survey, while the population was all the
512 public junior and senior secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. These schools
have a corresponding number of 512 secondary school principals, from where 205
were selected as sample, using the stratified random sampling technique. This sample
responded to a validated 19-item instrument christened Teaching Staff Supervision and
Capacity Building for Quality Secondary Education Delivery Scale (TSSCBQSEDS),
designed by the researchers, in the modified 4-point Likert scale model, with a reliability
index of 0.95, obtained using the Cronbach alpha statistics. Mean scores and weighted
mean scores were used in answering the research questions, while z.test statistics was
used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of the study were got from the answers to the research questions and the
results to test of hypotheses. Thus;
Research Question 1: How does the supervision of teachers classroom activities
enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria of
Nigeria.

Table 1: Mean and Standard Deviation on the Responses of Junior and Senior Secondary
School Principals on How the Supervision of Teachers Classroom Activities enhances
Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.
S/N Supervision for Quality Education Delivery SD1 SD2 Remarks

Supervision of teachers classroom activities provides


1 opportunities for teachers to get new information on new 3.04 0.82 3.46 0.76 3.25 Agreed
curricular materials.
Teachers who have access to supervision learn new methods of
2 2.87 0.79 3.38 0.82 3.13_ Agreed
teaching.
Classroom supervision provides teachers with new teaching
3 2.85 0.79 3.30 0.70 3.08 Agreed
strategies.
Teachers who are regularly supervised gain new techniques for
4 2.90 0.88 3.40 0.61 3.15 Agreed
presenting curriculum materials.
Teachers who are given information during supervision are
5 2.79 0.88 3.34 0.76 3.07 Agreed
motivated to grow.
Regular visits of supervisors to classrooms provide teachers with
6 2.87 0.78 3.34 3.34 3.11 Agreed
new sets of information for effective teaching.
Teachers who attend workshops acquire new
7 2.76 0.85 3.18 0.82 2.97 Agreed
capabilities for teaching
Micro teaching provides opportunities for teachers to evaluate
8 2.90 0.84 3.45 0.62 3.18 Agreed
themselves for better performances
Team teaching affords teachers the opportunities to learn for
9 2.54 0.90 3.29 0.84 2.92 Agreed
themselves
Criterion 2.83 0.83 3.35 0.75 3.10 Agreed

Data on Table 1 show that all the items (1-9) had weighted mean scores above
the criterion mean of 2.50 and were agreed on as how the supervision of teachers
classroom activities enhances quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers
State of Nigeria. In summary, with an aggregate weighted mean of 3.10, above the
criterion mean of 2.50, junior and senior secondary school principals agreed that the
supervision of teachers classroom activities enhances quality education delivery, by
providing opportunities for teachers to get information on new curricular materials,
helping teachers to learn new methods of teaching, providing teachers with new
teaching strategies, by helping teachers to gain new techniques for presenting
curriculum materials, by motivating teachers to grow, providing teachers with new
sets of information for effective teaching, assisting teachers to acquire new capabilities

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for teaching, providing teachers with opportunities to evaluate themselves for better
performance, and affording teachers the opportunities to learn for themselves.

Research Question 2: How do capacity building programmes for teachers enhance


quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria?

Table 2: Mean and Standard Deviation on the Responses of Junior and Senior Secondary
School Principals on how Capacity Building Programmes for Teachers enhance Quality
Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.
S/N Supervision for Quality Education Delivery SD1 SD2 Remarks

Capacity building programmes increase the knowledge of


10 3.05 0.88 3.54 0.52 3.30 Agreed
teachers for better teaching
Capacity building programmes ensure improvements in
11 2.94 0.82 3.02 0.97 2.98 Agreed
teachers existing teaching skills.
Greater commitment of teachers is possible where the
12 3.08 0.87 3.39 0.71 3.24 Agreed
teachers are exposed to capacity building programmes.
Teachers who are exposed to capacity building
13 3.11 0.76 3.12 0.90 3.12 Agreed
programmes can Impact positively on the environment.
Teachers who have been exposed to capacity building
14 3.18 0.79 3.19 0.88 3.19 Agreed
programmes have high ability for resolving teaching issues
Capacity building programmes make it possible for
15 3.10 0.84 3.19 0.89 3.15 Agreed
teachers to acquire higher certificates.
Teachers who have been exposed to capacity building
16 3.03 0.85 334 0.73 3.14 Agreed
programmes acquire skills for motivating students.
Capacity building programmes inculcate in teachers the
17 302 0.92 3.26 0.83 3.14 Agreed
qualities for successful teaching
Teachers who have been exposed to capacity building play
18 2.99 0.85 3.17 0.85 3.08 Agreed
vital roles in child centred education
Capacity building programmes give self-esteeming
19 3.00 0.96 3.17 0.98 3.08 Agreed
confidence to impact on all aspects of education.
Criterion 3.05 0.85 3.23 0.83 3.15 Agreed

Data on Table 2, show that all the items (10-19) had weighted mean scores above
the criterion mean of 2.50, and were adjudged as how capacity building programmes
for teachers enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State
of Nigeria. In summary, with an aggregate weighted mean score of 3.15, above the
criterion mean of 2.50, junior and senior secondary school principals, agreed that,
capacity building programmes for teachers enhance quality education delivery in
secondary schools, by increasing the knowledge of teachers for better teaching, ensuring
improvements in teachers existing teaching skills, arousing greater commitment in
teachers, making teachers to impact positively on the environment, making it possible
for teachers to acquire higher ability for resolving teaching issues, making it possible for
teachers to acquire higher certificates, making teachers to acquire skills for motivating
students, inculcating in teachers the qualities for successful teaching, helping teachers

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SMCC Higher Education Research Journal

to play vital roles in child centred education, and giving teachers the self esteeming
confidence to impact on all aspects of education.

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of junior and senior
secondary school principals on how the supervision of teachers classroom activities
enhances quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.

Table 3: Summary of z-test Analyses on the Difference between the Mean Ratings of
Junior and Senior Secondary School Principals on How the Supervision of Teachers
Classroom Activities enhances Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in
Rivers State of Nigeria.
Subject N SD Cal.z. z-crit df Result
Junior Secondary School 94 2.83 0.83 Significant
Principals (reject)
Senior Secondary School 101 3.35 0.75 4.73 1.96 193
Principals

Data on Table 3, show summaries of subjects, means, standard deviations, and z-test
of difference between the mean ratings of junior and senior secondary school principals
on how the supervision of teachers classroom activities enhances quality education
delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. The z-test value, calculated and
used in testing the hypothesis stood at 4.73, while the critical z-value stood at 1.96,
using 193 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance.
At 0.05 level of significance, the calculated z-value of 4.73 is greater than the
z-critical value of 1.96. Hence, there is a significant difference between the respondents.
In the light of the above observation, the researchers rejected the null hypothesis in
favour of the alternative that there is a significant difference between the mean ratings
of junior and senior secondary school principals on how the supervision of teachers
classroom activities enhances quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers
State of Nigeria.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of junior and
senior secondary school principals on how capacity building programmes for teachers
enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State.

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Table 4: Summary of z-test Analyses on the Difference between the Mean Ratings of
Junior and Senior Secondary School Principals on how Capacity Building Programme
for Teachers enhance Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Rivers State
of Nigeria.
Subject N SD Cal.z. z-crit df Result

Junior Secondary School Significant


94 3.05 0.85
Principals (reject)
Senior Secondary School
101 3.23 0.83 1.50 1.96 193
Principals

Data on Table 4, show summaries of subjects, means, standard deviations and z-test
of difference between the mean ratings of junior and senior secondary school principals
on how capacity building programmes for teachers enhance quality education delivery
in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. The z-test value calculated and used in
testing the hypothesis, stood at 1.50, while the critical z-value stood at 1.96, using 193
degrees of freedom, at 0.05 level of significance.
At 0.05 level of significance and 193 degrees of freedom, the calculated z-value of
1.50 is less than the critical z-value of 1.96. This shows that no significant difference
exists between the respondents. Further to the above, the researchers were constrained
to retain the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the mean
ratings of junior and senior secondary school principals on how capacity building
programmes for teachers, enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in
Rivers State of Nigeria.

Supervision of Classroom Activities for Quality Education Delivery


The first finding of the study from answers to research questions is that supervision
of teachers classroom activities enhances quality education delivery in secondary
schools, by providing opportunities for teachers to get information on new curricular
materials, helping teachers to learn new methods of teaching, providing teachers
with new teaching strategies, helping teachers to get new techniques for presenting
new curriculum materials, motivating teachers to grow, providing teachers with new
sets of information for effective teaching, assisting teachers to acquire new capabilities
for teaching, providing teachers with opportunities to evaluate themselves for better
performance and affording teachers the opportunities to learn for themselves.
Also, the corresponding third finding from hypothesis testing has it that there is a
significant difference between the mean ratings of junior and senior secondary school
principals on how the supervision of teachers classroom activities enhances quality
education delivery in secondary schools in Rivers State. These findings agree with
Madumere-Obike (2004), Udeozo (2007), Ukeje (1992), Ndidi (2009), Glickman
(1990), Nnabuo, Okorie, Nwideeduh and Uche (2006), Ogunsaju (1983), and

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SMCC Higher Education Research Journal

Dollansky (nd) who have in their scholarly and empirical contributions, give credence
to supervision as a teacher development programme that boosts quality service delivery
in educational and other organizations. These positions may be influenced by the fact
that quite very recently, the Quality Assurance Division of the Rivers State Ministry of
Education stepped up school monitoring and supervision, and that principals of schools
have been alife to their supervisory functions, as emphasized by the government. The
implications of these are that school principals, teachers and students, apart from other
stakeholders in education will be committed to their jobs and therefore improve the
quality of teaching, learning and administration in schools.

Capacity Building Programmes for Quality Education Delivery


The second finding from answers to research question is that capacity building
programmes for teachers enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools by
increasing the knowledge of teachers for better teaching, ensuring improvements in
teachers existing teaching skills, arousing commitment in teachers, making teachers
to impact positively on the environment, making it possible for teachers to acquire
higher ability for resolving teaching issues, making it possible for teachers to acquire
higher certificates, making teachers to acquire skills for motivating students, inculcating
in teachers the qualities for successful teaching, helping teachers to play vital roles in
child-centred education and giving teachers the self esteeming confidence to impact on
all aspects of education.
Also, the corresponding fourth finding from hypothesis testing has it that there is no
significant difference between the mean ratings of junior and senior secondary school
principals on how capacity programmes for teachers enhance quality education delivery
in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria.
The first aspect of the finding agrees with Capenter (1989), Shulman (1996), and
Wineberg (1989) as cited in CPRE Policy Brief (1995), Cole (2006), Anya (2000),
Ndidi (2007), Iheme (2004), (In Nnanah, 2011), Miller and Striker (1998) (in
Nnanah, 2011), (1996), Ukeje (1999), Farrant (1990), Enyioha (2013) (as cited in
Ekeha, 2015), (Eleazu 2001) (In Nnanah, 2011), Casatelter (2006), Afangideh and
Aleru (2013), and Onukaogwu (2008) (in Nnanah, 2011). A possible explanation for
the direction of the finding may be in the fact that with the introduction of new courses,
and changes in methods and techniques of teaching, methods of sending, receiving and
retrieving information, most school systems have been involved in one capacity building
programme or the other, in order to ensure the professional alertness of their teachers.
This implies that school systems that do not wish to be living on borrowed times, should
as a matter of immediacy mount capacity building programmes for teachers.
However, that the forth finding from hypothesis testing which runs parallel to the
comments, findings and positions of the afore-mentioned authorities and researchers,
establishes no significant difference between the respondents, does not invalidate the
fact that capacity building programmes are professional development activities, that

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can boost the quality of education delivery in schools. Despite this explanation, it is
also expedient to note that, the result may be due to the rigourousness involved in the
process of testing the hypothesis. This implies that capacity building programmes are
vital tools for making the teaching service a success for the consumption of the society
in general.

CONCLUSIONS

In the light of the findings of the study, it is concluded that the supervision of teachers
classroom activities and capacity building programmes are strong instrumentalities for
quality secondary education delivery in Rivers State of Nigeria.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended as follows:


1. School administrators should ensure that they maintain the current tempo in
educational supervision, in order to make sure that, teachers are ever alert to the
demands of their jobs as dictated by the changes in society.
2. School administrators should continuously build the general capacities of their
teachers, to enable them perform their functions in line with the dictates of the
time.

LITERATURE CITED

Afangideh, S.T. & Aleru, G.E. (2013 August). Building the capacities of Nigerian
University teachers for quality education in the 21sf Century. Paper presented at the 1
international Conference/Workshop on higher education for development in Africa:
Policies and Practices, at Ebitimi Banigo Auditorium, University of Port Harcourt,
29-30.

Azikiwe, U. (2008). Standard in education: Capacity building and sustainable development


in Nigeria. Retrieved May 10, 2013, from www.ikedye(d)yahoo .com.

BusinessDictionary.com (2013). Capacity building Retrieved October 13, 2013, from


www.busincssdictionarv.comcapacitybuildinghtml.

Castetter, W.B. (2006). The personnel function of educational (administration) (Third


Edition). London: Macmillan.

Cole, G.A (2006). Management theory and practice. London: Bookpower.

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CPRE Policy Brief (1995). Capacity building for education reforms. Retrieved August 29,
2013, from www.google.com.ng.

Dollasky, T. (n.d.). Rural Saskarchewan Elementary k-6 teachers perceptions of


supervision and professional development. SSTA Research Report. Retrieved October
19, 2013, from www. saskschoolboards.ca/old/researchaAndDevelopment/Research
Reports/ Leadership / 98-04ht

Ekeh, F.N.D. (2015). Teachers professional development for quality education delivery
in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation,
Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Farrant, J.S. (1990). Principles and practices of education. England. Longman.

Glickman, E. (1990). Developing teacher thoughts. Journal of Staff Development, 7(1)6-


21.

Igwe, S.O. (1996). Professional handbook for teachers. Owerri: Nigeria Union of Teachers
and New African Publishing Company.

Madumere-Obike, C.U. (2004). Educational supervision and inspection. In P.O


M. Nnabuo, N.C. Okorie, O.G. Agabi & L.E.B. Igwe (Eds). Fundamentals of
educational management (203-228). Owerri Versatile.

Merriam Webster (2013). Supervision. Retrieved October 19, 2013. from www.merriam.
webster.com/dictionary/supervision.

Ndidi, M. M. (2008). Supervising behaviour and teachers satisfaction in Secondary


Schools. Nigerian Journal of Educational Management 7, 12.

Nnabuo, P.O.M., Okorie, N.C, Nwideeduh, S.B. & Uche C.M. (2006). Leadership and
supervision in education. Owerri Totan

Nnanna, O. (2011) Capacity building and teacher productivity in secondary schools in


Abia State. Unpublished Med Thesis, Department of Educational Management, F
Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Ogunsaju, S. (1983). Educational supervision: Perspectives and practices in Nigeria. Ile-Ife,


Nigeria: University of Ife Press.

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Udeozor, R. K. (2003). Supervisory techniques adopted for the development of primary


school teachers in Nigeria: Implications for Quality Education. Journal of World
Council of Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI), 4 (1) 10-15.

Ukeje, B.O. (1992). Educational administration Enugu: Fourth Dimension.

Uvah I. I. (2005, March). Management of academic quality in Nigerian Universities. A


Paper presented at the British Council on Quality Assurance Workshop held at Pan-
African University, Lekki, Lagos< 17 &18.

Webster Dictionary (2013). Induction. Retrieved October 19, 2013 from www.webster.
com/dictionary/induction.

55
SMCC Higher Education ResearchSMCC
JournalHigher Education Research Journal
ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Sociological and Philosophical Analysis


of the Influence of Educated Mothers
on the performance and wellbeing of Pupils in
Nigerian Schools
TITI CHRISTIANAH FALANA
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1123-4932
falantti@yahoo.com
Department of Philosophy
Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti
Ekiti State, Nigeria

ADESOJI A. ONI (PH.D)


http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6774-2672
aoluoni@yahoo.com
Department of Educational Foundations,
Faculty of Education,
University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba,
Lagos, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of educated mothers on the academic


performance and well-being of primary school pupils in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Local
Government area of Lagos, Nigeria. Four research questions were raised and four
hypotheses were tested. The descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A
total of 200 participants were selected from 10 public primary schools and 10 private
primary schools within Ajeromi-Ifelodun Local Government area of Lagos, Nigeria
using simple random sampling technique. The research instrument used was a four
point Likert Rating Scale Questionnaire type. Data analysis were done using descriptive

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statistics of frequency counts and percentage to answer the research questions, while the
hypotheses formulated were tested using Chi-square and independent t-test statistical
tool at 0.05 level of significance. All the hypotheses tested were rejected. Based on
the result from the findings of this study, it was concluded that there is significant
influence of educated mother on their children academic performance and well-being
and that there is significant difference between academic performance, well-being of
pupils from educated and uneducated mothers. Children living with mothers who have
low educational attainment experience less academic guidance, support and success.
Hence, mothers level of education is a sin qua non to their children well-being and
academic pursuit. It was recommended that parents who are not educated or have low
educational qualifications should endeavour to allow their children to attend summer
coaching provided or secure services of home tutor for their children to complement
the regular school programmes and that government and corporate institutions should
increase salaries of parents in line with economic situations, to enable parents meet the
educational needs of their children.

