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PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF

RASAKARPOOR AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

By

Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi
DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES BANGALORE, KARNATAKA

In partial fulfillments of the requirements for the degree of


AYURVEDA VACHASPATI(M.D)

In

RASASHASTRA

Under the guidance of

Dr.M.C.Patil
M.D. (Ayu)

Under the co-guidance of

Dr.Girish N.Danappagouder
M.D. (Ayu)

J.S.V.V. SAMSTHES

Shri.D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Hospital


& P.G.Research Centre, GADAG - 582103
2004-2007
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore.

DECLARATION BY THE CANDITATE

I hereby declare that this dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-chemical

analysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafide and genuine

research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr. M.C. Patil, MD (Ayu),

Professor and HOD, Post - Graduate Department of Rasashastra and under the co-

guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D (Ayu), Lecturer, Post graduate

Department of Rasashastra.

Date: Signature of the Candidate

Place: Gadag (Dr. Suvarna P. Nidagundi)


SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG.
POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.

I here by certify that this dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-

chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafide

research work done by Dr.Suvarna P. Nidagundi in partial fulfillment of the

requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D (Ayu) in Rasashastra of

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka under my

Guidance.

Guide

Date: Dr.M.C.Patil M.D (Ayu)


Place: Gadag Professor & HOD
Department of Rasashastra,
D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College,
Hospital and P.G.Research Center,
Gadag - 582103.
SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG.
POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.

I here by certify that this dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-

chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafide

and genuine research work done by Dr.Suvarna P. Nidagundi in partial

fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D (Ayu)

in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore,

Karnataka under my Guidance.

Co-Guide

Date: Dr.Girish N.Danappagoudar. M.D (Ayu)


Place: Gadag Lecturer
Department of Rasashastra,
D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College,
Hospital and P.G.Research Center,
Gadag-582103.
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-chemical

analysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafide research work

done by Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi under the Guidance of Dr.M.C.Patil MD

(Ayu) Professor & HOD, Post Graduate Department of Rasashastra and under the Co-

Guidance of Dr.Girish N.Danappagoudar MD (Ayu) Lecturer, Post Graduate

Department of Rasashastra.

Dr.M.C.Patil M.D (Ayu) Dr.G.B.Patil


Professor & H.O.D Principal /C.M.O
Department of Rasashastra,
D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College
Hospital and P.G.Research Center, Hospital and P.G.Research Center
Gadag. Gadag.

Date: Date:

Place: Gadag Place: Gadag


I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore,

Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation in print

or electronic format for academic/research purpose.

Date: Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi


Place: Gadag

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore.


Acknowledgement

Any research is never an individual effort. It is contributory effort of many


hearts, hands and heads. It gives me inexpressible pleasure to offer my sincere thanks
to all those who have rendered their wholehearted support, guidance and Co-operation
in completing my thesis work.
I utililize this opportunity to express my full respect and regards to my Mother
in law who is not with us Smt.Vajreshwari.M.Shedagatagi, who gave me confidence
and encouragement to do this course. It is beyond the words to express my gratitude
towards my Father-in-law for his support and never ending love, which are the driving
forces behind my success and achievement.
I express my enormous earnest gratification and heart felt thanks to my
Husband and my Children for their dedication, support and sacrifice.
My deep sense of gratification is due for my Parents who are the architects of
my career, culture and discipline, which i could imbibe, are solely because of their
painstaking, upbringing and strong moral support.
I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my beloved
and respected HOD and Guide Prof. Dr.M.C.PatilMD whose sympathetic, scholarly
suggestions and guidance at every step have inspired me not only to accomplish this
work but in all aspects.
I express gratitude beyond words to my Associate guide
Dr.K.Krupanidhi.M.Sc,M.Phil,PhD Lecturer, Dept of Microbiology & Biotechnology,
S.C.S. College of Pharmacy, Harapanahalli for his constant supervision, guidance
encouragement and wholehearted support during my experimental study.
I am extremely grateful to my co-guide Dr.G.N.Danappagowdar, MD.(Ayu) under
whose guidance, inspiration, supervision and valuable suggestions, i have been able to
complete this research work.
I take this privilege to convey my sincere thanks to Dr.Numburi Hanumant
Rao who guided me for Qualititative identification of Rasakarpoor in Vijayawad
when we are on study tour.
I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof.Dr.R.K.Gachchinamath.HOD,
Rasashastra dept (UG) DGMAMC, Gadag, for being kind & affectionate through his
valuable suggestions & advises.

i
I express my deep gratitude to Dr.Dilipkumar B. MD (Ayu) for his critical
suggestions and expert guidance for the completion of thesis.
I am extremely grateful to Dr.Jagadish Mitti, MD (Ayu) who helped me in every
step of this thesis work and given valuable informations wherever necessary.
I convey my sincere gratitude to our beloved Principal Dr.G.B.Patil whose
valuable suggestions during the course of my academic career has shown me the way
of perfectness.
I take this opportunity to thank HODs of other departments
Dr.Purushothamacharyulu MD (Ayu), Dr.Varadhacharyulu MD (Ayu), and Dr.G.V.Mulgund
MD (Ayu) for their inspiration and valuable suggestions.
I am grateful to all the PG teachers Dr.K.S.R.PrasadMD.(AYU),
Dr.S.H.Doddamani, Dr.ShivaramuduMD.(AYU), Dr.R.Y.ShettarMD.(AYU), Dr.Kuber.
SankMD.(AYU), Dr.Santosh BelvadiMD.(AYU), Dr.Mulki Patil MD.(AYU), Dr.A.Samudri
MD.(AYU), Dr.YasminMD.(AYU), Dr.Shashidhar NidagundiMD.(AYU) and Dr.Shankaragouda
for their valuable suggestions.
I extend my immense gratitude to Dr.G.S.Hiremath, Dr.S.A.Patil,
Dr.U.V.Purad, Dr.B.G.Swami, Dr.Paraddi, Dr.Sajjana and other teaching staff who
helped during my study.
I take this opportunity to thank Shri.Suresh Hiremath, Shri.Chandur and
Shri.Shivakumar Lecturers of J. T. Pharmacy College Gadag, who extended valuable
support for conducting analytical procedures.
I feel proud in expressing my sincere gratitude to my brothers, family
members and my best friend Dr.Manjula, who not only helped me but also stood by
me during hours of stress and dejection.
I would like to express my sincere thanks to Librarian
Shri.V.M.Mundinamani, and Asst Librarian Shri.S.B.Sureban and Shri Shavi for
providing valuable books in time throughout the study.
I extend my sincere thanks to my seniors Dr.Santhoji, Dr.Jaggal,
Dr.V.S.Hiremath, Dr.Koteshwar, Dr.R.B.Pattanashetti, Dr.Ganti, Dr.Pradeep,
Dr.Sobagin, Dr.Sasvihalli, Dr.M.S.Hiremath, My classmates Dr.S.V.Teggi,
Dr.Sharanu Angadi, Dr.Anand.H, Dr.Anitha.H and Junior friends Dr.Suma.J,
Dr.Jayshree.S, Dr.Rudrakshi.D, Dr.Kattimani, Dr.Amnish Varma, Dr.Kavita, Dr.Anu,
Dr.Vijayalaxmi, Dr.Shivakumar, and Dr.Ravindra for their guidelines and timely
rendered help.
ii
I take this moment to express my thanks to all my Post Graduate friends
Dr.Jagadish.H, Dr.Anand.D, Dr.Gangur, Dr.Channaverswami, Dr.Vijay,
Dr.Lingareddi, Dr.Ashwin, Dr.Hakkandi, Dr.Manju.Akki, Dr.Umesh, Dr.Krishna,
Dr.Akki, Dr.Gavi, Dr.Sarvi. Dr.Kalmath, Dr.Ashok, Dr.Kendadmath, Dr.Sajjanar,
Dr.Venkareddy, Dr.Shaila, Dr.Sunita, Dr.Bingi, Dr.Ratan, Dr.Uday, Dr.Hugar,
Dr.Meenaxi, Dr.Ashwini, Dr.Madhushri, Dr.Shalini, Dr. Shivaleela, Dr. Sulochana &
Dr. Kamalaxi.
I am very much thankful to M/s Pragati Xerox Center, Gadag for their timely
help bringing out this computer print.
I express my thanks to all the persons who have helped me directly &
indirectly with apologies for my ability to identify them individually.

Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi.

iii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED

AH -- Astanga Hrudaya

AP -- Ayurveda Prakash

ASS -- Ayurveda Sara Sangraha

BP -- Bhava Prakasha

BPN -- Bhava Prakash Nighantu

BR -- Bhaishajya Ratnavali

BRJ -- Basavarajium

BRRS -- Bruhat Rasa Raja Sundar

ChSm -- Charaka Samhita

DhN -- Dhanwantari Nighantu

KN -- Kaideva Nighantu

MHN -- Maha Nighantu

MPN -- Madanapala Nighantu

PaSa -- Parada Samhita

RaChi -- Rasendra Chintamani

RaPu -- Rasendra Purana

RCh -- Rasendra Coodamani

RHT -- Rasa Hridaya Tantra

RJN -- Rasa Jala Nidhi

RK -- Rajakamadhenu

RM -- Rasendra Mangala

RMJ -- Rasamanjari

RN -- Raja Nighantu

iv
RPS -- Rasa Prakash Sudhakar

RRK -- Rasaratnakar

RRS -- Rasa Ratna Samucchaya

RSM -- Rasamrut

RSN -- Rasarnava

RSS -- Rasendra Sara Sangraha

RT -- Rasatarangini

PV -- Parada Vignana

SSMK -- Sharangadhar Samhita Madhyama Kanda

SuSm -- Sushruta Samhita

YR -- Yogaratnakara

v
Abstract
Background:

Rasashastra is known for many valuable Herbal or Herbomineral and their

varied preparations. Many of such formulations have been obscured for lack of proper

apprehension of the therapeutic uses and also due to the complexity in their

preparations. Kupipakva Rasayanas fall under such category, out of which

Rasakarpoor is one. It is one of the Nirghandha Kupipakva Rasayana, which is

neglected in Pharmaceutics, because of its toxicity. When Rasakarpoor processed

properly and administered in minimal dose it is highly effective against diseases. It

has properties like Krimigna, Bahubootavishapaha, etc. The above diseases caused by

Microorganisms. Therefore present study was undertaken as Rasakarpoor against

microorganisms.

Objectives:

The present study was planned with the following Aims and Objectives

1. Preparation of Rasakarpoor.

2. Physico chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor.

3. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor.

Methods:

Pharmaceutical study:

1. Hingula shodhana according to Rasatarangini -- 9/16-17, Page No 202.

2. Hingulotha parada according to Rasatarangini -- 5/39-39, Page No 82-83.

3. Preparation of Rasakarpoor according to Rasatarangini -- 6/68-71, Page No

115-116.

vi
Analytical study:

Rasakarpoor is subjected to physico chemical analysis i.e. organoleptic

characters, loss on 1100C, Solubility, pH, and fineness of the particles etc.

Experimental study:

Cup plate method was selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of

Rasakarpoor. For the study 2-gram +ve, 2-gram ve bacteria and 2 fungi were

selected. Antimicrobial activity was carried out in Microbiology department of

S.C.S.collage of Pharmacy Harapanahalli.

Results:

Results of Antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor were expressed in terms of

Zone of inhibition. Zone of inhibition was calculated with the help of measuring

transparent scale.

1. Rasakarpoor has shown less significant activity for all bacterias except E-coli,

the standard drug cefotoxium in both the concentrations(50gm/ml and

100gm/ml).

2. Rasakarpoor has shown significant activity for fungai both the concentrations

compared to fluconozole.

Interpretation & Conclusion:

Hingulotha Parada is equivalent to Asthasamskarita Parada and

Samagunabalijarita Parada because it is devoid of saptakanchuka, Nagavanga

doshas.

The ingredients, appearance, chemical combinations of Rasakarpoor and Mercuric

chloride are same.

Cup plate method is convenient, cost effective method for evaluation of

Antimicrobial activity.

vii
When Rasakarpoor was processed properly, is very effective drug in the minimal

dose.

Rasakarpoor subjected to modern physico chemical analysis.

Rasakarpoor has best antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Hingulotha Parada, Kupipakva rasayana, Rasakarpoor, Kramagni,

Analytical study, Antimicrobial activity, Cup-plate method, Results,

Discussion, Conclusion and Summary.

viii
Contents

Sl No Index Page No

1 Introduction 1-4

2 Aims and Objectives 5

3 Review of Literature 6-118

4 Methodology 119-161

5 Results 162-169

6 Discussion 170-179

7 Conclusion 180-181

8 Summary 182-184

9 Bibliography 185-200

10 Annexure 201-203

ix
List of Tables
Sl. Page
Title of the Table
No No
1 Showing Synonyms of Hingula according to different Texts 9
2 Showing Synonyms are classified on the basis of appearance, Guna,
10
Karma, Constituents, and Habitat
3 Showing Classification of Hingula according to different Texts 11
4 Showing Types of Hingula according to different Text 12
5 Showing Grahya laxana of Hingula according to different Text 14
6 Showing Different process according to different Text 15
7 Showing Complications according to different Text 15
8 Showing types of Satvapatana of Hingula according to different Text 16
9 Showing Rasa of Hingula according to different Text 18
10 Showing Doshaghnata of Hingula according to different text 19
11 Showing Description about Parada according to different text 25, 26
12 Showing Classification of Synonyms of Parada on the basis of
27
Roopa, Guna, Utpatti, and Upayog
13 Showing Synonyms of Parada according to different Text 27, 28
14 Showing Types of Parada depending on the Colour 31
15 Showing Types of Parada depending on the place of Origin 31
16 Showing Types of Parada dosha and dosha karma According to
32
different Text
17 Showing Shodhana process according to Rasarnava 35
18 Showing Shodhana process according to Rasatarangini 35
19 Showing Shodhana process according to Rasendra Sara Sangraha 35
20 Showing Shodhana process according to Ayurveda Prakash &
36
Rasendra Sarasangraha
21 Showing important ores of Mercury 39
22 Showing Synonyms of Saindhava lavana 55, 56
23 Showing Properties of Sandhava Lavana according to different Texts 56, 57
24 Showing different methods of Rasakarpoor preparation explained by
77
different Texts
25 Showing Different types of Anupana of Rasakarpoor 79
26 Showing Different indications mentioned by different Texts 80-81
27 Showing Category & Features of Krimi 90
28 Showing difference between Gram +ve and Gram ve Bacteria 93
29 The observations done during Hingula Shodhana. Pract No 1 121
30 The observations done during Hingula Shodhana 123
31 Observations during Hingula Satvapatana 125
32 Observations of heating pattern 125
33 Observations during Hingula Satvapatana 127
34 Observations of heating pattern 127

x
35 Hourly temperature chart 136
36 Overall Results of Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi 141
37 Preparation of Reagent 148
38 Nutrient broth composition 157
39 Potato Dextrose Agar composition 158
40 Nutrient Agar media composition 159
41 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Staphylococcus 162
aureus (+ve)
42 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Streptococcus 163
Pyogenes (+ve)
43 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Escherichia coli 164
(ve)
44 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Pseudomonas 165
aeruginosa (- ve)
45 Efficacy of Fluconazole and Rasakarpoor against Candida 166
Albicans
46 Efficacy of Fluconazole and Rasakarpoor against Aspergillus flavus 167
47 Efficacy of standard and tested drug against gram +ve & gram ve 168
organisms
48 Efficacy of standard and tested drug against Fungal organism 168
49 Results of Rasakarpoor 174
50

xi
List of Graphs

Sl No Title of the Graph Page No


1 Temperature and Time duration of Valuka Yantra in the 139
preparation of Rasakarpoor.
2 Results of standard and tested drug over the 162
Staphylococcus aureus (+ve).
3 Results of Standard and Tested drug over the 163
Streptococcus Pyogenes(+ve).
4 Results of standard and tested drug over the Escherichia 164
coli (ve).
5 Results of standard and tested drug over the 165
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (- ve)
6 Results of standard and tested drug over the Candida 166
albicans
7 Results of standard and tested drug over the Aspergillus 167
Flavus

List of Photos

Sl. No Title of Photo


1 Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi Photo No 1.
2 Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi Photo No 1.
3 Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi Photo No 1.
4 Antimicrobial Activity Photo No 1.
5 Antimicrobial Activity Photo No 2.

xii
Introduction

Introduction:

Science is not a sudden invention but gradual evolution. Ayurveda as a science

is not an exception for it. It is not just a curative medicine, but also it teaches the way

to live long a healthy and happy life. The imperishable fundamentals of Ayurveda,

which were laid down by the great sages of the olden days, are still applicable because

of their scientific eternal background. Such fundamentals must be subjected to

scientific research not only to prove its certainty but also to add something to the

existing knowledge.

The ancient literature of Hindu system named as Vedas have been classified

into four categories that is Rugveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda.

Ayurveda is a branch of Atharvaveda and it can be divided into two sampradayas that

is Atreya sampradaya and Dhanvantari Sampradaya. Further Nagarjuna sampradaya,

which deals with the Rasashastra, was slowly absorbed into the stream of Ayurveda

and now in the present era we get an integrated form of Ayurveda and Rasashastra.

The oath of Nagarjuna is SIDDHE RASE KARISHYAMI NIRDARIDRYAM

GADAM JAGAT. I will make this world free from the disease and poverty through

the attainment of absolute control over the mercury.

The main aim of Rasashastra is not only lohavada but to attain the

Jeevanmukti by means of dehavada. And for vigorous health physic that is deahavada,

Rasoushadis play an important role in the medicine. As it has been stated in many

Rasashastra text that mercury kills diseases and death when it is itself in a state of

swoon. But mercury is not administered directly, it always in the compound form.

Hence Rasoushadis have been termed as Daivabhaisajya and Daivichikitsa. There fore

it is rightly stated that UTTAMO RASAVAIDYASTU .

1
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Introduction
Among Rasaushadhis, Kupipakva rasayanas hold the top place. The effects of

these Kupipakva rasayanas are really a miracle. Their efficacy is good if they are

prepared by proper procedures. In the preparation of Kupipakva rasayana, agni is an

important factor, which changes the natural physico chemical properties of the drug,

which depends on its chemical combination and dissociation, which can be brought

about by the duration and type of contact of heat. This agni is varies from one

preparation to another preparation. Many Kupipakva rasayanas are explained in

classics such as Rasasindur, Rasakarpoor, Sameerpannagarasa, Talasindhur etc.

Kupipakva rasayanas are classified into two types viz. Sagandha and Nirgandha.

Rasakarpoor is a Kupipakva rasayana, which is said to be of Nirgandha type i.e.

during the preparation of Rasakarpoor, Gandhaka (Sulphur) will not be used directly.

Few of the authors have recommended utility of Gandhakamla (Sulphuric acid) in the

process of Rasakarpoor.

According Rasatarangini Rasakarpoor is having a property krimigna,

bahubhootavishapaha, atisar, pravahika, tvachagatarog, raktadoshamana, grahi, spota,

kandu, mandala, phiranga, kushta and vrunanashana and mentioned it as

sarvarogahara. Considering above all the properties we can assess Rasakarpoor is one

of the Rasaushadi.

Krimi and bahubhootvisha of Ayurveda are correlated with microorganisms.

The krimis are explained under two broad headings as visible and invisible in our

Vedas. According to the recent authors of Ayurveda bhootas are those disease causing

organisms, which cannot be seen through the naked eyes.

According to modern science some infectious diseases are affected by

organisms these are also visible or invisible. Infection is a result of interaction

between microorganism and the natural defense mechanism of the body.


2
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Introduction
In underdeveloped countries especially in the tropics infection continues to be

one of the commonest causes of disease and death. Microorganisms such as bacteria,

viruses, fungi and parasites, are present everywhere in the soil, water, atmosphere and

on the body surfaces, and are responsible for a large number of infectious diseases in

human beings. Particularly in children and determines the strength of working man,

the health of the mother and pattern of systemic disease in the community. Multiple

disease entities are the rule and the clinical pattern of illness differs in many ways

from those in temperature zones. These cause respiratory diseases diarrhoea,

dermatological problems, tuberculosis, malnutrition and other immunosuppressive

effects.

Chronic infections do cause serious damage to important organs such as liver

and kidneys in schisthomiasis, the heart in trypanosmiasis, cruzi the lungs, bones and

lymph nodes in tuberculosis, malaria and hook worm infections. Despite improved

living conditions, wide spread vaccination and availability of effective antibiotics,

infectious diseases continue to take very high rank as a cause of death in the world,

which is more than ten million persons each year.

For such life threatening conditions, many antibiotics such as penicillin

cephalosporins, fourquinolones, antiprotozoals, antifungal etc are heavily prescribed

by modern medical practitioners, which are considered as the weapons of the

Allopathic medical Science. But these drugs cause many hazards to the body such as

nausea, vomiting, gastric irritations, metallic taste, destruction of gastric flora,

anaphylactic reaction causing even death. There are some good medicines in terms of

antibiotics in Ayurvedic treasure of therapeutics to treat the infection by killing Krimi

(Microorganisms) without or less complication.

There fore Rasakarpoor has been selected to treat the infection against
3
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Introduction
Krimi (Microorganisms) without complications in vitro for the study.

Review of Previous works:


At Jamnagar:
i) "Rasakarpura Nirmana" - by Dr. Patel A.S. in 1975
ii) "The preparation of Rasakarpura and its efficacy in skin disorder W.S.R. to
Vicarcika" by Dr. H. Yeriswamy in 1984.
At Jaipur :
i) "Rasakarpura Kalpa Vignyana"(Asta Samskarita Evam Hingulottha
Parada Se Rasakarpura.) by Dr. Angiras R.K. in 1985.

At BHU:
i) "Study on Rasakarpura" (Standardization & Evaluation of toxicity and
antimicrobial activity) by Dr. Rao G.P. in 1991.

4
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Aims & Objectives

Aims and Objectives of the study:

The present study has been done with the following aims and objectives:

1. Preparation of Rasakarpoor.

2. Physico-chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor.

3. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor.

5
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Drug Review

Hingula:
Introduction:
Hingula is compound of parada and gandhaka, which occurs as a mineral in

nature and also prepared artificially. This is a chief source of mercury since ancient

times to this date. In ancient times, mercury was obtained from it through patana

process. Many varieties of this mineral have been described in ancient texts. Out of

these Hamsapada variety is considered best.

