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Energy 89 (2015) 324e333

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

Adaptive neuro-fuzzy estimation of diffuser effects on wind turbine


performance
Vlastimir Nikoli
c a, Dalibor Petkovi 
c a, *, Shahaboddin Shamshirband b, Zarko 
Cojbasi
ca
a
University of Nis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Deparment for Mechatronics and Control, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis, Serbia
b
Department of Computer System and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Wind power is generating interest amongst many countries to produce sustainable electrical power. It is
Received 14 December 2014 well known that the main drawback of wind power is the inherent variable behavior of wind speed.
Received in revised form Signicant research has been carried out to improve the performance of the wind turbines and establish
18 May 2015
the power system stability. As power output is proportional to the cubic power of the incident airspeed,
Accepted 20 May 2015
Available online 4 July 2015
any small increase in the incident wind yields a large increase in the energy output. One of the more
promising advanced concepts for overcoming the inherent variable behavior of wind speed is the DAWT
(diffuser-augmented wind turbine). The diffuser or anged diffuser generates separation regions behind
Keywords:
Ducted wind turbine
it, where low-pressure regions appear to draw more wind through the rotors compared to a bare wind
Shrouded wind turbine turbine. Thus, the output power of the DAWT is much larger than for a unshrouded turbine. To estimate
Diffuser augmented wind turbine rotor performance of the diffuser-augmented wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which
Neuro-fuzzy simulates the power output, torque output and rotational speed of the rotor in regard to diffuser effect
ANFIS and wind input speed with ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy) method. This intelligent estimator is imple-
mented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated.
2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction wind turbine blades and increases in cross-sectional area in the


stream wise direction. The resulting sub-atmospheric pressure
The usage of renewable, clean energy has become a very within the diffuser draws more air through the blade plane, and
important issue in recent years. Among all renewable energy of hence more power can be generated compared to a conventional
different styles, wind energy possesses many advantages such as turbine of the same rotor blade diameter [11e13]. Several re-
extensive distribution, high efciency, low cost, low maintenance searchers have examined the benets and economics of placing a
and environmental friendliness. The power in the wind is well diffuser around a wind turbine [14,15]. It has been reported that the
known to be proportional to the cubic power of the wind velocity speed of wind passing through the shroud is dramatically increased
approaching a wind turbine. This means that even small amount of [16,17]. Shrouding (diffuser augmented) horizontal axis wind tur-
its acceleration gives large increase of the energy generation. Peo- bine has been shown to be an effective way to potentially improve
ple have long been seeking designs of enhancements to the con- the performance of wind turbine for applications in built or urban
ventional wind turbines, and one of the most assuring proposals is environments [9,10]. The ducted wind turbine overcomes many of
the DAWT (diffuser augmented wind turbine) [1e3]. Some attrac- the problems associated with the use of conventional wind tur-
tive studies regarding augmented wind turbines were reported by bines in an urban environment [18e20], which are hampered by
Refs. [4e7]. A DAWT [8e10] has a duct or shroud that surrounds the high levels of turbulence in the air stream, and are also constrained
by concerns over visual impact, noise and public safety [21].
Generating energy from the wind in an urban environment is an
attractive idea [22,23]. However, there are major problems over its
* Corresponding author. 381 643283048. practical implementation at a signicant scale [24,25]. In such
E-mail address: dalibortc@gmail.com (D. Petkovi
c). location, the wind is normally weak, turbulent and unstable in

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.05.126
0360-5442/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333 325

