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Baud Rate illustration!

Baud Rate ...now explained!


Publicado em 18 de fevereiro de 2017

Deepak Kaira 13 1 5
Freelancing Sr. Survey engineer / Survey Party Chief

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]ThemeasurewasnamedafteraFrenchengineer,JeanMauriceEmileBaudot,the
inventoroftheasynchronoustelegraphprinter.Itwasfirstusedtomeasurethespeedof
telegraphtransmissions,andisrepresentedinaccordancewiththerulesforSIunits.

Baudunitsymbol"Bdissynonymoustosymbolspersecondorpulsespersecond.
Itistheunitofsymbolrate,alsoknownasbaudormodulationratethenumberof
distinctsymbolchanges(signallingevents)madetothetransmissionmedium
persecondinadigitallymodulatedsignaloralinecode.

Baudisrelatedtobutshouldnotbeconfusedwithgrossbitrateexpressedin
bit/s.Abaudisaunitofmeasureforanalogysignalling.Ataminimum,onebaud
correspondstoonebitpersecond(bps)althoughathighersignallingspeeds,multiple
bitscanbetransferredinasinglebaud.

Baudwastheprevalentmeasurefordatatransmissionspeeduntilreplacedbya
moreaccurateterm,bps(bitspersecond).Onebaudisoneelectronicstatechangeper
second.Sinceasinglestatechangecaninvolvemorethanasinglebitofdata,theterm
characterspersecond(CPS)iscloserthanthetermbps(bitspersecond).

Theconfusionbetweenbpsandbaudstartedbackwhenantiquelowspeed
modemswerethenhighspeedmodems,thebpsrateactuallydidequalthebaudrate.
Onebitencodedperphasechange.Peoplewouldusebpsandbaudinterchangeably,
becausetheywerethesamenumber.
Forexample,a300bpsmodemalsohadabaudrateof300.Thisallchanged
whenfastermodemscamearound,andthebitrateexceededthebaudrate.

Onewaythisproblemgetsresolvedistousetheterm"symbolrate"insteadof
"baud"andthusavoidusingtheterm"baud".However,whentalkingaboutthe"speeds"
betweenthemodemandtheserialport(DTEspeed),baudandthesymbolratearethe
same.Andeven"speed"isamisnomersincewereallymeanflowrate.

Currentlythoughbpsunitofmeasurementhasreplaceditasabetterexpressionof
datatransmissionspeeds.

Asimpleexampletoclearanyambiguity:

Abaudof1kBd=1,000Bdissynonymoustoasymbolrateof1,000symbolsper
second.Incaseofamodem,thiscorrespondsto1,000tonespersecond,andincaseofa
linecode,thiscorrespondsto1,000pulsespersecond.Thesymboldurationtimeis
1/1,000second=1millisecond.

Indigitalsystems(i.e.,usingdiscrete/discontinuousvalues)withbinarycode,1
Bd=1bit/s.Bycontrast,nondigital(analogue)systemsuseacontinuousrangeof
valuestorepresentinformationandinthesesystemstheexactinformationalsizeof
1Bdvaries.

Insimpledigitalcommunicationlinksuseonlyonebitpersymbol,suchthat
binary"0"isrepresentedbyonesymbolandbinary1byanothersymbol.However,in
advancedmodemsanddatatransmissiontechniques,asymbolmayhavemorethantwo
states,soitmayrepresentmorethanonebit(abinarybitalwaysrepresentsoneof
exactlytwostates).

Atslowspeeds,onlyonebitofinformation(signallingelement)isencodedin
eachelectricalchange.Thebaud,therefore,indicatesthenumberofbitspersecondthat
aretransmitted.Forexample,300baudmeansthat300bitsaretransmittedeach
second(abbreviated300bps).

Assumingasynchronous(operationwithouttheuseoffixedtimeintervals)
communication,whichrequires10bitspercharacter,thistranslatesto30charactersper
second(cps).Forslowrates(below1,200baud),youcandividethebaudby10tosee
howmanycharacterspersecondaresent.

Athigherspeeds,itispossibletoencodemorethanonebitineachelectricalchange.
4,800baudmayallow9,600bitstobesenteachsecond.Athighdatatransferspeeds,
therefore,datatransmissionratesareusuallyexpressedinbitspersecond(bps)rather
thanbaud.Forexample,a9,600bpsmodemmayoperateatonly2,400baud.

WithrelevancetodataserialcablesusedinHydrographicsurveys,thebaud
rateissignificanttocompensateforlargedatastrings,datarequiringhighupdates
orhighresolution.
Notethechangeofbiteframelengthinrelationwithtimeatabaudrate4800is10
bitsin2.083msandat19200itis0.560ms.Tomethissignifiestwothingshighbaud
rateallowsforabiggerdatastringtobeprocessedinlessertime&forashorterdata
stringitallowshigherupdate(betterresolution).

Typicalsettingsare300,1200,2400,4800,and9600.

Associatedwithserialdatatransferare...

DataBits:Thisisthenumberofbitsthatmakeupacharacter.MostPCusesseven
oreightbits.

StopBits:Thisisthenumberofbitsusedtoindicatetheendofacharacter,inmost
cases,onestopbitmarkstheendofacharacter.