Historical Background:

The man started usage of 'Hingula' for several purposes even before Christ in

many parts of the World. Rather than a medicine the usage of Hingula attained

popularity in other fields. At first, Arthashastra, a textbook written in 200 B.C.has

given the methods of testing of valuable metals using Hingula. Attracted towards its

beauty, the Indian ladies were using this for face make-up. The ore was directly used

at first. The invention of synthetic preparation of Hingula came later.

Vedic Period:

No reference about HINGULA is available in any of the Vedas.

Purana and Upanishad Period:

No reference is available about the HINGULA in this period.

Samhita Kala (100 B.C.):

No reference available in Charaka, Sushruta, Ashtanga Samgraha and

Ashtanga Hridaya. But, we get references of parada. It is assumed that in olden days,

it was imported from other countries.

Koutilya Arthashastra (200 B.C.):

The author of Kautilya Arthashastra, Chanakya has mentioned hingula in his

text for the first time. Ghanasuahire vaa rope swarna mrit valuka hingula kalko vaa

taptovatishthate(kou arth 2/14/40).


6
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Drug Review
This reference of hingula is found in the methods for testing of suvarna and

other metals rather than medicine.

He mentioned it for testing various metals. He did not describe the use of

Hingula as a medicine. He has mentioned four types of testing methods namely

1) Parikuttanam (Hammering)
2) Avachahadana (Cutting)
3) Ullekhana (Scratching)
4) Parimardana (Rubbing)
Here Hingula is mentioned under Parimardana (Kou Arth 2/14/54)

Nighantu Period:

Dhanwantari, Madanphal nighantu & Rajanighantu has mentioned about

Hingula in Suvarnadi Dhatu varga, Kaidevnighantu & Bhavaprakash nighantu

classified under dhatvadi varga and we find explanation about Synonyms,

Properties etc.

Rasakala (Starts from 8th century) :

Rasendra Mangala (8th century A.D.):

The oldest text of Rasashastra, Rasendramangala described for the first

time about shodhana and the therapeutic usage of Hingula and this is also used

for the preparation of Loha bhasma. He has considered Hingulottha Parada is

the satwa of hingula.

Rasa hridaya tantra (10th century A.D.):

Acharya Bhagvata Govindpada has mentioned in list of eight

rasadravyas.

Rasarnava (12 th century A.D.):

He has considered Hingula as a maharasa; he also described the synonyms,

varieties, properties and satvapatana of hingula. He utilized the term

7
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Drug Review
rasagandsambhotam which indicates the awareness about chemical composition of

Hingula.

Rasaratnakar (15th century A.D.):

Rasaratnakar described the Hingula and also mentioned the artificial

preparation.

Other Granthas:

Rasaratnasamuchchaya, Rasaprakasha sudhakara, Rasendra sara sangraha,

Rasendrachudamani, Bhavaprakash etc and naveen rasagranthas like Rasatarangini,

Rasamritakara, Ayurved prakasha, Siddha bhaishajya manimala, Rasajalnidhi,

Itrochemistry of Ayurved have mentioned the Synonyms, varieties, properties,

shodhana, grahyalakshana and uses. These texts also mentioned the artificial

preparation of hingula.

Vernacular Names:1& 2
Sanskrit -- Hingula, Darada, Churnaparada, Mlechch
Hindi -- Hingula, Singarpha,
Latin name Sulphuatumhydrargyrum
English -- Cinnabar, Redsulphide of Mercury
Kannada -- Ingalika,
Marathi -- Hingula,
Assami -- Janophar
Telagu -- Ingulikam,
Gujarati -- Hingula
Malayalam -- Sedilengam,
Arabic -- Zunjefer
Nepal -- Sabita,
Persian -- Shengherf

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Synonyms
Table No 1 Synonyms of Hingula according to different Texts:
Sl.No Synonym RT 3 RSS4 AP5 RSN6 DhN7 RSM8 KN9 BP10
01. Hingulam - - - - + - - -
02. Hingul + - - - - - - -
03. Hingula + + + + - + - +
04. Ingula + - - - - - - +
05. Hingulaka - - - - - - + -
06. Mleccha + - + + + + + +
07. Rakta + - + - - - + -
08. Gairika + - - - - - + -
09. Suranga + - + - - - - -
10. Chitranga + - - - - - + -
11. Churna parada + - - - + - - +
12. Rasodbhava + - - - + - - -
13. Rasasthana + - - - + - - -
14. Ranjana + - - - - - - -
15. Kapishirshaka + - - - - - - -
16. Raktakaya + - - + - - - -
17. Hamsapada + - - - - + + -
18. Darada + + + - - - - +
19. Barbara - - + - - - - -
20. Shuka tunda - + - - - - - -
21. Jati - - - - - - + -
Rasagandha - + - + - - - -
22.
sambhuta
23. Daitya raktaka - + - - - - - -
24. Maraka - - - - + - - -
25. Maniraga - - - - - - + -
26. Rasagarbha - + + - + - - -
27. Ati rakta - - - - - - + -
28. Parvata - - - - - - + -
29. Saikta - - - - - - + -

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Table No 2 Synonyms are classified on the basis of appearance, Guna, Karma,
Constituents, and Habitat:
Names based on Synonyms
Appearance Kapishirshaka, Chitranga, Chinapishta, Churna Parada,
Makshi Vanga, Daitya Raktaka, Manohara, Markata Shirsa,
Rakta, Raktakaya, Rakta Parada, Shukatundaka, Supittaka,
Suranaga, Hansapada, Hansandhri, Hansaka, Hingulu,
Hinguli, Hingula, Kuruvinda.
Guna & Karma Charmanuranjana, Maraka, Maniraga, Ranjaka, Ranjana,
Lohaghna, Ratna Ragakari, Raga Dravya, Vishesa, Barbara,
Sagara, Charmara, Charmaragandhika, Charmarabandha
nam, Charmaravardhana, Uru Charmaka.
Constituents Rasagandha Sambhuta, Rasa Garbha, Rasasthana, Siddhi
Parada, Rakta Parada, Rasodbhava, Rasa.
Habitat Mleccha, Darada, Chinapista

Origin of Hingula:

According to Rasa Ratna Samuccaya, an interesting mythological story has

been described for the origin of Hingula. The Hingula is the Virya of Lord Siva,

which was received by God Agni but due to unbearable intensity he omitted it. The

omitted material fell in 'Darada Desha' and became known as Darada, a synonym of

Hingula.

In ancient days, Hingula was available in Darada country. There is a

controversy regarding the interpretation of Daradasthana. Prof. D.A. Kulkarni,

commentator of R.R.S. consider an area of Kashmir nearby Hindukusha

Mountain as Darada Desa while author of Rasa Prakasa Sudhakara gives Rome

as Darada Desa.

Classification:

Different authors have included Hingula under the various titles. The

classification of all rasa dravyas done generally, according to their usage and

importance in the procedure related with parada. The important rasa texts have

included Hingula under following classes

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Table No 3 Classification of Hingula according to different Texts:

Sl No Authors A B C D E F G
1 Rasahrudayatantra + - - - - - +
2 Rasarnava - + - - - - -
3 Rasakamadhenu - + - - - - -
4 Gorakshasamhita - + - - - - -
5 Anandkanda - - + - - - -
6 Rasaratnakar - - + - - - -
7 RasaprakashSudhakar - - + - - - -
8 Rasendrasarsangraha - - + - - - -
9 Rasmanjari - - + - - - -
10 Rasendrachintamani - - + - - - -
11 Ayurvedprakash + + - - - - -
12 Bhavaprakash - - + - - - -
13 Rasaratnasamucchaya + - - - - - -
14 Brihatyogtarangini - - + - - - -
15 Rasarajsundara - - - + - - -
16 Rasendrachudamani - - - + - - -
17 Rasajalnidhi - - - + - - -
18 Bharatiyrasashastra - - - + - - -
19 Dhanvantarinighantu - - - - + - -
20 Rajanighantu - - - - + - -
21 Madanphalnighantu - - - - + - -
22 Rasamruta - - - - - + -
23 Yogaratnakara - - - - - + -
24 Kaidevnighantu - - - - - - +
25 Bhavaprakashnighantu - - - - - - +

A: Rasa B: Maharasa C: Uparasa D: Sadharanarasa


E: Suvarnadivarga F: Rasadhatu G: Dhatuvarga

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Hingula Bheda:
Table No 4 Types of Hingula according to different Texts:

Sl
Name of the Text Charmara Shukatunda Hamsapada Anya
No
1 Anand Kanda + + + -
2 Rasendra Chudamani - + + -
3 Ayurveda Prakasha + + + -
4 Rasaprakash Sudhakar + + + -
5 Rasatarangini + + + Kritrim,Khanija
6 Rasamrita - - + Mlecha
7 Rasakamedhenu + + + -
8 Bhavaprakasha + + - -
9 Rasa Ratna Samuchaya - + + -
10 Parada Vignyana + + + -
11 Ayurveda Sarasangraha + + + -
12 Ayurveda Prakasha + + + -
13 Yogaratnakar + + + -

According to Haridatta shastri commentator of Rasatarangini further

classified artificial hingula into two types in his Prasadini commentary

i.e. 1. Mrisrina 2. Kathina

According to Bharatiya Rasashastra kritrima Hingula again classified into two

types, 1) Rumi Hingula (Rakta Varna)

2) Katha Hingula (Krishna Hingula)

Charmara Hingula:
Shuka Varna i.e. Greenish colour. Adham
Shukatunda Hingula:
Sapeeta Varna i.e. Yellowish colour. Madhym
Hamsapada Hingula:
Uttam
It has Pravala samana and having sweta rekhas on the surface of Hingula. It is

considered to be best for therapeutic purpose. Among these three are having the

quality of uttarottara gunavan.

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Occurrence:11,12& 13

It is obtained from the mines as a natural mineral and also prepared artificially.

In ancient days hingula was available in darada desh at present it can be found at

many places all over the world i.e., Spain (almandine), Italy, Russia, Yugoslavia,

Jechoslovia, Germany (idria mines), Japan, china, USA, Australia, Nepal etc.

But, now a days no deposits of cinnabar are detected in India. Artificial

hingula is prepared in Surat and Calcutta. The hingula what we get from market is

most of the time artificial prepared.

Chemical Composition (HgS):

According to Rasarnava Rasagandha Samnbuthamby this we assume that

hingula is a compound of parada and gandaka,

Chemically it is red sulphide of mercury. It contains 86.2%of parada and

13.8% of gandaka and trace amount of arsenic, iron pyrite, clay, gypsum, and black

earthy material.14

Artificial Preparation of Hingula:

Preparation of artificial Hingula prepared since rasaratnakara period15, next

after this number of texts also mentioned the artificial preparation of Hingula. Here

the ratio of parada and gandaka is differing from text to text.

According to Rasatarangini16 ---- 42 Part parada and 8 Part gandaka subjected

to paka in mrudangayantra.

According to Ayurveda prakasha17

1 part ashuddha parada and 4 part ashuddha gandaka, subjected to pachana in

loha patra. After paka 1/10 part manashila was added and make mardana & fill in

kachakupi. After filling kept in valuka yantra and subjected to paka karma (mridu,

madyam, teevra).

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Grahya Hingula:

Most of the Acharyas opine that the Hamsapada variety is best among the
others.
emM x q uh p : m w h x q l W U : |

qW e eus pUm h W l as : Cwri | | R.T.

Hingula Shodhana:
Table No 5 Grahya laxana of Hingula according to different Authors:
Sl Grahya Author
No Laxanas
BP 18 BPN 19 RPS 20 RRS 21 AP 22 RT 23 RSS 24 PV 25 YR 26 ASS 27

1 Japakusum + + - - + + - + - +
Varnabha
2 Mhojwala - - - - - + - - - +
3 Bharapoorn - - - - - + - - - +
4 ShwetaRekh - - - + - + - - - -
5 Pravalabha - - + + - + - - + -
6 Bimbiphala - - - - - - + - - -
Sadrusha
7 Sumanohar - - - - - - - - - +
8 Uttama + + + + + + + + + -

According to different Acharyas, Various drugs are used for Hingula


Shodhana:
1. Gomamsa, Mahishamutra, Tilataila, shikhibeeja.28

2. Kushmand swarasa and Lakucha swarasa. 29

3. Lakucha swaras or Ardraka swaras. 30

4. Sringveri swarasa, Meshidugdha, Amlavarga dravya, Nimbu swarasa.31

5.Amlavargadravya, Meshidugdha, Nimbuswarasa, Ajamutra, Ardhrak

swaras. 32

6. Ardhrakaswarasa or Lakuchaswarasa.33

7. Ajadugda and Amlavarga, Ardrakaswarasa or Lakuchaswarasa.34

8. Meshikshira one time + 7 times Nimbu swarasa.35

9. Meshikshira and Amlavargadravya.36&37

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Table No 6 Different process according to different Texts:
Sl Name of Author Process
No Pachana Swedhana Mardana Bhavana
1 RSN28 + - - +
2 RPS29 - + - -
3 RRS30 - - - +
4 RT31 - - - +
5 RSS32 - + - +
6 RCH33 - - - +
7 AP34 - - - +
8 RST35 - - - +
9 SSMK36 - - - +
10 YR37 - - - +

Ashuddha and Asamyakshuddha hingula dosha:38

Rasataranginikara has given description about ashuddha and Asamyakshuddha

Hingula Dosha; Ashuddha Hingula administration may produce dangerous toxic

symptoms like Klama, Moha, Bhrama, Klaibya, Kusta, Kshinatha, Andatha, Murcha,

Prameha etc.

Table No 7 Complications according to different Texts:


Sl No Symptoms BRJ AP YR PaSa RJN RPu RT BRRS
1 Andhata - + + - - - + -
2 Kshinata - + + + - - + -
3 Kushta + - - - + + - -
4 Klama + + + + + + + +
5 Bhrama + + + + + + - +
6 Moha + + + + + + + +
7 Klaibhya + - - - + + - +
8 Hridayavasada - - - - - - - -
Chikitsa of complications caused by Ashuddha and asamyakshuddha hingula dosha:

Bruhatrasarajasundara mentioned the treatment about this. Here

management should be done as in the management of apakva parada bhasma and

asamyakshuddha Parada sevan.

imii ri urk SUSxrl xulli |

ii xiui xu Mri vli mir ||

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Shodhita gandhaka should be administered till the complication subsides.

Satvapatana of Hingula:

Table No 8 Different types of Satvapatana of Hingula according to different


Texts:
Sl Yantra
No Author Drugs Used Urdva Adhah Tiryak Vidya Damaru
PA PA PA dhar
1 RCh 39 Aardhraka,Swarasa, Bhavana + - - + -
2 RRS 40 - - + - - -
3 SSMK41 Nimbu or Patra Swarasa + - - - -

4 BPN 42 - + - - - +
5 ASS43 - - - - - +
6 AP44 Nimbu Swarasa or Nimba + - - - -
Patra Swaras
7 RST45 Nimbu swarasa - - + - +
8 RSS46 Paribadra or Nimbu swarasa + - - - -
9 RRK 47 Gomutra,Mahishamutra,Tiltail + + + - -
a,AmlavargaKumariswarasa
& Triphalakvat

Rasataranginikara has explained Urdvapatana yantra for extraction of Mercury.

I selected this procedure for my study. The detail explanation is mentioned in

pharmaceutical study.

Method of Parada Nishkashana (Prachin granths):48

In ancient days the only source of Mercury was Hingula (Cinnabar). Since

olden days it is accepted that Hingulakrushta parada is pure, devoid of saptakanchuka

doshas & believed to possess with the property of jeernagandha gunaha (jeernagandha

samo gunaiha). In Rasaratnakara, it is also advised to use Hingulakrishta parada for

all purposes without doing ashtasanskara. Almost all Acharyas have explained about

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Hingulakrishta parada with the help of many yantras. The above mentioned yantras

are more or less similar.

Prior to the extraction of parada from hingula, it should be done mardana up to

three hours, either with the nimbu swarasa or nimbu patra swarasa, which enables to

reduce the hingula to its fine state of division; By this maximum amount of parada

can be extracted. Nimbu swarasa contain citric acid where as Nimbu patra contains

organic sulphur. The effect of bhavana with these juices has to be evaluated

scientifically, which is a separated entity. It is advised to keep cold pads over the top

of Urdvapatanayantra, by which parada collects over the inner surface of the upper

vessel of Damaru yantra. It is assumed to be free from doshas with this procedure.

Brief description of modern methods:

From ancient description, it is very clear that the source of extraction of

mercury was only Hingula (cinnabar). In Spain, Italy etc Parada is extracted by

various methods.

First method, It was heated with oxygen.

HgS + O2 Hg + O2

Second method was heating of hingula with loha(Fe) or sudha(Ca).

By these two methods most part of the parada separates from sulphur and

remained parada is taken out by distillation. For this purpose various types of furnaces

are employed. There is vast change in the methodology and equipments employed for

this purpose now a day.

The equation of heating hingula in air is as follows

1) 4HgS +4CaO 4Hg 3CaS+CaSO4


2) HgS+Fe+O2 Hg +Fe +SO2
After these methods the ramnant unsepareted part of mercury is obtained by

distillation. This process of distillation is called vaccum distillation. In purification of


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mercury reduced pressure and vaccum distillation is major invention. Now a days

readymade equipments are available for this purpose.

Superiority of Hingulotha Parada:

Parada extracted from Hingula is considered to be the best because it is free

from various types of doshas. Hence, the same does not need any further samskar for

the removal and could be used even without subjecting it to Astasamskaras and is

claimed to be capable of performing all the action attributed to it. More over

according to Rasaprakash Sudhakar, Parada extracted from Hingula may posses all

those properties, which are seen in Shadgunabalijarit parada thus it is considered

superior to ordinary Parada.

Marana of Hingula:

In Bruhat Rasaraja Sundara total 3 methods are described for Hingula

Marana. But in other texts Satvapatana is given instead of Marana.

In Yogaratnakara Hingula Bhasma Vidhi has been described.

Properties of purified Hingula:

The properties of shodhita Hingula are equal to property of Rasasindhura and

parada extracted from this equal to Gandhaka jarita parada.

Rasa -- We have different opinions regarding the rasa of hingula

1. Most of the authors opine that it is of Tikta Katu Kashaya rasa.


2. Some other opine Madhura Tikta rasa.
3. Least references are available about katu and only Tikta rasa.
Table No 9 Rasa of Hingula according to different Texts:
Sl.No Rasa Rasagranthas
1. Katu Bhava Prakash, Ayurveda Prakash,Aryuveda
Tikta Chintamani, Parada Samhita, Rasendra purana,
Kashay Rasadhatu Prakasha, Brihat Yoga Tarangini
2. Madhura Rasarnava, Basavarajiya, Danwantharinighantu,
Tikta Rajanighantu
3. Tikta Rasendra Chintamani,

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Guna :Ushna Guna49
Veerya :Ushna Veerya49
Vipaka : Katu vipaka49
Doshaghnata :Tridoshaghna, Vatakaphaghna, Kaphaghna, Kaphapittagn.

Table No 10 Doshaghnata of Hingula according to different text:

Sl No Doshaghnata Rasagranthas
1. Vata Basavarajiya, Rasendra Chudamani, Rasendra
Pitta Sara sangraha, RSS, Danwantharinighantu,
Kapha Rasamrita, Rasachandanshu, Rasadhatu prakasha
2. Kapha B.P., A.P., Aryuveda Chintamani, Parada
Pitta samhita, Rasendra Bhaskara, rasoddhara tantra,
Si.Bh.Ma.Ma. Bha.Ra.Sha, Bri YoTarangini,
3. Kapha Rasatarangini

Karma:
Sarvadoshaghna, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Balya, Medhya, Kantivardhaka,

Garavishnashaka, Netrya, Ruchya, Hriudayotsadaka, Hrillashanashaka.

Upayog:49 & 50

Prameha, Jwara, Hridroga, Kusta, Garavisha, Amlapitta, Kamala,

Pleehavraddi, Mandagni, Aruchi, Amavati, Sandhivata, Hrillasha.

Lohamarnarta, Lohajaranarta, Paradaniskashanartha, Dehavadatmaka,

Swarnapariksanarthaka.

Matra:51
1 ratti (125mg)
Anupan:52
Maricha,Guda, Pipali,Guduchi swarasa, Madhu, Ardraka swarasa, Tambula
Swarasa.
Toxicity of Hingula:

Improper administration of Hingula will lead to the toxic manifestations. The

use of Hingula without purification, higher dose of administration, no follow up of

Pathyas etc. are the idea behind the word 'Improper administration'. Such drug will

cause certain diseases to the human body. Many Rasashastra texts specified this -
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Basavarajiyam, Ayurveda Prakasha, Yogaratnakara, Parada Samhita, and

Rasatarangini etc.

These texts mentioned about following diseases caused by improper

administration of Hingula. Andhyata, Akulata, Kanthashosa, Kustha, Klaibya,

Hritspandana, Kshinata etc.

Some authors have mentioned the antidote to tackle these problems. Rasendra

Bhaskara and some other acharyas advised to follow the procedures used for the

mercury in toxication i.e. purified Gandhaka is advised orally.

Modern aspect of Hingula:53

Cinnabar is only important ore of mercury, it is massive or oarthy. Some

times it occurs beautifully crystallized in small complex and highly modified

hexagonal crystals. Usually the crystals are rhombohedral or prismatic in habit. It is

also transparent, translucent or opaque, sometime cochineal red in colour often

inclining to brown its streak is scarlet to reddish brown. Adamantine to luster prefect

prismatic cleavage. Sometimes with an earthy coatings.

Variety:

According A textbook of Rasashastra by Dr Vilas Dole, the varieties of HgS

are made according to colour and percentage.

1. Cinnabar native This is one of the most important ore of mercury. Chemically

it contains 84% mercury sulphide. It is bright and dark red in colour it contains other

impurities like Carbon, Silica, Quartz etc.

2. Hepatic cinnabar When percentage of carbon impurities is higher in cinnabar,

its colour becomes darker like liver colour, such an ore is called as hepatic cinnabar.

3. Meta cinnabar This type contains muddy dust in more percent and that makes

its colour still darker almost to a black shade.

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4. Coral ore This ore especially occurring in Germany and Italy. This ore is in the

form of rose colour earthen material. When mercury sulphide in coral ore is

separated, it is rosy in colour, it contains about 5% of mercury.

5. Idrialate The variety called idrialate, always occurs cinnabar at Idria, as white

and crystalline in structure when toward and it is found in impure with clay, pyrite,

gypsum as a brownish black earthy material because of its combustibility and

presence of mercury it is called inflammable cinnabar.

Mineralogical Findings Of Cinnabar:

According to Inorganic chemistry, Cinnabar crystallizes in rhombohedral

trapezohedral crystals. Crystals are also thick tabular. In habit sometimes it occurs as

twins and acicular prismatic grains, in crystal incrustations, granular, massive and

sometimes with earthy coatings.