Nomenclature n number of blades


c chord length
ANFIS adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system CD Drag coefcient
DAWT diffuser-augmented wind turbine CL lift coefcients
CFD computational uid dynamics r0 radius of blade
Cp power coefcient rh radius of hub
Ct torque coefcient Ch rotation coefcient
FIS fuzzy inference system m membership function
P power of wind {p, q, r, s} premise parameters
r air density {a,b,c} variable parameters
r rotor radius {pi, qi,ri,si}
u wind velocity consequent parameters
h efciency of the wind turbine RMSE root-mean-square
Ux stream wise velocity R2 coefcient of determination
Ctrq torque coefcient r Pearson coefcient

terms of direction and speed [26,27], because of the presence of physical process as a precondition for its application. Thus ANFIS
buildings and other adjacent obstructions. To yield a reasonable integrates the FIS with a back-propagation learning algorithm of
power output from a wind turbine located in this turbulent envi- neural network.
ronment the turbines have to improve their energy capture [28,29]. The key goal of this investigation is to establish an ANFIS for
This means that turbines need to be specically designed to work estimation of the wind turbine rotor performances, power output,
effectively in low and turbulent wind resource areas [30,31]. torque output and rotor rotational speed in regard to diffuser effect
In this study is an analyzed diffuser effect on wind turbine rotor and wind input speed. The basic idea behind the soft computing
performance. Since the using of CFD (computational uid dy- methodology is to collect input/output data pairs and to train the
namics) for the ducted wind turbine performance analyzing could proposed network from these data. This technique gives fuzzy logic
be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing tech- the capability to adapt the membership function parameters that
niques are preferred. It is attempted to estimate the rotor perfor- best allow the associated FIS to track the given input/output data
mance with diffuser for different number of blades and for different [39e41]. A CFD simulation is carried out to extract the training and
wind input speed by soft computing methodology i.e. ANFIS checking data for the ANFIS network.
(adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system). As the rotor performance,
power output, torque output and rotor rotational speed of the rotor 2. Materials and methods
are tracked. Cp (power coefcient) and Ct (torque coefcient) are
used as the measure for power output and torque output 2.1. Diffuser augmented wind turbines
respectively.
ANFIS is one of the most powerful types of neural network The power in wind is proportional to the cubic power of the
system [32]. ANFIS shows very good learning and prediction ca- wind velocity approaching the wind turbine:
pabilities, which makes it an efcient tool to deal with encountered
uncertainties in any system. ANFIS, as a hybrid intelligent system 1 2 3
that enhances the ability to automatically learn and adapt, was used
P rr pu h (1)
2
by researchers in various engineering systems [33e35]. So far, there
are many studies of the application of ANFIS for estimation and where the air density is represented by Refs. r, rotor radius is r, u is
real-time identication of many different systems [36e38]. FIS the wind velocity and h is the efciency of the wind turbine. The
(fuzzy inference system) is the main core of ANFIS. FIS is based on ratio of captured power to available power is referred to as the
expertise expressed in terms of IFeTHEN rules and can thus be power coefcient Cp. Equation (1) shows that a small amount of
employed to predict the behavior of many uncertain systems. FIS acceleration leads to a large increase in the energy output. Fig. 1
advantage is that it does not require knowledge of the underlying illustrates an overview of the present DAWT (diffuser
augmented-wind turbine system). A ange generates a large sep-
aration behind it, where a very low-pressure region appears to
draw more wind compared to a diffuser with no ange. Owing to
this effect, the ow coming into the diffuser can be effectively
concentrated and accelerated. In this system, the maximum ve-
locity is obtained near the inlet of diffuser and thus a wind turbine
is located there as shown in Fig. 1.
The goal of this research is to determine the diffuser effect on
wind turbine performances (power output, torque output and
rotational speed) by ANFIS methodology.