KEYWORDS

Educated Mothers, Academic, Performance, Well Being, Primary, Nigeria

INTRODUCTION

In this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is considered as


a first step for every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of human
capital and is linked with an individuals well-being and opportunities for better living
(Battle & Lewis, 2002). It ensures the acquisition of knowledge and skills that enable
individuals to increase their productivity and improve their quality of life (Saxton 2000).
Education is the best legacy parents can give to their children.
The development of the nation starts from the family, when the family succeeds in
teaching and impacting good values in their children, the country becomes a better place
to live. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence
with the development of human resource. Much then is said that formal education
remains the vehicle for socio-economic development and social mobilization in any
society (Shittu, 2004).
The role of a parent to a child at any given time cannot be over emphasized. The
home is very germane and crucial to a childs well-being and development. From womb
to adolescent stage and adulthood, mothers play a crucial role and impact in their
children upbringing and development.
If the parents are more educated, the more elevated is the socio- economic status
and more satisfaction stems from it, along with attendant privileges, facilities and
behavioral stances (Khan, Anila & Pervez, 2011). Sudhir & Lalhirimi (2009), posits

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that parental education is an index of class status and personality characteristics in


the shape of satisfactions and problems associated with, and children of less educated
parents or totally uneducated parents have low emotional stability and they have high
anxiety level.
The educational attainment seems to have a heritable quality. There is considerable
evidence pointing to the level of parental education as a strong predictor of childrens
success in the educational system (Battin-Pearson; 2000; Blok & Saris, 2000; Erickson
& Jonson 2006 & Maas, 2015).
Children living in poor families with mothers who have low educational attainments
experience less success, both in school and later as adults in the workforce, than
children living in more advantaged circumstances (Donald, 2014).Mothers educational
attainments have important consequences for children, as those whose mothers have
limited education tend to experience lower levels of cognitive functioning, lower levels
of socio-emotional functioning, and lower levels of academic achievement than children
with higher levels of mothers education.
Mothers are the most immediate relation of a child. Her financial status and
education do have an important influence on the personality of a child. Educated
Mother can better understand the educational needs and their childrens aptitude. They
can help their children in their early education, which affects their proficiency in their
relative area of knowledge.
Mothers education and socio-economic factors are of vital importance in effecting
students educational achievements also. They are like backbone in providing financial
and mental confidence to students. Explicit difference can be observed between those
students who belong to different financial status and different parental educational level.
According to Bell (2012), educated mother devote a lot of resources to their childrens
education because they believe that good academic performance will provide a stable
future for them.
Students academic performance was the extent to which students achieve the
academic goals set by the teacher, school or the education authorities as a whole.
There are so many factors that influence and affect students academic performance.
Akinsanya, Ajayi, &Salomi (2011) posited that variables such as teachers variables
(teachers age, experience, education, gender, etc), school variables (i.e. environment,
buildings, location, etc), students variables (attitude, self-esteem, study habit, interest,
etc), and parents support (achievement motivation of wards, parental attitudes towards
education, the aspiration of parents, etc) could be identified.
The term well being on the other hand is used interchangeably with mental health
because, well being is a holistic concept that is multidimensional. For example, the
World Health Organisation (WHO, 2007), defined well - being as a healthy state of
complete physical, mental and social well - being and not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity. Taking responsibility for ones health therefore means making a conscious
commitment to ones well - being. It involves recognition of choosing a positive existence

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for the pursuit of excellence affecting all four aspects of a being - physical, mental,
emotional and spiritual realm (Ardell, 2012).
Similarly, Awartani (2007),defined well-being as the realization of ones physical,
emotional, mental, social and spiritual potential. According to them, Mental refers to
that part of life which is primarily related to cognition and the processes of the rational
mind (e.g., thinking, planning, creating, reflecting, evaluating) while Emotional/
social, links the emotional and social aspects referring to inner feelings, aspects of
life, relationship to ones self and to others, communication, creative imagination,
and self-expression. The Physical refers to those parts of life, which are related to
the physical senses and to sensory experience, to our bodies, and to the material and
natural environments (e.g., doing, building, and taking apart, detailing, producing).
And Spiritual refers to the indivisible life energy that is reflected in the diversity (e.g.,
the expression of meaning and life purpose, inspiration, peaceful presence, empathy).
Previous available studies like Episten; (2001);Gadsden, (2003); Okuniyi, (2004);
Okpala, (2004); Nwagu, (2005); Ojo, (2010) & Ardell, (2012) showed that parental
factors, characteristic and involvement have both negative and positive influence on
students academic achievement. However, there were no specific records of mothers
education on academic performance and well being of primary school pupils in Lagos
State particular. Therefore, it is this gap that this study is out to fill.

FRAMEWORK

Statement of the Problem


The gap in academic performance of students is of a major concern to teachers, school
authorities/administrators and other education stakeholders. These stakeholders have
delved into various factors as mentioned earlier in order to moderate the discrepancies in
the academic performance of students. Despite all efforts to improve students academic
performance, these efforts have yielded negligible effects.
Several factors have been identified by researchers that may be responsible for
the poor performance of students over the years. Prominent among these factors are:
poor attitude of students (Ifamuyiwa and Akinsola (2008), the use of traditional or
conventional teaching method (Alio 2000 and Ayanniyi, 2005), non-utilisation of
available resources (Akinsola, 2000), population explosion of students enrolments
without commensurate teachers to handle them (Amoo, 2002) and lack of professional
training of teachers (Iheanacho, 2007).
Furthermore, Betiku (2002), Akinsola and Ifamuyiwa (2008) ascribes dismal
performance of students to the cluster of variables, which include: government related
variables; curriculum related variables; examination bodies related variables; teacher
related variables; students related variables; home related and finally text book related
variables.

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Aside from these variables some specific variables have been identified by Amazigo
(2000) such as poor primary school background, lack of parental care (Akinsola, 2010)
and parental financial status. This poor and unimpressive teaching and learning is an
indication that there are underlying problems and needs to be tackled so as to help
students improve on their academic performance. It is against this backdrop that
this study seeks to investigate the influence of educated mothers on the academic
performance and well being of primary school pupils in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Local
Government Area of Lagos State.

Research Questions

The following questions were raised to guide the study.


1. What are the influences of educated mothers on their children academic
achievement?
2. To what extent does educated mothers influence the well being of their children?
3. Will there be any differences in the academic performance of pupils from
educated mother and pupils from uneducated mother?
4. Will there be any difference in the well- being of pupils from educated mother
and pupils from uneducated mother?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance .


1. There is no significant influence of educated mothers on their children academic
achievement.
2. There is no significant influence of educated mothers on the well being of their
children.
3. There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils from
educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mother.
4. There is no significant difference between the well- being of pupils from educated
mother and pupils from uneducated mother?

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of educated mothers
on the performance and wellbeing of Pupils in Nigerian Schools.
Specifically the study seeks to:

1. Examine the influence of educated mothers on their children academic


achievement
2. Determine whether educated mothers influence the wellbeing of their children

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3. Access differences in the academic performance of pupils from educated mother


and pupils from uneducated mothers
4. Determine whether there is any difference in the wellbeing of pupils from
educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mothers.

METHODOLOGY

The descriptive survey research method was used in carrying out this study. This
method is considered appropriate because of its power to determine the interrelationship
among the variables. The population of the study comprises of pupils and teachers
in public and private primary schools in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Local Government Area of
Lagos State. The sample size is 200 participants, which include 100 hundred pupils and
100 teachers. Ten (10) public primary schools and ten (10) private schools were selected.
In each of the schools five (5) pupils and five (5) teachers was selected using simple
random sampling technique to represent the sample size for the study. This technique
was adopted to ensure that every participant has equal chance of being involved in the
study.
A self-developed questionnaire and students achievement test were used as research
instruments to collect the needed information from the participants regarding the
influence of educated mothers on students academic achievement and well - being.
The questionnaire is divided into sections A, B and C. Section A presents information
relating to demographic data of the participants. Section B presents items that seek
to answer the research questions raised and the participants was instructed to tick the
item that is most appropriate. Four Likert scale types of rating, which are Strongly
Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), Strongly Disagreed (SD) and Disagreed (D) is the format of
the questionnaire while section C presents questions to test the pupils achievement in
English language and general knowledge.
The research instrument (questionnaire) that was distributed was submitted to the
research supervisor for vetting, assessment and correction to ensure content validity.
In order to ascertain the reliability of the research instrument, the instrument was
administered on ten (10) pupils who did not form the main part of the study. Cronbach
Alpha reliability test was used to ascertain size of the coefficient of reliability. Reliability
coefficient of 0.77 was achieved and this was considered high enough for the study.
The data collected was used to develop a frequency distribution table for analysis. The
percentage method is used in presenting the data collected. While inferential statistics
of chi-square (X2) and independents t-test statistical tools was used in testing all stated
hypotheses. Chi-square was used to test hypotheses 1 & 2 because it is a statistical
analyses which determine the relationship between two variables (the observed and
the expected frequencies) while t-test was used to test hypothesis 3 & 4 because t-test
statistical tool is the best instrument to test for the difference between two variables.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Data Presentation

Table 1: Analysis of demographic data of the student participants


Variable Frequency Percent
Gender
Male 34 34%
Female 66 66%
Total 100 100%
Age
6-8 Years 2 2%
9-10 Years 50 50%
11-13 Years 48 48%
Total 100 100%
Class
Pry 4 2 2%
Pry 5 41 41%
Pry 6 57 57%
Total 100 100%
School Type
Public 75 75%
Private 25 25%
Total 100 100%
Mother Level of Education
PRY6/SSCE 38 68%
NCE/OND 46 16%
HND/BSC 12 12%
None 4 4%
Total 100 100

Information on table 1 shows that 34% of the participants were male while 66% of
them were female. This implies that majority of the participants were female. The table
also reveals that 2% of the participants were students between the ages of 6-8 years, 50%
of them were students between the ages of 9-10 years while 48% of them were students
between the ages of 11-13. This implies that majority of the participants were students
between the age of 9-10 years. The table further reveals that, 2% of the participants were
primary 4 pupils, 41% of them were primary 5 pupils while 47% of them were primary
6 pupils. This implies that majority of the participants were primary 6 pupils. The table

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also reveals that 75% of the participants were public school pupils while 25% of them
were pupils from private primary schools. Lastly, the information on table 1 shows that
38% of the participants mothers were holders of primary 6/SSCE certificates, 46% of
the pupils mother were holder of NCE/OND certificates, 12% of the pupils mother
were holder of HND/B.Sc certificates while 4% of the pupils mothers did not attended
any formal education. This implies that majority of the participants mothers were
holders of NCE/OND qualification.

Table 2: Analysis of the demographic data of teachers participants


Variable Frequency Percent
Gender
Male 19 34%
Female 81 66%
Total 100 100%
Age
20-30 Years 12 12%
31-40 Years 34 34%
31-50 Years 36 36%
51 years and above 18 18%
Total 100 100%
Class
Single 32 32%
Married 62 62%
Widow 6 6%
Total 100 100%
School Type
Public 59 59%
Private 41 41%
Total 100 100%
Qualification
SSCE 8 8%
NCE/OND 40 40%
HND/BSC 50 50%
Other 2 2%
Total 100 100

Information on table 2 shows that 19% of the participants were male teachers while
81% of them female. This implies that majority of the participants were female teachers.
The table also shows that 12% of the participants were teachers between age of 20-

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30 years, 34% of them teachers between the age of 31-40 years, 36% of them were
between 41-50 years while 18% of them were teachers that were 51 years and above.
This implies that majority of the teachers were between the age 41-50 years. Also, 32%
of the participants were single teachers, 62% of them were married while 6% of them
were widow. This implies that majority of the teachers were married. The table equally
shows that 59% of the participants were public school teachers while 41% of them are
private school teachers. This implies that there were more public school teachers than
private school teachers. Finally, the table shows that 8% of the participants were holders
of SSCE qualification, 40% of them were holder of either NCE or OND qualification,
50% of them were holder of either HND or B.Sc. qualification while 2% of them hold
qualification different from those mentioned above. This implies that majority of the
participants are holders of HND/B.Sc. degree.

Research Question 1
What are the influences of educated mothers on their childrens academic
achievement?

Table 3: Mother Education and Academic Achievement of their Children


S/N Statement SA A SD D Total
1 My mother is educated and l want to be like her. 47 30 4 19 100
47% 30% 4% 19% 100%
2 My mother guides me in doing my home work 38 43 5 14 100
38% 43% 5% 14% 100%
3 I get high score when my mother supports me in 30 59 3 8 100
doing my home work 30% 59% 3% 8% 100%
4 I get low score when my mother did not assist me in 13 39 17 31 100
doing my home work 13% 39% 17% 31% 100%
5 I want to be the best pupil in my class because my 56 38 4 2 100
mother told me she was the best pupil in her class 56% 38% 4% 2% 100%
when she was in primary school

Information on table 4 shows the participants opinion on the extent to which


educated mothers influence the well being of their children. From the above table it
was revealed that 98% of the participants agreed, while only 2% of them disagreed that
their mother ensures that they dress neatly to school. Likewise, 78% of them agreed
while 22% of them disagreed that their mothers ensures that they have all the required
textbook for their schooling. However, only 37% of them agreed while 63% of them
disagreed that their mother takes them to school in the morning and bring them back
in the evening. On the contrary, 90% of them agreed while 10% of them disagreed that
their mother always cook good food for them to eat. Finally, only 8% of the participants
agreed, while 92% of them disagreed that their mother do not take care of them when

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they fall sick.


With this result, it is clear that mothers play important role in children well being.
Educated mother with good education qualification will be able to play better role in
children well-being by providing them with good nutrition, health, shelter and study
resources.

Research Question 3
Will there be any difference in the academic performance of pupils from educated
mothers and pupils from uneducated mother?

Table 5: Academic performance of pupils from educated mother and pupils from
uneducated mother
S/N Statement SA A SD D Total
1 Children that their mothers help in doing home 54 34 8 4 100
work score high marks 54% 34% 8% 4% 100%
2 Children that their mothers do not help in doing 11 42 13 34 100
home works score low marks 11% 42% 13% 34% 100%
3 Educated mothers send their children to elite school 44 34 12 10 100
in town and their children performed better 44% 34% 12% 10% 100%
4 Uneducated mothers send their children to local 14 17 42 27 100
school and their children performed poorly 14% 17% 42% 27% 100%
5 Children that attended elite schools performed better 33 17 22 28 100
than those that attended local school 33% 17% 22% 28% 100%

Information on table 5 shows the participants opinion on the perceived difference


in academic achievement of pupils from educated mothers and pupils from uneducated
mothers. Participants generally agreed that academic achievement of educated mothers
children and non-educated mothers children are not the same. For example, 88% of
the participants agreed while 12% of them disagreed that children that their mothers
help in doing homework score high marks. Likewise, 53% of the participants agreed
while 47% of them disagreed that children that their mothers do not help in doing
home works score low marks. Also, 78% of the participants agreed while 22% of them
disagreed that educated mothers send their children to elite school in town and their
children performed better. However, 31% of the participants agreed while 69% of them
disagreed that uneducated mothers send their children to local school and their children
performed poorly. Finally, 50% of the participants agreed while 50% of them disagreed
that children that attended elite schools performed better than those that attended local
school.
With this result, one can deduce that children of educated mothers stand to benefit
a lot from their mother a lot of things that help them excel in their school performance
than children of uneducated mother. Educated mothers will buy recommended good

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reading materials for their children, send them to best school in town, monitor their
school progress and guide them in doing their home works while uneducated may fail to
do so. Most uneducated mother did not know the best reading material to buy for their
children, they send them to local schools and cannot help or guide them in doing their
homework because they do not know how to go about the homework.

Research Question 4
Will there be any difference between the well- being of pupils from educated mothers
and pupils from uneducated mother?

Table 6: Well-being of pupils from educated mother and pupils from uneducated
mothers
S/N Statement SA A SD D Total
6 Children of uneducated mothers get less care at home 27 39 21 13 100
than those from educated mothers 27% 39% 21% 13% 100%
7 Children of educated mothers received best medical 45 38 11 6 100
care than the children of uneducated mothers 45% 38% 11% 6% 100%
8 Educated mothers have knowledge of balance diet 56 31 7 6 100
than uneducated mother 56% 31% 7% 6% 100%
9 Educated mothers and their children live in good and 28 38 13 21 100
homes better than uneducated mother 28% 38% 13% 21% 100%
10 Children that live in good home are always happy. 58 30 7 5 100
58% 30% 7% 5% 100%

Information on table 6 reveals the participants opinion on whether there is any


differences between the well -being of pupils from educated mothers and pupils from
uneducated mother. The majority of the participants agreed that there were differences
in the well -being of pupils from educated mothers and uneducated mothers. For
instance, 66% of the participants agreed while 34% of them disagreed that children
of uneducated mothers get less care at home than those from educated mothers. In the
same vein, 83% of the participants agreed while 17 % of them disagreed that children of
educated mothers received best medical care than the children of uneducated mothers.
Likewise, 87% of them agreed while 13% of them disagreed that educated mothers
have knowledge of balance diet than uneducated mother. Also, 66% of the participants
agreed while 34% of them disagreed that educated mothers and their children live in
good homes better than uneducated mother. Lastly, 88% of the participants agreed
while 12% of them disagreed that children that live in good homes are always happy.
With this result one can rightly conclude that there are differences in the knowledge
of good medical care, nutrition, balance diet and home environment between educated
mothers and uneducated mothers. Educated mothers have better knowledge of these
factors that affect the well - being and development of their children. Therefore, the

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well - being of pupils from educated mothers is different from that of pupils from
uneducated mothers.

Testing of Hypotheses
In testing the four stated hypotheses, the researcher used Chi- square and t-test
statistical tools. All stated hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. If the
calculated value is higher than the table value the test is statistically significant. The null
hypothesis will be rejected while the alternate hypothesis will be accepted. However, if
the calculated value is lower the than table value the test is statistically non-significant.
The null hypothesis will be accepted while the alternate hypothesis will be rejected.

Hypothesis 1
There is no significant influence of educated mothers on their children academic
achievement.

Table 7: Chi-square (2) analysis result of influence of educated mothers on qualification


on their children academic achievement.
Mothers Education & Childrens
12 0.05 39.13 21.03 H01 Rejected
Academic Achievement
(Calc. c2 = 39.13 > Crit. c2 = 21.03, df = 12, P > 0.05)

Information on table 7 shows that the calculated Chi-Square (c2) value of 39.13
is greater than critical Chi-Square (c2) value of 21.03, with degrees of freedom of 12
at 0.05 level of significance. This implies that the null hypothesis which stipulated
that there is no significant influence of educated mothers on their children academic
achievement is hereby rejected. Therefore, there was significant influence of educated
mothers on their childrens academic achievement.