Cleavage - Prismatic perfect


Fracture - Sub-conchoidal to uneven, somewhat sectile
Hardness - 2 to 2.5
Specific Gravity - 8 to 8.2
Lustre - Admentive, inclining to metallic and dull.
Colour - Red, brownish red and lead gray.
Streak - Scarlet
Transparency - Opaque
Indices of refraction - W=2.91, E+27 with strong birefringence,
shows strong circular polarization
Chemical properties:

1. Cinnabar is a red or whitish red coloured mineral. This ore is a red crystalline

mass that is easily distinguishable from all other red minerals by its peculiar

shade of colour and its great weight.

2. It is insoluble in water and acids but dissolve in aquaragia (mixture of HCl

and HNO3) and forms mercuric chloride.


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In the presence of a strong oxidizing agents like potassium chlorite forming

mercuric chloride

3. Roasting usually the unconcentrated ore is roasted in air. Cinnabar is

oxidized to mercuric oxide and sulphur dioxide is released at the temperature

of the furnace and mercuric oxide so forms decomposes to give mercury and

oxygen.

2HgS + 3O2 2SO2 + 2HgO

2HgO 2Hg + O2

The mercury obtained by above method is the purest mercury.

4. Mercury Sulphide reacts with concentrated potassium sulphide solution to give

a complex thio salt.

HgS + K2S K2HgS2

On sublimation mercuric sulphide becomes red.

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PARADA:

Parada is the most important and foremost ingredient of compounds of

Rasashastra, without which the science of Alchemy Rasashastra perhaps would not

have existed. Considering Soota to be semen of Shiva which was thrown on earth at

various places,54 during the creative conjunction between Shiva and Parvati myth

logically, adds more to its importance. Since Shiva is the first Physician and his

semen parada is considered to be so divine that it destroys diseases, old age and even

death.55 various authors mentioned different doshas of parada.

Parada in the crude form, in the earth is with the admixture of Naga, Vanga

etc. During the medieval period the dealers sold mercury with these adulterations.

Presently these adulterants are not seen, but Oupadika and Kanchuka doshas are

present.56 In most of the preparations, parad is either in the shodhita form, or

ashtasamskar or Hingulottha parada. Usually for curing a disease, shodhita parada is

taken.57 For Rasayana and dhatuvada purposes Ashta-dasha-samskrita parada is

preferred.
58& 59
Mythological Origin:

Lord Shiva and Parvati were in the process of cohabitation to have a strong

son for the destruction of Tarakasur by whom all Devatas were disturbed. During this

period the parada was originated. This parada is amrutatully samana.

Historical Background:

Rasopanisad quotes that as soul plays an important role in body, like wise

Parada is the soul of Rasashastra and without Parada, existence of Rasashastra could

not be imagined.

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Vedakala:

There is no such direct evidence of Parada in Vedic age. But in Atharvaveda the

reference like

Aq m erlr: mii x Auvi mwq |

iSixr pweqpr: xixr c ||

Indicates whenever the Veeshalpaksha lost its life, it enters the other body and

acts like Rasayana for both Swastha and rogi. Here this word Pakshi could be

considered for both Parada and Atma because of their high volatile nature.

Smruti:

According to Yagnyavalka Smruti text, indirect evidence of Parada could

be traced. The commentator opines that Kutaswarna Vyavahari could be the

preparation of Gold artificially.

Koutily Arthashastra:

In 34th chapter of Koutilya Arthashastra, under the heading of

Suvarnabhedhenekathana Rasavidham word is used for parada vedasidhaswarna. It

highlights the presence of Dhatuvada in Koutilya kala, which is 325 years before

Kristha.

Samhita kala:

In samhitas like charaka and sushruta therapeutic use of parada has been

indicated internally and externally respectively. But Vagbhata has indicated for both

external and internal uses.

Cha.sam Kustha chikitsa Cha Chi 7/79.

Su.Sam Su Chi Cha 25.

Asthanga - 39/161 & Cha 32.

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Nighantu period:

Dhanvantari nighantu, Rajanighantu and Madanaphal nighantu have

explained synonyms, properties and doshas of parada under suvarnadivarga.

Kaiadev Nighantu & Bhavaprakash Nighantu has explained Synonyms,

Properties & Doshas under the heading of Dhatuvarga.

Rasakala:

But the proper utilization of Parada for Dehavada and Lohavada started

from 8th century A.D. onwards. Thereafter, Parada has become an impeccable part of

Rasashastra.

Table No 11 Description about Parada according to in different text:


Sl. Authors /Kala Description about Parada mentioned in different text
No a b c d e f g h i j k l m n
th
1 RM10 cent AD + - + - - - - + - + + + + -
2 RHT 10thcent AD - - + + - - - + + - + + - -
3 RSN 10thcent AD + - + + - + - + + + - + - -
4 RCh 12thcent AD + - + - - - - + + - - - + -
5 RPS 12thcent AD + - + + + + - + - - - - + +
6 RRS13thcent AD + + + - - + - + + - + + + +
7 RRK 13thcent AD - - - - - + - - - + - - - +
8 RSS 13thcent AD + + + + + - - + + - + + + -
9 RaChi14thor + + + + - + - + - - + + + +
15thcent AD
10 RPU 19th cent AD + - + + + + - + + + - + +
11 BRRS18thcentAD + + + + + - + - + + + - +
12 YR 18thcent AD - - + + + + - - + - - + + -
13 RJN 20thcentAD + + + + + + + + - - + - + +
14 RK 17th cent AD + - + - - + - + - - - - - -
15 BP 16thcent AD - + - - + - - + - - - - + -
16 PV 20th AD + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
17 AP 17thcent AD + + + + + + - + + - + + + +

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18 SSMK - + + + - - - + - - - + - -
19 RT 20thcent AD + + + + + + - + - - + + + +
20 PS 20th cent AD + - + - - + - + + + + + + +
21 RSM 20thcent AD - + + - - - + + - - + + + +
22 ASS 20th cent AD - - - - - - - + - - - + + -

Reference: a- utpatti, b-paryay, c-shodhana, d-marana, e-grahyalakshana,


f-rasabhandha, g-rasapanchaka, h-samskara, i-parada pooja phala, j-dhatuwada, k-
moorchana, l-paradayogas, m-dosha, n-jarana.
These Acharyas mentioned synonyms varieties properties shodhana,

marana, grahya lakshana, dhatuvadartha, dehavadartha, upayoga, patyaa patya, matra,

and yogas with the same opinion about parada in their text.
60
Vernacular Names:

Sanskrit - Parada
Hindi - Para
English - Mercury, Quick silver
Kannada - Padarasa
Gujarati - Paro
Marathi - Para
Latin - Hydrargyrum
French - Mercure
German - Merkure
Arab - Abuk; Zibakh
Parsian - Simab; Zeebag.
Bengali - Para
Malayalam - Rassam
Telugu - Padarasam
Tamil - Padrasa
Konkani - Padrasa

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61
Synonyms:

Table No 12 Classification of Synonyms on the basis of Roopa, Guna, Utpatti,


and Upayog:
Sl No Swaroopa Synonyms
Galadroupyanibham, Mahavanhi, Mahateja,
1 Swarupatmaka
Suvarna
2 Gatyatmaka Kheehara, Chapala, Chala, Dhoorthaka.
Rasayana, Amrtim, Mrtyunasana, Jaiva,
3 Dehavadatmaka Dehada, Paramamruta, Parata, Parada,
Rasayana Shreshta
Maharasa, Rasottama, Suta, Divyarasa,
Rasarasendra,Rasesha, Rasadhatu, Rasaraja,
4 Dhatuvadatmaka
Rasanath,Sidhadhatu, Soota, Sootaka,
Sootaratha, Mishraka, Chamara.
Ananta, Suksma, Saubhagya, Amara,
5 Visista Gynantmaka
Kalikantaka,
6 Darshanika/Aadhyatmika Divya, Acintyah, Jeeva, Jaiva
Trinetra, Trilochana, Deva, Dehaja, Prabhu,
Rudraja, Lokesh, Vijendra, Budha,
7 Dharmika/Devatmaka Rajaswala, Shanta, Shiva, Shivaveerya,
Skandha, Harateja, Harabeeja, Shivahaya,
Shivabeeja

Table No 13 Synonyms according to different Texts:


Sl No Synonyms RSS 62 DN63 KN64 BPN65 BP66 MPN67 RT68 SSMK69
1 Rasendra + + + + + + + +

2 Parada + + + + + + + +

3 Sootaraja + - - - - - - -

4 Sootama + - - - - - - -

5 Shivateja + - - - - - - -

6 Soota + + + + + + + +

7 Rasa + - - + - - - -

8 Rudraretashy - + - - - - - -

9 Rasaloha - + + - - + - -

10 Maharasa - + - + + + - -

11 Chapala - + - + + + - -

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Sl No Synonyms RSS 62 DN63 KN64 BPN65 BP66 MPN67 RT68 SSMK69


12 Paradiya - + - - - - - -

13 Rasottama - + + - - + - -

14 Hemabija - - + - - - - -

15 Rajaswala - - + - - - - -

16 Trilochana - - + - - - - -

17 Hemanidhi - - + - - - - -

18 Shivaputro - - + - - - - -

19 Lokanatho - - + - - - - -

20 Gnanreto - - + - - - - -

21 Mahanalha - - + - - - - -

22 Rasadhatu - - - + + - - -

23 Shivaveerya - - - + + - - -

24 Shivji - - - + - - - -

25 Shivahvaya - - - - + - - -

26 Rasa - - - - - + + +

27 Raseshwar - - - - - - + -

28 Rasaraja - - - - - - + -

29 Haraja - - - - - - - +

30 Sutaka - - - - - - - +

31 Misraka - - - - - - - +

32 Trinetra - - - - - + - -

33 Roshana - - - - - + - -

34 Swamy - - - - - + - -

35 Harabeeja - - - - - + - -

Meaning of Synonyms:70

1. External Features of Mercury

a. Galadrupyanibham: It means like liquefied silver. The English synonym

Quick Silver implies the same meaning

b. Mahavahni: A big Fire Implied meaning asbringht as big fire

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c. Suvarna: Su means good one, Varna means Colour.Actual meaning

Gold, Implied Meaning One which is having required colour

d. Mahateja: It means having great brightness.

2. Various Motions:

a. Khechara: Kha means Sky.Khe means in the Sky and Chara means

Movements the meaning is one, which moves in the sky.

b. Chapala, Chala: One, which is quick in nature.

3. Dehavada:

a. Amrita: Which never dies (immortal). Implied meaning is with the use of

which one achieves longevity.

b. Jarita: Meaning is Victorious. Implied meaning is which has

achieved victory over death and diseases.

c. Dehada: Which gives healthy body.

d. Paramamrita: Amrita of ultimate quality.

e. Parata & Parada: One, which helps in completing successful & long life.

f. Mrityunashana: Which destroys death.

g. Rasayana: By definition it means one, which destroys old age, death &

pain.

4. Dhatuvada:

a. Divya Rasa: Liquid of Devine nature.

b. Rasa: The liquid.

c. Rasendra, Rasesh, Rasottam: Best liquid.

d. Rasanath, Rasaraja: Master of the liquids.

e. Mishraka: One, which mixes with and assimilates others. It is also

a notion that it has properties of all metals, in mixed form and hence mishraka.

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f. Maharasa: The great liquid.

g. Suta, Sutaka, Sutarat :In Sanskrit the verbal form Su means to produce,

to form.

SWsWqr x xi xixii: xqi: (U. U. x)

It means it is instrumental in forming both Deahasiddhi & Lohasiddhi and

hence called as Suta.

5. Special Properties:

a. Ananta: Meaning One without end. Implied meaning One that has

unending good virtues.

b. Amara: Actual meaning is one who never dies; the word is usually used to

mean God. Here the Implied meaning is which has Devine, God like

properties.

c. Soubhagha: Goodluck.Implied meaning With which good luck can be

achieved in Treatment.

6. Indian Philosophy:

a. Jiva, Jaiva: Concerning life.

b. Divya: Divine

c. Achintya: Beyond thinking.

Occurrence:

In rasaratna Samucchaya, it is mentioned that in ancient times mercury was

found mainly in Darada desha and also in Himalayas in small amount. But now a day,

it is obtained mainly from the mines of Spain, America, Italy, Australia, British

Bornea, China, Russia, and Japan.

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71&72
Types of Parada:
The varieties of Parada described in different text are based on the 2 factors
1. Depending on the Colour.
2. Depending on the place of Origin.
Table No 14 Types of Parada depending on the Colour:

Sl No Types Colour Caste Karma


1 Sweta White Brahmana Swetakarma
2 Rakta Red Kshatriya Therapeutics
3 Peeta Yellow Vaishya Used in alchemy or to Prepare Gold
4 Krishna Black Shudra Used in Maintaining health

Table No 15 Types of Parada depending on the place of Origin:

Sl No Variety Colour Impurities Uses


Which is free from all
1 Rasa Rakta types of impurities. Rasayana
2 Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities. Rasayana
3 Suta Isatpeeta With impurities. Deharogaharana
4 Parada Sweta With impurities. Servarogaharana
5 Mishraka Mayur,Chandrika,Vama With impurities. Sarvasiddidayaka

Vargikarana:

In Kaideva Nighantu, Parada has been categorized in Dhatuvarga, whereas

Dhanvantari Nighantu has classified it as Suvarnadivarga. Most of all the Rasashastra

texts have considered Parada in Rasa Varga.


73
Doshas of Parada:

Parada (Mercury) procured from its original sources or from the market may

contain various types of admixtures. Sometimes the Parada is found associated with

some metallic elements in nature, while the profiteers deliberately adulterate it for

commercial purposes. The ancient chemists knew this fact very well and as such

most of the authorities have described impurities of Parada, which run as follows,

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Doshas of Parada

Naisargika Doshas Yougika Doshas


Aupadhika Doshas

Visa Naga
Vahni Vanga
Mala
Bhumija Girija Varija Nagaja(2) Vangaja(2)

Parpati Patani Bhedi Dravi Andhakari


Malakari Dhwanksi
Table No 16 Types of Parada dosha and dosha karma According to different
Texts:

Sl Dosha Karma
No Dosha RM74 RaPu75 RRS76 RPS77 AP78 RT79 RCh80 RSN81 RSS82
1 Visa Mrutyu Mrutyu Marana Mrutyu Mrutyu Mrutyu Mrutyu Marana Mrutyu
2 Vahni Jalana Santapa Santapa Bhaya Daha Tapa Daha Kushta Daha
3 Mala Murcha Murcha Murcha Murcha Ruja Jadya Murcha Udararog Jadata
4 Mada - - - Sphota - - Vispota - -
5 Darpa - - - Siroruja - - Sirobrama - -
6 Naga Galaganda Jadata Jadata - Jadata Vruna Unmad - Vruna
7 Vanga Gulma Aadmana Aadmana - Kushta Kushta Mahashool - Kushta
Dosha
8 Capalya Asthirata - - - Viryanas Bijanasa - - Viryanas
9 Giri - - Jadata - Sphota Sphota Jadata - Jadata
10 Asahyagni - - - - Moha Moha - - Spota
11 Bhoomija - - Kushta - - - Kushta - -
12 Shailaja - - - - - - Vata - -
13 Jalaja - - - - - - Vataroga - -
14 Tamraja - - - - - - Daha - -
15 Ayaja - - - - - - Aasittakrit - -
16 Varija - - Vatavikar - - - Kantaroga - -

Shodhana:
Introduction:
The word Shodhana is originated from the word Shuddha, Which means to

purify, to wash, to clean, to filter, to refine etc.

Shodhana is a process of dosha nirharana. Shodhana, which literally means

purification, is a procedure necessary for Rasadravyas, before they are used


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therapeutically and for further process like Bhasmikarana, Satvapatana and

Amrutikarana. The Shodhana process is not only to remove the physical and chemical

impurities of the mineral drugs, but it may also lower the toxicity of the Rasadravyas

to greater extent. It includes different process like swedhana, Nirvap, Dhalana,

Bhavana, Patana, Bharjana etc.

Principle adopted in shodhana to Rasadravyas:


1. To remove physical and chemical impurities.
2. To reduce or to neutralize the toxicity.
3. To enhance the therapeutic properties.
4. To impart organic qualities in the inorganic mineral.
5. To achieve desirable effects from single drug.

Importance of Sodhana of Parada:

lxaMxi r Sw r clr MlcMr:|

iwli mUWUr xqlr vklq xqiq ||

According to RT 5/14 by Samanya Sodhana of Parada, the Naisargika and Kanchuki

doshas of Parada can be eliminated.

Akurkulvj mraj Uxw c |

xqlr vkl vxi UxiluvUS:||

RT (5/21) states that for the eradication of diseases from body, Samanya

Sodhana of Parada is essential.

There are two types of Shodhana 1. Samanya Shodhana.


2. Vishesh Shodhana.
Another one is Samskar

Pre Preparation process: Acc to RT 5th chapter Page No 77.


xSl vpl xuSu c vMUq|

pUu cm xqmer UxMq xqcUi||

Before starting the Rasakarma one should think of the Shubha Nakshatra,
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Shubha Dina and worshiping Lord Shankara and Bhairava then the procedures are to

be carried out. Because the studies shown those particular days, time and worshipping

will impart the efficacy in medicine. So every Ayurvedic Pharmacologist should

follow these.

Samanya Shodhana:

Acharyas mentioned Different Procedures like

1. Parada & Sudha raja (Lime powder) should be taken in equal quantity and

mardana should be done for 3days.

Parada should be filtered through two folded cloth.

Add equal quantity of Nistusha lushana and half quantity of saindhav

lavan subject it for mardana, until it becomes black coloured kalka.

Prakshalana should be done.83

2. The mixture of triphalakwata, choornas of chitraka, rakthasarshapa, brihati,

Gritha Kumari and parada should be triturated for 3 days, the parada obtained

by this method will be devoid of sapta malas.84

3. Parada should be triturated with Nagavalli Swarasa, Ardraka Swarasa and

Ksharadraya for 3 days and washed with water. This parada will be shining

like mukta and devoid of Sapta dosha.85

4. Parada should be triturated with lasuna & Saindava lavana in Tapta

Khalvayantro for 7days.86

Vishesh Shodhana of Paradha:

Specific process of shodhana done is to remove specific doshas separately is

Vishesh Shodhana. This is done for Rasayana purpose.

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Table No 17 Shodhana process according to Rasarnava:87

Sl No Dosha Drugs for Shodhana Process


1 Visha Ankola Mardan
Vanhi Aargvadha Mardan
Mala Chitraka Mardan
2 Naga,Vanga Vasa and Bhibitaki Mardana+Patana
kalk
3 Girisindhur Kakmach kalk Mardana(7times) or
Patn (7times)
4 Kanchukadoshas Karpas swars + Swedana
Trikatuchurna
5 Naga,Vanga Tamra Patana

Table No 18 Shodhana process according to Rasatarangini:88

Dosha Drugs Process


Vish 1. Triphala Choorna Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Kumari Swaras
Vanhi 1. Chitrak Choorana Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Kumari Swarasa
Mala 1. Aragwadha Phalmajja Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Kumari Swaras
Naga 1. Girihadoom Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Ishlika
3. Haridra
4. Bhasma of Wool
5. Kumari Swaras
Vanga 1. Indravaruni Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Ankola Choorna
3. Haridra Choorna
4. Kumari Swarasa
Chapalya 1. Krishna dhatura beeja Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Kumari Swarasa
Girija 1. Trikatu Choorna Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Kumari Swarasa
Asahyagni 1. Gokshura Choorna Mardan and Parada for 1 day
2. Kumari Swarasa

Table No 19 Shodhana process according to Rasendra Sara Sangraha:89

Dosha Drugs Process


Saptakanchukadosha Jayanti, Eranda,Ardraka, Each Drug 7 times
Makoyaswarasa. Mardana and kanji
prakshalana.

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Table No 20 Shodhana process according to Ayurveda Prakash90 &


Rasendra Sarasangraha:91

Dosha Drugs Process


Naga Istikachoorna,Haridra choorna Mardana for 1 day, Parskalan
, Nimbuswarasa. with Ushrakanji
Vanga Indravaruni & Ankol choorna Mardana for 1 day
Mala Amalatasa choorna Mardana for 1 day
Agni Chitraka moola choorna Mardana for 1 day
Chanchalya Krushna Dattura Beejachoorna Mardana for 1 day
Visha Triphala choorna Mardana for 1 day
Giri Trikatu choorna Mardana for 1 day
Asahyagni Trikantaka choorna Mardana for 1 day

Samskara:

The process of subjecting a substance to add specific qualities is called

Samskara. Almost all Rasacharyas opines that, bala, teja, qualities of Parada can be

enhanced. According to various authors Ashtadashasamskar i.e. 18 Samskaras of

Parada have been explained, among them. 1st eight are for roganivaranarth and

rasayana. Last ten are rasayana & dhatu vada purpose as indicated below.

Roga Nivaranartha & Rasayana Rasayanartha & Dhatuvada(1-18)


1. Swedana 9. Gagan Bhakshan
2. Mardana 10. Charana
3. Moorchana 11. Garbha dhruti
4. Utthapana 12. Bahyadruti
5. Patana 13. Jaarana
6. Bodhan 14. Ranjana
7. Niyamana 15. Sarana
8. Deepana 16. Sankramana
17. Vedha
18. Bhakshana
Grahya Parada Laxana:92,93

Ali:xls oWeus r qkrlyxrmiqmMv:

rerj kq: mUmlQU c l rer UxMq xr:||


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Shuddha Parada from inside seems blue tinged, but from outside it is lustrous

and shines like a mid day sun, which resembles with the properties of mercury

explained in modern chemistry texts. Mercury is a silver white liquid metal, with a

slight bluish tinge. In thin films, it transmits violet lit. (Dict of Applied chemistry vol

IV page No 270).

Rasapanchaka:
According to Rasmruta, Rasa Jala Nidhi and Bhavaprakash.
Rasa --- Shadrasa
Guna --- Snigdha, Sara.
Veerya --- Ushna
Vipaka --- Madhura
Karma --- Yogavahi, Rasayana, Ativrishya, Balya, Vajikara, Drushtibal

aprada, Dehasiddikara, Lohasiddikara, Vrunaropana and Vruna Shodhana, Krimigna

(Antimicrobial, insecticide) and cures all the diseases

Doshaprabhava Tridoshagna.