2.2. Numerical method and computational conditions

The present ow eld is generally expressed by the continuity


Fig. 1. Schematic view and a ow mechanism around a diffuser-shrouded wind and the incompressible Reynolds-averaged NaviereStokes equa-
turbine. tions as follows [2]:
326 V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333

Zr0 Zr0
vUi 1 n 2 o
0; T dT r Ux ru2 CL sin b  CD cos bncrdr
vxi 2
rh rh
Zr0 n o
1 2
rUx CL sin b  CD cos b 1 ru=Ux 2 ncrdr
( ! ) 2
vUi vP v vUi vUj rh
pUj  pv  rui uj Fi ; (2)
vxj vxi vxj vxj vxi Zr0
1
r Ux2 Ch 2pr 2 dr (5)
2
where denotes a Reynolds-averaged value. In the equations, r, P, rh
Ui, ui and v respectively denote the density, mean static pressure,
mean velocity, turbulent uctuation and kinematic viscosity. In where r0 and rh denote the radius of blade and hub, respectively. Ch
Equation (2) Fi is the body-force term imposed for the represen- is rotation coefcient since it merges drag and lift coefcient and it
tation of a load. is dened as [2]:
The computational conditions are shown in Fig. 2. In Fig. 2, L, D, n o
f and h respectively denote the diffuser length, diffuser diameter at ncCL sin b  CD cos b 1 ru=Ux 2
the throat, diffuser opening angle and height of ange used in the Ch (6)
2pr
present experiment. The subscripts 0, 1, 2 and b in the Fig. 2 denote
values at the inlet (free stream), in front of the load (approaching), Therefore, the total torque coefcient generated by the blades
behind the load and at the exit of the diffuser, respectively. can be expressed as [2]:
In this study, the load inside the diffuser was represented by the
Zr0 Zr0
following general expression [2]: T 1 1
Ctrq 1 1 2 dT Ch K 2 2pr 2 dr; (7)
2 rU 2 AD
0 2 rU 0 AD
AD
rh rh

Ctrq 1 where Ap(D/2)2 and K U2/U0 is the acceleration factor. The po-
Fx rUx jUx j; Fr 0; (3)
D 2 wer coefcient is estimated as follows [2]:

where Ux is the stream wise velocity. In Equation (3) Ctrq and D are Zr0 Zr0  
the loading coefcient and its stream wise width imposed, Tu u 1 ru
Cp 1 1 2 dT Ch K 2 2pr 2 dr: (8)
respectively. In this study, Ctrq was determined by use of a disk- 2 rU 2A
0 2 rU0A
A Ux
rh rh
loading method in the two-dimensional cylindrical (xr) coordi-
nate as follows [2]:

n o 2.3. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system


ncCL cos b CD sin b 1 ru=Ux 2
Ctrq ; (4) ANFIS model will be established in this study to estimate
2pr
diffuser effect on wind turbine performances. Since there are three
where n is the number of blades, u is the angular velocity of the outputs to determine, power coefcient Cp, torque coefcient Ctrq
wind turbine, c is the chord length and btan1(Ux/ru). In Equation and rotational speed of rotor, three ANFIS networks are modeled.
(4) CD and CL are, respectively, the drag and lift coefcients for the Each ANFIS network has three inputs: wind input speed, number of
relative angle of attack, abg, where g is the angle of blade blades and presence of the diffuser. Training and checking data for
setting. the ANFIS networks is extracted from the above presented nu-
On the other hand the torque generated by the blades can be merical analyze and by CFD simulations. With a proper training
estimated as follows [2]: scheme and ne ltered data-sets, ANFIS is capable to estimate the
diffuser effect on the wind turbine performances quite accurately
since it learns from training data.
FIS (fuzzy inference system) is the main core of ANFIS. FIS is
based on expertise expressed in terms of IFeTHEN rules and can
thus be employed to predict the behavior of many uncertain sys-
tems. FIS advantage is that it does not require knowledge of the
underlying physical process as a precondition for its application.
Thus ANFIS integrates the fuzzy inference system with a back-
propagation learning algorithm of neural network. The basic
structure of a FIS consists of three conceptual components: a rule
base, which contains a selection of fuzzy rules; a database, which
denes the MFs (membership functions) used in the fuzzy rules;
and a reasoning mechanism, which performs the inference proce-
dure upon the rules and the given facts to derive a reasonable
output or conclusion. These intelligent systems combine knowl-
edge, technique and methodologies from various sources. They
possess human-like expertise within a specic domain e adapt
themselves and learn to do better in changing environments. In
Fig. 2. Computational conditions of the diffuser system. ANFIS, neural networks recognize patterns, and help adaptation to
V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333 327