Hypothesis 2
There is no significant influence of educated mothers on the well - being of their
children.

Table 8: Chi-square (2) analysis result of influence of educated mothers on the well -
being of their children.
Variables N Df L.S Calc 2 value Crit 2 value Remarks
Mother Education & Well being of
their children 100 12 0.05 62.18 21.03 H02 Rejected

(Calc. c2 = 62.18> Crit. c2 = 21.03, df = 12, P > 0.05)

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Information on table 8 shows that the calculated Chi-Square (c2) value of 62.18 is
greater than critical Chi-Square (c2) value of 21.03, with degrees of freedom of 12 at
0.05 level of significance. This implies that the null hypothesis which stipulated that
there is no significant influence of educated mothers on the well - being of their children
is hereby rejected. Therefore, there was significant influence of educated mother on the
well - being of their children.

Hypothesis 3
There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils from
educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mother.

Table 9: t-test result showing the differences in academic performance of pupils from
educated mother and pupil from uneducated mother
Variables N Mean Sd df t-calc. t-crit. Decision
Educated Mother 52 3.13 0.35

98 2.78 1.96 H03 Rejected

Uneducated Mother 48 3.21 0.36


(t-calc.= 2.78 > t-crit.= 1.96, df = 98, P > 0.05)

Table 9 shows t-test result of the differences in academic performance of pupils


from educated mothers and pupil from uneducated mother. The table indicates that
the means score of educated mothers is 3.13 while the mean score of uneducated
mothers is 3.21. The calculated t-value of 2.78 is greater than t-critical (98) = 1.96 at
0.05 significant level. Hence, the null hypothesis that states that there is no significant
difference between the academic performance of pupils from educated mothers and
pupils from uneducated mothers is accepted. It is therefore concluded that there was
significant difference between the academic performance of pupils from educated
mothers and pupils from uneducated mothers.

Hypothesis 4
There is no significant difference between the well- being of pupils from educated
mothers and pupils from uneducated mothers.

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Table 10: t-test result showing difference in well-being of pupils from educated mothers
and pupil from uneducated mothers.
Variables N Mean Sd df t-calc. t-crit. Decision
Educated Mother 52 5.06 0.67

98 2.13 1.96 H04 Rejected

Uneducated Mother 48 4.88 0.78


(t-calc.= 2.13 > t-crit.= 1.96, df = 98, P > 0.05)

Table 10 shows t-test result of the difference in well-being of pupils from educated
mothers and pupil from uneducated mothers. The table indicates that the means score
of educated mothers is 5.06 while the mean score of uneducated mothers is 4.88. The
calculated t-value of 2.13 is greater than t-critical (98)= 1.96 at 0.05 significant level.
Hence, the null hypothesis that states that there is no significant difference between
well-being of pupils from educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mothers is
accepted. It is therefore concluded that there was significant difference between the well-
being of pupils from educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mother.

Discussion of Findings
Hypothesis one stated that there is no significant influence of educated mothers
on their childrens academic achievements. The result shows that there was significant
influence of educated mothers on their childrens academic achievements. The c2-
value of 39.13 is greater than c2-critical of 21.03 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus
agreeing with Ecceles and Jacobs (1986) who concluded that mother exert a more
powerful and more direct effect than teachers on their childrens education and that
educated mothers are more supportive of learning, they provide their children with
greater learning opportunities, assistance, and pressure for learning. The result was also
in conformity with Dave and Dave, (2001) who investigated the relationship between
mothers education and the academic achievements of their children and concluded that
mothers education accounted for about seventy-four percent of the variance in students
test scores. Bridge (2009) also concluded that the achievement level of a student is
directly proportional to the level of his mothers education. However, result of this
finding negate Burtless (2011) on the effect of mothers involvement on their children
academic achievement revealed that educational level of mothers will not affect the
academic achievements of their children. Though, mothers academic level is permissible
but it is not a major determinant of academic achievement of children
Hypothesis two stated that there is no significant influence of educated mothers on
the well - being of their children. The result shows that there was significant influence of

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educated mothers on the well - being of their children. The c2 -value of 62.18 is greater
than c2 -critical of 21.03 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus concurring with Behrmans
(2012) studies using household-level data that found mothers education to be positively
associated with a number of measures of infant and child health and nutritional status.
The result is also in agreement with Bhargava (2006) that poor growth status among
children - as measured by low birth weight, low height-for-age, and low weight-for
height-is mostly associated with nutritional and health determinants rather than genetic
factors. Therefore, higher mother literacy rates are a positive predictor of lower infant
and child mortality, with the implication that educating women and girls in low-income
countries is associated with reduced child mortality.
Hypothesis three stated that there is no significant difference between academic
performance of pupils from educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mother.
The result shows that there was significant difference between academic performance
of pupils from educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mother. The t -value of
2.78 is greater than t -critical of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. This is in agreement
with Bridge (2009) that higher percentage of rank holders belong to homes with higher
mothers education whereas a higher percentage of failed students belong to those
who have lower parentage of failed students belong to those who have lower mothers
education. The finding is also corroborated with Farhana, Samra and Tahir (2000),
who investigated the contribution of mothers educational level upon the personality
makeup of 695 male subjects, between 18-35 years, with intermediate level to Masters
level and Professional Qualification in various fields. They found that subjects with
highly educated mothers i.e., B.A / B.Sc. and above would be relatively more confident,
self - reliant, free from anxieties and other psychological problems in comparison to
subjects with less educated and uneducated mothers.
Hypothesis four stated that there is no significant difference between well-being of
pupils from educated mothers and pupils from uneducated mother. The result shows
that there was significant difference between the well-being of pupils from educated
mothers and pupils from uneducated mothers. The t -value of 2.13 is greater than t
-critical of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus agreed with Glewwe (2009), families
with more-educated mothers are likely to have more income and assets than those
with less-educated mothers, giving them access to more and better food, shelter, and
protection from environmental hazards.
Also, with Mosley and Chen (1984), that greater education for mothers contributes
to new skills, beliefs, and choices about sound health and nutritional practices that
directly influence the proximate determinants of child health. For instance, knowledge
obtained during a mothers education can affect choices about antenatal care and
about childrens nutrition, hygiene, and health care. To the extent that more-educated
mothers make healthier choices for themselves during pregnancy, education will have
a direct effect on the health of the child at birth. The result was also in agreement with
UNESCO (2007) report on Africa that the proportion of African children who have all

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their basic vaccinations is 60 percent higher among children of mothers with secondary
schooling and above than among those of mothers with no education.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper has reviewed the critical role of mother education qualification on well-
being, development and academic performance of children. It was concluded that there
is significant influence of educated mother on their childrens academic performance and
well-being and that there is significant difference between academic performance, well-
being of children from educate and uneducated mothers. Children living with mothers
who have low educational attainment experience, less academic guidance, support and
success. Hence, mothers level of education is a sin qua non to their childrens well-being
and academic pursuit.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the research findings, the following recommendations are proffered:

1. Parents who are not educated or have low educational qualifications should endeavour
to allow their children to attend summer coaching provided or secure services of
home tutor for their children to complement the regular school programmes.
2. Parents should create a home environment that promotes learning, reinforces what
is being taught at school and develops the life skills that children need to become
responsible adults
3. Government and corporate institutions should increase salaries of parents in line
with economic situations, to enable parents meet the educational needs of their
children.
4. Parents should be actively involved in encouraging students to learn and also in
supervising students academic work at home.
5. Teachers should understand that teaching is a job of conscience. Teachers should
handle the pupils as their own children; try by all means to meet the students
academic social and psychological needs. They should be motivational in their
teaching and use different teaching methods so as to go along with all categories
of students. This will help bridge deficiencies from students from low education
mother.

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ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

The Effects of Using Multiple Bits


of Intelligence Approach
in Developing Students Verbal Intelligence
in Storytelling

MARIA REGINA JAGA


http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-0383-5519
maria.regina1104@gmail.com
Universitas Nusa Cendana
Kupang, Indonesia

ABSTRACT

The paper describes Multiple Bits of Intelligence approach in developing students


verbal intelligence in storytelling. The main purpose is to explain and then measure
the students ability in storytelling after using Multiple Bits of Intelligence Approach.
In obtaining the data, the writer uses Observations and Test. The problems of this
writing are what the effect of using multiple bits of intelligence approach in developing
students verbal intelligence, especially in storytelling in class D second-semester
students of Artha Wacana Christian University studying in 2012 is? With quantitative
descriptive, the writer tries to answer the problem. The result of the research shows
that: the mean score of the control group is 2.9 and 3.9 for the mean score of the
experimental group, in other words, the mean score of the experimental group is greater
than the mean score of the control group. It was also found out that the multiple bits of
intelligence approach activities were more effective in the positive development of the
students verbal intelligence especially in storytelling rather than teaching storytelling
conventionally. Claiming that teaching storytelling using multiple bits of intelligence
approach significantly contributes towards students verbal intelligence as compared to
conventional teaching to storytelling. This approach contributes towards the students
verbal intelligence.

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KEYWORDS

Multiple Bits of Intelligence Approach, Storytelling, Verbal Intelligence, Indonesia

INTRODUCTION

Theory of Multiple Bits of Intelligence has strong implications towards learning


development. Nowadays, the use of multiple bits of intelligence in schools areas is a trend
to raise the quality of education and level of schools. Teachers who view special needs
in the context of the nine bits of intelligence view all those students differently. Haley
(2004: 29) asserts that Multiple Knowledge can be utilized to enhance the open learning
doors for various learners, and it positively affects both understudies with exceptional
needs and their instructors. On the off chance that an instructor is experiencing issues
achieving an understudy in the more customary etymological or consistent methods for
a guideline, the hypothesis of numerous bits of insight proposes a few courses in which
the material may be introduced to encourage powerful learning especially in learning
English. Gardner (1993:185) argues that a viable training assembles an extension
between the substance being instructed and the understudies in the teaching space.
From one viewpoint, teachers need to perceive the troubles understudies confront in
accomplishing a bona fide comprehension of vital themes and ideas.
Then again, instructors need to consider the distinctions among psyches and,
beyond what many would consider possible, mold training that can achieve the endless
assortment of understudies. Narrating as a piece of verbal insights (one of numerous
insights) as some specific devices that conveys different insights (MI) Approach and
systems give a structure and devices that can help instructors in planning classrooms,
direction, and educational program that meet the individual needs of numerous sorts
of understudies to utilize dialect (either talked or composed) in learning and recollect
well what they listen. It is derived from an assumption that multiple bits of intelligence
approach to storytelling can increase students confidence and enthusiasm for learning
and also improve their academic achievement and change teachers perceptions of their
students learning abilities.

FRAMEWORK

There are some theoretical concepts related to multiple bits of intelligence approach.
The activities that will be chosen by the teacher to use in the classroom should be
helpful to optimize students all nine bits of intelligence. It is, therefore, critical that
we understand how our students learn, what they conceive learning to be and how
the learningteaching context influences their learning. This is supported by Larsen-
Freeman, 2000: 170 who says. A few educators feel that they have to make exercises
that draw on every one of the nine bits of knowledge, not exclusively to encourage dialect

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securing among differing understudies, additionally to help them understand their


maximum capacity with each of the nine. One method for doing as such is to consider
the exercises that are every now and again utilized as a part of the classroom and to sort
them as per knowledge sort. Insight is not a static structure that can be measured and
seriously evaluated, yet an open, dynamic framework that can keep on developing all
through life. Thomas Armstrong (2004: 78) states that through systematic and planned
enrichment, intelligence can be modified, expanded, and developed.
According to The Theory of Multiple Bits of Intelligence from Gardner (1993: 16),
people have various unmistakable insights that show themselves in various aptitudes
and capacities. These multiple bits of intelligence can be nurtured and strengthened or
ignored and weakened. Instead, Gardner proposes nine different bits of intelligence to
account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. He has identified
nine distinct types of intelligence: verbal/linguistic, Logical/Mathematical, Musical,
Visual/Spacial, Body/Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalist Intelligence
and Existential Intelligence. When the teacher recognizes each aspect of intelligence,
that would be explored by using Multiple bits of intelligence approach in classroom
activities, the students probably have shown their intelligence that stick out differs for
each student and can be increasing and develop their potential by using application of
Multiple Bits of Intelligence focused on storytelling. The learners learn best by hearing;
they understand and retain information well when it is communicated orally. They have
strong language skills and can articulate ideas clearly. Also, this kind of learner needs
to listen and likes to talk to him/her or others. They understand better if concepts are
explained in their words.
In verbal intelligence they learn best through verbal addresses, exchanges, talking
things through and tuning into what others need to state. Sound-related learners translate
the hidden implications of discourse through tuning into the manner of speaking,
pitch, speed and different subtleties. Composed data may have small significance until
it listens. These learners frequently advantage from perusing content so that anyone
might hear and utilize a recording device. Instructors may utilize Reading, Improving
vocabulary, Emergent/experimental writing, Writing and perusing reports/articles,
Taking and giving correspondence, Giving and tuning into verbal directions (oral as well
as composed), Storytelling, Dialog and Discourse, Debate, Publishing, Telling jokes,
Listening to tapes, Doing crossword confounds, Keeping a journal or diary (Berman,
1998: 126). Stories give the beginning stage to a wide assortment of related dialect
and learning exercises (Brewster, 2003:17). Individuals who are solid in the dialect
knowledge appreciate saying, hearing, and seeing words. They like recounting stories.
Instructors can likewise utilize picture strip stories where understudies are required to
re-recount a story by utilizing the visuals (Ersoz 2006: 34). Narrating helps understudies
be dynamic in showing as well as in centered tuning in and responding, upgrading the
essential abilities of correspondence. Narrating is an old craftsmanship that reinforces
and upgrades aptitudes that youngsters need, to obtain to work in this day and age.

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As grown-ups, we work in gatherings, sharing thoughts and expanding upon them.


Understudies hone similar aptitudes, frequently working cooperatively in agreeable
gatherings. Understudies help pick their undertakings and make learning openings in
light of their individual advantages and qualities.
Berman (1998: 187) says that in an oral presentation such as storytelling, we
have to make the words come alive by using a variety of delivery techniques. Delivery
techniques can be divided into two main groups: voice and body techniques. First in
voice: plan to use a variety of appropriate and controlled voice techniques to help make
your oral presentation interesting by vary your voice: pace, fast to show excitement,
slow to show importance, pitch;high to show excitement, low to show importance and
authority,tone;feeling needs to suit the words said, volume; loud to show excitement,
soft to show fear, pause; a planned rest in your speaking to emphasize an idea. Second,
Body ;plan to use a variety of appropriate and natural body techniques to help express
your meaning by use body techniques in your oral presentation: facial expression;look
sad when talking about a serious topic eye contact;look at the audience regularly to
help build a relationship with the audience, gesture;shrug shoulders or point out a
person; make the gesture obvious and relevant to your oral presentation stance;the way
you stand should be balanced and natural, but not too relaxed that you look sloppy
movement;pacing or swaying is distracting; however, you dont have to stand in the
same spot throughout the presentation. For example: plan to take a step forward when
introducing an important idea, or walk a few paces to the side when giving a complex
explanation. Students act in storytelling activities will influence how they feel about the
story. So he/she will use relates and suitable words and delivery the techniques to help
communicate the message that carrying in the story to their hearer. If students spend
time rehearsing a story, they become comfortable using this variety of techniques to
support them in their dominant intelligence.
In the application of multiple bits of intelligence in the classroom by teaching
storytelling using multiple bits of intelligence approach, the teacher tries to incorporate
numerous teaching and learning strategies into project planning and implementation.
Assisting learners in developing all of their intelligences will make learning a part
of living, not just a preparation for it. Especially in Storytelling as a part of verbal
intelligences, it always relate to linguistic part as words and language, written and spoken;
retention, interpretation, and explanation of ideas and information via language, and
also understands relationship between communication and meaning. Storytelling can
be an art, a tool, a device, a gateway to the past and a portal to the future that supports
the present. Our true voices come alive when we share stories. By giving the students
multiple storytelling ways to express the concepts, thats to confirm that the students
understood the material even though their linguistic skills outstripped their spatial
skills (Kornhaber, 2004: 87). This process evaluates each part of intelligence directly,
rather than funneling the information through a linguistic paper-and-pencil test. In a

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storytelling area, students can tell tales (linguistic), arrange props and character figurines
(spatial and possibly bodily-kinesthetic), make characters interact (interpersonal), and
design their storyboards (spatial). It encourages students to think about issues, and it
can also deliver emotional and factual content beyond a childs vocabulary or reading
ability. Storytelling helps students stretch and expand their thinking. Storytelling
produces enthusiastic and engaged learners; Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative
research studies show that storytelling can improve academic performance.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aimed to find out the effect of using multiple bits of intelligence approach
in developing students verbal intelligence, especially in storytelling in second-semester
students of Artha Wacana Christian University

METHODOLOGY

The most appropriate method to be employed for this study is a true experimental
study which applies pre- test and post-test design. This method used is to establish an
ideal condition for comparisons required by the hypothesis of the writers experiment,
and its main purpose is to explain and then measure the students ability in storytelling
after using the application of Multiple Bits of Intelligence Approach through statistical
analysis of the data. In connection with the topic under discussion in this paper, the
population was chosen are the Second Semester Students of Artha Wacana Christian
University in the Academic year 2011/ 2012. All of the second semesters are 269
students divided into 6 classes. Regarding sampling, Arikunto (1998: 85) says that if
the population is more than 100 only between 10% and 15% is taken as the sample, but
if the population is less than 100 the whole number of population is taken as a sample.
Based on the definition above, the writer will use random sampling. Random sampling
applied which is take 30 students from class D. The writer just chooses 30 students
as the sample because it would be difficult to manage the large class in restricted time
especially for assessment (Kish, 1965:36). The writer takes them as a sample in doing
this research to represent the population in doing this research on the second-semester
students of Artha Wacana Christian University.
In collecting the data, the instrument used by the researcher are observation and
speaking test. Observation will be conducted by researcher intended to find out students
own Intelligence that could be strengthened and developed for support students verbal
intelligence in storytelling. The observation will be made before the classroom activity
for two meetings, and also when the students make theirs perform in their storytelling
class. Therefore, observation checklist will be used during the observation and teaching