Vyadiprabhava Krimi, Kushta, Akshiroga, Vataroga, Valiphalita, Kshaya,

Tridoshajaroga & Sarvarogahara, Papajanyaroga,Tapatrayajanyaroga.

In Rasendrasarasangraha it has been mentioned that ----

Mercury increases Budhi (intelligence), Smriti (Memory power), Prabha,

Kanti (Lusture), Balam (Strength of body); these properties of Rasa are only obtained

when it is used in processed form.


94,95&96
Parada Pathya:

Aahar:

Mudga, Dugda, Shali, Shak, Punarnava, Meghanad, Saindava, Shunti,

Musta, Padmamula, Jeera, Ardraka, Hamsodaka these are all Pathya aahar.

Vihara:

Aatmajnana, Shivapooja, Shivakatana these are all Pathya Viharas.


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97&98
Parada Apathya:

Aahar:

Ateemadhyapana,Bhojana,Shayana,Ratrijagarana,Krodha,Kakarashtakagana,

Pittavardhak, Vatavardhaka aahar, Kanji, Takra these are all Apathyas.

Vihara:
Jalakrida, Ativyayam, Vyavaya (Streesonga Vargya) etc, these are all
Apathyas.
Matra:
According to RPu
Mrutaparada - 2 Ratti
Abrakasatvajarita parada - 1 Ratti.
According to RT
Swarnajarita parada - Ratti.
Vikrantjarita Parada - Ratti.
Vajrajarita parada - Ratti.
Ores of Mercury:
Mercury is available in two forms
1.Native mercury. 2.Ores mercury.
Generally Mercury is found in the form of Ores, the most important Ores are

Cinnabar and Meta Cinnabar, which are in Sulphide form.

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Table No 21 Important ores of Mercury:

Sl Text book of % of Mercury Sl Siddhinandan Chemical


No Rasashastra (Dole) No Mishra Composition
I Calomel - 1 Cinnebar HgS
II Cinnebar - 2 Meta Cinnebar HgS
a Cinnebar Native - 3 Calomel Hg2Cl2

b Hepatic Cinnebar - 4 Living Stonite 2Sb2S3HgS

c Meta Cinnebar - 5 Montroydite HgO


d Coral Ore 2% 6 Falh Ore -
e Montroydite Mercuric Oxide, 7 Barsenite -
Main content.
f Brick Ore 8% 8 Gevadal Kajrite -
g Steel Ore 75% 9 Steel Ore of -
Mercury
h Brick Ore (HgO) 68% 10 Liver Ore of -
Mercury
i Montraydite Oxide form 11 Carolline -
12 Brick Ore -

Mercury, modern concept:


Mercury is called Quick silver. It is a Shining, silvery-white metal liquid at

ordinary temperature, divisible into spherical globules mobile, without any odour or

taste, slowly volatilizing at ordinary temperature. It is insoluble in H2O, HCl and cold

H2SO4. It is soluble in HNO3 and hot H2SO4.It is 13.5 times denser than water and 1.2

times heavier than lead. Its fumes are odourless and invisible.99

Physical Properties:100
Atomic No -- 80
Atomic weight --200.61
Symbol -- Hg
Specific gravity -- 13.595 at 250C
Boiling Point -- 3570C
Freezing point -- 38.90C
Place in periodic table -- Transition elements of d orbital
Configuration -- 2,8,18,32,18,2
Co ordination No -- 4
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Valency -- +1: +2
Occupied outer orbital -- 5d
State -- Metal in liquid form.
Melting point -- -38.870C
English name -- Quick Silver
Latin name -- Hydrargyrum.
Colour -- Shining silvery white

Chemical Properties:100

1. Action of Air: At ordinary room temperature, with low or high humidity mercury

is not at all affected chemically, but when heated above 3500C. It is slowly

combines with O2, forming mercuric oxide.

2Hg + O2 2HgO

2. Action of water and Alkalis:

Water or Alkalis have no influence.

3. Action of Acids:

a) Action of HNO3 on Hg:

Dilute acids have no action on mercury except nitric acid, which

gives mercurous nitric oxide.

6Hg + 8HNO3 3Hg2(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

Hot and strong nitric acid dissolves mercury and produces mercuric nitrate.

2Hg + 6 HNO3 Hg(NO3)2 + NO + 3H2O + NO2

b) Action of H2SO4 on Hg:

Cold and Dilute H2SO4 has no action on mercury but hot and strong sulphuric

acid dissolves mercury producing mercury sulphate.

Hg + 2H2SO4 (excess) HgSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O

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4. Other chemicals action on Mercury:

Halogen and Halogen compounds i.e. Iodine, Bromine, Fluorine, Chlorine

and their compounds do have effects on Mercury to formIodines, Bromides,

Fluorides and Chlorides.

5. Action with Metals:

Mercury form alloys with many metals and these are called Amalgams.

6. Action with Sulpher:

On rubbing mercury with Sulpher in required proportions and a little caustic

potash solution it gives mercuric sulphide. The color changes slowly from black to

red.

Simple test of Mercury:101

1. Boiling point of mercury is 357.250C. When impurities, especially metallic

impurities are mixed in the mercury its boiling point changes to lower

temperature.

2. Pure Mercury does not stick to a clean glass, on the contrary impure mercury

leaves behind its track on the clean glass.

3. Impure mercury when shaken for some time in open air forms a thin film of

blackish powder over its surface. This is due to oxidation of the metallic

impurities. If mercury is pure this does not occur.

Pharmacology:102&103

It was an important constituent of drugs for centuries as an ingredient in many

diuretics, antibacterial, antiseptics, skin ointment and laxatives. Elemental mercury is

absorbed primarily a vapour through the lungs. Absorbed mercury is lipid soluble and

readily crosses the blood brain barrier and placenta. The half-life of elemental

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mercury is 60 days; inorganic mercury is absorbed through G.I.tract and

percutaneously. The half-life of inorganic mercury is approximately 40 days.

Organic mercury is absorbed readily through the intestine and skin. The half-

life of organic mercury is about 70 days.

Absorption:104

Most of the soluble salts of Mercury are absorbed slowly from the intact

mucous membrane of the alimentary tract and produce their systematic effects. The

insoluble mercuric salts however are very sparingly absorbed mercurous chloride and

iodide are known to be absorbed as mercury can be detected in the urine after their

administration. In case of sulphides however, a great deal of doubt exists as to

whether they are absorbed at all. The sulphide ion is very inert and it is clear that

unless and until the salt is dissociated into its constituent ions, mercury will not be

able to exert its influence on body tissues. Sulphide of mercury is not used in any of

the pharmacopoeias of western countries, as it is considered to be devoid of

therapeutic activity. In the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia on the other hand, mercury is

predominantly used in the form of sulphides. Investigation was therefore carried to

determine whether this salt is at all made soluble under ordinary physiological

conditions in the gut and whether the mercury ion liberated from this so-called the

tissues can utilize inert combination. Small doses of mercury diminish the amount of

oxidation of the tissues as evidenced by the variations in the gaseous interchange.

Further administration of small doses of mercury to rabbits, dogs and men causes an

increase in the number of RBCs while the body gains wt and general nutrition is

improved. Larger doses, however, have been found to act in the reverse way by

causing a diminution in the amount of HB%, RBCs and wt.

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Mercury in Syphilis:105

Mercury was formerly the main remedy for the treatment of Syphilis.

Mercury had the advantage that small amount of them could be kept in the circulating

blood almost continuously So that anti Spirochete action could be maintained after

the arsphenamine had been excreted until it would safe to administer another arsenical

injection. This method of the treatment was based on the view, which still prevails,

that it is necessary for an antisyphillietic remedy to be present constantly in body

fluids for a considerable period to ensure destruction of all the spirochetes of syphilis.

Diuretic action of Mercury:105

It is a contraindicated in renal inefficiency or acute nephritis absolutely the main

use of mercurial diuretics is in edema of cardiac origin. Good results are some

times obtained in chronic stage of glomerulonephritis and ascitis due to hepatic

cirrhosis and portal obstruction.

Medico legal aspect:106&107

Mercury has always been considered to be a toxic drug to humans. Medico-

legally it is said that metallic Hg, which is perfectly pure, can hardly be considered

poisonous. Mercury is non-toxic when taken orally as it is not absorbed. In

exceptional cases mercury may undergo chemical changes in the body and operate as

a poison. Normal range of urinary mercury is up to 80 mg / lt and above 100 mg/lt it

is abnormal. Among the compounds of mercury, the chlorides, nitrates are always

responsible for acute poisoning.

Acute poisoning of Mercury:

The soluble salts of mercury in activate sulphydryl enzymes & thus interfere

with cellular metabolism & functions.

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Metallic taste, construction or choking in throught, swollen and grayish,

whitish coating of tongue, hot burning pain nausea vomiting, blood and mucoid

material, diarrhea with blood stained stools, suppressed, scantyurine, circulatory

collapse, uremia, gangrenous colitis may be observed.

Excretion of 500 micro gm of mercury in urine in a day suggests poisoning.

Fatal dose - verities according to compound.

Fatal period Usually fatal period is 3 to 5 days.

Chronic Poisoning of Mercury:

This is more common to those who are exposed to the vapours of dust of

Mercury in factories where mercury & its salts are largely used. Also occurs among

those who have taken internally for a prolonged period of excessive doses of mercury

compounds. Symptoms begin to appear at 100/g of mercury per 100 ml of blood.

Symptoms: Nausea, digestive, disturbances, colicky pain, vomiting and diarrhoea.

Salivation, lossness of teeth etc.

Mercurialentis This is the brownish deposit of Hg through the cornea on the

anterior lens capsule, mercurial tremors detected early in the writing of the patient.

Erythrism Mental symptoms such as shyness, timidity, irritability, loss of

confidence, mental depression, mental disturbances, Hallucinations and delusions,

which may result in insanity.

Fatal dose108 - 0.5 to 1 gms/ 70 Kg

Fatal period108 Death may occur within a few hours or 3 to 5 days

Treatment:
1.Give egg white, milk or animal charcoal to precipitate Mercury.

2. Gastric leavage with 5% solution of sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate. This

reduces mercury chloride to metallic mercury. Gastric leavage can be done

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with egg white solution or 2% to 5% solution of sodium bi-carbonate.

3. 10 gm of sulphoxilate in 100 to 200 CC of distilled water may be given by slow iv

injection & repeated after 4 to 6 hrs.

4. Penicillamine.

5. Demulcents.

6. High colonic leavage with 1:1000 solution of sulphoxilate twice daily.

7. Symptomatic treatment should be given as indications arise.

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NIMBUKA:109,110,111,112,113&114

Botanical Name Citrus, Lemon (Linn)

Family - Rutaceae

Gana - Charaka-Phala Varga, Amla Varga, Sushruta and Vagbhata-Phala Varga.

Synonyms - Nimbu-Nimbuka, Dantsatha

Vernacular Names:

Sanskrit - Nimbuka,
Hindi - Nimbu,
Kannada - Nimbe Hannu,
English - Lemon,
Telagu - Nimma Chettu.
Description:

A strangling, bushy, small tree 3-4 meter high with thorny branches, Leaves-

ovate, Petiole margined or winged flowers small white or pinkish sweet scented

fruit-oblong or ovoid, usually with a nipply shaped extremely bright yellow rind thick

pulp acid pale yellow.

Distribution:

Cultivated/grown in U.P, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, found wild

in the North West regions of India.

Phyto chemistry:

Citric richer juice 90% and the average amount of citric acid available 3.7%

from 100 cc lemon juice. A pale yellow volatile oil derived either by distillation or by

sample expression from the fresh outer part of the pericarp.

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Pharmaco dynamics:

Rasa - Amla, Katu.


Guna - Laghu, Tikshana,
Virya - Ushna,
Vipaka - Amla
Doshakarma: Vata kaphahara

Karma:

Dipana, pachana, chaksusya Agnimandya, amlapitta, visuchi, vataroga,

vatashlesma and vibandhagna.

Uses:

Agnimandya, Aruchi, Netra roga, amlapitta, Vataja roga, Vibandha, etc.

According to modern science, a Medicinal claim includes uses for treatment for high

blood pressure, Dyspepsia, Anemia, Acne, Arthritis, and lemon juice used for making

vitamin C concentration. Vitamin C is essential for the normal functioning of living

cells and is involved in many enzymatic reactions. It is required for the development

of cartilage, bone and teeth. It also helps for wound healing, for absorption of iron

from the intestine. It has reducing and antioxidant properties, the vitamin C are

utilized in the food industries & in the formulations of some pharmaceutical

preparation.

Part used Fruit

Dosage Fresh juice 10-20 ml

Formulation Jambiradi Panaka, Nimbuka tail.

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HARIDRA:

Vernacular Names:115&116

Sanskrit ---------- Haridra


English ---------- Turmeric
Hindi ---------- Haldi
Kannada ---------- Arashina
Family ---------- Zingiberacae
Telagu ---------- Pasapu
Bengali --------- Ilud
Gujarati --------- Haldar
Latin name ---------- Curcuma longa linn
Synonyms:117

Kanchani, Peeta, Nishakhy, Varavarnini, Krimighna, Haldi, Yoshitpriya,

Hattavilasini, Gouri.

Vargikarana:118

Tiktaskanda, Kusthaghna,Lekhaniya, Kandughna,Visaghna (Ca), Haridradi,

Mustadi, Slesmasansamana (Su), Haritakyadi Varga(Bha,Pra).

Ghataka:119

Haridrakanda,Dasamularishta,Asvaghandharista,Kumayasava,Punarnava

Mandura, Mahasudasanachurna, Chandraprabhavati, Basantkusumakararasa,

Dasangalepa.

Chemical Composition:120&121

It contains essential oil, Resin, an Alkaloid, Curcumin the yellow colouring

matter, Turmeric oil or Termerol. Turmeric oil is thick, yellow viscid oil. In Haridra

5-6% Vortile oil, 24% starch, 30% albuminoides present. Chemical formula is

C21H20O6.

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Guna & Karma (Medicinal Properties):122

Rasa ---- Tikta, Katu


Guna ---- Ruksha,Laghu
Veerya ---- Ushna
Vipaka ---- Katu
Part used ---- Kanda
Action & Uses:

Kaphavatashamaka, Varnyam,Shothaharam, Kushtaghnam, Vranaropanam,

Vranashodhanam, Vishaghnam,Vedanasthapanam. According to Bhavaprakash

Nighantu & Rajanighantu,it is used in skin disorders, Raktavikar, ,Vishagna, Sharir

sundarata etc.

Pharmacological properties:123

The rhizome of the plant, different fractions and essential oil exhibited a

number of pharmacological properties and uses:

Aromatic, Carminative, blood purifier, Tonic, Alterative antiperiodic,

Anthelminthic, Purulent conjunetivitis, in skin affections and Antacid, Antiseptic

and Antibacterial, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory and Antiathritic, Antifertility,

Ulcerogenic, In cough and Dyspnea, Hypocholesteremic, Protection of gastric ulcer,

Anti hepetotoxic, Antihistaminic nontoxic.

A) Essential oil from Curcuma longa in different dilutions exhibited potent antifungal

property an aspergillus Niger, Afflatus, Penciliumjavanicum, T.Viride, C.Oryzae,

Helminthosparium and P.lapagericola.

B) A compound preparation with C.longa exhibited antifungal property on

experimentally induced ring warm infection in claves.

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ACIDS:

Introduction:124

The term acid has become so common and routinely applied to wide variety of

substances. Unfortunately several definitions of acids have been proposed from time

to time and this has confused the concept of acids. Each definition is correct within its

own framework and we should apply the one, which is the most suited under the

given circumstances.

Historical Background:

Going back to the historical development of the subject, acids were earlier

characterized by their sour taste, ability to dissolve substances insoluble in water,

action on vegetable dyes till Lavoisier in 1787 characterized acids as substances

containing oxygen as a constituent. The German name for element oxygen is

Sauerstoy meaning acidic substances. It is based on Lavoisier definition of acids in

1811, Davy observed that not all acids contain oxygen and proposed hydrogen as the

common constituent of all acids. In 1838 Liebig established protonic concept of acids

and defined as a substance composed of replaceable hydrogen.

Modern definitions of acids started the Arrhenius approach between 1880-

1890. The new concept of ionization based on Arrhenius model was the first

sophisticated view on acid behaviour. According Arrhenius an acid is a substance

which gives hydrogen ion (H+) in aqueous solution

Ace to Bronsted Lowry Definition:

Bronsted & Lowry, in 1923, independently defined acids as proton donors.

This definition is same as Arrhenius definition.

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Lewis Definition:

In 1923, Lewis gave a general definition of acid behaviour in terms of

electron-pair donation and acceptance but this received due attention in 1938.

Acc to Lewis, an acid is defined as any molecule, ion or radical that can accept

one or more electron pairs, that is, an acid is an electron pair acceptor.

Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is an important acid which finds numerous uses in

industry,125

Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid

Sulphuric acid at present is the most important sulphur compounds in the

manufacture of sulphuric acid and is one of the most important world industries. It is

manufactured either by the lead chamber process or by the contact process.126

Physical Properties of Sulphuric Acid:127

1. It is a colourless syrupy liquid (density 1.84 at 288K)

2. It boils at 611K when it is found to contain only 98.3% of the acid. Thus boiling

cannot effect concentration beyond 98.3%. Pure 100 percent acid is obtained by

dissolving sulphur trioxide in the dilute acid.

3. Concentrated acid fumes strongly are moist air.

Chemical Properties of Sulphuric Acid:128

Action of metals

The action of sulphuric acid on metals depends to some extent on


The strength of the acid
The nature of the metals
Metals like iron, zinc, aluminium, tin & magnesium react the dilute acid

liberating hydrogen gas.

Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2

Metal like lead, copper, mercury & silver react without concentrated sulphuric acid

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to produce sulphur dioxide gas & respective metal sulphate.

H2SO4 H2O + SO2 + [O].

Hg + 2H2SO4 HgSO4 + 2H2O + SO2

These reactions, the sulphur in sulphate ion So2-4 is reduced and the metal are

oxinated to respective cautions.

Cu + SO2-4 + 4H+ Cu2+ + SO2 + 2H2O

Noble metals like gold & platinum do not react at all.

Dehydrating nature:

Sulphuric acid dissolves in water with evolution of heat. It form hydrates with

water like H2SO4, H2O, or H2SO4.2H2O etc. Therefore, sulphuric acid can be used as

dehydrating agent it extracts the elements of water (i.e. hydrogen & oxygen) from

many organic substances.

Oxidation Reactions:

Sulphuric acid is on oxidizing agent, because it can easily supply an atom of

oxygen according to the following equation.

H2SO4 H2O+ SO2+ [O].

Action on salts:129

It is a strong acid and decomposes the salts of the more volatile acids, eg:

chlorides, nitrates, sulphites, carbonates etc. The corresponding acid is liberated in

each case.

Cl + H2SO4 HSO4 + HCl

Uses or Importance of Sulphuric Acid:130

Sulphuric acid is used in a large number of Industries. So important is this acid

and so varied are its uses that it is often called the King of the Chemicals. The early

consumption of sulphuric acid is an index to industrialization, prosperity or

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
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civilization of a country. The chief uses of the acid are

1. In fertilizer industry: It is used in the manufacture of communication sulphate

and superphospate of lime.

2. In refining petroleum: Crude petroleum is agitated with sulphuric acid to

remove objectionable sulphur and terry compounds.

3. In chemical Industries: Sulphuric acid is employed in the manufacture of other

acids (hydrochloric, nitric and phosphoric acids) sulphates and other.

4. In dyes and Drugs: The acid is used in the manufacture of coal for dyes and

drugs. It is used there for susphonation and dehydration purposes.

5. For Pickling: It is used for cleansing metals (removing the oxide layer from

their surface) before enameling, electroplating, galvanizing or soldering.

6. In the manufacture of explosive: Dynamite, TNT and pienie acid are obtained

by the action of sulphuric acid and nitric acid mixture on organie compounds.

7. In metallurgy: A number of metals. e.g.: Copper is extracted from their ores

using sulphuric acid.

8. In storage batteries.

9. In the manufacture of nitrocellulose products: It is used in the manufacturing

of textiles (Cotton, wool & linen fabrics) rayon. Photographic films, rubber

and tacquers.

10. In the laboratory: It is an important laboratory reagent, also used as a

dehydrating and drying agent.

Additional Points:131

The sulphur trioxide gas is not absorbed directly by water, because it gives a

dense fog of sulphuric acid particles. A large amount of heat is liberated during

hydration of sulphuric acid. If water is added to concentrated sulphuric acid, it spurts

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
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out because of the formation of syteam. To prepare dilute sulphuric acid solution,

concentrated acid is added slowly to plenty of water with stirring and cooling, if

necessary.

The structural formula of sulphuric acid is

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SAINDHAVA:
It is one among the Lavantraya and also Lavana panchaka.

Vernacular names:132,133&134
Sanskrit -- Saindhava
English -- Rock Salt
Hindi -- Senholon, Sedhalon
Kannada -- Saindhava uppu
Arabic -- Mil - he tabazard
Persian -- Namake sang
Gujarati -- Sindhaluna
Telagu -- Saindhalavanam
Tamil -- Indu Uppu
German -- Natrium Chloricum
Synonyms:
Table No 22 Synonyms of Saindhava lavana:

Sl No Paryaya DhN135 KN136 RN137 RSM138 MPN139 RT140


1 Saindhava + + + + + +
2 Sindhu + + - - - -
3 Sindhutha + + - - - +
4 Nadeya + + + + - +
5 Sindhuja + - + + + -
6 Shiva + + + - - +
7 Vimalavar - + - - - -
8 Sheetashiva - + + + - +
9 Shuddha - + + - + -
10 Lavanavara - + - - - -
11 Shilatmaka - + - - - +
12 Manimanth - + + + + -
13 Dhouteya - + - - - -
14 Patuttama - + - - - -
15 Shivatmaja - - + - - -
16 Pathya - - + - - -
17 Patuttama - - - - + -
18 Sindhulavana - - - - - +
19 Sindhuphala - - - - - +
20 Sindhutta - - - - - +
21 Sindhudeshaja - - - - - +

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22 Sindhubhava - - - - - +
23 Sindhumantaja - - - - - +
24 Vashira - - - - - +

Classification (Lavana varga):141

Bheda --- According to Acharya Yadavji Trikamji, The two varieties are stated

in his book RASAMRUTA 1. White, 2. Red / Reddish.

According to Rasamruta, Saindava Lavana is a Mineral, which is obtained

from Mines of Punjab.

Source:142

Found in nature in extensive beds mostly associated with clay & Calcium

Sulphate. To obtain it, holes are dug into these rocks, which soon become filled up

with salt water; the water is evaporated and the salt is left ready for use.