environments. ANFIS is tuned with a back propagation algorithm


based on the collection of inputeoutput data.
There are three ANFIS networks with three inputs used in the
study and two membership functions on each input. In this study
bell-shaped membership functions are chosen with maximum
equal to 1 and minimum equal to 0. Fuzzy logic toolbox in MATLAB
was used for the entire process of training and evaluation of fuzzy
inference system. Fig. 3 shows an ANFIS structure with three inputs.
Nodes of the same layer have similar functions. The output of the
ith node in layer l is denoted as Ol,i.
In this work, the rst-order Sugeno model with three inputs and
fuzzy IF-THEN rules of Takagi and Sugeno's type is used. Since there
are 3 inputs and 2 membership functions on each input there are 8
Fig. 4. Bell-shaped membership function (a 2, b 4, c 6).
IF-THEN rules as follows (23 8):

Rule 1 : if x is A and y is C and z is E then f1 p1 x q1 y r1 z s1 is used here as it has the best abilities for the generalization of
Rule 2 : if x is A and y is C and z is F then f2 p2 x q2 y r2 z s2 nonlinear parameters:
Rule 3 : if x is A and y is D and z is E then f3 p3 x q3 y r3 z s3
Rule 4 : if x is A and y is D and z is F then f4 p4 x q4 y r4 z s4
Rule 5 : if x is B and y is C and z is E then f5 p5 x q5 y r5 z s5 1
m  2b (11)
Rule 6 : if x is B and y is C and z is F then f6 p6 x q6 y r6 z s6 xc
1
Rule 7 : if x is B and y is D and z is E then f7 p7 x q7 y r7 z s7 a
Rule 8 : if x is B and y is D and z is F then f8 p8 x q8 y r8 z s8
(9) where {a,b,c} is the variable set. The bell-shaped function varies
accordingly as the values of the variables change, therefore mani-
The parameters {p, q, r, s} are premise paremters in the ANFIS festing different types of membership functions for fuzzy sets
model. These parameters should be optimized during trianing A, B, C, D, E and F . The bell-shaped function depend on three pa-
procedure of the ANFIS network. rameters a, b, and c. The parameter b is usually positive. The
The rst layer consists of input variables membership functions parameter c located the center of the curve as it is shown in Fig. 4.
(MFs). This layer just supplies the input values to the next layer. In The second layer (membership layer) checks for the weights of
the rst layer every node is an adaptive node with a node functions each MFs. It receives the input values from the 1st layer and acts as
O1,i (i1,2,3,4,5,6): MFs to represent the fuzzy sets of the respective input variables.
Every node in the second layer is non-adaptive and this layer
O1;1 mA x; multiplies the incoming signals and sends the product out like
O1;2 mB x;
O1;3 mC y;
(10) O2;1 w1 mA xmC y;
O1;4 mD y;
O1;5 mE z; O2;2 w2 mB xmD y;
(12)
O1;6 mF z O2;3 w3 mC ymE z;
O2;4 w4 mD ymF z
where x or y or z is the input to node i (i1,2,3,4,5,6) and A or B or C
Each node output represents the ring strength of a rule or
or D or E or F is an associated linguistic label (such as small or
weight.
large). In other words, O1,i is the membership grade of a fuzzy sets
The third layer is called the rule layer. Each node (each neuron)
A, B, C, D, E and F . It stipulates the extent to which the specied
in this layer performs the pre-condition matching of the fuzzy
input x or y or z satises the quantiers A or B or C or D or E or F. In
rules, i.e. they compute the activation level of each rule, the number
this instance, the membership function for can be any suitable
of layers being equal to the number of fuzzy rules. Each node of
parameterized membership function. The generalized bell function
these layers calculates the weights which are normalized. The third
layer is also non-adaptive and every node calculates the ratio of the
rule's ring strength to the sum of all rules' ring strengths like