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learning process. Then the writer will give the test, pretest and post test to see the results
after teaching storytelling using of Multiple Bits of Intelligence approach. The researcher
prepared the observation and test using the following steps. First, the researcher
observed the Teaching learning process during the storytelling class and the students
fill the observation checklist for multiple bits of intelligence after that the researcher
analyzed the data gained from the students observation checklist to conducts speaking
materials suitable for storytelling and based on the students own intelligence gained in
Multiple bits of intelligence observations checklist. Second, the writer gave pre-test and
posttest by setting a task for students, guiding them to choose interesting topics based
on multiple bits of intelligence checklist to both groups, and about students previous
knowledge about speaking material with topics (Narrative and storytelling).
Third, divided the students into two groups, two group pretest-post-test design,
give to both experimental and control groups with one replication on the control
group. Fourth, the subjects in the experimental group are taught to storytelling using
multiple intelligences approach by the researcher read a story for the students, played
the movie about the story and showed the students how to retell the story by optimizing
all nine intelligences in storytelling activities while in the control group were taught the
same material conventionally. Fourth, the post-test will be given as the instrument for
collecting the data for both groups then collected the results and analyzed the results.
Fifth, the writer tabulated both groups results based on the scoring system and analyzed
using T-test to know the effects using application of multiple bits of intelligence
approach in storytelling.
And also Students performance will be measured using Oral Examination Mark
Bands adapted is start from mark 0 to mark 5 for five categories: Fluency, Structure
accuracy, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Interaction, and task achievement.The researcher
gave an experiment to the students, and she gave the pre-test and post- test to the
students after the treatment. The test given was prepared by the researcher. The data
obtained in the post-test is tabulated. The mean of both experimental and control
groups will be calculated using formula t-test formulated by Arikunto.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The researcher had conducted an experiment. In this experiment, the subject was
assigned, two groups. One function as the experimental group and the other one
function as the control group. Both groups were exposed to the different treatment. A
pre-test was given to know the students knowledge about the materials taught before
the experimental treatment, after that they were given a post-test as the instrument for
collecting the data. Then the data on the result of the pre-test and post-test of both
experimental and control groups

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Table 1. Prior intelligence appearance in pre-test of both experimental and control


groups
Sample(n) Multiple Bits of Intelligence (MI)
Total
Eg Cg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 1 4 6
2 2 6 4
3 3 3 6
4 4 4 6
5 5 4 5
6 6 4 5
7 7 5 5
8 8 5 4
9 9 4 4
10 10 5 4
11 11 5 5
12 12 3 4
13 13 6 7
14 14 5 5
15 15 4 4

Notation :
n = number of sample
Eg = experimental group
Cg = control group
MI 1 = verbal linguistic intelligence
MI 2 = logical mathematical intelligence
MI 3 = kinetics intelligence
MI 4 = visual spatial intelligence
MI 5 = musical intelligence
MI 6 = interpersonal intelligence
MI 7 = intrapersonal intelligence
MI 8 = naturalist intelligence
MI 9 = existential intelligence
= available intelligence
= unavailable intelligence

All students from both experimental and control groups have their intelligence that
appearance that researcher got from the multiple bits of intelligence checklist filled by
the students before the pre-test. Their intelligence varies from 1 to 9 in both groups but
the total intelligence that they own have is almost equal.

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Table 2. Pre- test of both Experimental and Control groups


Scores
Sample (n)
Experimental Group (1) Control Group (2)
1 2 2
2 3 2
3 3 2
4 1 2
5 2 3
6 2 2
7 2 4
8 4 3
9 2 3
10 2 2
11 3 2
12 3 3
13 2 3
14 1 3
15 2 4
n = 15 (1)= 34 (2) = 40
Notation: n = Number of sample
1 = Sum of the value of the Experimental Group
2 = Sum of the value of the Control Group

All students from both experimental and control groups get lower scores. The writer
analyzed the data obtained using t- test formula Before coming to t- test formula,
however; she used first the two important steps to get the final scores, that is mean scores
and the standard deviations of both experimental and control groups

Table 3. Post- test scores of both Experimental and Control groups


Scores
Sample (n)
Experimental Group (1) Control Group (2)
1 4 2
2 4 2
3 3 4
4 4 2
5 5 3
6 3 4
7 5 3
8 4 2

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9 3 5
10 4 2
11 5 4
12 4 2
13 4 2
14 3 2
15 4 5
n = 15 (1)= 59 (2) = 44
Notation: n = Number of sample
1 = Sum of the value of the Experimental Group
2 = Sum of the value of the Control Group

Table 3 shows the scores of both groups are different. In the experimental group,
11 students got high scores, that is from score 4 to 5, and there are only 4 students got
lower than 4. Whereas in control group, there are 5 students who got high scores, that
is, from score 4 to 5, 2 students got score 3, and the rest got lower than 3. So its true
that the total score of the experimental is better than that of the control group.
As in the pre- test, the data gained from post- the test is also analyzed statistically
using t- test formula suggested in Arikunto (1998:134). So, it means the writer must go
through same steps to find out the mean scores and standard deviation of the post- test,
and this is the result

- Data analysis shows that value of t- obtained from pre- test scores of both experimental
and control groups are -1.54. This means that the mean difference between the two
groups is -1.54.To find out whether the difference is significance or not, the writer
compared the value of t- obtained with the t- observed in the t distribution table
(Riduwan, 1997:270).Using the formula (N1 + N2 - 2) or (15 + 15- 2), the writer got
28 as the degree freedom (df ) associated with the value of t- observed in this analysis.
Since the number of 28 is listed in the degree of freedom in t- table distribution,
it is estimated that number 28 falls between 20-30 and significance level of 5% in
finding between 2.048 and 2.045. Having compared the value of t- obtained to the
value of t- table, it is found that -1.54 < 2.048 and 2.045. This means that the mean
difference between the two groups is not significance. So, she may say that the two
groups had equal achievement on storytelling before experimental treatment was
given

Post- test scores: Mean Difference is Significant


- Mean difference between post-test scores of both experimental and control groups
are 2.86. When it is compared with the value of t- table, it is found that 2.86 is
higher at level of significance 5% for the df 28, since the t- table value is found

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between 2.048 and 2.045, this is also true at the level of significance 1%, and the
degree of freedom 28, the t- table value is found between 2.763 and 2.756, which
is less than the t- obtained. It is therefore concluded that the alternative hypothesis
is accepted because the t- test score is higher than the score in the t- table within a
degree of freedom 28 and the levels of significance 5% and 1%. This is based on the
theory that if the t- test score < t-table, the alternative hypothesis is rejected, but if
the t-test score > t-table score, then the alternative hypothesis is accepted.

CONCLUSIONS

This study focuses on the effects of using multiple bits of intelligence approach in
developing students verbal intelligence especially in storytelling; a study at second-
semester students of Artha Wacana Christian University. This study tested hypothesis
stating that teaching storytelling using Multiple Bits of Intelligence approach
significantly contributes students verbal intelligence as compared to conventional
teaching to storytelling. The writer applied multiple bits of intelligence (MI). It is
concluded that Using Multiple Bits of Intelligence Approach is significant in Teaching
storytelling, that is, the students who are exposed to using multiple bits of intelligence
approach in learning English speaking skill especially in storytelling have significant
success. Applying Multiple Bits of Intelligence Approach in speaking classroom can
be seen as very helpful in this case that could help the teacher in motivating their
students to learn the language. Focusing on Students own Intelligence in storytelling,
that are highly motivating, entertaining, and challenging and can make students feel
enjoy to the learning process and get better achievement than those taught storytelling
conventionally, as shown by this study. The use of multiple bits of intelligence approach
in storytelling is potential in developing students speaking ability and teacher should
take into account such factors like those related to students, like individuals, teachers,
teaching time, their environment and facilities when she/he is teaching them. These
factors are believed to influence ones success or failure in learning

LITERATURE CITED

Arikunto, S. (1998). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, Rineka Cipta,


Jakarta

Amstrong, Thomas. 2004. Multiple Bits of Intelligence in the classroom. 2nd Edition.
Virginia

Amstrong, Thomas. 1993. 7 Kinds of Smart Multiple Intelligence Checklist Plume a


division of Penguin Putnam Inc.

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Berman, M. 1998. A Multiple Intelligences Road to an ELT Classroom. Bencyfelin:


Crown House

Brewster, J., Ellis, G., and Girard, D. 2003. The Primary English Teachers Guide. (New
Edition). London: Penguin Books

Ersoz, A. Scott, W. A. and Ytreberg, L. H. 2006. English Language Curriculum for


Primary Education (Grades 4,5,6,7 and 8).

Gardner, H. 1993. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. (Second


Edition). London: Falmer Press.

Gardner, H., Fieldman, and Krechevsky (1998). Multiple Bits of Intelligence: The
Theory in Practice. (Second Edition). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Haley, M. H. (2004). Learner-centered instruction and the theory of multiple bits of


intelligence with second language learners. Teachers College Record, 106(1), 163-
180

Kish, L. (1965). On the future of survey sampling. In N. K. Namboordi (Ed.), Survey


sampling and measurement. New York: Academic Press

Kornhaber, M.L., & Krechevsky, M. (2004). Expanding definitions of teaching and


learning: Notes from the MI Underground. In P. Cookson and B. Schneider (Eds.),
Transforming schools (pp. 181-208). New York, NY:

Larsen- Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Oxford:


Oxford University Press

Riduwan. 1997. Dasar- Dasar Statistika. Bandung Alfabeta

http://gurumenunggu.blogspot.com/2009/03/oral-examination-mark-bands.
htmlOral Examination Mark Bands (15th of March 2009)

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SMCC Higher Education ResearchSMCC
JournalHigher Education Research Journal
ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Using Audio Visual Media to Increase


the Writing Skill of Students
ANGELA MARICIMOI
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3151-7497
angelamaricimoi@gmail.com
Indonesia

ABSTRACT

The present classroom action study is about using audio-visual media to increase the
writing skill of SMAN 1 Soas students in academic year 2015/2016. The purpose of this
action study was to find out whether using audiovisual media can increase the students
writing skill. The subject of this study was the 11th-grade language program of SMAN 1
Soa students. This study was a classroom action research design conducted in two cycles.
In collecting the data, this study used Pretest, Posttest, observation, and interview. The
result of observation sheet and students test result proved that using audiovisual media
could increase students achievement. It was found, from the mean score of observation
sheet and students test result start from pre-test up to post-test increase significantly.

KEYWORDS

Audio Visual Media, writing skill, SMAN 1 Soa, Eleventh Grade Students, Indonesia

INTRODUCTION

English has four basic language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Listening and reading are the part of receptive skills, while writing and speaking are
the part of productive skills. According to Harmer (2001:199), receptive skills are the
ways in which the people extract meaning from the discourse they see or hear. It is also
called receptive skill because students passively receive (listen and read) information and

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process it. Productive skills are more complex and difficult to learn because the students
are not only passive to get input from others but they need to produce something from
themselves.
Those four languages are integrated each other, as Tans (2014: 1)in a book writing
an introduction stated that despite their differences, the skills are closely interrelated.
Those who are good at speaking must also be good at listening vice versa. Those who are
good at reading could also be good at writing vice versa. By mastering the four language
skills, students will be able to communicate in English well. Among those four language
skills, writing skill has important benefits. Writing is media for communication. Writing
is important in our daily life, which can we see from the product of writing such as,
newspaper, and magazine, novel, thesis, diary, even shopping list, et cetera.
Writing is the process of transforming ideas, expressing feeling (the way a writer
speaks with a paper or computer screen) in the written form. As Meyers (2005:2)
stated that, writing is a way to produce language you do naturally when you speak. In
formal education, writing is taught, from elementary up to university level. In senior
high school, writing is taught integrated with listening, speaking, and reading skills
to achieve the goal of communicative competence. This statement is supported by,
MGMP Sukoharjo, (2006: 14) in Pramusinta (2010: 1) who asserted that writing is
intended to be taught at senior high schools for the purpose of giving students discourse
competencies to participate in creating text for accessing knowledge. At senior high
school, writing skills are taught to help students comprehend creating texts by their
words. Furthermore, students are expected to be able to make differences in the types of
genre text, such as report text, narrative text, descriptive text et cetera.
Based on standard competence in the syllabus of the eleventh-grade senior high
school, students are expected to be able in simple write paragraphs of the report,
narration, exposition, and spoof. Students have to be able to write various types of genres
text includes report text. In this research, the researcher focuses on how to increase the
students ability in writing report text. The report is a text which presents information
about something.
In writing a text, is not easy for students, they still have crucial difficulty. Oshima
and Hogue (1991:3) stated that writing, particularly academic writing is not easy. It
takes study and practice to develop this skill. To produce good writing skill, it is obvious
that students need more attention in the process of writing. While, Kern (2000:72)
declared that, writing as one of four language skills is considered as a difficult skill
because the writer should depict some aspects of writing such as content, organization,
purpose, vocabulary, punctuation, and spelling.
The researcher concludes that students, in writing a text encounter many difficulties.
There are some reasons which make writing difficult. First, students lack vocabulary,
second, spelling and punctuation mistakes, third, less reading interest, fourth, difficult
in choosing appropriate words, and the last finding the ideas.

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Students need a solution to solve their problems. Teaching writing using media can
be the goal to solve students problems in writing skill because students need something
concrete to elicit ideas before they start to write. Students will get inspiring after seeing
the picture or videos, and then they try connecting what they see or hear with ideas
in their mind. There are several goals using instructional media, such as: facilitate the
teaching-learning process, improve the efficiency of the teaching-learning, maintaining
relevance to the learning objectives, help students concentrate.
English teacher has a big role in guiding students to write. As John (1997) in
Carolina, (2006:1) claimed that teachers role is to help students developing viable
strategies for getting started (finding topics, generating ideas and information, focusing
and planning, structure and procedure), for drafting, (encouraging multiple drafts
of reading), for revising (adding, deleting, modifying and rearranging ideas), and for
editing (attending to vocabulary, sentence, structure, grammar, and mechanics)Teacher
need to be creative to gain students attention, because students in learning English easy
to get bored.
Teaching using media can help both teacher and students. Using media in teaching
learning process may create a dynamic, relevant, and attractive class. Many media can be
used in teaching learning process, such as audiovisual media. Audiovisual is the media
to support teaching learning process especially in improving students writing. Because,
the teacher can use video, flash card, picture, power point slide, in teaching learning
process. Using audiovisual media, a teacher can stimulate students in the learning
process, keeping students concentration, gaining students attention, and help students
recall what they learned in the ending class, also more memorable. According to Walter
(2004), providing visuals or realia helps contextualize instruction in the classroom.
Context greatly enhances understanding and student engagement which in turn will
help them develop their ideas to enrich their writing.
The explanation above indicates that writing should be well taught and needed to
be practiced continuously because writing is the important aspect of communication
in our social lives. Based on this reason, the researcher is highly motivated in increasing
students writing skill by using audiovisual media of the eleventh-grade students
of SMAN 1 Soa in academic year 2015/2016.The result of this study is expected to
contribute information feedback which can be considered and used in the effective
planning writing in teaching learning process.

FRAMEWORK

1. Definition of Writing
Writing is an element of communication. By writing, people can share or express
their feeling and ideas, also build up the connection between people. There are several
definitions about writing. According to Fulwiler (2002:16), writing is a complex
activity, variable, multi-faceted process that refuses fool proof formulations to write

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it. Boardman(2002: 11)stated that writing is a continuous process of thinking and


organizing, rethinking, and reorganizing. On the other hand, Kane, (2000:17)
described that writing is a complex activity too when we think about a topic we are
already beginning to select words and construct sentences or in other words to draft.
Miles (2009:3) come with the new perspective of writing he stated that purpose of
writing is making of text and one way to learn how to make anything is to have a model,
either for duplication or for triggering ones ideas. Furthermore, Taylor (2009:96) states
that the usual function of an introduction in academic writing is to tell the reader what
issue is being raised and what justifies the writer in raising it. In another word, writing
is part of media to give information that happened to the reader.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher concludes that writing is complex
activity process of thinking and organizing ideas and feelings, giving information, into
the written form to the readers.
To produce a well-written text the writer should consider several points, such as
paragraph to paragraph should relate each other. One paragraph consists of a topic
sentence, supporting sentence and concluding the sentence. Oshima and Hogue
(2006:16) explained that a paragraph is a basic unit of organization in writing in which
a group of related sentences develops one main idea.

2. Writing Process
Good writing is more than just sitting down and talking on a piece of paper. Good
writing involves thinking, planning, writing, and revising, Hogue (2008:8). The writer
can conclude that, as productive skill, writing is not about the product, but writing is a
process to produce a good product.

Planning
Planning or Prewriting is the first step process of writing. As Murray (1985) in
Urquhart and Mclver (2005:12) assumed that, prewriting or planning, often is a
neglected and underestimate step in the writing process. In this stage, students decide
what they are going to write, in other word students determining what the topic they
will choose. Hogue (2008:28) uttered, in the prewriting step, you get ideas to write
about. Choose a topic and write it at the top of a piece of paper. Then write whatever
sentence comes into your mind about the topic. Dont worry about grammar, spelling,
or punctuation and dont worry about putting your ideas into any order. Gathering
information, organizing ideas, identifying audience and purpose and selecting genre are
included in this stage.

Drafting
In the second step, you write your paragraph in rough form without worrying
too much about errors, Hogue (2008:30). Drafting is about getting ideas down on
paper. Drafting represents the challenging transition from planning, or prewriting, to

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formulating the words and putting them on the paper, Urquhart, and Mclver (2005:17).
After selected best ideas in the first stage then try to expand into a reasonable paragraph.
No worry, making the perfect paragraph but try to write what we want to say to the
readers.