Characters:

It is found in small white crystalline grains or transparent cubes. It is brownish

white externally and white internally. It has a pure saline taste and burns with a

yellow flame.

Table No 23 Properties of Saindhava Lavana according to different Texts: -

1) RASA:

Sr No Rasa ChSm143 SuSm144 AH145 RN146 KN147 MPN148 BPN149 DhN150 RSM151

1 Ishatmadhur + - - - - - - - -
2 Madhur - + + + + Ruchikar + +

2) VEERYA:

Sr No Veerya ChSm SuSm AH RN KN MPN BPN DhN RSM


1 Shita - + - - + + + + +

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3) VIPAKA:

Sr No Vipaka ChSm SuSm AH RN KN MPN BPN DhN RSM

1 Madhur - + - - - - - - -

4) GUNA:
Sr No Guna ChSm SuSm AH RN KN MPN BPN DhN RSM
1 Laghu - + + - + + + + +
2 Snigdha - + - - + + + + +
3 Sukshma - - - - + - + - -
4 Ushna - - + - - - - - -
5 Shitala - - - - + + - - -

5) DOSHAGHNATA:
Sl No Doshaghnata ChSm SuSm AH RN KN MN BPN DhN RSM

1 Tridhosh Shamaka + + + + - + + + +

6) KARMA:

Sl No Karma ChSm SuSm AH RN KN MN BPN DhN RSM


1 Rochana + + - + + - + + +
2 Deepana + + + + + + + + +
3 Vrusha + + + + + + + + +
4 Chakshushya - + + + + + + + +
5 Hrudya - + + - - + - + +
6 Vrana Ropaka - - - + - - - + +
7 Vibandhahara - - - + - - - + +
8 Pachaka - + - - + + + - -
9 Avidhahi - - - - - - - + -
10 Aarogyaprada - - - - - - - + -

USES:

1) Used in diet as well as in Medicines.

2) In Ayurveda it is considered best amongst all the lavanas for internal use.

3) In compound preparation when particular type of lavana is not mentioned in

literature, then saindhav is recommended for use.

4) Used in Nirghandha Kupipakva preparations.

5) Used in treatment of Aruchi, Hrudrog, vranaropan, vibandh etc.

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Modern Concept:152

According to Inorganic chemistry: -

Sodium Chloride (NaCl):

Common Salt is found in seawater, in salt wells, island lakes (eg; Sambar in

India & Lake Elton in Russia) & in deposits of rock salts in Himachal Pradesh

(Mandi) and Khewra (Punjab, Pakistan). Rock Salt is duged out or dissolved in water,

if found very deep. The saturated solution is pumped out and evaporated to get the

salt.

Common salt is also manufactured from seawater & water of certain lakes by

evaporated by solar heat and wind when sodium chloride separates out. Seawater is

run into lagoons with beds of clay to prevent percolation & allowed to evaporate, clay

deposits here and the saturated solution is made to flow into other lagoons and

evaporates further when crude salt is deposited & is raked up. The mother liquor

known as bittern may be used for the manufacture of magnesium & bromine.

In cold countries like Russia, seawater is taken into pits where only freezes at

night leaving a concentrated solution. The percentage rise daily till it is 22% & about

90% of water has been removed. This is heated to get salt.

Properties:

It is a colourless crystalline substance.

Cubic Crystals, M.P.1093k.

Solubility does not vary appreciably with rise or fall of temperature.

At low temperature (273 to 252k) a dihydrate,NaCl.2H2O exists.

On heating the crystals break up with a crackling noise.

Ordinary salt is slightly hygroscopic due to traces of magnesium & Calcium

Chloride present.
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It gives the common reactions of a chloride and soluble sodium ions.

It is a good conductor of electricity.

Action with Mercury, it forms sodium amalgam.

Uses:

It is an essential constituent of our diet.

Mixed with ice, it gives a freezing mixture.

As a starting material for the manufacture of Chlorine, hydrochloric acid,

washing soda caustic soda, and many other sodium compounds.

In the preparation of pottery glaze.

In the manufacture of soap, for salting out.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Kupi pakva Rasayana

KUPIPAKVA RASAYANA

Introduction:

Earlier the main aim of Rasa shastra is Lohavada, now given attention to

Jeevan mukti by means of Deha vada, for which contribution of Rasoushadhis to

make the body disease free and healthy. It is Parada that can make body undecaying

and immortal.

Description about KUPIPAKVA RASAYANA

M m C i McM m, mYuq Aall mYuq, Uxxr mUSxr, A r l xjlq Aji

M mrq Aallq mYuq rS x rlq ii M mmYuUxrlq | 153

The process where Parada & other dravys are processed by heating in a

specialized bottle to prepare medicine is called Kupipakva Rasayana.

Rasakarpoor is prepared by kupi pakva rasayan method where in kramagni (Mrudu,

madhyamagni and Tivragni) is given.

Kupi Paryaya Kupika, Siddha, Gola, Girindika (R.R.S)

Place of Kupipakva Rasayana in Rasaoushadhis:


Rasaoushadhis

Sagni Niragni
Those Rasayanas, which are Those Rasayanas, which are prepared
prepared with the help of Agni. without the help of Agni
Ex. Kupipakva Rasayana Ex. Khalviya Rasayana.
When the herbal drugs combine with mercurial compounds or with sulphur,

their activities may last for very longer period. The Rasagranthas clearly indicate that

Parada with its very powerful yogavahi properties, when mixed with other substances

increase their properties immensely and the self-life period for indefinite period.
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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Kupi pakva Rasayana
Historical review of Kupipakva Rasayan:

On thorough study of Rasa-Classics, it came to know that use of Kachakupi

Starts after the rasavada before this there is no reference regarding the Kachakupi.

There is no reference regarding Kupi Pakva Rasayana or Rasa Sindhura found

during Prevedic, Vedic and samhita period i.e. up to 600 A.D.

Invention of glass occurred in Misra, Arab, Mesopotamia countries and

use of glass bottles, vessels also first time started there and there after it comes

to India. This is the reason why Kachakupi found in the classics after Rasa-

hrudayatantra. Before the invention of glass, preparation of such type of

medicine was done by using kupis made up of iron, silver etc.

Though Kachakupis were come in practice, references about metallic kupis

(Gold, Silver etc.) are also found.

Rasa Hrudaya Tantra:

Similarly references of Valukayantra are found from the 9th century. Though

the description of Valukayantra found in Rasa Hrudaya Tantra, non-availability of

kachakupis, leads them to use saravas or musas for Gandhaka Jarana Process.

Rasarnava:

Bhairavananda, the author of Rasarnava also mentioned the process of

Gandhaka jarana & Parada marana in 12th century A.D.But No Reference regarding

the preparation of Rasakarpur is found.

Anandkand:

Here, 31 types of Parada marana methods have been mentioned. Among,

which, in only two types the help of kachakupi and valukayantra is taken to prepare

the bhasma.

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Kupi pakva Rasayana
Rasaprakash Sudhakara:

Acharya Yoshodhara (13th cent. AD.) in his text Rasaprakasha Sudhakar first

time quoted Rasasindhura Kalpana by the name of Uday-bhaskarasa". At the same

place, he gave the method of Rasakarpur preparation by the name "Ghanasar-rasa".

He used Kachaghati (Kupi) and Sikatayantra for the preparation of Udayabhaskar

rasa.

Rasachintamani:

In 15 th cent AD, Anantdev Suri in his text Rasachintamani described it as

"Rasaparthivarasa".

Rasakaumudi, Ayurveda Prakasha:

In Rasakaumudi, Rasakalpayoga (16th Cent. AD) and Ayurveda

Prakasha (17th cent. AD), it is described by the name of "Sinduranama Rasa".

Rasataringinikar has mentioned many other Sindurakalpas.

Overall after critical study, one can comes to conclude that process of

Gandhaka Jarana mentioned in RHT developed and came in light as Kupipakva

Rasayana.

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Classification:

Types154

Ingredients Manufacturing Method Place of Finished


product

a) Sagandha a) Antardhuma a) Kanthastha


(Prepared with (Cork is applied in the (The finished product
the use of Gandhaka) beginning and the deposited at the neck)
eg.Hinguliya Manikya vapours are not eg.HinguliyaManikya
Rasa, RasaSindhura etc. allowed to escape) Rasa, Rasasindhur etc.
eg. Rasa Sindhura 6:1 ratio

b) Nirgandha b) Bahirdhuma b) Talastha


(Prepared without use (cork is applied after (The product is obtained
of Gandhaka) burning of Sulphur) from the bottom of the
kupi)
eg. Rasapushpa eg.Hinguliya Manikya eg.Svarnavanga.
Rasakarpoor Rasa, SilaSindhura Samirapannaga rasa,

c) Ubhayastha
(Find products obtained
from both the sitas)
eg. Makaradhwaja
Procedure of Kupi Pakva Rasayana:

Preparation of Kupipakva kalpas should be at night because

according to the season, day temperature in summer is quiet uncomfortable on

the other hand. Warm ambient near furnace at night in winter season,

examination of fumes & flames expelling out from kupi can be accurately

possible at night. The same thing is regarding the red-hot base (Balarka - Sam)

examination at the time of corking.

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The whole procedure Kupi Pakva Rasayana can be divided under 3 headings.

(A) Purvakarma
(B) Pradhanakarma
(C) Paschat karma
(A) Purvakarma:
During Purvakarma following points should be considered.
i. Collection of appropriate instruments.
ii. Shodhana of ingredients.
iii. Preparation of mixture.
iv. Preparation of Kupi.
v. Filling of Kupi with mixture.
(i) Collection of instruments:
Bhatti:155
The height and width of the Bhatti should be18 angulas, shaped like Ant hill

with a hollow space of 5 Gulpha (20") inside and should have many holes in its lower

portion. There should be an opening for introducing fuel, of about 12 angulas. In the

Bhatti heat of the burning fuel should properly reach the center as well as surrounding

the Valuka Yantra. There should be sufficient air ventilation inside the furnace. An

out let for the fumes should be there from inside. The flame should go up rather

coming down. Bhatti can be made with the fireproof bricks, which minimizes the loss

of heat and fuel consumption.

Types of Bhatti: 1. Wooden furnace.


2. Sikata yantra furnace.
3. Coal furnace.
4. Movable or immovable gas furnace.
5. Electric furnace.
Fuel used: 1) Wood,
2) Coal (Hard coke or soft coke)
3) Gas
4) Electricity.
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Valuka Yantra:156

A Loha bhanda having narrow base and wide mouth depending on the size of

the Kupi (1" taller than kupi) should be prepared with the 2 handles. The

circumferences of Valuka yantra should fit exactly over the hole of the Agnibhatti. It

should fill 5 Adhaka sand and have a central hole of 2 to 2.5 cm at the bottom, which

should be closed with Abhraka patra before keeping the Kupi during heating.

According to Yadavji Trikamji Acharya the depth of the vessel should be 1 Vitasti

pramana.

Valuka:

Sthoola and clean Valuka (Sand) should be filled into the Valuka yantra. At

first 2 3 cm of sand is spread over the Abhraka Patra, which is kept covered over

the central hole, over which Kajjali filled Kupi is kept, and remaining part of Valuka

yantra should be filled with valuka till upto the neck of the Kupi.

Kupi: 157

During ancient period they used to prepare Sindhuras in Andha mooshas or

Kupi made with Hema, Tara, Ayas / Mrittika. Any materials can be used but they

should sustain intense heat. After 10th century when glass bottles were invented it was

used for the medicine preparations. Now a days amber beer bottle of 650ml capacity

with the neck 1 -1 length and moderate thickness with variable colors preferable

green is used.

Advantages:

1. The vapors do not escape out.


2. It does not break on heating.
3. Drug can be separated easily.

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Kapad Mitti:158

As per the textual reference the Kupi, which is used in Valuka yantra, should

be covered with the mud-smeared cloth, which can withstand intense heat. Mud,

which is pandura Varna, obtained in mass, Krishna or Sweta Varna that sustains heat

can be used. Valmika mrittika or potters mud can also be used. It is advised to prepare

kapad mitti from, husk - 2 parts, cotton 1 part, mud 3 parts, fibers, grinded and

kept soaked in water for 7 days and then used to cover the Kupi.

Now a days gopichandana or clay is used for this purpose. The mud-smeared

cloth applied to the kupi from bottom to mouth and should be well dried. Whole

length of the Kupi can be applied with kapad mitti as it prevents breakage of kupi

during heating.

Pyrometer:

In Kupi Pakva Rasayana preparation, Kramagni schedule is the most

important factor. Through Pyrometer, one can regulate the heat supplement for the

drug preparation. Two types of Pyrometer were available - 1. Which records the

temperature over the fuel, 2. Which records temperature of the sand by keeping the

sensors in Valuka Yantra.

Cork:

Corking material is called Mudra. In Kupi Pakva Rasayana procedure after

complete evaporation of fumes and cessation of flame Kupi mouth is closed with cork

and is called Mudrana or Corking. For this purpose any sticky substance, which gets

hardened with further heating and which can properly fits the mouth of the Kupi, is

used.

1. Madanamudra: Reference made with latex of udumbara & vata, lac,

kantaloha, gorochana and atasi taila. It is sticky and slightly hard.


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2. Hata mudra: Reference made with glass powder brick powder tankana,

mandura rubbed with latex of vata, udumbara and arka for 1 day

Now a days a cork is plugged into the mouth of the bottle, which is wrapped

with the cloth dipped in Plaster of Paris or gopichandana.

ii. Purification of ingredients:

The raw materials should be identified first for the genuinity and purity. Every

raw material should be purified according to the method prescribed in classics. Again

purified ingredients should be tested according the Samyak Shuddha laxanas

described in the texts.

iii. Preparation of kajjali:159

Equal quantity of Parada churna & Saindava Lavana should be taken according

to the reference and Mardana should be done without using any liquid in the Kajjali.

Kajjali is pre material for preparing Kupipakva Rasayana.Kajjali colour

depends on the ingredients for example Rasasindhur is red in colour where as

Rasakarpoor is white and etc

iv. Filling of Kajjali into the Kupi (Kupibharana):160

The Kupi should be filled up to 1/3rd with the kajjali so that there should be

enough space inside the Kupi for melting and boiling of kajjali and also for the

sublimation of compound, which is going to be condensed and deposited at the neck

of the Kupi. Such Kupi should be kept exactly at the center of Valuka Yantra, which

is in turn placed in the Agni bhatti and remaining part of the Valuka yantra should be

filled with sand till up to the neck of the Kupi.

3. Pradhana Karma: (Heating Procedure): It includes:

1. Temperature analysis and Monitoring


2. Heating pattern / schedule.
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3. Shalaka sanchalana.
4. Observation of fumes and flames.
5. Corking of mouth of Kupi (Mukhamudrana)
6. Self cooling (Swanga Shitalikarana)
Temperature analysis / monitoring:

Ancient Parameters: Traditionally following tests were in practice.

a) Cotton, dry grass test Cotton or dry grass kept on the Valuka catches fire

and burns then it is considered to be Tivragni.

b) Rice test When a Paddy or maize put on Valuka it puffs up- tivragni.

Modern Parameters: Now a days Pyrometer, Thermometers are used for

measuring the temperature.

Heating pattern / schedule:161

A few signs and standards of different heating stages of Kupi Pakva Rasayanas

are mentioned by the ancient scholars for deciding proper pachana of the ingredients,

through Kramagni paka.

It has to be considered under two headings.


1. In terms of duration of heating.
2. In terms of temperature.
The term duration indicates the time limit for maintenance of Kramagni

and in terms of temperature indicates the temperature limit for maintenance of

Kramagni.

Kramagni pattern (For Rasasindhur) is categorized into three stages.

1. Mrudu Agni 150 -200C (Initial stage)


2. Madhyamagni 350 - 400C (Middle stage)
3. Tivragni - 550 - 600C (End stage)
The above-mentioned Kramagni pattern differs from one kupi Pakva

Rasayana to another.

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Ist stage Mrudu Agni (150 - 200c):

(Stage of Liquefaction of Kajjali.)

In this stage of heating Sulphur fumes starts to come out of Kupi mouth.

Material in the Kupi completely gets melted which may be ascertained by inserting

cold shalaka in to the Kupi.

This heat may be maintained for the prescribed time to allow chemical reactions to

start with.

IInd stage Madhyamagni (350 - 400c):

(Stage of profuse fuming and boiling of Kajjali.)

This stage commences from the complete melting of Kajjali and lasts till the

starting of formation of Sindhura compound.

In this stage profuse fumes of Sulphur from the Kupi mouth is obvious.

Liquefied Kajjali starts boiling.

Deposition of fumes at the neck of the Kupi may cause chocking, which may

frequently be removed by inserting Tapta shalaka in to the Kupi mouth.

Boiling of melted material at the Kupi is ascertained by inserting cold iron rod in the

Kupi or by visualizing through torchlight.

It is necessary to prevent the material coming out of the Kupis mouth by

maintaining and controlling heat temperature to desired level.

Maintain moderate heat for the prescribed period to ensure burning of extra Sulphur

in the product.

Same degree of heating is maintained till boiling of Kajjali ceases.

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IIIrd Stage Tivragni (550 - 600c):

(Stage of appearance of flame and corking of Kupi mouth.)

This stage commences from the formation of Sindhura compound and lasts up

to the completion of Jarana of Gandhaka. The process of formation of Sindhura

occurs in the middle stage, it means when Kajjali is in boiling stage (Honey comb like

appearance), chemical changes occur and as a result formation of new compound

takes place, which is called as Sindhura Kalpa. Afterwards as heating persists, this

newly formed compound sublimates and gets condensed at the neck and mouth of the

Kupi.

At the end of middle stage Sulphur fumes catches fire and it takes a form of flame. In

this end stage flame appears. Slowly the height of the flame starts to rise.

When extra Sulphur burns out completely flame disappears and this indicates

the completion of Gandhaka Jarana.

Redness starts appearing at the bottom of the Kupi (seen through torch light)

which gets more brightened (Sooryodaya laxana). Sindhura test becomes positive.

Almost disappearance of fumes / flame at the Kupi mouth could be observed which is

ascertained by performing Sheeta shalaka test.

When Copper coin is placed on the Kupi mouth, due to Mercury fumes, which

is getting evaporated, it becomes white in colour.

Shalaka sanchalana:162

Ayurveda Prakashakara mentioned the use of hot shalaka during blocking of

the Kupi mouth by the fumes. Iron rods of different size and shapes were used. Thin

rods (0.5cm) for cold shalaka test and Thick shalaka (1-1.5cm) for Hot shalaka test

were in use.

During the procedure cold shalaka is used especially for noting the state
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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
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of Kajjali whether it is in powder form, melted form or in boiling state or in

sublimating compound state. Hot shalaka is used for burning the sublimated Sulphur

deposited at the neck region of Kupi, which may block the Kupi mouth resulting in

breaking of Kupi otherwise.

Observation of fumes and flames:163

All the characteristics of fumes like colour, smell etc must be observed. It

differs according to the ingredients.

Colour Yellowish, Orange, Bluish or White etc.


Odour Sulphur, Arsenial etc.
Quantity Mild, Moderate, Profuse / Dense etc.
Flame:

This is also an important factor while preparing Kupi Pakva Rasayana. Time of

starting of flame, its height, colour and its duration are the important features. These

important features depend on ingredients used.

Corking of Kupi (Mukhamudrana):164

It is important to decide the proper time of corking before that few tests are to

be conducted.

Absence of flame.
Absence of fumes.
Copper coin test should be positive.
Appearance of Redness in the bottom of Kupi (Sooryodaya lakshana)- positive.
Dry grass test should be positive.
If a Sheeta shalaka is introduced into the Kupi, a white dense fume appears,

suggests completion of Gandhaka Jarana. Sheeta shalaka gets coating of different

coloured powder according to different compounds. Ex. Blackish in Rasa Sindhura,

White coating in Rasapushpa etc. This is called positive Sheeta shalaka test a

confirmatory test before corking.


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Before corking 2-3 inches of sand layer should be moved aside from the neck

region to make it cool as the sublimating compound can get well condensed in the

neck portion of the Kupi.

Method of corking:165

Cork made up of stone or wood or mud is kept over the mouth of the Kupi and

then it is covered with the cloth smeared with clay / Multani mitti. For the sealing

purpose chalk powder (Khatika), Guda (jaggery), Madhu (honey) etc can be used.

Swanga sitalikarana (self cooling):

After heating for prescribed period, Bhrasti is left for self-cooling during when

the Sindhura starts get condensed at the neck portion.

3. Paschat Karma (Collection of final product):

Removal of Kupi from the Valuka Yantra.


Breaking of Kupi.
Collection of final product.
Examination of the final product.
Removal of Kupi from the Valuka yantra:

First sand should be removed from the Valuka yantra and then the Kupi is

removed carefully. Kapadmitti layers are carefully scraped out, Kupi is cleaned with

wet cloth. Level of the product inside the Kupi is observed and marked.

Breaking of Kupi (Kupibhedana):166

A thread soaked in Kerosene or Spirit is tied just below (2-3 cm) or above the

level of the product and fire is set. Kupi is kept horizontal and rotated so that whole

thread gets completely ignited. Little of cold water is sprinkled over it or Kupi can be

wrapped with a wet cloth, then the Kupi breaks into 2 equal halves at desired level.

The product, which is either Talastha or Galastha from the broken Kupi, is collected,

powdered well and stored.


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Examination of the product / Sindhura:

The ingredients of the Kajjali can make judgment about the colour and shape

of the crystal of Sindhura. Similarly smell and colour of flame are the basis for the

determination of Sindhura compound going to be formed. At last chemical analysis

crystallographic study and clinical study are done for confirmatory evidences of the

Sindhura.

Importance of Kupi Pakva Rasayana:

Kupi Pakva Rasayana is having importance because of following properties:

1. Potency of these drugs remains longer period.


2. It administered in minimal dose.
3. Easy for administration.
4. More potent as compared to other pure herbal preparations.
5. When mixed with other drugs, it reduces the dose of other drugs.

6. Due to its augmenting effect Yogavahitva.


7. Due to quicker action Ashukaritva.
8. It can cure even jeerna / long standing rogas.
9. Chemical bond becomes stronger in the following order Kajjali, Parpati,
Pottali and Kupi Pakva Rasayana.
Considering the above points we may say that medicines, which are prepared

by Kupipakva rasayana, are the best medicines.