w1
O3;1 w1 ;
w1 w2
w2
O3;2 w2 ;
w1 w2
(13)
w3
O3;3 w3 ;
w3 w4
w4
O3;4 w4
w3 w4
The outputs of this layer are called normalized ring strenghts
or normalized weights.
The fourth layer is called the defuzzication layer and it pro-
vides the output values resulting from the inference of rules. Every
Fig. 3. ANFIS structure with three inputs. node in the fourth layer is an adaptive node with node function
328 V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333

where Pi and Oi are known as the experimental and forecast values


O4;1 w1 fi w1 pi x qi y ri z si ; of Cpmax, Ctmax amd RPMmax, respectively, and n is the total
O4;2 w2 fi w2 pi x qi y ri z si ; number of test data.
(14)
O4;3 w3 fi w3 pi x qi y ri z si ;
O4;4 w4 fi w4 pi x qi y ri z si
3.2. ANFIS results
where {pi, qi,ri,si} is the parameter set and in this layer is referred to
as consequent parameters. At the beginning the ANFIS networks is trained with the
The fth layer is called the output layer which sums up all the extracted data from the computational uid dynamics simulations
inputs coming from the fourth layer and transforms the fuzzy and numerical analysis. Table 1 shows training input and output
classication results into a crisp (binary). The output represents data parameters. The output parameters represent optimal
estimated modulation transfer function of the optical system. The (maximal) values for the wind turbine parameters. These optimal
single node in the fth layer is not adaptive and this node computes output parameters varied according to input values. One can note
the overall output as the summation of all incoming signals that the maximal Cp is 0.773 and the maximal Ct 0.409 is during the
CFD simulations. These values are higher than usually power co-
X
4 P4 efcient since diffuser was implemented during the simulations.
wi f
O5 wi fi Pi1
4
(15) However the obtained maximal values of Cp and Ct are not practical
i1 i1 wi veried. Many factors will inuence to make the coefcient smaller
The hybrid learning algorithms were applied to identify the in real applications. In other words the ANFIS networks were
parameters in the ANFIS architectures. In the forward pass of the trained with the optimal data and the ANFIS output should be
hybrid learning algorithm, functional signals go forward until Layer optimal values in relation to different inputs.
4 and the consequent parameters are identied by the least squares There are three ANFIS networks: ANFIS-1 for power coefcient
estimate. In the backward pass, the error rates propagate back- Cp estimation, ANFIS-2 for torque coefcient Ct estimation and
wards and the premise parameters are updated by the gradient ANFIS-3 for rotational speed estimation of turbine. Two bell-
descent. shaped membership functions are used for each input during the
training procedure. It is not appropriate to further increase the
number of the membership functions since there are too many
3. Results parameters to estimate.
The nal decision surfaces after training procedure of the ANFIS
3.1. Evaluating accuracy of proposed model networks are shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 respectively for power
coefcient prediction, torque coefcient prediction and rotational
Predictive performances of proposed model were presented as speed prediction of the turbine. These ANFIS surfaces represent
RMSE (root means square error), Coefcient of determination (R2) optimal values for the output parameters. The ANFIS provided
and Pearson coefcient (r). These statistics are dened as follows: optimal values since the ANFIS networks were trained with opti-
mized data in initial stage. In other words the optimization was
1) RMSE (root-mean-square error) performed during CFD simulations and training data acquiring. One
can note that the maximal Cp value 0.773 was not predicted by
s ANFIS model. It means the CFD training data is not real data and
Pn 2 cannot be achieved in real applications. It should be noted as the
i1 Pi  Oi
RMSE ; (16) number of blades input it was used solidity percentage of each
n
blade. Each blade represents 10% solidity. For example 40% solidity
represents 4 blades. The method of estimation diffuser effect and
wind input speed inuence on wind turbine performances, power
coefcient Cp, torque coefcient Ct and rotational rotor speed RPM
2) Pearson correlation coefcient (r)
(rotation per metres), is impemented in MATLAB Simulink block
diagram as it shown in Appendix.
! ! !
Pn Pn Pn
n i1 Oi $Pi  i1 Oi $ i1 Pi 3.3. Wind tribune performances
r v
u0 !2 1 0 !2 1 Figs. 8e10 shows power coefcient, torque coefcient and
u
u@ Pn 2 Pn
A @
Pn 2 Pn
A rotational speed percentage changes of rotor for different number
t n i1 Oi  i1 Oi $ n i1 P i  i1 Pi