Parity:Thisisamethodofcheckingforerrorsindatacommunication.Itchecksthe
totalnumberof1bits(insteadof0's)inacharacter'sbinaryrepresentation,ifthe
numberofdatabitsiseight,thennormallythereisnoparityotherwise,theparity
canbeoddifsumofalldigitsisalwaysoddorevenifthesumofalldigitsisalways
even.

Ifadevicecancommunicateat300baud,itmeansthatitcantransmitorreceive
(rememberduplexcommunication)amaximumof300bits(roughly30characters)
persecondthatincludestheDataBits,StopBitsandtheParity.

WhilediscussingBaudrate,itspertinenttomention...

Serialcommunication:Bitsaresentoneafteranotherinaseriesalongthesamewire
meansbitbybit.Communicationbetweencomputersisalmostalwaysserial
(asynchronous).

01000001^31">01000001

Parallelcommunication:Dataistransmittedabyte(oraword/character)atatime.
Thisisdoneusingmanywires,withonewirecarryingeachbit.Printerismostoften
parallelsothatanentirebytecanbetransferredinoneoperation(synchronous)..

B800B8

B711B7

B600B6

B500B5

B411B4
B300B3

B211B2

B111B1

Asthebaudrateincreases,therateoftransmissionalsoincreases,andthetimeyouhave
tospendwaitingforinformationtoappearonthescreendecreases.

Whydoesitmatter:That'sbecauselargedatainputfrommultiplesensorsathighbaud
rateputscertainloadonthemicroprocessorswhichmayactuallyslowdownorhang
(tilldeath)thesystem.

Ifyoudidntgetitstillreadon!

bpsissimplythenumberofbitstransmittedpersecond.Thebaudrateisa
measureofhowmanytimespersecondasignalchanges(orcouldchange).Fora
typicalserialporta1bitis12voltsanda0bitis+12v(volts).

Ifthebpsis38,400asequenceof010101...wouldalsobe38,400baudsincethe
voltageshiftsbackandforthfrompositivetonegativetopositive,etc.andthereare
38,400shiftspersecond.Foranothersequencesay111000111...therewillbefewer
shiftsofvoltagesinceforthree1'sinsequencethevoltagejuststaysat12voltsyetwe
saythatitsstill38,400baudsincethereisapossibilitythatthenumberofchangesper
secondwillbethathigh.

Lookedatanotherway,putanimaginaryticmarkseparatingeachbit(even
thoughthevoltagemaynotchange).38,400baudthenmeans38,400ticmarksper
second.Theticmarksattheinstantsofpermittedchangeandareactuallymarkedbya
synchronisedclocksignalgeneratedinthehardwarebutnotsentovertheexternal
cable.

Supposethata"change"mayhavemorethanthetwopossibleoutcomesofthe
previousexample(of+12v).Supposeithas4possibleoutcomes,eachrepresentedby
auniquevoltagelevel.Eachlevelmayrepresentapairofbits(suchas01).For
example,12vcouldbe00,6v01,+6v10and+12v11.Herethebitrateisdoublethe
baudrate.

Forexample,3000changespersecondwillgenerate2bitsforeachchange
resultingin6000bitspersecond(bps).Inotherwords3000baudresultsin6000bps.

Theabovementionedexampleisoverlysimple.Realexamplesare
somewhatcomplicatedbutbasedonthesameidea.That'showamodemrunningat
2400baud,cansend14400bps(orhigher).Themodemachievesabpsrategreaterthan
baudratebyencodingmanybitsineachsignalchange(ortransition).Thus,when2or
morebitsareencodedperbaud,thebpsrateexceedsthebaudrate.
Toconclude,forserialdatatransfer,considerBaudrate(...don'tmissthe'rate'i.ein
relationwithtime)fordigitaltransmissionconsiderBitrate.

Abitmore:

b=sxn.(bbitrate),(ssignalspersecond),(nnumberofbitspersignal)

Baudrateillustrated:

IleaveittoyourdiscretionwhileIconcludemydiscussion.

Itismyendeavor(..iftimepermits)toprovidepersonalresponsestorequestsfor
additionalinformation(technicalortroubleshootingadvice,etc.).Forqueries,
suggestions,ambiguityorerrorsfeelwelcometo'comment'&'share'andyoumay
alsopostmeatdpsksurveytech@outlook.com

Cheers!!!

Disclaimer:Thisnoteisacompilationofextractsfrommyscribblebooks.Iexpectthe
readerstoemployprudenceasvariance,ambiguityanderrors(...typoincluded)canbe
expectedthoughI'veexercisedreasonablecareinpreparationofthesenotesduringmy
training,onthejobexperiencesandasanInstructor.SinceI'venocontrolovertheuse
towhichtheinformationinmynotesareputsoIassumenoliabilityandofcourse,it's
yourresponsibilitytodetermineitsappropriatenessandproperuse.

Denunciar

Deepak Kaira
Freelancing Sr. Survey engineer / Survey Party Chief
15 artigos

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Dominique Ferraro 2 sem
Hydrographic Surveyor - SARL HYDROCONSULT
Very interesting, thanks
Gostei Responder

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