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Sidha Bhrasti (Bhatti)

25 Sq inch

6
6

Iron Bars
12
10
8
7 7
Earth

8
7 13

28 Sq inch

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Drug Review

Rasakarpoor:

Rasakarpoor is systematically methodized, arranged and presented as a science

during the period of Nagarjuna. However, the few references of Rasoushadhis as

therapy are available in Vedic period. The available literature of Rasashastra does not

reveal the exact history of Rasakarpoor. The name Rasakarpoor appeared only after

Nagarjuna (8th century onwards).

Definition of Rasakarpoor:

Rasakarpoor comprises of two words viz Rasa and Karpura. We shall look

into the meaning of these two words separately.

Rasa:

The meaning of Rasa should be taken as Parada. It is named as Rasa, as it has

the capacity to dissolve or absorb all the metals in it and also can overcome old age,

disease and death.167

Karpoora:

This gives the following meanings,

1) A substance, which is white in colour.

2) Substance with particular smell.

In shabda kalpa Dhruma, the meaning of Karpur is given as Chandra,

Lokatusarah, Gourah, Kumudah, Chandrabhasma, Renusarakah, Tarabhrah,

Spatikabhah, Sasankah, and Ghanasarah etc.168

Rasakarpoor is Nirgandha type of Kupipakva rasayana. After 13th century

Nirghandha yogas are found. Rasendra sara sangraha is the first text in which

Nirgandha type of Kupipakva kalpana described. As on today there are two most

common Nirgandha yogas are found in Rasa classics viz Rasakarpoora and

Rasapushpa.
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Synonyms:

All most all acharyas mentioned as Rasakarpoor.

According to Rasaprakasha sudhakar Ghanasara rasaha


Rasakamadhenu Apurva rasaha
Historical background:

Vedic period, Smruti, Koutilya Arthashastra, Samhita period we does not have any

reference about Rasakarpoora.

Rasakala: - Few are of the opinion that the exact time of Rasakarpoora can be traced

by dating the instruments. Damaruyantra, which is a must for the preparation of

Rasakarpoora, was known to siddhas of 8th century A.D. However, this will not solve

the problem as these instruments were used for other purposes also.

If one considers the time of the text in which first reference of the

Rasakarpoora is available, then it will be very easy to say when exactly the

Rasakarpoora was prepared. Vaidya swamy Harisarananda, in his book Kupipakva

rasa nirmana writes that an arab prepared Rasakarpoora by using Parada and several

other drugs through Damaru Yantra in 8th century A.D. But according to his another

book Bhasma Vijnana, the date of the Rasakarpoora is 12th century A.D. It is named

as Ghanasara Rasah under the heading of Parada preparation in Rasa prakasha

sudhakar (12th ). The term Rasakarpoora is first used in Rasendra chintamani (14th

century A.D). Then onwards the other various Rasashastra texts have explained

elaborately the preparation and pharmacological action of Rasakarpoor.

There are about 40 references about Rasakarpoor in Rasa texts. Most of the

acharyas after 12th century have explained about the Rasakarpoor with little bit

variation in the preparation as well as ingredients as shown in the below table.

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Table No 24 Different methods of preparation explained by different Texts:
Sl
Author/Reference Ingredients / Quantity Yantra
No
RPS / Chapter3, Sloka Hingulotth Parada 32 Tola, Gairik, Khatika,
Saindhava lavana, Shodhita Kaseesa each 16 Damaru
1 No 6-9, Page No 53,
Tola, Shodhita Spatika 32 Tola. Yantra
Ghanasararasah
RaChi / Chapter 2, Sloka
Parada & Saindhava lavana, Parada, Valuka
2
No 25, Page No15-16. Marakagana Parada, Yantra
Equal Qty of Parada, Tankana, Madhu,
RSS/ChapterNo1, Sloka Damaru
3 Lakshaa, Unabhasma. Bhavana dravya
No 77,Page No 22 Yantra
Brungaraj swarasa.
RSS/Chapter No1, Sloka Parada, Kaseesa, Saindhava lavana and Lavana
4
No 78-79,Page No22-23. Bhavana dravya Sehunde swarasa Yantra
RPu/ Sloka No 197-196, Equal quantity of Parada, Shodhita Kaseesa, Damaru
5 th
Saindhavalavana & 1/20 part navasadara
Page No 95-96 Yantra
Shodhita Parada 30Tola, Navasadhara, Spatika
each 15 Tola, Tankana, Saindhavalavana each 8 Damaru
6 ASS/ Page No 198 Tola, Sarjikshara 10 Tola, Kaseesa 5Tola, Yantra
Yavakshara 2 Tola, Somala 1 Tola,
BP/PoorvaKhanda, Shodhita Parada, Choorna, Isthika, Kathika,
Damaru
7 Sloka No184-189, Valmika Mruttika, Saindhavalavana each 1 part
Yantra
PageNo 846-847 & Gairika 2 part
Shodhita Spatika, Navasadhara, Kasisa,
RSM/Chapter No 1, Saindhavalavana, Sorak, Tutthya & Tankana, Valuka
8
Page No 24-25. Parada each equal quantity & Shodhita Malla 2 Yantra
Karsha.
Equal Qty of Hingulotha Parada, Tankana,
RMJ/Chapter No 1, Madhu, Lakshachoorna, Una Bhasma & Valuka
9 Bhavana dravya Brungaraja swarasa.
Sloka No 40. Yantra

RSM / Chapter No 1, Parada 1 part, Sulphuric acid part, Saindhava


Valuka
10 Page No 26, lavana 1 part.
Yantra
(Kondapalli)
Shodhita Parada 1 part, Gandakamla 1.5 part &
RT / Chapter No 6, Page Valuka
11 Saindhavalavana.
No 115-116. Yantra

Preparation of Rasakarpoor according to Rasatarangini:

Shodhita Parada 1 part, Gandakamla 1.5 part has to be taken in glass vessel,

kept it over a tripod, subject to heat till parada becomes choorna form &

Gandhakamla should get evaporated. This choorna kept in Kachkupi & adding equal

quantity of Saindhavalavana then subjected to heat for 4 prahara. After


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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Drug Review
swangasheeta collect Rasakarpoor in kanthabhaga.

According to Bharateeya Rasashastras, Parada Vidnyana have mentioned

preparation of Rasakarpoor same as of Rasatarangini.

Pariksha:169

To test/examine the Purity and genuinity of Rasakarpoor, take a clean, shiny

Iron pan and put a drop of water on it. Then add a pinch of Rasakarpoor on that drop.

After a moment throw away the water drop and if there is blackening at the site of the

drop then the Rasakarpoor sample would be considered as pure.

Lakshana:

Karpooranibham, Kundendusannibham, Spatikanibham, Succhyakara,

Swetavarna, Himasadrusha, Ardhaparadarshaka, Ashtkonakruti.

Sevana vidhi (Internal & External):

According to Bhavaprakash, take Rasakarpoor, Lavanga, Chandana, Kasturi,

Keshar and give Bhavana with water subjected to Mardana until become

consistency. Make Vati. Administer it internally.

According to Ayurveda Prakash, cover the Rasakarpoor by placing center of

the puranagud. Administer it internally.

According to Rasatarangini, Rasakarpoor in choorna form with mixing other


ingredients like 5 masa Dalchinni choorna and 1 ratti Rasakarpoor add Nimbu
swarasa subjected to Mardana. Administer choorna in 1 ratti matra internally.
Rasatarangini is used externally in different ratios with water in different
disease condition.
The Rasakarpoor ratio for Phiranga vruna and Naveendrushta vruna is 1:1000
For Chirakaleena vruna, it is 1:2000
For Hands and other parts of body, it is 1:1000
For Yoni, Gharbhashaya, Netra, it is 1: 5000

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Matra:
According to Rasendrasarasangraha 1- 2 Gunja is common matra.
For Virechana --- 2 Ratti,
Vireachana (Balaka) --- 1/4 Ratti
Hikka --- 1/8 Ratti
Avashyakatanusara --- 1/20 1/30 Ratti
According to 1. Rasatarangini --- 1/64 to 1/32 Ratti.
2. Rasendrapurana --- 3 to 3/2 Ratti.
3. Ayurveda Prakash --- 3 to 3/2 Ratti.
4. Rasaratna samucchaya --- 3 to 6 Ratti.
5. Bharatiya Rasashastra --- 1/4 to 2 Ratti.
Anupana:
Table No 25 Different types of Anupana of Rasakarpoor:

Sl Author
Anupana
No AP170 RT171 RSM172 BP173 RaPu174 BRRS175 Dole176

1 Guda + - - - + - -
2 Dugdha + - - - - - -
3 Nagavalli + - + + - - -
4 Navaneeta - + - - - - -
5 Jatirasa - - + - - - -
6 Gruta - - + - - - -
7 Lavanga - - + + - - -
8 Chandana - - + - - + -
9 Swarnakshirimula - - + - - - -
10 Tvak - - - - - - +
11 Devakusuma - - - - - + -
12 Kasturi - - - - - + -
13 Jala - - - + - - -

Rasakarpoor Patya Patyas are same as Parada Patya Patyas.

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Drug Review
Patya:

According to the Rasaratna samucchaya and Anandakanda, Pathyas are

Dugdha, Dadhi, Gruta, Madhu, Sharkara are taken in heavy quantity. Shali, Yava,

Mudgha, Draksha, Narikel jala, Patola, Padmamoola, Punarnava, Nagarmotha, Jeera,

Dhanya, Haridra, Saindhava lavana, Ardraka Swarasa and Hamsodaka. These pathyas

are for all mercurial preparations.

Apathya:

According to the Rasaratna samucchaya and Anandakanda, Apathyas are ati

madyapana, Bhojana, Nidra, Jagarana, Maithuna, Krodha, Chintana and Kushmanda

Karkati, Karabooja, Karavallika, Kusumbakancha, Karkota, Kadali, Kakamachi.

Indication:
Table No 26 Different indications mentioned by different Texts:
Sl Name of Author
Indication 177 178 179
No RPS AP RSM BRRS180 BP181 YR182 RT183 RK184
1 Bahoobhothvisha
- - - - - - + -
paha
2 Tvachagataroga - - - - - - + -
3 Atisara - - - - - - + -
4 Ruchivardhana - - - - - - + -
5 Kruminashana - - - - - - + -
6 Pravahikahara - - - - - - + -
Phiranga /
7 - + + - + + + +
Upadousha
8 Kushta + + - - - - + -
9 Kandu - - - - - - + -
10 Agnidipaka - + - - + - + -
11 Vrunanashaka - - - - - - + -
Sankramakarogan
12 - - - - - - + -
ashaka
13 Sarvarogahara - + - - - - - -

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14 Kantivardhaka + + - - - - - -
15 Veeryabalavrudhi + - - + + - - -
16 Tridoshanashaka + - - - - - - -
17 Vishahar - - - + - - - -
18 Raktavikarhar - - - + - - - -
19 Kshayanashaka - - - - - - - +
20 Udararoghar - - - - - - - +

According to Rasamruta, Rasakarpoor is very famous in south India especially

in Andra Pradesh. Rasakarpoor is used as a home remedy right from infants to old

persons without any evident of adverse effects. In Andra Pradesh it is considered to be

a common remedy for diseases like Sandhivata, Swasa, Kasa and Sutikopadrava.

In Kondapalli near Vijayawad Rasakarpoor is being prepared in large scales by many

families and supplied throughout Andra Pradesh.

Dosh:

When Rasakarpoor is taken continuously for longer period and in large dose,

some diseases may occur like Mukhapaka, Dantavesta Shotha, Dantaraktasrava,

Mukhashota, Jivhavrudhi, Durgandhayuktaswas, Daha in Mutra & Kosta,

Raktastivana, Tikshnadaha in Udara.

Dosh Nivarana:

According to Rasendrapurana and Rasajalanidhi -

Rasakarpoor should be discontinued and the symptomatic treatment should be

followed.

Drinking Mahisha mala jala (Buffalo dung water).

Sharkara mixed with dhanyakajala.

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According to Rasayogasagara

Oral administration of Gandhaka taila.

Gargling with the Kwatha of Babbula or Badaratwak along with Kankshi and

Tutta.

According to Bruhat Yoga Tarangini

Oral administration of Kushmand, Kumari and Kadalikanda Swarasa.

Yoga:

Rasakarpoor vati: Keshara, Krishna maricha, Raktachandana, Lavanga all are

taken in each 1 masha, mix with 1 ratti Rasakarpoor and mardana with

Nimbuswarasa, make 1 ratti vati taken along with Navaneeta.

Kesharadhi gutika: Rasakarpoor, Ela, Lavanga, Trikatu, Javitri all are taken in

equal quantity. Make powder and bhavana with Ardraka swarasa, subjected to

mardana. Afterwards make vati of 4 Masha Pramana, take along with Madhu

and Ghruta.

Rasakarpoor, Lavanga, Chandana, Satyanashinimoola all are taken equal

quantity and Bhavana with Nagarabela swarasa subjected to Mardhana

continuously for 3 days. Make 1 ratti pramana vati.

Rasakarpoor drava: Rasakarpoor 1 ratti and 200ml of shudda jala.

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Mercurial salts:185

Two varieties of Mercurial salts are there viz. Mercurous chloride (HgCl

orHg2Cl2) and Mercuric chloride (HgCl2). These salts can be prepared by sublimation

process.

Definition of Sublimation:

Sublimation is the process of converting a solid directly into its vapour and

condensing the vapour into solid state having the same composition. The substance

does not pass through the intermediate liquid state.

Mercuric chloride:

Corrosive sublimate, Mercury bichloride, Mercuric bichloride, Mercuric

dichloride, Mercury dichloride, Dichloro mercury, Mercury perchloride.

Physico chemical properties:


1. Molecular weight 271.5
2. Physical state Crystal, Powder of granutes.
3. Colour White
4. Odour Odourless
5. Solubility 69g/l in water [7.4 g/100ml (200C)]
476g/l in boiling water
Soluble in Ethanol, Benzene, Ether, Glycerol,
Acitic acid, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetone,
Slightly soluble in Carbon disulphide and Pyridine.
6. Boiling point 3020C
7. Density 5.4 g/cm2
8. Reactivity Incompatible with formats, Sulphites,
Hypophosphites, Phosphates, Sulphides, Albumin,
Gelatin, Alkalis, Alkaloid salts, Ammonia,
Antimony and Arsenic, Bromide, Borax,
Carbonates, Iron, Copper, Lead, Silver salts.
9. Structure Cl Hg Cl
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Drug Review
10. Melting point 2760C
11. pH 4.7
12. Refractive index 1.859
186
Dose:

Official dose of mercuric chloride is 2- 4 mg.

Toxic dose:

Ingestion of 0.5gm mercuric chloride usually results in serious illness but

rarely proves fatal. Doses of 1gm cause death in about 50% of cases and more than

1.5 gm in nearly all cases. Acute mercury intoxication has been described after using

1/500 to 1/1000 solutions of mercuric chloride for peritoneal lavage.

Uses187:

Inorganic mercury compound have been used in medicine for centuries, but

their use has been greatly reduced because of their toxicity. Mercuric chloride was

used as a laxative and applied topically as an antibacterial agent. It was also used in

the treatment of syphilis before the advent of antibiotics.

Absorption:

Mercuric chloride is readily absorbed in to the circulation.

Absorption in Dermal: - In animal studies up to 8% of Mercuric chloride applied to

the skin was absorbed within 5 hours.

Vaginal: - In vaginal, jellies are easily absorbed and retained in the body.

Distribution:

Absorbed Mercury passes in to the circulation where about half of it is bound

to albumin in the plasma (in combination with sulphydryl groups), the other half

enters red blood cells. It is then rapidly distributed to the tissues and within a few

hours the highest concentration is found in the kidneys. The liver, blood, spleen,

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respiratory mucosa, small and large intestine, skin, salivary glands, heart, brain and

lungs contain decreasing amounts.

Mercury compound is stored in the bone, bone marrow and liver for a short

time. A special affinity for absorbed mercury in the frontal and basal cerebral regions

of the brain has been noted. A week after exposure 85-95% of all Mercury in the body

is stored in the kidney with continued absorption the concentration in the kidney

increases. Further absorption results in higher levels in other organs without affecting

renal levels.

The concentration of mercury in hair is about 300 times that in the blood, and

the most recent growth of hair reflects past blood mercury levels.

All forms of mercury cross the placenta to the foetus. Foetal uptake of

elemental mercury in rats has been shown to be 10-40 times higher than uptake after

exposure to inorganic compounds probably because of lipid solubility of mercury

vapour.

Biological Half-life:

Biological half-life for inorganic mercury is about 40 days. For elemental

mercury or mercury vapour the biological half-life is linear with a range of values

from 35-90 days. The biological half-life is different for different organs. A fraction

of the absorbed mercury will remain in the body for a longer time.

Elimination:

Excreted mainly in the urine but considerable amounts are also passed in the

faeces through secretion by the gastro intestinal tract, particularly in the colon, bile,

saliva and intestinal fluid.

Kidneys: - 50% of the dose had a half time of 30 days and was excreted in the urine

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following renal accumulation. The remaining 15% with a half time of 100 days was

accounted for by renal excretion.

Preparation of Mercuric chloride:

Mercuric chloride is obtained by the action of chlorine on mercury or mercury

chloride, by the addition of hydrochloric acid to a hot concentrated solution of

mercury nitrate.

HgNO3 + 2HCl HgCl2 + H2O + NO2

Or by heating a mixture of mercury sulphate and sodium chloride. The mercuric

chloride then sublimes and condenses in the form of small rhombic crystals.

The violent poison sublimate, mercuric chloride, first mentioned by Geber,

was used by paracelsus (1493-1541) and the Iatro chemists.

1. Geber, who obtained it by subliming a mixture of finely divided mercury,

calcined green vitriol common salt and nitre, describes the preparation of

mercuric chloride.

Hg +2NaCl + 2KNO3 + Fe2S2O9 HgCl2 + Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + Fe2O3 +2NO2

2. Kunckel first suggested the modern process of manufacture of Mercuric

chloride in 1716 AD. And P.L.Soni in his book Inorganic chemistry also

mentioned the same.

Mixing the sulphate intimately with common salt and subjecting the

mixture to sublimation. A little Bi-Oxide of manganese being added to oxidize

the mercurous salt, which is generally present as an impurity. The process is

conducted in a glass flask buried in a hot sand bath. When the decomposition

is accomplished, the sand is removed from the upper half of the flask and

temperature raised. So that the chloride HgCl2 produces and condenses in the

upper part as sublimate.


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HgSO4 + 2NaCl HgCl2 + Na2SO4

3. It can also be obtained by passing over heated mercury.


Hg + Cl2 HgCl2
Toxicity of mercuric chloride:

When bichloride of mercury is taken in poisonous quantity (0.2gms or even

less) the patient complains about the following.

1) Local effects a) Metallic taste.

b) Burning sensation in the mouth.

c) Burning sensation in the throat.

2) GIT - a) Burning sensation in the stomach.

b) Nausea and vomiting.

c) Diarrhoea and with watery or bloody stools.

3) Cardio vascular system: a) Collapse, with a small, thready sometimes irregular

pulse.

4) Respiratory system: Shallow, irregular, rapid respirations.

5) Urinary system: a) Oliguria.


b) Anuria.
c) Albaminuria.
d) Urine contain renal epithelium costs or rarely sugar.
6) General: a) Cold, Clammy Skin
b) Sometimes fever
c) Giddiness
d) Anxiety and Restlessness.
e) Shock.

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Review of Krimi

Krimi

By deep examination of the Ayurvedic concepts of disease etiology, one can

find the reference regarding exogenous cause as a major one. Among these Agantuja

nidanas krimi is included. If we make an attempt to search the reference of krimi in

our texts we get vast explanation.188 Another fascinating fact is that our ancient seers

were not only having the idea of 20 types of disease causing organisms but also

another type called Sahaja krimi which are said to help the body to maintain its

integrity which simulates to the bacterias like lactobacillus etc.

These krimis are classified into four major types based on habitat, which grow

in feces, mucus, blood and nonfecal excreta.189 The main features of which are

indicated in below table.

Recent Ayurvedic scholars have explained the nature of the krimi as

microorganisms, which may be visible and invisible. This supports as to compare

krimi to helminthes, other visible and microorganisms viz viruses, bacteria & others,

which can be substantiated from the symptoms of each type of krimi manifestation as

told in the table.

Our ancient scientists were well versed with the knowledge of spread of

diseases i.e. infectious disease / epidemic disease concepts. These types of diseases

are termed as Oupsargika roga, which includes Jwara, Rajayakshma, Kushta and

Netrabhishandha.190 These diseases if tried to correlate in modern pathology it is very

evident that there will be contamination to the healthy being resulting in dieses

manifestation. The mode of spread is by Prasanga (Sexual coitus- STD HIV etc),

Gatra sparshaja (touch of body-Leprosy and other skin diseases etc), Nishwas (TB,

rhinitis & other RTI etc), Sahabhojana Taking food and drinks, (Typhoid, cholera,

Amabiosis etc) Asana, Vastra, Maala and Anurlepana (Contact dermatitis fungal
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infection etc).

As for as the treatment of this disease is considered, it consists of the removal

of worms, eradication of the source of origin/breeding ground and prophylaxis against

curative source. The removal may be manual as for organism like lice. In some

locations it may be done by evacuative measures including Nasya, Vamana,

Virechana and Niruhabasti. The source is eradicated by the administration of kashaya,

katu and tikta medications and other agents opposite to kapha. Prophylaxis in

accomplished by personal conduct, which scrupulously avoids the contact with

nidana.

Apart from these, for infected wound treatment Ayurveda advocates

fumigation with krimiharadravya in order to kill disease causing microorganisms

locally. Also the fumigation was a routine process for cleansing shalyagara, sutikagar,

oushadhagar with krimihara dravya.

These substantiating evidence are enough to say that disease causing

microorganisms of present era can be equated with Krimi of old Indian system of

medicine.

For the convenience of present study, we have selected most prevalent disease

causing organism in the clinical practice.

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Table No 27 Category & Features of Krimi:191

Category Cause Features


Habitat Appearance Colour Example Symptoms
Purishaja Rice, Milk, Jaggery, Intestine Cylindrical, Thread White/ Black/ Kakeruka, Diarrhea, emaciation, pain
stale, Contaminated like long Blue/ Green/ Makeruka, & itching in anus, exit
& unwholesome Yellow. Leliha etc through anus
food
Shleshmaja Rice, Milk, Jaggery Stomach Broad, tape like, White Antrada, Nausea & vomiting, in
Contaminated & could be round like udarada, digestion, fever, salivation,
unwholesome food earthworm or like hrudayachara Constipitation, loss of
thread. weight.
Shonitaja Similar to Leprosy Blood Minute, round, no Coppery Keshad, Falling hair, beared, nails,
Vessels feet, some are Lomad, itching & pain in later
invisible Oudumbara stages destroys skin,
muscle, blood vessels etc
Malaja Poor Hygiene Hair root, Small, sesame like Black & White Lice, ants, Itching, urticaria.
Cloths. many legs. yuka, pipilika.