(17) Table 1
Training data for the ANFIS network: (a) input parameters, (b) output parameters.

(a)

Inputs Min Max


3) coefcient of determination (R2)
1. Solidity 30% 60%
2. Wind speed 10 m/s 20 m/s
3. Flanged diffuser 0 1
" #2
Pn     (b)
Oi  Oi $ Pi  Pi Outputs Min Max
i1
1. Cpmax 0.228 0.773
R2 P   P   (18)
n 2. Ctmax 0.069 0.409
i1 Oi  Oi $ ni1 Pi  Pi 3. RPMmax 1077 3251
V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333 329

Fig. 8. Increasing of the maximal power coefcient Cp in percentage after adding


diffuser for different number of blades and different wind input speed.

Fig. 5. ANFIS prediction of maximal power coefcient Cpmax.

Fig. 9. Increasing of the maximal torque coefcient Ct in percentage for different


number of blades and different wind input speed.

maximal changing of rotational speed of rotor for three blades was


achieved for wind input speed of 20 m/s.
Fig. 6. ANFIS prediction of maximal torque coefcient Ctmax.

3.4. Performance evaluation of proposed ANFIS model


of blades and different input speed after adding diffuser. As can be
seen, the maximal changing of power and torque coefcient was In this section performance results of ANFIS predictive model
achieved for 3 blades. In other words the Cp was increased in 160% are reported. Fig. 11(a) presents the accuracy of developed ANFIS
after adding diffuser for three blades. Fig. 11 shows that the predictive model for Cpmax, while Fig. 11(b) presents the accuracy
of developed ANFIS predictive model for Ctmax. Finally Fig. 11(c)
shows ANFIS prediction of RPMmax. It can be seen that the most of

Fig. 10. Increasing of the maximal rotational speed of rotor RPM in percentage for
Fig. 7. ANFIS prediction maximal rotational speed of turbine RPMmax. different number of blades and different wind input speed.
330 V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333

Fig. 11. Scatter plots of actual and ANFIS predicted values of (a) Cpmax, (b) Ctmax and (c) RPMmax.

Table 2 Table 4
Comparative performance statistics of the ANFIS Cpmax predictive model. Comparative performance statistics of the ANFIS RPMmax predictive model.

RMSE R2 r RMSE R2 r

ANFIS 0.011739 0.9954 0.997695 ANFIS 39.49314 0.9932 0.996583


ANN 0.030613 0.9695 0.98464 ANN 103.7439 0.9592 0.979378
GP 0.0313 0.9673 0.9835 GP 103.8132 0.9592 0.979375
SVM 0.029755 0.9708 0.985314 SVM 86.64905 0.9773 0.988571