Revising
Revising is an important stage in the process of writing. As Urquhart and silver
(2005:18) said that, clearly, revision is an indispensable step in the writing process, but
it is also one of the most difficult to master. This stage, writers improving what we have
already written, review the work, rearranging ideas, developing ideas, cut out any ideas
that not support with the topic, checking the clarity of message is included in this stage.

Editing
When the planning, drafting and revising are done the final is editing. In this stage,
the writers need to focus on grammar, word choice, and spelling. Like Urquhart and
mclver (2005:21) declared, when writers revise, they are attending to language quality
and message cohesion. But when writers edit they often concentrate on mechanics.
Make sure that sentences have appropriate punctuation, correct grammar, and proper
spelling.

3. The Teaching of Writing


Teaching is processed transfer knowledge to the learners; develop the learners
skills and building strong knowledge. Like Hoyle (2006) in Moosab (2013:7), defined
teaching is engaging students, engineering an environment in which they learn.
Browne (1999:33) defined that children need to learn about writing as well as learning
how to write. Furthermore, Caswel and Mabler (2004:7) stated that as students work
through the stages of the writing process, they must understand its recursive nature.
Guiding students in the process of their writing is the duty of the teacher, especially for
students in learning L2, they need more attention.Teacher in teaching writing L2 needs
more concern. Besides the important elements such as grammar rules, vocabulary, and
punctuation that should consider for a good writing product, the content or message
of the writing should be clear for the reader. As Heaton (1974:138) in Tristy (2010:8)
stated that, the writing skill is complex and difficult to teach, requiring mastery not
only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgment elements.
Developing creative strategy in teaching writing is necessary, as a process to gain
students attention and motivation in writing a subject. As Urquhart and Mclver
(2005:58) declared two major responsibilities of the teacher role, involves:

First, creating an environment conducive to effective writing and


Second recognizing how teacher own writing practices affect the writing in the
classroom.

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4. General Concept of Report Text


Report text is a part of several genres text. As GerotandWignell(1994:190), stated that,
there are thirteen types of the genre; spoof, recounts, reports, analytical, exposition, news
item, anecdote, narrative, procedure, description, hortatory, exposition, explanation,
discussion, and reviews. Each type of the genre has each definition, function and generic
structure.
Several experts explained the definition of report text. According to Gerot
andWignell (1994: 196) report text is a text which functions to describe the way
things are, concerning a range of natural, human-made and social phenomena in our
environment. Furthermore, Barker(2000:23) defined report text is a piece of writing
which aims to describe something in a general way. While Hyland (2004:29) defined,
social purpose of the report is to present factual information, usually by classifying
things and then describing their characteristic.
Based on the previous explanation, the researcher concludes that report text is a
text which presents information about something in general, commonly giving factual
information about the place, person, animal, or things. Report text and descriptive text
have a little bit same, if descriptive text describes a subject in detail and specifically,
while report text describes subject in general and more focus on the function of that
subject.

Gerotand Wignell(1994:194) declared the generic structure of report text involves:


a. General classification: states the general classification or identification of a subject
includes the main topic will discuss.
b. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail.

Language features of report text are according to Gerot and Wignell( 1994:196)
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using of relational process
3. Using conditional logical connection
4. Using simple present tense
5. No temporal sequence

5. Teaching English Using Media


Learning media occupies an important position as one of the components in
teaching English process. Learning media, in general, is everything that can be used
(tools, method, and technique) to stimulate thoughts, feelings, attention, and skill of
the students to support the teaching-learning process.
Kemp and Dayton (1985) cited in Nengsih (2014:3) mentioned several advantages
of learning media:

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1. Deliveryoflearningmaterialscanbemadeuniform.
2. Teachers may have diverse interpretations about something.
3. The learning process becomes are more attractive.
4. Media can deliver information that can be heard, seen, so as to describe the principles,
concepts, processes and procedures that are abstract and incomplete to be complete.
5. Become more interactive learning.
6. If selected and designed correctly, can help teachers and students to communicate
two-way active.
7. Theamountoflearningtime can be reduced
8. Ifusethemedia well, the time spent not need that much.
9. Thequalityofstudentlearningcanbeenhanced,
10. Useofmediamakes the material more deeply and fully
11. Theprocessoflearningcanhappen anywhere and anytime
12. Students positive attitude towards the process can be improved
13. Teachersrolemaychangetoamorepositiveand productive,
14. With media, teachers do not need to repeat the explanation.

By the explanation above, the researcher can conclude teaching media has many
advantages, has positive attitudes, save time, help both teacher and students. Students
in learning English as L2 obviously difficult, they easy to get bored, even they hate
the subject. Teacher as initiator must be active and creative in teaching process to gain
students motivation and attention toward English. One of the solutions is teaching
toward learning media or learning aids.

6. The Use of Audio-Visual Media in Teaching English


Using audio-visual as media in support learning activities can improve students
motivation and concentration, in the process of learning will going better than just
teaching theory without combine with interesting media such as audiovisual.
Several definitions of Audio-visual from the experts: according to Brown, Lewis,
Harcleroad (1985) in Akram et.al (2012:1),use of audio-visual aids provides students
with opportunities to think to speak and interact without fear and hesitation with
the teacher and peers resulting in students personality development. Furthermore,
Saimarasul (2011:1) stated that Audiovisual aids are those devices which are used in
classrooms to encourage teaching-learning process and make it easier and interesting.
Audio -visual aids are the best tool for making teaching effective and the best
dissemination of knowledge. Good&Kappa, (1973) in Mossab (2013:8), assert three
definitions of audio-visual aids:

1. Audio-visual aids, which help in completing the triangular process of learning, i.e.
Motivation, classification, and stimulation.

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2. Audio visual aids are any device, which can be used to make the learning experience
more concentrate, more realistic and more dynamic.
3. Audio-visual aids are anything using which learning process may be encouraged or
carried out through the sense of hearing or sense of sight.

Based on the previous explanation, the researcher can conclude that audiovisual
media is a media that include of visualizing that combine with audio perhaps to building
two ways communication between teacher and students in learning process. Teaching
English by Audio-visuals increase retention of information and actively engages the
learner by combining what they hear and see. Videos, pictures, and power point slide
are the parts of audio-visual aids/ media.

7. Types of Audio-Visual Aids


Audio visual aids are used in classroom activity to encourage teaching-learning
process: make students easier to acquire the material with interesting atmosphere class.
According to Moossab (2013:11-15), types of audiovisual media involve charts, pictures,
diagrams, graphs, maps, posters, cartoons, comic strips, flashcards, films, filmstrips,
language laboratory, television, powerpoint, the internet (Mossab, 2013).

8. Teaching Report Text Using Audio Visual Media


Teaching report text using audiovisual media is very important. There are several
types of audiovisual media, as researcher explained above, but not all audiovisual types
above can implemented in teaching learning process. As, Gerlach and Elly (1980:260)
in Tristy (2010:14) asserted that, the effectiveness of any mediums depends on the
creativity of the teacher in using it. Media are teaching and learning tools; they have the
potential assuming many teaching functions. In this research study, the researcher only
uses video and power point slide as the media of audio-visual aids in teaching report
text to students in SMA 1 Soa. As one of the schools in ruler area, teaching by video
and power point slide will create a new atmosphere for the students in learning process.
Report Text is a text describes the way things are, concerning a range of natural,
social phenomena in our environment. One characteristic of report text is giving factual
information. By giving the real pictures, or videos related to the material, it will stimulate
students easy to get ideas.

Teaching report text using video and power point slide as audiovisual media will
describe as the following step:
1. First, the teacher will explain briefly about the report text and the characteristic of
report text.
2. Give interesting power point slide or video contain the example of report text.
3. Ask some question related to the material that given

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4. Explained the language feature, and main points related to the video or power point
slide
5. Give a chance to students writing report text by their word.

METHODOLOGY

The research design is the overall plan or structure of the research. In conducting
this research, the researcher used Classroom Action Research design (CAR). According
to Arikunto (2008:104), Action research is one of the type investigation that has
characteristic reflective participative, collaborative, and spiral that have a purpose
to repair and to increase the system, method, process, substance, competence and
situation. Elliot (1998:50) added, The central characteristics of action research are
the join reflection about the relationship in particular circumstances between process
and product. Stringer (2007:8)said that action research is a collaborative approach to
inquiry or investigation that provides people with the means to take systematic action
to resolve specific problems. Based on the explanation above the researcher concluded
that classroom action research is an inquiry scientific to repair system, method, and
process in the classroom to increasing quality of learning. In conduct, this research,
the researcher collaborate with the teacher to solve the problem in the learning process.
This classroom action study was divided into some cycle. Each cycle consist of
four stages included Planning (P), Action (A), Observation (O), and Reflection (R).
Those stages will be explained briefly on subchapter, research procedures. The type of
investigation in this research intends to know the effectiveness of Audio-Visual Media
in increasing writing skill of SMAN 1 Soa students. This classroom action research,
concerned with some instruments in collecting the data: those are: test, observation,
and interview. There are two kinds of test in this study namely: pre-test which intends
to evaluate the pre-existing writing skill, and posttest which administer at the end of
each session.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This classroom action study was conducted in two cycles. The first cycle consists
of four meeting, and the second cycle consists of two meetings. Before the researcher
teaches the students using audiovisual media, the researcher gave the pre-test first. This
pretest identified the weakness of students in writing ability before the treatments. After
done the cycle one then the researcher decided to continue to cycle two. It was considered
the result of cycle one that had not reached the KKM. The KKM for English subject
in SMAN 1 Soa was 67. Cycle two had given based on the reflection in cycle one.On
this research, the researcher found that teaching English using audiovisual media was
the first time applied in eleventh grade of language program in SMAN 1 Soa. Students
enthusiastic and enjoy the picture or video that given even though after seeing the video

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or picture, some students will easy in write a text while some students slow and need
more attention of the researcher.
The descriptions of each action start from pre-test, the implementation of cycle one,
cycle two up to post-test will be discussing in the following sections:

Pre-Test
The pre-test was followed by 26 of 28 students of eleventh-grade language program;
two students were absent on that day. The pre-test contained a request to write a simple
report text of Komodo dragon based on the several words that given. They need to write
the paragraph consist of 50 100 words with the time allotment 2 X 45 minutes.
Before the researcher gave the pretest sheet, the researcher introduced herself first
and asked the each student to stand up and introduces her/his self. This is a very
important act in the first meeting because it can build up a good relationship between
the researcher and students.
The researcher asked them about the kinds of text that they know. Only some
students can distinguish the kinds of text (narrative, descriptive, expository, report text.
etcetera). Then, the researcher explains the meaning of report text, the generic structure
of report text without any media. By explained the differences of each kind of text in the
beginning help students to understand and can differentiate it. So they can do their pre-
test based on what the researcher need, (a report text of Komodo dragon not a narrative
text of Komodo dragon or Descriptive text of Komodo dragon). The result of pretest
would compare to the result of the students after gave the treatment (teaching using
audiovisual media) to know the improvement of students ability in writing a report
text.

The Classification of the Pre-Test Result


Test score Frequency Qualification
86-100 0 A (Excellent )
71-85 0 B (Good)
56-70 10 C (Enough)
41-55 15 D (Low)
40 1 E (Very Low)

Cycle 1
After identifying the result of the pretest, the researcher engaged in action research.
This action research was planned to solve students problem in five components of
writing skill. The researcher started teaching report text using Audio Visual Media to
the eleventh-grade students of SMAN 1 Soa. The researcher chooses animals as the topic
in teaching writing report text because the topic was appropriate to the eleventh grade.
The cycle one consists of four meetings, and each meeting has four stages: planning,

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action, observing, and reflecting. The more description of each stage can be seen in the
following section.

The Classification of the cycle 1 Result


Test score Frequency Percentage Qualification
86-100 0 0% A (Excellent )
71-85 7 25% B (Good)
56-70 9 32.14% C (Enough)
41-55 8 28.57% D (Low)
40 0 0% E (Very Low)

Cycle 2
Based on reflection in the cycle one, the researcher and collaborator decided to
continue to the next cycle. It was purposed to improve five components of students
writing skill. This cycle consists of two meetings. Each meeting has planning stage,
action stage, observing stage and reflection stage. The process of cycle two provided in
the table below:
Cycle two consist of two meetings. All the process in this cycle was same with cycle
one. But in this cycle, the researcher adds videos to the presentation. This was strategy
purpose of improving students comprehended in expressing ideas in their writing skill
and developed the five components of writing skill. Same as the process in cycle one,
on this cycle also has four stages in each meeting: planning, action, observing, and
reflecting. The more description of each stage can be seen in the following section.

The Classification of the cycle 2 Result


Test score Frequency Percentage Qualification
86-100 0 0% A (Excellent )
71-85 18 64.28% B (Good)
56-70 9 32.14% C (Enough)
41-55 0 0% D (Low)
40 0 0% E (Very Low)

DISCUSSION

The mean of the pre-test scores was 48.92. This means the score clearly showed that
writing skill of the students was lower that the criteria standard score (KKM) at school.
The result of the data analysis of the evaluation scores in cycle 1 showed the increasing
mean scores; it was of 53.9. The mean score obviously much higher than the mean score
of the pre-test. The mean score obtained by the students under the study in cycle II
was 70.96. This significant difference of mean scores suggest that the using audiovisual

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media in increasing students writing skill than cycle I. This was due to the fact that cycle
II was revised version of cycle I, in that teaching scenarios or the lesson plans in cycle II
were accordingly revised by taking into account the weakness found out in cycle I. The
result of the data analysis of posttest was 75.39. This means score shown using Audio
Visual Media had increased the writing skill of the eleventh-grade students of SMAN
1 Soa. It can be known by compared the result of pre-test was 48.92 and post-test were
75.39.

CONCLUSIONS

Using audiovisual media has increased the writing skill of the eleventh grade SMAN
1 Soas students in academic year 2015/2016.
The mean score of pre-test clearly pointed out that the writing skill of the students
was considered low in which it was only 48.92. After learning behavior has been changed
by using audiovisual media, the means of test scores for the cycle I and cycle two showed
the succeeding mean figure of 53.9 and 70.96. It meant the increase from cycle one to
cycle two was 17.06. The mean score of cycle two increased significantly.
The finding of the present classroom action study convincingly revealed the using
audiovisual media in increasing students writing skill could effectively improve and
increase the low ability in writing skill. The mean figure shows that the students scores
higher than the criteria standard score (KKM) at school.
Attitudes and the learning motivation of the students changed and heightened
positively. These findings clearly suggested that using audiovisual media make the
students active in learning to improve their writing skill, which could be seen in the
students good respond of the interview. The result of the interview can be seen in the
interview script in the appendix.
The findings of the present action study convincingly proved using audiovisual
media in increasing writing skill of eleventh grade SMAN 1 students in academic year
2015/2016 was an effective technique.

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Boardman,C. Fridenburg.J. 2002. Writing to Communicate. New york:Longman

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Moosab.2013 The Role of Audio-visualAidsin ImprovingEFL Learners ListeningSkill:


ACase Studyof Third Year LMDStudentsat the Universityof Biskra.Adopted
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dissertation%202001.pdf

Ningsih Dian Eka.2014.Improving Students Speaking Ability by Using Audio Visual as


TachingMedia.A Classroom Action Research to the Seventh Grade Students OfSMP
PGRI 3Seiawan KetatapangIn Academic Year 2011/2012.

Nunan, D. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. New York: The McGraw-Hill
companies.

Oshima, A., &Hogue, A. 1991. Writing AcademicEnglish(3rd Ed.). New York:


Addison Wesley Longman.

Oshima. Hogue, A.2006 Writing Academic English. United states of America:


Loangman, Pearson Education,Inc

Pramusinta, A.D.2010. Using a Four Phase Technique to Improve Students Imaginative


Writing Skill.

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About Animal Vcd. Adopted from http://lib.unnes.ac.id/3090/1/6571.pdf

Saima,R. bukshs,Q. Batool,S. A Study to Analyzethe Effectiveness of Audiovisual Aids


in Teaching Learning Process at University Level.Adopted from http://ac.els-cdn.
com/S1877042811024554/1-s2.0-S1877042811024554-main.pdf

Tans, F. 2014.Writing an Introduction.Kupang: Lima Bintang

Taylor.G.2009.AStudents writingGuided. United StatesofAmerica:CambridgeUnivers


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SMCC
ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Teaching Indonesian
for Immigrants in Kupang

JANUAR JEMY TELL


http://orcid.org/ 0000-0001-6786-7803
januar.tell@gmail.com
Nusa Cendana University
Kupang, Indonesia

SERLINIA RAMBU ANAWOLI


http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8942-902X
seranawoli87@gmail.com
Nusa Cendana University
Kupang, Indonesia

ABSTRACT

Second language acquisition (SLA) is the study on how learners create a new
language system with only limited exposure to a second language. Also, SLA can be
viewed from the two perspectives such as: First, a study of individual or group who
learns a language; Second, a study on the process of learning the second language by
an individual. This study aimed to find the teaching of Indonesian for immigrants in
Kupang. It was conducted in Kupang, and the data were collected from two teachers
selected as key informants. The researcher collected the data by using Techniques
observation and interview. The result shows that the teaching Indonesian runs plainly.
It is caused by three major things namely time allocation, lack of encouraging materials
and less frequency and duration of teaching. The result also reveals that the social
interaction made by immigrants is hampered by limited contact with native speakers of
Indonesian whether in or out rudenim.