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Micro Organism

Micro Organisms:

Microorganisms occur in large numbers in most natural environments and

bring about many changes some desirable and others undesirable. The diversity of

their activities ranges from causing diseases in humans, animals.192

History:

History is the achievements of men, people whose names have been forgotten

and whose accomplishments have been lost in the longer and deeper shadows made

many important contributions.193

Many explanations have offered for the origin of life on earth. One of the

more acceptable of these proposals suggests that life originated in the sea following

millions of years of a chemical evolutionary process. According to this hypothesis the

inorganic compounds of the atmosphere, under the influence of ultraviolet light,

electrical discharges, and / or high temperatures, interacted to form organic

compounds, which precipitated, into the sea, where they accumulated. These organic

compounds, subjected to additional physical effects of the environment, combined to

form peptides, polypeptides and other more complex organic substances which served

as the precursors of the first form of life.194

Microorganisms are the major causative factors for many infectious diseases.

The agents of human infectious diseases belong to five major groups of organism, viz

bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminthes and viruses.195

Anthony van leevwenhoeks lucid reports on the ubiquity of microbes enabled

Louis Pasteur 200 years later to discover the involvement of these creatures in

fermentation reactions and allowed Robert Koch, Theobald Smith, Pasteur and many

others to discover the association of microbes with diseases. Koch is remembered for

his isolation of the bacteria that cause anthrax and tuberculosis. For this important
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contribution to the creation of the science of the microbiology own him the 1905

Nobel Prize.

Though of relatively short duration, the history of microbiology is filled with

thrilling achievements. We have won many battles with microorganisms and have

learned not only to make them work for use but also to control some of those that

work against us.196

Bacteria:

Bacteria share a unique place in the world of living organisms. Bacteria are

considered as Prokaryotes which means primitive nucleus.197

Size, Shape and Arrangements:198

Bacteria are very small, most being approximately 0.5 to 1.0 mm in

diameter.

The shape of a bacterium is governed by its rigid cell wall. Typical bacterial

cells are spherical (cocci), straight rods (bacilli) or rods that are helically curved

(Spirilla). Although most bacterial species have cells that are of a fairly constant and

characteristic shape, some have cells that are pleomorphic i.e. that can exhibit a

variety of shapes.

Bacterial cells are usually arranged in a manner characteristic of their

particular species. Hence arrangement of bacteria is important. Eg.certain cocci occur

in pairs. (Staphylococci). These arrangements are determined by the orientation and

degree of attachment of the bacteria at the time of cell division.

Gram +ve and Gram ve organisms:199

Gram +ve and Gram ve bacteria can be identified by the cell wall structure. Cell

wall is the outermost component common to all bacteria. It is elastic and pores and is

freely permeable to solute molecule of less than 10000 molecular weight. It is about
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10 to 25nm in thickness and shares 20% to 30% of dry weight of cells.

The structure, chemical composition and thickness of the cell wall in Gram +ve

and Gram ve bacteria differ as follows

The peptidoglycan layer is much thicker in Gram +ve than in Gram ve

bacteria. Some Gram +ve bacteria also have a layer of teichoic acid outside the

peptidoglycan, where as Gram ve bacteria do not.

In constant, the Gram ve organisms have a complex outer layer consisting of

lipopolysacharide, Lipoprotein and Phospholipid. Lying between the outer

membrane layer and the cytoplasmic membrane in Gram ve bacteria is the

periplasmic space, which is the site, in some species of enzymes (e.g. - lactamases),

that degrade pencillines and other lactam drugs.

Table 28 Difference between Gram +ve and Gram ve Bacteria:

Sl No Features Gram +ve Gram ve


1 Thickness 15 to 25nm 10 to 15 nm
2 Variety of amino acid Few Several
3 Aromatic & Sulphur Absent Present
containing amino acid
4 Lipids Low 2% to 4% High 15% to 20%
5 Teichoic acids Present Absent
Grams strains are used to study, morphologic appearance of bacteria and thus

help in differentiating Gram +ve and Gram ve bacteria.

Incidence:

A normal healthy person is colonized by as many as 1012 bacteria on the skin,

1010 bacteria in the alimentary tract.

Gram +ve Bacteria:200,201&202

Staphylococcus aureus:

In 1871 Von Recklinghausen first observed Staphylococci in human pyogenic

lesions. In 1884, Rosenbach described the two pigmented colony types of


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Micro Organism

staphylococci and proposed the appropriated nomenelature. Staphylococcus

aurous (Yellow) and Staphylococcus albus (White).

Staphylococcus aureus is spherical shape arranged in irregular grape like

clusters. The organisms are non motile and non-sporing, they can grow

aerobically or anaerobically.

Staphylococcus aureus produces a golden yellow pigment. Staphylococcus albus

produces white to golden colour colonies.

Most Staphylococci are non pathogenic and are called Stapha albus because

they usually produce white colonies on culture. Stapha albus usually causes

infection only the resistance of the patient is lowered and even then their

virulence is low.

Most staphylococci live harmlessly as commensals.

The pathogenic staphylococci are called stapha aureus because they usually

produce golden colonies and culture. They are parasites occurring on the skin

and mucus membrane of humans.

Staphylococcus lesions may be external (Skin abscesses, boils, styes) or Internal

(abscesses in bone and kidney).

It can grow at a temperature range 150C 450C.

Normal flora of humans found on nasal passages.

The common manifestation of its infection is production of puss. i.e. the

organism is Pyogenic.

Three species of staphylococci are human pathogens: Staph aureus, Staph

epidemidis and Staph Saphrophyticus. Of the three, Staph aureus is the most

important. Staph aureus is distinguished from the others primarily by coagulate

production (Coagulase clots citrated plasma).


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Staph aureus has several important cell wall components and antigens, which includes

Protein A, Teichoic, Surface receptors.

Protein A: A is the major protein in the cell wall. It is an important virulence factor,

since it binds to the Fc protion of IgG, preventing the binding of complement. Protein

A is useful in the clinical laboratory because it binds to IgG and can be used to

Coagglutinate antigen antibody complexes.

Teichoic acid: Teichoic acids are polymers of ribitol phosphate Antibodies to tichoic

acids develop in certain Staphylococcal infections e.g. Endocarditis.

Surface receptor: Surface receptors for specific staphylococcal bacteria phages

permit the phase typing of strains for epidemiological purposes. Teichoic acids

make up part of these receptors.

Transmission:

Staphylococci are ubiquitous in the human environment and in the normal

human flora. Staphylococcus aureus is often found in the nose and sometimes on the

skin, Staphylococcal infections are shedding from human lesions and fomites

contaminated by these lesions. A heavily contaminated environment favors disease

production (e.g. Family members with boils) and a compromised immune system.

Pathogenesis:

Staphylococci cause disease both by producing toxins and by multiplying in

tissue and causing inflammation. The typical lesion of Staphylococcus aureus

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Micro Organism

infection is an obsess. (e.g. Furuneles and boils), but organisms may disseminate via

the blood stream as well.

Several important toxins and enzymes are produced by Staph aureus. (Enterotoxin,

Toxic shock Symdrome toxin, Exfoliatin & alpha toxin)

Clinical Findings:

The important clinical manifestation caused by Staph aureus can be divided

into two groups: inflammatory and toxin- mediated. In the following list, the first six

are inflammatory in origin whereas the last two are toxin- mediated.

Skin infections including impetigo, furuncles, cellulites, surgical wound infection

and postpartum breast infections.

Bacteremia from any localized lesion, especially wound infection or as a result of

intravenous drug abuse.

Endocarditis on normal or prosthetic heart valves. (Prosthetic valve endocarditic is

often caused by Staph epidermidis).

Steomyelitis, either hematogenaus or traumatic.

Pneumonia is postoperative patients or following viral respiratory infection,

especially influenza (Staphylococci pneumonia often leads to empyema).

Abscesses (metastatic) in any organ, after bacteremia.

Food poisoning (characterized mainly by vomiting) due to ingestion of

enterotoxin, which preformed in foods and hence has a short incubation period (1-

8 hrs) and Toxic shock syndrome, which includes fever hypo tension, a rash that

goes on to desquamate and multi system involvement.

Laboratory Diagnosis:

Smears from local lesions or pus reveal Gram +ve cocci in grapelike clusters.

Cultures yield white or golden yellow colonies that usually beta- hemolytic, Staph
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aureus is coagulase positive. The two coagulase-negative staphylococci are

distinguished by their reaction to the antibiotic novobiocin.

Treatment:

90% or more of Staph aureus strains are resistant to penicillin, which should

be used only if the organism is shown to be sensitive. Staphy aureus strains resistant

to all antibiotics except vancomycin. Some strains of staphylococci exhibit tolerance,

i.e. they can be inhibitated by antibiotics but are not killed (MBC/ MTC ration is very

high). Tolerance may be due to failure of drugs to inactivate inhibiters of autolytic

enzymes that degrade the organisms. Tolerate organism should be treated with a drug

combinations.

Prevention:

There is no effective immunizations with toxoids are bacterial vaccine.

Cleanliness, frequent hand washing and ascetic management of lesions help to control

spread of Staphy aureus. Dissemination from they nose and skin of carrier can be

reduced by topical application of antimicrobial agent (or by systematic treatment), but

is difficult to arrest all together. Shedders may have to be removed from high risk

areas. e.g. Operating room and newborn nurseries.

Streptococcus pyogenes:203,204&205

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, Spherical, nonmotile, non-spore

forming coccus that occurs in chains or in pairs of cells. Individual cells are round-to-

ovoid cocci, 0.6-1.0 meter in diameter. Streptococci divide in one plane and thus

occur in pairs or (especially in liquid media or clinical material) in chains of varying

lengths. The metabolism of S. pyogenes is fermentative; the organism is a catalase-

negative aerotolerant anaerobe and requires enriched medium containing blood in

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order to grow. Nutritional requirements are complex, including several amino acids

and vitamins.

Most Streptococci are parasites of humans and animals and several species

are pathogenic. There are many species of streptococci, few examples follow-

Strepto pyogenus, Strepto mutons, Strepto faecalis, Strapto lactease and Strepto

creamorise, Strepto pnemoniea.

Clinical manifestations:

Streptococci produce a wide variety of infections. All species can cause

septicaemia.

Clinical manifestations:

S. Pyogenes (group A beta- hemolytic streptococcus) is the most common

bacterial cause of Sore throat, Skin and Tissue infection, Bone and joint infection,

Tonsillitis scarlet fever, Glomerulonephritis, Rheumatic fever, Puerperal sepsis.

Laboratory Diagnosis:

Smears are useless in pharyngitis because viridans streptococci are members of

the normal flora and cannot be visually distinguished from the pathogenic

streptococci pyogenes. However, Stained smears from skin lesions or wounds that

reveal streptococci are diagnostic.

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Treatment & Prevention:

All group a streptococci are susceptible to penicillin G, but neither rheumatic fever

nor AGN patients benefit from penicillin treatment after onset. Endocarditis caused by

most viridans streptococci is curable by prolonged penicillin treatment; most of

streptococci infection has to be treated by combined drug treatment.

Prevention of rheumatic fever involves prompt treatment of group a

streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin. Prevention of streptococcal infection in

persons who have had rheumatic fever is important to prevent recurrence of the

disease. There is no evidence that patients who have had AGN require similar

penicillin prophylaxis.

There are no vaccines available against these streptococcal infections.

Gram ve Bacteria:206,207&208

Pseudomonas aeruginosa:

Pseudomonas is a gram ve Aerobic, non-spore forming, straight or slightly

curved rods. They are typically motile by means of one or more polar flagella.

Generally, common to all constituent species of the genus. Pseudomonas is certain

physiological properties such as chemo organotrophic nutrition, aerobic metabolism,

absence of fermentation, absence of photosynthesis, inability to fix nitrogen and

capacity for growth at the expense of a large variety of organic substrates.

These bacteria widely distributed in soil and water several species are

pathogenic of humans or animals some cause spoilage of meat and other foods.
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Pseudomonas is able to grow in water containing only traces of nutrients, eg; Tap

water and this favours their persistence in the hospital environment.

Pseudomonas contains five genetically distinct groups. Among them

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P.cepacia have a remarkable ability to withstand

disinfectants; this accounts in part for their role in hospital acquired injections.

P.aeruginosa can be spread through fecal material. Also P.aeruginosa has been

implicated as sources of infection in hospitals.

P.aeruginosa produces two pigments useful in clinical and laboratory

diagnosis (1) Pyocyanin, which can colour the pus in a wound blue and (2) Pyoverdin,

a yellow green pigment that fluoresces under ultraviolet light, a property that can be

used in the early detection of skin in burn patients.

Strains of P.aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients have prominent

slime layer, which gives their colonies a very mucoid appearance. The slime mediates

adherence of the organism to mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and prevents

antibody from binding to the organism.

Characteristics:

It is a gram ve rod measuring 0.5 to 0.8 meter by 1.5 to 3.0 meter.

Its metabolism is respiratory and never fermentative, but it will grow in the

absence of O2 if NO3 is available as a respiratory electronacepto. It is tolerant to a

wide variety of physical conditions, including temperature. It is resistant to high

concentration of salts and dyes, weak antiseptics and many commonly used

antibiotics. It can grow at 420C produces a bluish pigment and a greenish pigment.

Characteristic fruity odour.

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Pathogenesis and Epidemiology:

P.aeruginosa found chiefly in soil and water, although approximately 10%

of people carry it in the normal flora of the colon. It is found on the skin in moist

areas and can colonize the upper respiratory tract of hospitalized patients and urinary

tract infections, GIT.

P.aeruginosa is primarily an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in

hospitalized patients, eg; those with extensive burns, in whom the skin host defences

are destroyed; those with chronic respiratory disease (eg; cystic fibrosis), in whom the

normal clearance mechanisms are impaired; those who are immuno suppressed; those

with neutrophil counts of less than 500/ lt; and those with in dwelling catheters. It

causes 10% - 20% of hospital acquired infections.

Clinical findings:

P.aeruginosa can cause infections virtually anywhere in the body, but

urinary tract infections pneumonia, and wound infections (especially burns)

predominate. From these sites, the organism can enter the blood, causing sepsis.

Patients with P.aeruginosa sepsis have a mortality rate of over 50%. A severe

external otitis and other skin lesions occur in users of swimming pools and hot tubs in

which the chlorination is inadequate.

Treatment:

Because P.aeruginosa is resistant to many antibiotics, treatment must be

tailored to the sensitivity of each isolate and monitored frequently; resistant strains

can emerge during therapy. The treatment of choice is penicillin e.g. Ticarcillin or

piperacillin, plus an aminoglycoside, eg. Gentamicin or cemikacin.

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Prevention:

Prevention of P.aeruginosa infections involves keeping neutrophil counts

above 500/lt, remaining indwelling catheters promptly, taking special care of burned

skin and taking other similar measures to limit infection in patients with reduced host

defences.

Escherichia Coli:209&210

E coli is the Gram ve rod sepsis. It causes food borne illness. An estimated

73000 cases of infection and 61-death occur in the U.S.A. each year. Some strains are

harmless and live in the intestine of healthy humans and animals, some strains

produces a powerful toxin and can cause sever illness.

It is most abundant facultative anaerobe in the colonand feces. E coli occurs in a

lower portion of the intestine of humans and warm-blooded animals were it is part of

the normal flora. Some strains can cause gastro- enteritis and others can cause urinary

tract infections.

Pathogenesis:

E coli has several clearly identified components that contribute to its

ability to cause diseases, pili, a capsule, endotoxin and two exotoxins (enterotoxins).

Intestinal tract infections:

The first step is the adherence of organism to the cells of the jejunum and

ileum by means of pilithat protrude from the bacterial surface. Once attached the

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bacteria synthesize enterotoxins (exotoxins that act in the entric tract), which act on

the cells of the jejenumand ileum to cause diarrhea. The enterotoxin producing strains

do not invade the intestinal mucosa but some strains of E coli are enteropathogenic

and cause diseases by invasion of the epithelium of large intestine caseing bloody

diarrhoea.

2. Systemic infection:

The other two structural components, the capsule and the endotoxin, play

a more prominent role in the pathogenesis of systemic, rather than intestinal tract,

disease. The capsula polysaeeharide interferes with phogocytosis, there by enhancing

the organisms ability to cause infections in various organs.

Clinical findings:

E coli causes a variety of diseases both with in and outside the intestinal

tract. It is the leading cause of communite acquired urinary tract infections. Ascending

infections into the bladder is common in women. On the whole gastroenteritis,

cystitis, pylonephritis, neonatal, meningitis, hospital acquired sepsis are most

common manifestations of E coli.

Treatment:

Treatment of E coli sepsis require treatment with parenteral antibiotics (eg;3rd

generation cephalasporins such cefotexime). In Neonatal meningities combination of

ampicilline and cefotoxime is given. Antibiotic therapy is not indicated in E coli

dicirrheal diseases as they are self limiting.

Prevention:

There is no specific prevention for E coli infections, such as active or

passive immunization. However, various general measures can be taken to prevent

certain infections caused by E coli and other organisms. For example, the incidence
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Micro Organism

of urinary tract infections can be lowered by the judicious use and prompt with drawl

of catheters and in recurrent infections. Some cases of sepsis can be prevented by

prompt removal of switching the site of intravenous lines. Caution regarding

uncooked foods and unpurified water while traveling in certain countries is also

advisable.

Fungal organism:

Fungi are a large diverse group of heterotropic organisms that exist as

saprophytes, parasites or commensals. Most of them are found over decaying organic

material and in the soil. This is an independent group of organisms, differing higher

plants in structure, nutrition and reproduction between 50,000 to 1,00,000 species are

known though less than low human pathogens.211

The fungi are group of eucaryotic organisms that are of great practical and

scientific interest because of microscopic cellular dimensions. They lack chlorophyll.

Fungi have a diversity morphological appearances depending on the species. They

generally it produce both sexually and asexually.212

Fungi compromise the moulds and yeasts. Yeasts grow as single cells that

reproduce by asexual budding. Moulds grow as single cells that reproduce by asexual

budding. Molds grow as long filaments (hyphae) and form a mat (mycelium). Some

hyphae form transverse walls (septate hyphae), whereas others do not (non septate).

Nonseptate hyphae are multinucleated (coeneytic).213

Several important fungi are thermally dimorphic; i.e. they form different

structures at different temperatures. They exist as moldsin the saprophytic, free living

state at body temperature and as yeasts in host tissues at body temperature.

Most fungi are obligate aerobes; some are farultative anaerobes; but none are

obligate anaerobes. All fungi require a performed organic source of carbon, hence
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their frequent association with decoying matter. The natural habitat of most fungi is,

therefore, the environment. An important exception is candida albicans, which is

part of the human normal flora.

The fungi are insensitive to antibiotics, such as penicillin, that inhibit

peptidoglycan synthesis. [Apart from C.albicans, the geneus candida includes over

100 species, most of which are neither commensals nor parasites in man]

Candida Albicans:214&215

Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus, i.e. it can take two forms. Most of

the time it exists as oval, single yeast cells, which reproduce by budding. Most yeast

does not produce mycelia (a mass of branching, threadlike hyphal filaments), but

Candida has a trick up its sleeve. Normal room temperatures favour the yeast form of

the organism, but under physiological conditions (body temperature, pH, and the

presence of serum) it may develop into a hyphal form. Pseudohyphae, composed of

chains of cells, are also common. In the video, you can see yeast cells and a few

elongated cells, which have begun to grow into a hypha. It measures about 2 to 6mm

3 to 9mm in size.

Transmission:

As a member of the normal flora, it is not transmitted.

Pathogenesis & clinical findings:

80% of normal individuals may show candida albicans as a saprophyte with

colonization of oropharynx, GIT and vagina. When local or systemic host defenses are
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impaired, disease may result. Overgrowth of candida albicans in the mouth produces

white patches (thrush). Vulvovaginitis with itching and discharging is favoured by

high pH, diabetes or use of antibiotics. Skin invasion occurs in warm, moist areas,

which become red and weeping. Fingers and nails become involved when repeatedly

immersed in water, persons and employed as dishwashers in restaurants and

institutions are commonly affected. Thickening or losses of the nail can occur.

It seems that predisposition factors such as other diseases, physiological

disorders, obesity, alcoholism and prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and

steroids can create conditions in which candida albicans can cause disease. This

makes the fungus an opportunistic pathogen.

Laboratory Diagnosis:

In exudates or tissues, budding yeasts and pseudohyphae are seen

microscopically. Such specimens grow typical yeasts when cultured Germ tubes form

in serum at 370C, which serves to distinguish candida albicans from most other

candida species.

Treatment and Preventions:

Treatment of local infections, eg, thrush, consists of oral or topical antifungal

drugs, i.e., clotrimazole or nystatin. Mucocutaneous candidiasis can be controlled by

ketoconazole. Treatment of disseminated candidiasis consists of either amphotericin

B, with or without flucytosine, or ketoconazole. Treatment of candida infections with

antifungal drugs should be supplemented by reduction of predisposing factors. Certain

candida infection or nystatin. There is no vaccine.

Aspergillus flavus:216&217

Aspergillus flavus are wide spread in nature, being found on fruits, vegetables

and other substance, which may provide nutriment. There are about 900 species in
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genus, only a few species are constantly associated with human disease. Some

species are involved in food spoilage.

Aspergillus flavus species exists only as molds, they are not dimorphic. They

have septate hyphae that form v-shaped (dichotoms) branches. The conidiophores or

fertile hyphae arise from foot cells, which may also septate or nonseptate. At the apex

conidiophore inflates to form vesicle. Conida are of various coloures and quite

characteristic of the species; the most common colours are black, brown and green.

Transmission:

Their molds are ubiquitous and can be isolated from all environments. They

grow on decaying vegetation.

Pathogenesis and clinical findings:

Aspergilli grow in high concentration of sugar and salt, indicating that they
can extract water required for the growth from relatively dry substances.
Aspergillus flavus growing on cereals or nuts produces aflatoxins that may be
carcinogenic or acutely toxic. Aflatoxins are coumarine derivatives are identified as
kinds B1,G1,B2,G2,B29 and G29 in decreasing order of toxicity.
Aspergillus flavus that cause liver damage and tumers in animals and are suspected of
causing hepatic carcinoma in humans. Aflatoxicins and ingested with spoiled grains
and peanuts and are metabolized by liver to the epoxide, a potent carcinogen.
Treatment and Prevention:
There is no specific means of prevention.