the points fall along the diagonal line for the ANFIS prediction (genetic programming) [45e47] and SVM (support vector machine)
models. Consequently, it follows that prediction results are in very [48e50]. Conventional error statistical indicators i.e. RMSE, r and R2
good agreement with the actual values of the wind turbine char- were used for comparison. Tables 2e4 summarize the prediction
acteristics. This observation can be conrmed with very high value accuracy results for two analyzed models.
of coefcient of determination. The number of either overestimated Fig. 12 presents ANFIS prediction results in comparison with
or underestimated values is limited. It is obvious that the predicted experimental results for Cpmax, Ctmax and RPMmax.
values enjoy high level precision.
In order to demonstrate the merits of the proposed ANFIS
approach on a more denite and tangible basis, ANFIS models 4. Conclusion
prediction accuracy was compared with other soft computing
methodologies like which were used as a benchmark. These Diffuser-augmented wind turbines are capable of concentrating
benchmark models are ANN (articial neural network) [42e44], GP the energy in the wind and permits more power to be extracted
from the wind. Since wind power is well known to be directly
proportional to the cube of wind speed approaching a wind turbine
Table 3
it leads that with a slight acceleration in wind speed, it will cause a
Comparative performance statistics of the ANFIS Ctmax predictive model.
large increase in the wind power output. It is important issue that a
RMSE R2 r wind power generation is improved to raise the efciency as one of
ANFIS 0.018587 0.9537 0.976557 natural energy sources in order to promote the usage of sustainable
ANN 0.020435 0.9444 0.971799 energy. According to the background, the wind turbine with a
GP 0.020628 0.9436 0.971414 diffuser shroud is developed as one of high performance wind
SVM 0.019195 0.9555 0.975075
turbines. In particular, the diffuser augmented-wind turbines can
V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333 331

Fig. 12. ANFIS prediction results in comparison with experimental results for (a) Cpmax, (b) Ctmax and (c) RPMmax.

generate electric power even in low velocity wind since the diffuser Acknowledgment
shroud increases the wind velocity at rotor.
In this study was analyzed diffuser effect on wind turbine rotor This paper is supported by Project Grant 35005 00 Research and
performances. The impact of the diffuser and wind input speed on development of new generation wind turbines of high-energy ef-
the rotor performance was investigated. As the parameters of the ciency (2011e2014) nanced by Ministry of Education, Science
rotor performance, power output (power coefcient Cp), torque and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia.
output (torque coefcient Ct) and rotational speed of the rotor were
used. A Simulink model was developed in MATLAB with the ANFIS
network for the diffuser effect estimation. Simulations were run in
MATLAB and the results were observed on the corresponding Appendix
output blocks. The main advantages of the ANFIS scheme are:
computationally efcient, well-adaptable with optimization and There are 6 ANFIS networks in the block diagram since three
adaptive techniques. ANFIS can also be used with systems handling ANFIS networks estimate cases when the diffuser is active as it
more complex parameters. Another advantage of ANFIS is its speed shown in Fig. 13. The other three ANFIS networks estimate cases
of operation, which is much faster than in other control strategies; when the diffuser is inactive. As can be seen wind input speed range
the tedious task of training membership functions is done in ANFIS. is from 10 m/s to 20 m/s. This approach is very useful for fast
The main contribution of the investigation is numerical results. estimation of the diffuser effect for the DAWT project since
Further analyzing should include experimental verication of the computational uid dynamics simulations could be very chal-
numerical results. Also the ANFIS network is data-driven method lenging and time consuming. As can be seen in the SIMULINK block
which indicates that the method is dependable on training data diagram outputs give percentage of power coefcient, torque co-
selection. In this investigation was examined different training data efcient amd rotational speed increasing after implementation of
combination to conrm the results. However for further investi- diffuser. Fig. 8 shows a case for 3 blades and wind input speed
gation other soft computing method should be examined also for 15 m/s. For the case power coefcient is increased 132.1%, torque
this topic. coefcient is increased 108% and rotational speed of rotor is in-
crease 12.8%.
332 V. Nikolic et al. / Energy 89 (2015) 324e333

Fig. 13. Simulink block diagram for estimation of diffuser effect on power coefcient Cp, torque coefcient Ct and rotational rotor speed RPM.

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