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KEYWORDS

Teaching Indonesian, immigrant, and social interaction, Indonesia

INTRODUCTION

Second language acquisition is the study on how learners create a new language
system with only limited exposure to a second language (Gass et al., 2013:1). Saville
and Troike (2006:3) also define second language acquisition into two perspectives such
as: First, a study of individual or group who learns a language; Second, a study on the
process of learning the second language by an individual. Thus, one definition stresses
on the subject, and the other focuses on the process. According to Krashen (2009:10),
second language acquisition is a process of developing the ability to use language. This
process is similar to first language process which contains subconscious learning. The
idea of subconscious learning is that the learners used the language naturally and built
the language development, instead of the grammatical study of a language.
Dealing with language acquisition, Krashen (2002:1) also states his view that
there are two common ways of acquiring a language namely language acquisition and
language learning. Language acquisition is very similar to the process when children use
and acquire the first language. This process requires meaningful and natural interaction
and communication in the target language in which speakers are not concerned with the
form of their utterances, but with the messages, they are conveying and understanding.
Meanwhile, language learning is a conscious activity which learns the explicit rule of a
language. It also presents error correction which helps the learner to come to a mental
representation of linguistic generalization. Language acquisition occurs in the natural
situation. However, language learning happens in manipulated situation, which is
mostly in the classroom.
Second language acquisition may occur in an area when it is situated in a bilingual
or multilingual condition. People in this area must use these languages to live in the
society. This condition may happen in the scope of country, province, or villages where
more than one language exists and be used continuously by people. Some particular
phenomena of second language acquisition appear when some people immigrate to
another country and try to adapt to the new situation there.
According to Bourne (1990:3), immigrants would adapt with society, in term of
language acquisition, because parents of immigrant believe that official language of a
country is a significant means to access a better standard of living. This view makes them
assimilated with the language as quickly as possible. Parents of immigrants also share
this view for their children and compel them to study official language in school or use
it in daily interaction.
Talking about immigrant, the fact shows that the number of immigrants in Indonesia
always increases. The data from Directorate General Immigration (DGI) of Indonesia

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shows that the number of immigrants increases 112 percent from 2013 until 2015.
Total immigrants who stay in Indonesia were 9.347 people. It comprised with 5.257
immigrants who stayed in Rudenim and 4090 immigrants staying in community house
(Directorate General Immigration. 2015). These immigrants are mostly from mid east
countries (Republika. 2012). They are mostly spread in 12 cities in Indonesia such
as Surabaya, Semarang, Pontianak, Pekanbaru, Medan, Manado, Makassar, Kupang,
Jayapura, Jakarta, Denpasar, and Balikpapan (Directorate General Immigration. 2015).
In East Nusa Tenggara Province, the number of immigrants is also high. The
immigrants intend to find asylum in Australia, the near country from East Nusa Tenggara
province. However, the government of Australia does not permit these immigrants to
enter Australia. As the consequence of this prohibition, they finally sail to the near
places like Rote Ndao and Kupang to stay. On 3rd October 2010, the police of Rote
Ndao captured 22 illegal immigrants from Turkey, Irak, and Afganistan. They were
captured at 2 p.m. near Ndao beach (ANTARA News. 2010). Then on August 3rd,
2012, 14 illegal immigrants from Myanmar were arrested by the police of Kupang in
a hotel in Kelurahan Lai Lai Besi Kopan (Beritasatu.com. 2012). On July 1st, 2015,
the police of Rote Ndao also arrested 65 immigrants from Bangladesh and Srilanka who
had been chased away by Australia (Kupang.NTTsatu.com. 2015).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The researcher focuses on the study of the Indonesians teaching for immigrants
who stay in Kupang and how are these immigrants social interaction in Kupang in
supporting Indonesian acquisition?

METHODOLOGY

The method that applied in this investigation is descriptive qualitative research.


Qualitative research is a research exploring a social phenomenon which contains
actor, event, and place in a particular period (Satori and Komariah, 2010). According
to Djajasudarma (2006:17), descriptive qualitative research is one type of qualitative
approach which describes the characteristics of the data accurately by the nature of
something investigated. It describes something accurately and completely as it is
(natural) and does not attempt to change it in any way. Mugiono in Naben (2010:14)
adds that descriptive qualitative research is used to observe the condition of the natural
object of research. It is a method of research that prioritizes oral and written data and
ignores data in the form of a number. From this explanation, the researchers decide to
apply this method to reveal the research above such as the teaching of Indonesian for
immigrants in Kupang and immigrants social interaction in the case of supporting
Indonesian acquisition.

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The technique of data collection in this research is an interview. According to


Satinback (in Sugiyono 2011), the interview is a means to gain the deeper data from
a participant who describes and interpret the situation or phenomenon. It is a flexible
means of data collection, enabling multi-sensory channels to be used: verbal, non-
verbal, spoken and heard (Cohen et al. 2007:353). The researchers select this technique
to be more flexible to get extended data from informants. Intentionally, this technique
may reveal the informants comprehension and interpretation of the form of teaching
Indonesian for immigrants and the social interaction among immigrants in Kupang.
The informants in this investigation are two teachers, and one of them is the
researcher. These two teachers are hired by the immigrant organization to teach English
and Indonesian in a Rudenim in Kupang. Therefore they are selected by researchers to
be informants in this investigation. The researchers select them because they are the key
informants who get involved in the teaching of Indonesian. Meanwhile, the researchers
choose teachers and ignore students as the informants because these two teachers are
from Indonesia. It is easy for the researchers to communicate and get the intended data
because they are from same country and language, instead of students who are from
different country and language.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

a. layout of immigrants Rudenim

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Description:
A = Immigrant room (family) B = Kitchen
C = Immigrant room (single) D = Yard
E = Medical room F = Library
G = Office H = Security Room
I = Kiosks

B. Teachers and participants in teaching Indonesian


There are two teachers from Kupang who are hired to teach language for immigrants.
These two teachers have taught Indonesian and English for approximately two years
in this program. They are selected to teach because they are from an educational
background and have the high qualification to teach. They graduated from university,
especially from English study program, and have academic title S.Pd1.
There are two groups of immigrants who learn Indonesian and English namely adult
and children. The age of adult learners are approximately 15 years old and above. The
age of children is six until ten years old. There are eight learners of the adult group and
seven learners from children group.

C. Schedule of teaching Indonesian


There are two language classes for immigrants: namely, English and Indonesian.
English class is held in two days a week such as Tuesday and Thursday while Indonesian
is also held in two days a week those are on Wednesday and Friday. Each class spends
two and a half hours and usually starts at 12.30 pm and finishes at 15.00 pm. The
classes are usually held in the medical room; sometimes they are held in office room if
the medical room is used by medical officers. Below is the schedule of teaching English
and Indonesian for these two groups.

Table 1.1. The schedule of language teaching for immigrants


No Day Group (students) Subject Time
1 Tuesday Adult English 12.30-15.00
2 Wednesday Children Indonesian 12.30-15.00
3 Thursday Adult Indonesian 12.30-15.00
4 Friday Children English 12.30-15.00

D. Topic and teaching material


1. Topic: Greeting
Teaching material : -
Activity : 1. Teacher introduces some greetings in Indonesian

1 S.Pd (sarjana Pendidikan) = an academic degree for university student who graduated from education
program

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2. Students pronounces the greetings


3. Teacher and students make a role play to practice
greeting in Indonesian

2. Topic : Self-identity
Teaching material: Pictures of self-introduction
Activity : 1. Teacher introduces how to introduce her name, address,
age, et cetera
2. Teacher writes on the whiteboard some points for
introduction
3. Teacher asks the students to choose points they want to
introduce
4. Teacher guides students one by one to construct their
self-introduction
5. Students present their self-introduction one by one

3. Topic: Things in the bedroom


Teaching material: Pictures of bedroom and things inside
Activity : 1. Teacher shows and pronounces the name of things in the
bedroom
2. Things in the bedroom are pronounced together by
students
3. Teacher selects students one by one to pronounce the
thing she pointed in the picture.

4. Topic: Things in the bathroom


Teaching material: Water diaper, towel, and pictures of things in the bathroom
Activity : 1. Teacher shows and pronounces the name of things in the
bedroom
2. Things in the bathroom are pronounced together by
students
3. Teacher and students make a role play to practice asking
and answering things in the bathroom

5. Topic: Things in the kitchen


Teaching material: Fork, spoon, glass, and pictures of thing in the kitchen
Activity : 1. Teacher pronounces the name of things in the kitchen
2. Things in the kitchen are pronounced together by students
3. Teacher select student on by one to pronounce the thing
she pointed in the picture.

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6. Topic: Things in medical room


Teaching material: Pictures of things in the medical room
Activity : 1. Teacher shows and pronounces the name of things in the
medical room
2. Things in the medical room are pronounced together by
students
3. Teacher and students make a role play to practice asking
and answering things in the medical room

E. Constraints during teaching Indonesian for immigrants


There are two major constraints during teaching Indonesian for immigrants such as
the language used for communication in the classroom and the lack of facilities. The
immigrants who stay in Rudenim are from Somalia, Bangladesh, Irak, and Iran. They
come to Indonesia especially Kupang without knowing Indonesian, Kupang Malay, and
English. Therefore the teachers find difficult in delivering their teaching to the students.
Then, how do the immigrants communicate with the teacher in the classroom? They
mostly communicate by using common words of English to deliver their need. This
kind of communication is used in Indonesian class. Below is some common English
utterances were spoken by immigrants.

Table 2.1 utterances spoken by immigrant to deliver what they want
No Utterances Meaning
1 Teacher teacher no class... no class... lazy The immigrant (s) feels bored, and they
I is lazy dont want to study.
2 Teacher The movie... movie The immigrant (s) wants to watch movie
in the classroom
3 Teacher toilet The immigrant (s) wants to go to toilet
4 Teacher play play no study no study The immigrant (s) feels bored, and they
dont want to study. They just want
to play games in the classroom (this
utterance is spoken by young immigrant)
5 Excuse me food meat meat The immigrant asks meets to be added to
his or her food.

The teachers also find another constraint dealing with learning facility. In teaching
Indonesian, the teacher finds that there is the limited material used by immigrants to
support their study. The immigrants only use notebooks and some story books (whether
English and Indonesia) as their supplementary books to learn Indonesia. The room for
teaching and learning process is also changeable. They sometimes use medical rooms or
office room changeable according to the room availability.

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F. Immigrant activity during a day


The daily activity for immigrants is commonly same from day to day. In the morning,
they do exercise in the yard. After 30 minutes rest, they continue with health checking
in the medical room. After that, they continue with breakfast. Then, they must go
into their room and wait until lunch. After lunch, they continue with teaching and
learning activity especially learning English and Indonesia. At 4 oclock until 6 oclock,
they are permitted to take a walk around Kupang whether in a group or personal. In
this situation, most immigrants do not look interacting with people of Kupang when
they are out. They mainly spend their time outside with talk with other immigrants in
beaches, roads, and other places until back to rudenim.

DISCUSSION

The finding shows that teaching Indonesian for immigrant faces two major obstacles:
namely, time allocation for teaching and lack of encouraging materials which afford
much exposure to the language. Teachers commonly use pictures and several small goods
to assist the learning process. Students are also equipped with notebooks and several
story books to join the learning process. These learning tools do not seem enough to
support teaching Indonesian especially the acquisition of Indonesian. These tools do
not provide broad exposure to acquire Indonesian in term of listening, speaking, writing
and reading skill. This is similar with what Bahrani and Sim argue (2012:142) that
technology which provides much exposure of a language might help learners to acquire
the language.
Time allocation for teaching Indonesian in this study also does not seem convincing
for language acquisition. As newcomers in Kupang, these immigrants need much
language exposure to construct their competence to communicate. As a part of
constructing immigrants competence, teaching Indonesian should be allocated with
long duration and much frequency. However, it looks contradictory that Indonesian is
taught once for each group of students. Every meeting is also spent 2.30 minutes. This
means that every group only gets once exposure of Indonesian during one week. This is
different from language acquisition should be, in term of input and output in language
teaching, that learners need much exposure to a target language during receiving and
producing the language (Patten and Benati 2010).
The finding above also shows the limited opportunity for immigrants to interact with
native speakers of Indonesian, either in Rudenim or outside Rudenim, which makes them
difficult to communicate using Indonesian. This condition also hampers the acquisition
of Indonesian. This condition is in line with the view of Pranowo (2014:73) which
argue that a person may acquire a language fast when he or she live in the community of
the language and have intensive communication with the native speakers.

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CONCLUSIONS

Based Teaching Indonesian in this study looks plainly. There are only a few plain
teaching materials used by teachers to teach immigrants like pictures and several small
goods. Teaching techniques used by teachers are also plain that only role play and
pronunciation that mainly used. This is also supported by limited time of teaching
forever group of immigrants.
The immigrants social interaction in their location is also limited. Schedule
determined for them to interact with people in Kupang becomes the main obstacle. It
arranges immigrants to stay in Rudenim than go on a walk mostly. Another barrier is
immigrants willingness to contact with people in Kupang. When the opportunity to
go on walk starts, immigrants mostly stay together in some areas in Kupang. They looks
spend much time with their community than with people in Kupang.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on those conclusions above, the researcher suggests that: First, the manager of
rudenim needs to give more frequency and duration for immigrants to study Indonesia.
Second, the manager of rudenim needs to facilitate teaching Indonesian for immigrants
in case of learning material, learning media, et cetera. Third, workers in rudenim need
to encourage immigrants to be more adaptable in Kupang in the case of interaction with
people in Kupang.

LITERATURE CITED

ANTARA News. 2010. 22 Imigran Gelap Timur Tengah Ditangkap di Kupang. (online
newspaper). (website:http://www.antaranews.com/print/156654/22-imigran-gelap-
timur-tengah-ditangkap-di-kupang)

Bahrani and Sim. 2012. Informal language learning setting: technology or social
interaction?.

TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

Beritasatu.com. 2012. 14 Imigran Ilegal Asal Myanmar Ditangkap di Kupang. (online


newspaper). (website:http://sp.beritasatu.com/home/14-imigran-ilegal-asal-
myanmar-ditangkap-di-kupang/23077)

Bourne, Jill. 1990. Local authority provision bilingual pupils: ESL bilingual support
and community language speaking. Educational Research Journal

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Directorate General Immigration. 2015. Selama 2014, Imigrasi Sumbang Rp 2,8


Triliun Pendapatan Negara. (online access)

Djajasudarma, T. F. 2006. Metode Linguistik. Bandung: Penerbit Refika Aditama

Gass, S. Behney, J. Plonsky, L. 2013. Second language acquisition: an introductory


course. New York: Routledge.

Krashen. 2009. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. (internet


edition).

Krashen. 2002. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. (internet
edition)

Kupang.NTTsatu.com. 2015. Imigran Bangladesh dan Srilanka diamankan di NTT.


(online newspaper). (website:http://www.nttsatu.com/imigran-bangladesh-dan-
srilanka-diamankan-di-ntt/)

Long, M. H. 1983. Does second language instruction make a difference? TESOL


Quarterly (internet edition)

Patten and Benati. 2010. Key term in second language acquisition. Britain: MPG Books
Group

Pranowo. 2014. Teori Belajar bahasa. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Belajar.

Republika. 2012. Mayoritas imigran gelap berasal dari afganistan. (online newspaper).
(Website:http://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/daerah/14/12/12/nggowl-
mayoritas-imigran-gelap-berasal-dari-afghanistan)

Satori and Komariah. 2010. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Alfabeta:Bandung

Saville and Troike. 2006. Introducing second language acquisition. New York:
Cambridge University Press

Schmidt, R. 2001. Cognition and second language instruction. (internet edition). New
York: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sugiyono. 2011. Mixed Method Penelitian Kombinasi. Yogyakarta: Gava Media

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SMCC
ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Stimulating Bilingual Students


Divergent Thinking
TIARMA MARPAUNG
http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-0784-2812
tiar.lulan@gmail.com
Artha Wacana Christian University
Indonesia

ABSTRACT

Bilinguals are claimed to possess divergent thinking indicated by having creativity.


As candidates of teachers, students of English Education should gain the quality of
being creative so that the students can be interested in learning English. This study tried
to stimulate and reinforce the ability of divergent thinking of 35 English Education
students of Artha Wacana Christian University Kupang, Indonesia as they are from
bilingual family. It also tried to find out the students level of divergent thinking ability
using Gestalt and Jacksons bucket test. It consisted of students from various ethnics of
East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Among 35 participants, only 14 were fluent
bilingual students. Those bilinguals acquire their mother tongue as a first language and
Bahasa Indonesia as a second language. The bilingual students can mention at least 3
to more than ten uses of the tin within 7 minutes. The result shows that 36% of the
students have below average scores of divergent ability, 36% of them acquire average
scores, and 28% of them are categorized as creative. Thus, it indicates that the students
could not gain their maximum ability of divergent thinking which was possibly due to
the qualities of their divergent ability. Uncomfortable environment, individual learning
style, familiar use of the object, and lack of motivation have manipulated the students
fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and originality in diverging their thoughts. Further
research needs to be done to investigate those influencing factors deeply and more issues
related to bilinguals divergent thinking.

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KEYWORDS

Divergent thinking, Qualities of divergent thinking, Bilinguals, Indonesia

INTRODUCTION

Creativity is necessary to make the learners interested in what they are learning.
To create creativity in his or her classroom, a teacher oneself should be innovative
and productive in designing interesting instruction. Teachers should provide large
opportunities for the students to do synthesis as the product and reflection of their
creative thinking in making decision and solving problems (Brophy, 2011: 20). They
also need to understand each students background to be able to solve any learning
difficulties which prevent each student for being creative. As candidates of teachers,
students of Teachers Training and Education should previously attain the quality of
being creative.
Carter (2009: 155) defines creativity as mental processes that lead to solutions,
ideas, concepts, artistic forms, theories or products that are unique or novel. Creativity
is needed in the process of learning. Students require creativity in solving learning
problems. To be able to solve their problems, students need to think laterally that
requires them to be capable in looking at the problems from many different sides before
going to the best solution (Carter, 2009: 155). To do so, students need to change their
conventional point of view and to be innovative. However, there is a possibility that the
students do not employ their creativity optimally in their individual life. The underuse
of creativity is caused by the lack of opportunity to explore the creative side of the brain.
Creative students tend to have the ability to diverge their thought. Guilford, 1950
in Glveanu (2014: 8) mentions that divergent thinking is one measure that supports
creative thinking. However, it does not mean that all bilinguals are creative. Kecskes
and Albertazzi (2007: xi) in their preface say that ...although bilingualism may lay the
foundation of creative thinking it does not necessarily imply being creative. It means
that bilinguals should fulfill certain requirements or criteria of being creative, especially
of possessing divergent thinking.
Thus, experts have set indicators of bilinguals to be categorized as ones having
divergent thinking. One of the experts says that divergent thinking has four major
qualities; they are fluency, flexibility, elaboration and originality (Guilford in Kharkhuri,
2008: 226). Students with fluency can create a solution to solve the problem immediately.
Flexible students can adopt any strategies for solving the problems directly. Elaborative
students are capable of thinking any single piece of ideas to be applied in solving the
problems. Meanwhile, students with originality have different ideas than the others.
Based on TTCT (Torrance Test of Creative Thinking), Kharkhurin (2008: 226) has
found that bilinguals have those four qualities of divergent thinking. By doing her
research, the writer expects that her students at English Education of Artha Wacana

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Christian University gain the qualities of divergent thinking.


There are some factors that influence divergent thinking. Researchers mention
behavioral mimicry (Ashton-James & Chartrand, 2009: 1036); and humorous
atmosphere (Ziv, 1983: 68) as factors that can influence divergent thinking. Besides,
Bialystok (2001: 7) says that factors which largely influence students linguistic and
cognitive competence are social, economic, and political circumstances of life. Runco
(1985: 2) also mentions motivation and intelligence as indicators of creative potential.
Language proficiency, the length of language experience, and age of second language
acquisition also have an effect on learners divergent thinking (Kharkhurin, 2008: 225).
Those factors vulnerable can affect the linguistic and cognitive competence of students
at English Education of Artha Wacana since they have various backgrounds.
Students of English Education of Artha Wacana Christian University have different
cultural background. They come from various regions in East Nusa Tenggara Province,
Indonesia. By this information, the writer assumes that they are mostly bilinguals in
their mother tongue as their first language (L1) and Bahasa Indonesia as their second
language (L2). The writer also expects that these students have attained the qualities of
divergent thinking.
A person is said to be bilingual if he or she can use at least two languages proficiently
to a certain degree (Moradi, 2014: 107). If students can use their two languages equally
well orally or written, they are called as balanced bilinguals. However, they tend to have
better knowledge in one language than the other one. Meanwhile, Macnamara (1967)
in Landry (1968: 2) says that a bilingual is a person who possesses at least one of the
language skills even to a minimal degree in their second language. Bilingual students in
Indonesia have learned Bahasa Indonesia formally as their first or second language since
in Elementary Education. As Indonesia is a multicultural country, students previously
have acquired their mother tongue as their L1. Thus, the writer can say that they should
have been proficient in L1 and L2 since they have learned those languages in their
family and at schools which apply bilingualism in communication.
Bilingualism is said to give positive influence toward students cognitive functions. As
cognitive development is dealing with mental processes, creativity should be included.
Creativity mostly works on the right side of the brain, as Carter (2009: 170) says that
the right side (of the brain) is creative and intuitive and leads, for example, to the birth
of ideas for works of art and music. However, being overlapped in functions, the left
side of the brain also contributes creativity in cognitive development regarding thinking
logically and laterally. Thus, the writer can say that creativity will be performed most
effectively when the two sides of the brain work together equally. TTCT is helpful for
teachers to find out which part of the students brain is more active. TTCT with some
innovation can be used to exercise students brain to be more balanced.
As bilingual students, then they are claimed to have divergent thinking. To know
individuals degree of creative thinking, Gestalt and Jacksons test of divergent ability
suggested by Carter (2009: 175) can be used as one of the measurement. The divergent

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ability test is called the bucket test in which each testee has to mention as many users
as possible for an object such as a bucket, a paper clip, or a brick, etc. in a limited
time given.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Based on the writers assumption that students in Indonesia are proficient in L1 and
L2, this research has aimed mainly at finding the level of divergent thinking ability of
bilingual students and secondarily at possible factors of influence in their test result.

METHODOLOGY

The writer has chosen randomly 35 students of English Education of Artha Wacana
Christian University located in Kupang city, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia
as participants in her research. The participants are chosen as they are from different
ethnics of East Nusa Tenggara. From those 35 students, there are ten students from
Timor, six students from Sumba, two students from Rote, and nine students varied
from Alor, Ambon, Sabu, Flores, and Malaka. Meanwhile, eight students are from a
bilingual family in which their parents speak different mother tongues. Since 2014,
most of the students have begun living in Kupang in which the people in the society
mostly speak in Kupang Malay, since 2014.
This paper is intended to describe the bilingual participants and their creative
thinking measured through their divergent thinking. Gestalt and Jacksons bucket test
in Carter (2009: 175) is used to find out the students divergent ability. A test has been
held to discover their ability of divergent thinking. Students should be able to mention
as many uses of a small-sized thin. A questionnaire has been used to facilitate the writer
to investigate bilingual students background information and factors influencing the
test result.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based on the result of a survey which the writer has conducted towards 35 English
education students in Artha Wacana Kupang, there are only 14 bilingual students who
can speak two languages fluently; their mother tongue and Bahasa Indonesia. Most of
the participants only acquire Bahasa Indonesia as their daily communication.
In her research, the writer has asked the participants to write as many users as
possible of a small-sized thin. Within seven minutes, students have written at least 3
to more than ten uses of the tin. The uses of the tin are varied from the daily to multi-
purpose uses. For the daily uses, a small-sized tin can function as a rice measuring cup;
a string can for spices or salt, pins or needles, or stationaries. For multi-purpose uses,
the students mention some uses of the tin as a flower pot, a candle/light dispenser, an

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ashtray, a piggy bank, a toy, or decoration. The distribution of ideas on the uses of the
tin by 14 bilingual students is listed in Table 1.
The writer has evaluated the divergent thinking of 14 bilingual students by asking
one of her family members to score each use of the tin. The scores are ranked based on
the level of divergent ability of the students seen from how good, practical, and original
the uses of the tin are. The uses score 2 points if they are good, original or useful; 1 point
if they are not-so-good but constitute a good attempt; 0 points if they are completely
impractical; and 0 points if they are anti-social such as for doing violence. Then the
scores are ranged between 7-11 points for average divergent ability; 12-15 points for
being creative; and 16-20 points for being highly creative and imaginative.

Table 1. Distribution of ideas on the tin uses by 14 bilingual students


No. Uses of a small-sized tin Points Number of Bilingual students
1 Flower pot 1 5
2 Candle/light dispenser 2 6
3 Decorative flower 2 6
4 Ashtray 1 3
5 Piggy bank 2 6
6 Measuring cup 1 9
7 Storage can 1 13
8 Watering can 2 3
9 Flower vase 2 5
10 Toys 2 7
11 Stationary dispenser 1 9
12 Tissue holder 2 3
13 Audio speaker 2 1
14 Waste can 1 2
15 Cooking instrument 2 2

Based on the research among those 14 bilingual students, the writer found that there
are relatively 36 % of the students have below average scores of divergent ability, 36 %
of the students have average scores of divergent ability, and 28 % of the students are in
the creative category. The writer cannot generalize this result as there are possible factors
that could become the reasons for the students to be unable to achieve their maximum
divergent ability during the test. Figure 1 shows the students score distribution of
divergent ability.

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Figure 1. Distribution of divergent ability score

There are possible factors that can cause the students unable to attain their maximum
divergent ability. The writer has observed and found some possibilities of factors
influencing their test result. The uncomfortable environment during the test taken place
for the students to diverse their optimal thinking as they were sitting in cubicles; the
sitting arrangement was without enough space for the students to feel free having their
original ideas without being disturbed by other students; the students familiarity with
the object used to define the uses; and the lack of motivation which made the students
less serious in doing the test.
The first factor can be one reason as the environment has a role to cognitive processes,
and each student has different environmental preference to bring their optimum
creativity. This factor is related to individual learning style. Reid (2005: 123) mentions
that it is important to provide learning-friendly environment based on learning styles,
equity, and creativity. The second factor can also be another factor that is still related
to the students learning style. The first two factors influence students fluency and
flexibility as well as elaboration qualities of divergent thinking. The third one influences
the students originality as a small-sized tin is commonly used in their daily life. Most
uses of the tin the students have mentioned are familiar with their real life. The writer
considers the lack of motivation that influences the four qualities of divergent thinking
as they do not feel the importance of the test and are not obliged to complete the
test, so they do not give their best effort. The lack of motivation also can make the
students unable to use their parts of the brain optimally. Reid (2005: 11) also states that
motivation can make the students confident to activate their metacognitive ability. This
demotivation is because the result of the test is not included in the formal or regular
learning assessment. However, this last factor still needs to be further investigated.

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From the questionnaire, the researcher has found that sex differences additionally
can be one factor that determines students divergent thinking. Female students get a
higher level of ability of divergent thinking than the male ones. However, Roue (2011,
2014) argues that gender brings influence towards divergent thinking. Meanwhile,
Jaquish and Ripple (1980: 143) mention that gender differences have an influence
towards divergent thinking in adolescent period. In their abstract they say:
Scores were obtained for fluency, flexibility, and originality of thought, and for self-
esteem. Adolescents were significantly more fluent and flexible than preadolescents.
The two age groups did not differ significantly in originality or self-esteem. Self-
esteem correlated significantly with divergent thinking in preadolescents only. Female
adolescents scored significantly higher on all dependent measures than adolescent males;
there were no sex differences in preadolescents (Jaquish & Ripple, 1980: 143).
Above quotation has supported what the researcher has found based on the students
questionnaire.
Also, Kharkhurin (2008: 226) says that the languages proficiency of bilinguals is
involved in determining the level of divergent thinking. That is why fully bilingual
students with high level of languages proficiency perform better knowledge analysis that
those who are partially bilinguals. Cummins (1977a) in Cummins and Swain (1986:
16) also states that only those bilinguals who had attained a relatively high level of
L2 competence performed at a higher level on the verbal originality task ... on verbal
fluency and flexibility skills. Based on this statement, the writer assumes that the 14
bilingual students participated in the research do not acquire a high level of proficiency
in the language they speak, especially in the second language. The result of this research
also supports what Kecskes and Albertazzi (2007: xi) have mentioned that bilingual
students do not always have creative thinking. The possible reason is that students do
not speak L1 and L2 in balance whether in their family or at schools and college. The
more educated their parents are, the fewer students communicate in L1 with their
parents. Communication is delivered more in L2. Schools they have attended also do
not apply bilingualism all the time as their teachers also come from the different cultural
background.
The writer also agonizes the bilingual students include in a subcultural group where
their L1 belongs to the language of minority, or they belong to a particular group of
people within a society different from the rest of that society. It should also be noted
that research was done by Lembright and Yamamoto, 1965; Madaus (1967) in Landry
(1968: 3) shows that subcultural groups score lower on creativity measures than a
normal group. Students participated in the research are living in Kupang, in where
the habitats mostly speak in Kupang Malay in their daily communication. L1 is spoken
when students gather with those of the same local language.
The 14 bilingual students participated in the research come from different cultures
and languages. Five students come from Sumba; three students are from Timor; two

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students are Amboneses; and four others are from Rote, Lembata, Alor, and Belu. Based
on https://www.ethnologue.com, there are nine different languages in Sumba island
distributed in four regions. Timor language, Uab Meto is also different in dialects of
different districts. The writer now can see that language differences in one area may be
one of the causing factors of the students divergent thinking. However, further research
needs to be done to find out how the differences can influence creativity.

CONCLUSION

Bilingual education is helpful to build and develop the foundation of creative


thinking in students. However, the writer assumes that there are other factors which
are able to stimulate students divergent thinking. Some possible factors are students
intelligence, motivation, family and social-cultural background, and the length as well
as the frequency of L1 and L2 usage. Gender is also a possible factor that influences
divergent thinking in certain period or age. More factors and detail information about
each causing factor may come with further investigation.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Thus, the writer suggests future researchers conduct more tests to find out more
reliable result of bilingual students divergent thinking such as TTCT as recommended
by Kim (2006: 14); reasons which lay behind the positive or negative result of the
students divergent thinking; and for further research, the writer also suggests an
investigation on strategies to develop students divergent thinking in English as a foreign
language learning for English teachers to refer to.

LITERATURE CITED

Ashton-James, C. E. & Chartrand, T. L. (2009). Social Cues for Creativity: the Impact
of Behavioural Mimicry on Convergent and Divergent Thinking. Journal of
Experimental Social Psychology, Vol, 45, pp. 1036-1040.

Bialystok, E. (1992). Selective Attention in Cognitive Processing: The Bilingual Edge,


in R.J. Harris (Ed.), Cognitive Processing in Bilinguals (pp. 501-513). Amsterdam:
North Holland.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, and Cognition.


Australia: Cambridge University Press.

Brophy, J. (Ed.). (2011). Subject-Specific Instructional methods and Activities. Advances


in Research on Teaching, Vol. 8, pp. 1-23. New York: Elsevier Science, Ltd.

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Carter, P. (2009). Test and Assess Your Brain Quotient. London: Kagan Page, Ltd.

Cummins, J. & Swain, M. (1986). Bilingualism in Education: Aspects of Theory,


Research and Practice. New York: Longman Group Limited.

Glveanu, V. P. (2014). Distributed Creativity: Thinking Outside the Box of the Creative
Individual. London: Springer.

Jaquish, G. A. & Ripple, R. E. (1980). Divergent Thinking and Self-Esteem in


Preadolescents and Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol. 9, No. 2,
pp. 143-152. Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Kecskes, I. & Albertazzi, L. (2007). Cognitive Aspects of Bilingualism. The Netherlands:


Springer.

Kim. K. H. (2006). Can We Trust Creativity Tests? A Review of the Torrance Tests of
Creative Thinking (TTCT). Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 3-14.
Eastern Michigan University.

Kharkhurin, A. V. (2008). The Effect of Linguistic Proficiency, Age of Second Language


Acquisition, and Length of Exposure to a New Cultural Environment on Bilinguals
Divergent Thinking. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 11(2), pp. 225-243.
Cambridge University Press.

Landry, R. G. (1968). Bilingualism and Creative Abilities. North Dakota State


University.

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ISSN Print: 2449-4402 ISSN online: 2467-6322
Volume 4 August 2017

Item Analysis of English Final Semester Test


of the Third Year Students of the English
Department of SMAN I Kupang
WALDETRUDIS MBEWA
http://orcid.org/ 0000-0001-7565-3987
walde.mbewa@gmail.com
STKIP Nusa Bunga Floresta Nagekeo: Nagekeo-Flores
Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia

ABSTRACT

This paper describes item analysis. Item analysis is important for the test because it
measures students development or achievement. Test items are therefore needed to be
reliable for that purpose. The problems of this writing are what are the difficulty levels,
discrimination power of the English Final Semester Test of the third year students of
the English Department of SMAN I Kuang of the Academic Year 2011/2012? To what
extent do the distracters of final test items function? With quantitative descriptive, the
writer tries to answer the problem. The result of the research shows that: the difficulties
level of the item given is ranged from too easy to too difficult. The items are 14, 4 items
are too difficult, and 22 items are accepted. Variation is needed in this kind of test, and
therefore the items in the test can be accepted as a measurement. The discrimination
level of the items given is ranged from the item is not too understood to discriminating.
The test given has some items contains distracter. Certain items, although not rightly
answered, has no disaster.

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KEYWORDS

Item Analysis, Semester Test, Testing, English, Indonesia

INTRODUCTION

Creativity Language is a means of communication which is human being needs to


interact each other. Language plays an important role in building up communication
skill. It is like English. English is an international language, which is taught as the
first foreign language, and compulsory subject at all school from elementary school
up to the university Krashen and Terrell (1983 in Nalley 2009: 15). Therefore, it
needs an evaluation after teaching this subject. Evaluation is a tool to measure the
students achievement. Evaluation and testing are related each other. Testing is a part
of evaluation (Grounlund and Linn 1990:5) stated that a test is an instrument and
systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behavior. It will measure each students
performance in comparison with the performance of other students. In other to see
his/her teaching outcomes, a teacher has to give a test to the students. A test is also
very useful for the students because it can motivate them in learning. If they know
their performance, they will study hard either to maintain or to improve their level of
language ability. The teacher has to choose which form of test that she or he will give to
the students. Take, for example, multiple choices. There are many teachers who do not
know whether their items are good or not. As stated above, the goodness of the items
can be pictured by the items themselves. In this way of seeing the items, there are three
criteria which are usually used: difficulty level, discrimination power, and distracters.
However, the item analysis can be seen from the students answers for the items. It is
derived from an assumption that the difficulty, the power and the distracting of the
items can be seen in the students answers.

FRAMEWORK

There are some theoretical concepts related to testing. Testing is a part of evaluation,
which is used to know how far the students have mastered the material taught. In this
case, it can be said that a test is a tool for evaluation. This definition supported by
Groundlund(1976) in Ali Imran (1996: 114) who says... the systematic process of
determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved by pupil. Based
on the time of the test, a test consists of three parts. The first is pre-test which is given
before teaching learning process. A pre-test is aimed to determine students placement.
The second is formative test administer during teaching learning process. The formative
test aims to survey learning progress, detect learning errors and provide feedback to
students and teacher. The third is a summative test or final test or semester test which
does at the end of teaching learning process. While the aim of summative test or final

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test or semester test is to determine whether a student has work to achieve instructional
objectives, which has been determining or not. The result of this test is used to evaluate
the effectiveness of the instructions and to determine the grade of the students at a
particular time.
The teaching-learning process has procedures. According to Gelder in Ali Imron
( 1996: 117), the procedures of teaching learning process are instructional design,
situation analysis, teaching activity and learning aid and evaluation. An instructional
objective is a definition of the working task that a worker must be competent to do
after completing a course of instruction. Situation analysis is a process that examines a
situation, its elements, and their relation to provide and maintain a state of situation
awareness for the decision maker. While teaching learning activities involve helping
students to learn more, increasing students understanding
According to Encyclopedia of Education in Suharsini Arikunto (2001: 23) which
says that test is a comprehensive assessment of an individual. So, when a teacher gives a
test, he or she should find out the types of test and the criteria of a good test. This type
of test is subjective test and objective test. The subjective test can be an essay test form
whereas objective test is one that can be marked objectively. This test requires the students
to choose the right answers, which has been prepared. Furthermore, the score will have
the same judgment to that item. The objective test consists of multiple- choice test,
true-false, matching, and completion. Next, the basic criteria of a good test are validity,
reliability, and practicality. In addition to validity and reliability, students should also
be concerned about the effect of the test, particular the extent to which the test cause
undue anxiety. Where possible, one should utilize test forms that minimize the tension
and stress generated by our English language test. Through item evaluation, we attempt
to find out whether or not each question has functioned properly (Senaul(2004: 13).
A simple statistical way of evaluating item can be done by item analysis (Madsen,
1983: 178-179). He said that test item analysis is most often used with multiple choice
questions. An item analysis tells us three things. How difficult each item, whether or
not the question discriminates between high and low students, and which distracters are
working as they should. The discussion about item analysis proceeds with the step by
step procedure that can be easily adapted by the teacher. The important is that should
also be familiar to students before being used in a test. Otherwise, the students may
make mistakes not so much because of a lack of understanding of the task requires.
Multiple-choice items are undoubtedly one of the most widely used types of items
in objectives tests. However, it must be admitted that the usefulness of the item is
limited. The chief criticism of the multiple choices item is that it does not lend itself to
the testing of language as communication. The process of selecting one of the options
bears little relation to the way language is used. Nevertheless, multiple-choice items can
provide a useful means for testing knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, etc., rather than
the ability to use language (Mandaru, 2007: 38). Furthermore, multiple choices can
be used to test items detailed understanding grammar or vocabulary; it also can be used

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to test the understanding of their single extended test (Heaton 1989; 3-4). The true-false
test consists of a declarative statement that should be marked true-false, right, correct
or incorrect, yes or not, fact or opinion. It is commonly used in measuring the ability
identifies the correctness of the statement of fact, the definition of terms, statement of
principles, and the like. The matching test consists of two parallel columns, contain the
items of the test. The matching exercise consists of the parallel columns with each word,
number or symbols in one column being a match to a word, sentence or phrase in the
other column. The item for which a match is sought is called premises, and the item in
the column from which the selection is made is called responses. The matching exercise
is limited for measuring factual information based on simple associations or students
ability to identify the relationship between two things (Weir; 1990: 4).
It has been previously mentioned that a test is basically by which something is
measured. For the result of the measurement to be dependable, the test has to meet
some basic criteria. There are three basics, namely: validity, reliability, and practicality.
The validity of a test may be broadly defined as the extent to which the test does what it
is intended to do. If a test of pronunciation measures pronunciation and nothing else,
it is a valid test of pronunciation. It would not be a valid test grammar or vocabulary
because it does not test grammar or vocabulary. Heaton (1975: 153) stated that the
validity of a test is the extent to which it measures what it is supposed to measure and
nothing else. He stated further that every test, whether it is a short, informal classroom
test or a public examination, should be as valid as the constructor can make it. The test
must aim to provide a true measure of the particular measured skills. To the extent that
it measures external knowledge and other skills at the same time, it will not be a valid
test. Validity has four types namely: face validity, content validity, construct validity
and empirical validity. Sometimes empirical validity is further classified into concurrent
validity which refers to how well the test score compares to with one or more measure;
and predictive validity which is demonstrated by how well the test score correlates with
a criterion measure taken at a much later date.
Reliability refers to the consistency of the measurement that is how consistent test
scores or other evaluation results are from one measurement to another (Groundlund
1976: 105). There are three approaches to estimating the reliability of the test (Bachman
1990: 172). They are test-retest approach, equivalent forms approach, and parallel
forms approach. Test-retest approach is the stability of the scores obtained by the same
subjects when the same is administered to them twice with a specified time interval
between the administrations. The correlation between the scores is called the coefficient
of stability. Equivalent forms method indicates the consistency between subjects, scores
on the test in hand and scores that would have been obtained by the same. Subjects on
an equivalent form of the test might have been substituted for it on the single occasion
of testing. While parallel forms approach is the consistencies of the scores obtained by
the same subjects when to parallel forms of the test are administered to them. The third
attribute of a good test is practicality or sometimes is called usability (Heaton (1989:

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10). It means that a test must have some characteristics like administrable (the ease of
administration and probability of performance required to the test), economy (a test
is practical if it can be administered with minimum expenditure of time, effort, and
resources), scorable and interpretability and fair (if it is not to trap the students).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study aimed to find out the difficulties level of final test item of the third year
students of SMAN I Kupang. Besides that, this research is also aimed to find out the
discrimination power of final test item and to find out whether the distracters of final
test items function as they should.

METHODOLOGY

The researcher used the descriptive quantitative method which is designed to know
how difficult each item, whether or not the question discriminates between high and
low students, and which distracters are working as they should. In connection with the
topic under discussion in this paper, the population was chosen are 50 items of the final
semester of English test which done by the third year students of SMAN I Kupang.
Regarding sampling, Arikunto (1992: 85) says that if the population is more than 100
only between 10% and 15% is taken as the sample, but if the population is less than
100 the whole number of population is taken as a sample. Based on the number of
the population above the sample of this research is the whole number of population.
In collecting the data, the instrument used by the researcher is written test especially
multiple choices. The researcher prepared an item analysis using the following steps.
First, the researcher scored all of the answer sheets of the tests. Second, the researcher
arranged them in order from the one with the highest score to the one with the lowest
score. Third, she divided the papers into three equal groups. If the class size is too small,
it can also be divided into halves. The classical procedure is to choose the top 27%
(High Group) and the bottom (27% of the papers to be analyzed. In conducting this
research, the researcher used statistical formula. The data, especially each item with its
options on each answer sheet would be computed separately from one another using
statistic ways. The analysis is carried out with the used of the test formula as follows:

a. Difficulty Level or Facility Value HC+LW


N

Notes: HC = High Correct


LC = Low Correct
N = Number of Students in Both Groups

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While aiming for test items with FV between 0, 4 and 0, 6, many test constructors
may accept items with FV between 0, 3 and 0, 7. (Mandaru, 2007: 69).

b. Discrimination Power = HC-LC


N

Where: HC = High Correct


= Low Correct
= Number of Students in Each Group

The discrimination index is ranging from-100 to +100. The higher difference


features of the problem, the more powerful or good about it. If the difference is negative
(<0) means more below the group who did not understand the material correctly answer
the question compare with the group (learners who understand the material)(Arikunto,
2010: 2011).

c. Distracter evaluation
It is good or weak distracter can be clearly seen in difficulty level and discrimination
level. The weak distracters can cause test questions to have poor discrimination or an
undesirable level of difficulty.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this discussion, the researcher did not give the lesson to the students, but she
gave the test to the students directly. The test given was prepared by the teacher at that
school. After giving the test, the writer collected the students worksheets, which are
31 sheets according to the number of the students. The worksheets were scored; the
number of the right answer is divided by the number of the items, multiplied by one
hundred. After that, the writer arranged the students worksheet from the highest score
to the lowest score. In general, the test given was objective test, especially multiple
choice. The test mostly consisted of the text-based test. Next, the researcher will give
the discussion on the items of the test given. In that discussion, the three properties of
an item will be explained based on the students work. For those aims, the researcher
presented as follow first, the order of the score from the highest to the lowest of the
whole class, the separation of the member of the class into a high group ( 27%) of the
lower score-having in the list) and record of the students responses.

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Presentation of scoring
The score of the students is gained from the formula
: Number of the right answer x100
Number of items

The table presents the score for each student from the highest to the lowest.

Table 1. Score from the highest to the lowest
Answer sheet
No. Grade
1 92,5
2 92,5
3 90
4 87,5
5 85
6 82,5
7 77,5
8 77,5
9 75
10 75
11 75
12 75
13 72,5
14 72,5
15 72,5
16 70
17 70
18 70
19 67,5
20 65
21 62,5
22 60
23 60
24 57,5
25 55
26 52,5
27 50
28 47,5
29 47,5
30 45
31 40

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High group and low group


From the score, two groups were made: the high group is the 27% of the students
taken from the upper list with the high score while the low group is a group of 27%
students taken from the lowest list.

Table 2. High group and low group


High group Low group
No Grade No Grade
1 92,5 1 60
2 92,5 2 57,5
3 90 3 55
4 87,5 4 52,5
5 85 5 50
6 82,5 6 47,5
7 77,5 7 47,5
8 77,5 8 45
9 75 9 40

Record of the students responses


The researcher gives a sign (capital letter and bold) to the correct option for each
number of the item.

Table 3.Record of the students responses


Item Option High Low group Item Option High group Low
number group number group
1 A - 1 21 A 6 3
b - 2 b 3 5
c 1 - c - 1
D 8 6 d - -
E - - e - -
2 A - 1 22 A - -
b 1 1 B 8 2
C 8 7 c 1 -
d - - d - -
e - - e - 7
3 A - - 23 a - -
b 1 6 b - 1
C 8 3 c - 1
d - - D 9 6
e - - e - 1
4 A 1 1 24 a - -
b 1 5 b - 7
C 7 3 C 9 2
d - - d - -
e - - e - -

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5 A - 1 25 a - -
B 9 8 b - 1
c - - c - 8
d - - D 9 -
e - - E - -
6 A 9 8 26 a - 1
b - - B 9 4
c - 1 c - -
d - - d - 4
e - - e - -
7 A - - 27 A 9 2
b - - b - 6
c - - c - -
d 1 - d - -
E 8 9 e - 1
8 A - - 28 a - -
b - 1 b - 1
c - - C 9 7
D 9 8 d - -
E - - e - 1
9 A 2 3 29 a - -
B 7 6 b 1 -
c - - c - 1
d - - d 2 2
e - - E 6 6-

10 A - - 30 A 9 2
b - - b - 6
C 7 9 c - -
d 1 - d - 1
e 1 - e - -
11 A 1 3 31 A 7 1
b - - b - -
C 3 1 c 2 8
d 5 - d - -
e - 5 e - -
12 A 1 - 32 a - -
b - - B 9 9
c 1 - c - -
d 4 6 d - -
e 3 3 e - -
13 A - 2 33 a - -
b - - B 8 2
c - 1 c - -
d 1 - d 1 7
e 8 6 e - -
14 A 1 1 34 a - -
b 2 - b - -
c - 7 C 9 3
D 3 - d - -
E 3 1 e - 6

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15 A 7 1 35 A 9 8
b 1 6 b - -
c 1 1 c - -
d - - d - -
e - 1 e - 1
16 A - - 36 a - -
b - 5 b - -
c 1 1 C 9 9
D 8 2 d - -
E - 1 e - -
17 A - - 37 a - 1
b - - B 9 2
C 8 6 c - -
d 1 - d - -
e - 3 e - 6
18 A - - 38 a - -
b - - b 4 -
c - - c - -
D 9 9 D 5 3
E - - E - 6
19 A - 1 39 a - -
B 3 - B 9 9
c 3 - c - -
d - - d - -
e 3 8 e - -
20 A 7 1 40 a 1 -
b - 5 b - -
c - 1 C 7 9
d - - d 1 -
e 1 2 e - -

Difficulty Level (FV) and Discrimination Power (D) per item

Table 4. Difficulty Level (FV) and Discrimination Power (D) per item
Item Number FV Item Number D
0,77 1 0,22
0,83 2 0,11
0,61 3 0,55
0,55 4 0,44
0,94 5 0,11
0,94 6 0,11
0,94 7 -0,11
0,94 8 0,11
0,72 9 0,11
0,88 10 -0,77
0,22 11 0,22

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0,05 12 0,11
0,77 13 0,22
0,16 14 0,33
0,44 15 0,66
0,55 16 0,66
0,77 17 0,22
1,0 18 0
0,16 19 0,33
0,44 20 0,66
0,50 21 0,33
0,55 22 0,66
0,83 23 0,33
0,61 24 0,77
0,50 25 0,99
0,72 26 0,55
0,61 27 0,77
0,88 28 0,22
0,66 29 0
0,61 30 0,77
0,44 31 0,66
1,00 32 0
0,55 33 0,66
0,66 34 0,66
0,94 35 0,11
1,00 36 0
0,61 37 0,77
0,44 38 0,2
1,00 39 0
0,88 40 -0,77

With the acceptable range of Difficulty Level (FV) from 0, 3 to 0, 7(seeMandaru,


2007: 69) it can be said that only 22 items were acceptable.

The items number 18, 32, 36 and 39 are too easy because its FV is 1, 0, and 0, 3
higher than the highest FV acceptable0, 7. The items number 5,6,7,8 and 35 are too
easy because its FV is 0, 9, and 0, 2 higher than the highest FV acceptable 0, 7. The
items number 2, 10, 23, 28 and 40 are also too easy because its FV is 0, 8, and 0, 1
higher than the highest FV acceptable 0, 7.

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The item number 12 is too difficult because its FV is 0, 0. 0, 3 lower than the lowest
FV acceptable 0, 3. The item number 14 and 19 are too difficult because its FV is 0,
1, 0, 2 lower than the lowest FV acceptable 0, 3.
The items number 3,24,27, 29,30, 34 and 37 are acceptable because the FV is 0,6
which is in the range of FV accepted: 0,3-0,7. The items number 4,16,21,22,25 and
33 are acceptable because the FV is 0,5 which is in the range of FV accepted: 0,3-
0,7. The items number 1,9,13,17 and 26 are acceptable because the FV is 0,7 which
is in the range of FV accepted: 0,3-0,7. The items number 15, 20, 38 and 31 are also
acceptable because the FV is 0, 4 which is in the range of FV accepted: 0,3-0,7.

With the table of Discrimination Power above we can conclude that:

D<0 the item is not understood by the students in the class. (See Mandaru, 2007:
69) It can be said that only 8 items were discriminating. The item number 10 and
40 are misunderstood because the value of D is -0, 77 which is the lowest than 0.
The item number 7 is also misunderstood because the value of D is -0, 11 which is
the lowest than 0.
D=0. The item is not discriminating. The items number 18, 29, 32, 36 and 39 are
not discriminating because the value of D is 0.
D > 0 the item is discriminating.

The item number 1, 11,13,17,38 and 28 are discriminating because the value of D is
0, 2 which is higher than 0. The item number 2,5,6,8,9,12 and 35 are discriminating
because the value of D is 0,1 which is higher than 0. The item number 14, 19, 23 and
21 are discriminating because the value of D is 0,3 which is higher than 0. The item
number 4 is discriminating because the value of D is 0,4 which is higher than 0. The
item number 3 and 26 are discriminating because the value is 0,5 higher than 0. The
item number 15,16, 20, 22, 31, 33, and 34 are discriminating because the value of D
is 0,6 higher than 0. Item number 24, 27, 30 and 37 are discriminating because the
value of D is 0,7 higher than 0. The item number 25 is discriminating because the
value of D is 0,9 higher than 0.

Distracter
The following example is taken from the item number 29 of the test given, that
researcher would like to present that distracted.

Charli: Sorry honey I do not know to pay the bill, I forgot my wallet at home.
Winda: So??? You always keep your wallet at home, if we are going to lunch in the restaurant!!!
Winda was ......with her boyfriend manner.

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a. love c. happy e. sorrow


b. attention d. embarrassed

Table 5. The record of the students answer in both groups


Option High group Low group
A - -
B 1 -
C - 1
D 2 2
E 6 6

In the item of the test, the right answer is E. However, four(4) students from both
groups, two from each make mistakes by answering the item with option D. In the item
number 29 above, it seems that the D is the distracter for them. It can be understood
because the option D can also be accepted to a certain degree. Perhaps, there should be
more appropriate to give another option like angry, which seems to be more accepted
for the situation in the conversation.

CONCLUSIONS

Item analysis is important for test because it is a best measure for students
development or achievement. Test items are therefore needed to be reliable for that
purpose. After the analysis of the items of the test it can be concluded that: first, the
difficulties level of the items given is ranged from too easy to too difficult. There are
14 items are too easy ( 2,5,6,7,8,10,18,23,28,32,35,36,39 and 40), 4 items are too
difficult (11,12,14, and 19) and 22 items are accepted( 1,3,4,9,13,15,16,17,20,21,22,
24,25,26,27,29,30,31,33,34,37 and 38). Second, There are 3 items are not understand
(7, 10 and 40), 5 items are not discriminating (18, 29, 32, 36, and 39) and 32 items
are discriminating (11,13,17,38,28,2,5,6,8,9,12,35,14,19,23,21,4,3,26,15,16,20,22,3
1,33,34,24,27,30,37 and 25) . Third, the test given has some items contains disaster.
Certain items, although not rightly answered, has no disaster. Its rather the student miss
understanding or lack of understanding of the item.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the result of this research study, the researcher suggested the students
should always be motivated to consider the importance of the test item and the students
completed or corrected those sentences by selecting appropriate multiple choice item.
To overcome the students in the test items, the writer would like to suggest that the
teacher of English should give the items which are variation in the option. Variation

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is needed in this kind of test, and therefore the items in the test can be accepted as a
measurement.

LITERATURE CITED

Arikunto, S.2001. Penilaian Program Pendidikan, Jakarta: Depdikbud RI.

Arikunto, S. 2010. Dasar-DasarEvaluasiPendidikan.BumiAksara, Jakarta.

Bachman, Lyle F. 1990. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford


University Pres.

Gronlund, N.E, and Linn (1990), Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching (6th Ed).
Ny: Mac Millan.

Imron,Ali. 1996. The Teaching Learning Process. (online) (http://www.edpsycinteractive.


org/papers/modeltch.html, ( accesed on 8 th May 2012).

Mandaru, Language Testing and Evaluation, Kupang, FKIP Undana.

Nalley, H. 2009. Teaching English as Foreign Language.An unpublished teaching


material.Kupang, FKIP UNDANA

Senaul, Sisilia. 2004. An Analysis of the teacher made test items administered to the third
year students of SLTPN 8 Kupang in the Academic Year 2004/2005. Unpublished
Thesis.Undana.Kupang.

Tonge, Djen, P. 2001, Analysis ButirSoal (Item Analysis), Widyaswara BPG Kupang.
(online) (http://w3.gre.ac.uk/-bj61/talessi/atl.html, (Accessed on, 2nd June 2012)

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