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Drug Review

Cefotaxime:

Cefotaxime is an antibiotic, which comes under cephalosporince.

Cephalosporince are a group of antibiotics, which possess a wide range of activity

against Gram +ve and Gram ve bacteria.218

These are safe and reliable antibiotics produced by a species of marine fungus,

Cephalosporium acremonium. The cephalosporince have antibacterial properties

similar to those of the semi synthetic pencillinces. It is effective therapeutically and

has a low toxicity. The nuclear of the Cephalosporince resembles that of penicillin.219

Cefotaxime, a third generation compound is less active against Gram +ve

bacteria than those of the second generation, but more active against Gram ve

bacteria. Has some activity against pseudomonas.220

It acts by inhibiting bacteria cell wall synthesis in a manner similar to

penicillin and is bactericidal.221

Absorption, Fate and Excretion:221

Cephalosporins are administered either orally or intravenously; intramuscular

administration is painful. These are significant differences amoung the various

cephalosporins regarding their pharmacokinetics. Their body distribution is similar to

that of penicillin but the concentration in the eye and the C.S.F is poor.

Cephalosporins are eliminated mainly by renal excretion and high

concentrations are achieved in the urinary tract. As with penicillins, renal tubular

blocking with probenecid increases the plasma levels significantly. The renal

excretion is markedly reduced in renal insufficiency. Concentration in the bile is

similar to that in the plasma. Unlike other cephalo-sporins, Cefotaxime is partly

metabolized by the liver before excretion by the kidneys.

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Adverse reactions:221

In general Cephalosporins are well tolerated.

Local reactions: IM injections are painful and IV injections can cause

thrombophlebitis, allergy (skin rash, fever, Cosinophilia) super infections,

Nephrotoxicity, signs of cerebral irritation, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Rise in

SGOT, SGPT.

Contra indications:

Hypersensitivity to Cephalosporins and sever renal failure.

Dosage:222

Adults: 2 6 gram daily in 2 3 divided doses depending upon the severity of

infections. Maximum 12 gram daily.

Children: 100 150 mg / Kg / day in 2 4 divided doses.

Neonates: 50 mg / Kg /day.

Fluconazole:

Fluconazole is a fluorinated bistriazole antifungal drug. Fluconazole is triazole

derivative. It is effective both oral as well as IV route. It is highly soluble in water and

readily penetrates into the CSF. It is used in the treatment of local and systematic

candida and cryptococcal infections. The drug may cause nausea, gastrointestinal

disturbances and abnormalities of liver enzymes. It is known broad spectrum

antifungal drug.223&224

Therapeutic uses:

It is very effective in dermatophytic infections and in cataneous and

oropharyngeal candidasis. It is also effective in deep mycoses. In addition it prevents

the development of fungal infections in individuals predisposed to such infections

Fluconazole is the drug of choice for recurrent cryptococcal meningitis


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Drug Review

and mucotaneous candidiosis in patients with AIDS.225,226&227

Absorption, Distribution and Excretion:228

It is most completely absorbed from the gastro intestinal tract. Concentrations

in plasma are essentially the same, whether the drug is given orally or intravenously

and bioavailability is not attached by food or gastric acidity.

Dose regimen:229

Oropharyngeal or Oesophageal Candidiasis 200mg on the 1st day followed

by 100mg once daily. Maximum 400mg/day. Vaginal candidiasis; 150mg once oral

dose. Deep seated candidiasis; 400mg on first day then 200mg once daily for 4 weeks

and for at least 2 weeks after resolution of symptoms. Cryptococcal meningitis:

400mg on first day followed by 200mg once daily. Maximum 400mg/day for 10-12

weeks. Thereafter 200mg once daily.

Contraindication: Hypersensitivity

Special precaution: Liver dysfunction, immuno compromised patients.

Side effects:230

The common side effects are nausea, headache, pain in abdomen and

diarrhoea. Fluconazole is contraindicated in pregnancy and recent supports show that

even a single dose taken by a pregnant woman can lead to birth defects in infants. The

dose has to be regulated and should be decreased in patients with renal impairment.

Advantages:231

The advantage of Fluconazole over other antifungal is that it has high water

solubility, good oral absorption, approximately 90% bioavailability, longer half-life

permitting once daily or weekly dosage.

Cap --- Syscan 500, 200,150, 100 mg.

IV --- 200mg /100ml.


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Antimicrobial Review

Antimicrobial activity:
Introduction:
Microorganisms are not visible to naked eye but they are present everywhere.

These are present in soil, air, water, and food. Among them some Microorganisms are

ubiquitous in distribution, some are harmless and useful, but some are harmful to

mankind. It is necessary to control unwanted microorganisms from our living

environment, as they may cause diseases and allergies. Some agents destroy the

microbes; where as others only inhibit their growth. In general these agents are called

Antimicrobial Agents. The antimicrobial agents may be naturally occurring or may

be synthesized.

Selection of these agents (drugs) from the literature were made on the basis of

their use in the treatment of infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, skin

diseases etc.

To evaluate the efficacy of these agents for their antimicrobial activity

different scientific procedures are established.

Antimicrobial activity is a process by which response of an organism to a drug

or crude extract can be evaluated.

Screening method for Antimicrobial agents:232


The inhibition of microbial growth under standardized conditions may be

utilized for demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of different medicinal drugs. Any

subtle change in the antibiotic molecule, which may not be detected by chemical

methods, will be revealed by a change in the antimicrobial activity and hence

microbiological assays are very useful for resolving doubts regarding possible change

in potency of antibiotics and their preparations.

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Antimicrobial Review

The microbiological assay is based upon a comparison of the inhibition of

growth of microorganisms by measured concentrations of the antibiotics to be

examined with that produced by known concentrations of a standard preparation of

the antibiotic having a known activity. Many methods are employed for the evaluation

of antimicrobial (antibacterial & antifungal) activity.

Screening techniques:
1. Disc diffusion method.
2. Serial dilution method.
3. Solid dilution method.
4. Ditch plate technique.
5. Gradient plate technique.
6. Cup plate technique.

1. Disc diffusion method:


This technique is simple to perform and relatively in expensive. This test is

performed with the help of 8 mm discs prepared of Whatman filter paper. The discs

impregnated with specific quantities of drug and applied on the surface of agar plates,

which is already inoculated with test organisms. After proper incubation zone of

inhibition around the disc is determined.

2. Serial dilution method:


In the serial dilution technique, the graded doses of test substances are

incorporated in to broth and the tubes inoculated with test organism are incubated.

The concentration, at which no growth occurs, is taken as minimum inhibitory

concentration (MIC).

3. Solid dilution method:


In this method the dilution of the substance under test are made in agar

instead of broth. The agar containing the substance under test is subsequently poured

into a petridish then incubated and observed for any failure of growth. It has the
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advantage for any one concentration of the test substance, several organisms may be

tested.

4. Ditch plate technique:


This test allows a single compound or formulation to be tested against a

range of organisms. A solution of the compound or compound mixed with agar or a

semisolid formulation is placed in a ditch cut in a nutrient agar plate. Various test

organisms are then streaked across the agar at right angles to the ditch. After a

suitable period of incubation at relevant temperature, the extent of inhibition is noted.

The ditch plate test allows spectrum of a compound to be obtained comparatively

quickly. Its main use, like that of agar cup test, is for semisolid formulations. E.g.

Oreams, Ointment and Powders.

5. Gradient plate technique:


In this technique the concentration of drug in an agar plate may be varied

infinitely between zero to a given maximum. It consists of an agar plate with two

layers of agar. The nutrient agar is melted mixed with the tests solution and the

mixture poured into a sterile petri dish and allowed to set in the form of wedge. A

second amount of agar is poured on to the wedge and allowed to set with the petri

dish flat on the bench. The plates are incubated over night to allow diffusion of drug

and to dry the surface. The test organism must be streaked in a direction running from

the highest to the lowest concentration. In this way up to six organisms may be tested.

6. Cup plate method:233


a) Inoculate a previously liquefied medium appropriate to the assay with the

requisite quantity of suspension of the microorganism add the suspension

to the medium at a temperature between 460C and 500C and immediately

pour the inoculated medium into petri dishes or large rectangular plates to

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Antimicrobial Review

give a depth of 3 to 4 mm (1-2 mm for mystain) Ensure that the layers of

medium are uniform in thickness by placing the dishes or plates on a level

surface.

b) The prepared dishes or plates must be stored in a manner so as to ensure

that no significant growth or death of the test organism occurs before the

dishes or plates are used and that the surface of the layer is dry at the time

of use.

c) The test solution may be placed in a small cup sealed to the agar surface in

a well cut from the agar with a sterile cork borer.

d) After they are incubated for a specified period then plates were observed

for zone of inhibition.

Culture Media:234
Culture media gives artificial environment stimulating natural conditions

necessary for growth of bacteria. By appropriate produces they have to be grown

separately on culture media and obtained as pure cultures for study.

The requirement of culture media:


For the microbial growth certain consumable and suitable environmental

factors are required. The consumable represents the essential food or nutritional

requirements. They include sugars, starch, protein, vitamins, trace elements, oxygen,

carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The main environment determinants of microbial growth

are pH and temperature. In short the requirements for the microbial growth are listed

as below

1. Energy Source.
2. Carbon Source.
3. Nitrogen Source.

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4. Salts like Sulphates, Chlorides and Carbonates of Sodium, Potassium,


Magnesium, Ferric, Calcium and trace elements like Copper etc.
5. Satisfactory pH 7.2 to 7.6
6. Adequate oxidation reduction potential.
The characteristics of an ideal culture medium are
1. Must give a satisfactory growth from single inoculums.
2. Should give rapid growth.
3. Should be easy to grow.
4. Should be reasonably cheap.
5. Should be easily reproducible.
Classification of Culture media:235
For the culture of microb many culture media have been devised: -
1. a) Solid media
b) Liquid media.
c) Semisolid media.
2. a) Simple media.
b) Synthetic media or Defined media.
c) Complex media.
d) Semi defined media.
e) Special media.
Special medias are further divided as under
I. Enriched media.
II. Enrichment media.
III. Selective media.
IV. Indicator and differential media.
V. Sugar media.
VI. Transport media.
3. Aerobic media and anaerobic media.
Choice of culture media:

Each kind of microorganism has specific growth requirements many

microorganisms can be grown on a culture medium in the laboratory. Some microbes

can grow in a medium containing only inorganic compounds where as others require a
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Antimicrobial Review

medium containing organic compounds (amino acids, Sugar, Vitamins). Some require

complex natural substance (peptone, east, blood cells or blood serum). Some

organisms cannot be grown in an artificial laboratory medium and can be propagated

only in a living host or cells. The host serves as a very complex medium for such

neutrionally demanding microorganisms.

In general it is best to use simple media because,

1. They tent to have less batch-to-batch variation.

2. Less likely to contain interfering or competing material.

Simple media:235

It is also called basal media. An ideal example is nutrient broth. It consists of

peptone, meat extract, Sodium chloride and water, Nutrient broth is used to culture the

bacteria.

Media used for fungal cultures:

For cultivation of the fungi, a medium bearing acidic PH has to be selected. It

facilitates the growth of fungi but is not optimal for the growth of bacteria.

Fungi can be cultivated by the same general culture methods used for bacteria.

Most of them grow slowly than bacteria. But to avoid the possible bacterial

contamination, it is good practice to use specific media for fungal culture namely

Potato Dextrose agar.

Potato Dextrose agar media is suitable for fungal culture as it has got low pH

and relatively high concentration of sugar, tolerated by Fungi but are inhibitory to

many bacteria. It consists of Potato, Dextrose, Agar & Distilled water. pH is

maintained at 5.6 to 5.8

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Antimicrobial Review

Solidification agents (Agar):236

Agar is introduced, as a solidification agent in microbiological media, just

about 100 years ago, has not been replaced by any other agent. Agar is as important

now as it was then.

The earliest solid medium was cocked cut Potato used by Robert Koch. This

proved unsatisfactory for variety of reasons. He tried gelatin as a solidifying agent,

but it was not suitable as gelatin is liquefied at 240C and also by many proteolytie

bacteria. The solution to this problem was provided in 1883 by a German House wife

Frau Hesse.Her husband was one of the investigators in Kochs laboratory. She

suggested her husband on use of agar, who had seen her mother using it for making

jellies.

From then agar is universally used for solidification Agar is obtained from

some types seaweed. It chief constituent is a long chain polysaccharide. It also

contains verifying amounts of inorganic salts and small quantities of a protein like

substance. It has virtually no nutritive valve and is not affected by growth of bacteria.

Its unique property is that it melts at 980C and usually sets at 420C depending on agar

concentration. Approximately 2% agar is employed for solid media.

Procedure of Antimicrobial activity:


The whole procedure of Antimicrobial activity can be revealed by following
points
1. Fresh cultures of selected organisms are prepared and incubated,
Bacteria 370C for 18 24 hrs.
Fungi 270C for 42 72 hrs.
2. Solutions of standard and trial drug are prepared.
3. The nutrient agar media prepared and sterilized.
4. The sterile media was cooled to 450C and mixed with 20% of bacterial and
fungal culture individually (i.e. 80ml media & 20ml culture).
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Antimicrobial Review

5. The media was shaken well and poured to respectively labeled sterile
petriplates.
6. After solidification the medium was bored with the help of sterile cork
borer at equidistance to each other.
7. Standard and trial solutions are applied up to 3/4th of the hole with the help
of insulin syringe.
8. The plates were kept in a refrigerator for 2 hrs for the diffusion of the drug
into the media.
9. After 2 hrs, the plates were kept in an incubator. Bacteria 370C for 18 24
hrs. Fungi are kept in room temperature for 270C for 42 72 hrs.
10. The plates were observed for the appearance of zone of inhibition measured
in mm.

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Methodology

Methodology can be studied under three headings.


1. Pharmaceutical study.
2. Analytical study.
3. Experimental study.
Pharmaceutical study:
The Pharmaceutical study of Rasakarpoor was conducted in Rasashastra
Department of Post Graduate Studies in D.G.M.A.M.C.Gadag.
Ayurveda can be understood in two ways.
1. Theoretical 2. Practical
Pharmaceutical study means the practical experience of preparing medicines

from raw drugs. Practical experience is most essential for vaidya as described by

Charaka. The Karmabhyasa(Cha.Su.9/22) is one of the essential qualities of Vaidya.

In Rasashastra, it is described that Rasa Shastrajna must have the quality of Kushala

Rasa Karmani(R.R.S. 6/4).

The Rasashastra has got its own place and importance. Since Rasashastra deals

with metals & minerals which are harmful to body if used in improper or impure state.

To avoid these complications Vaidya should be perfect not only theoretically also

practically i.e. in preparing good quality medicine to fight against to the respective

diseases which are considered as the weapons of the Vaidya.

The following methods have been carried out for detailed study of preparation

of Kupipakva rasayan.

1. Hingula Shodhana
2. Hingula Satvapatana.
3. Parada samanya shodhana.
4. Preparation of Parada Choorna
5. Preparation of Rasakarpoor.
Collection of Raw Materials:
Raw drugs, which are having similar Grahya laxanas as mentioned in the
text, were collected from the market.
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Methodology

Drugs: -1.Hingula: It was collected from market, which was dark red in colour,
heavy with silvery white shining lines on the surface.
2.Nimbuka: It was collected from market.
Hingula shodhana
Practical No 1:
Name of the Practical : Hingula shodhana
Date of Commencement : 01/08/2005
Date of completion : 18/08/2005
Reference : 9/16-17, Page No 202, Rasatarangini.
Material : Ashodhita Hingula 500 grams.
Nimbu Swarasa -- 1060 ml.
Equipments : Khalva Yantra, Knife, Juice extractor.
Method : Bhavana and Prakshalana.
Procedure:
500 gms of Hingula was taken and finely powdered in Kalva yantra.

Required quantity of Nimbu Swarasa was extracted from the Lemons with the

help of juice extractor.

For the first Bhavan the sufficient quantity of Nimbu Swarasa to immerse

Hingula is added nearly 160 ml.

The mixture was subjected for continuous and cautious mardana till the

mixture was dried up.

When the powder was totally dried up, it was considered as the completion of

first Bhavana.

Again sufficient quantity of Nimbu Swarasa is added and mixture is subjected

to mardana.

The same process is repeated for 6 times and total 7 Bhavanas are given.

Every time fresh Nimbu Swarasa is used.

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Methodology

Observations:
Hingula was in solid form with glistening white/ Mercurial lines.

After half an hour of mardana shiny particles disappeared.

After 25 35 minutes the colour turned to red.

The colour of Ashudha Hingula is shining dull red, which was changed after

every Bhavana.

The colour of Hingula gradually became brighter after each Bhavana.

Table No 29 The observations done during Hingula Shodhana


No of Days Qty (in ml) Time Taken Results Remarks
Shodhana (in hours)
1 1 160 8 505 gms Gain 5 gms
2 4 150 7.30 512 gms Gain 7 gms
3 6 150 7.30 518 gms Gain 6 gms
4 8 140 6 524 gms Gain 6 gms
5 10 150 7 529 gms Gain 5 gms
6 13 150 7 535 gms Gain 6 gms
7 16 160 8 541 gms Gain 6 gms
After the completion of 7 Bhavanas, Hingula was removed from the Khalva

and later it was washed in steel vessel with water thoroughly and allowed to

settle.

Washing of Hingula was done for 2 3 times.

Settling of Hingula at the bottom took 6 hours, after which the water decanted.

Totally it took 18 days for Hingula Shodhana.

Precautions:
Khalva Yantra should be clean and dry.

Hingula should be finely powdered before adding Nimbu Swarasa.

The quantity of Nimbu Swarasa taken for every Bhavana should be sufficient

enough for the immersion of Hingula churna.

Mardana should be carried out until the mixture gets dried for each Bhavana.

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Methodology

At the end of each Bhavana, Mardana should be done slowly as the mixture

become sticky.

When the mixture was completely dried up by mardana, then it is called as the

completion of one Bhavana and fresh Nimbu Swarasa should be added for the

next Bhavana.

After completion of 7 Bhavanas, Hingula should be washed with fresh water

until it loses its snigdhata and amlatva and attain ujjwala varna.

Results:
Initial quantity of Hingula - 500 grams
Final quantity (After shodhana) - 541 grams
Quantity after Prakshalana - 536 grams
Quantity gain - 36 grams
Probable cause of weight gain: Due to the addition of solid contents present in
Nimbu Swarasa.

Hingula shodhana
Practical No 2:
Name of the Practical : Hingula shodhana
Date of Commencement : 26/08/2005
Date of completion : 10/09/2005
Reference : 9/16-17, Page No 202, Rasatarangini.
Material : Ashodhita Hingula 500 grams.
Nimbu Swarasa -- 1050 ml.
Water
Equipments : Khalva Yantra, Knife, Juice extractor,
Method : Bhavana and Prakshalana.

Procedure:

Same as in Practical No 1
Observations:
Same as in Practical No 1
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Table No 30 The observations done during Hingula Shodhana

No of Days Qty (in ml) Time Taken Results Remarks


Shodhana (in hours)
1 1 150 8 504 gms Gain 4 gms
2 3 160 8 509 gms Gain 5 gms
3 5 150 7 514 gms Gain 5 gms
4 7 150 7.30 520 gms Gain 6 gms
5 9 140 7 525 gms Gain 5 gms
6 11 150 8 531 gms Gain 6 gms
7 13 150 8 532 gms Gain 1 gms
Precautions:
Same as in Practical No 1
Results:
Initial quantity of Hingula - 500 grams
Final quantity (After shodhana) - 532 grams
Quantity after Prakshalana - 526 grams
Quantity gain - 26 grams
Probable cause of weight gain: Due to the addition of solid contents present in
Nimbu Swarasa.

Hingula Chakrika
Practical No 3:
Name of the Practical : Hingula Chakrika
Date of Commencement : 19/09/2005
Date of completion : 03/11/2005
Reference : 5/38 - 39, Page No 82 - 83, Rasatarangini.
Material : Shodhita Hingula 800 grams.
Nimbu Swarasa -- 200 ml. Cold Water
Equipments : Khalva Yantra, Knife, Juice extractor,

Procedure:

800 grams of Hingula was taken in a Khalva Yantra and powdered.

To this powder 200 ml of Nimbu Swarasa was added, mixed well.

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Methodology

It was subjected to Mardana continuously up to become a consistency of to

prepare chakrika.

Chakrikas were made about the size of 3 4 cm in diameter, 2- 3 mm in

thickness and allowed for drying under shade.

It took 8 hrs.

Observations:
1) The red colour powder of Hingula became brick red after adding the Nimbu

Swarasa, small bubbles and white streaks were appeared.

2) There were 32 Chakrikas; complete drying of Chakrikas took nearly 15 days.

3) After drying of Chakrikas, Hingula appeared Sindhura colour (dark reddish)

with smooth surface and it was observed that weight of Hingula was reduced

from 800 grams to 780 grams after drying of Chakrikas.

Precaution:
Wastage has to be minimized and mardana was uniform.

Probable cause of weight loss:


1) While preparing Chakrikas we lost 20 grams of Hingula due to adherence of
Hingula to Kalvayantra.
2) During the preparation of Chakrika.

Hingula Satvapatana
Practical No 4:
Name of the Practical : Hingula Satvapatana
Date of Commencement : 10/10/2005
Date of completion : 13/10/2005
Reference : 5/38 - 39, Page No 82 - 83, Rasatarangini.
Material : Chakrikas 400 grams.
Cold Water
Equipments : Two equal sized mud pots, Gopi chandana, Agni

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chullika and Cloth pad.


Yantra : Damaru Yantra (Urdva patana yantra).
Procedure:
Weight of dried chakrikas was 780 grams. From these Chakrikas 400 grams

were taken. Chakrikas were placed in Urdwapatan (Damaru) Yantra and subjected to

moderate heat for 8 hours. The upper pot was kept cold by repeatedly replacing with

cold cloth pad. After shwangasheet, on the next day sandhi bandhana was carefully

removed, 2 pots were separated, parada with its globules were collected from the

upper pot by scrapping with a cloth. Parada was washed with water and filtered

through double cloth to get clear parada.

Observations:
Table No 31 Observations during Hingula Satvapatana

Initial Wt Parada Temp Agni Unburnt Gained Loss of


of extracted (in 0C ) given Hingula left in Parada parada(%)
Hingula (in hours) lower pot (%)
360 to
400 212 8 82 gram 53 17
400
1) After 2 hours, the bottom of the lower pot appeared red hot.

2) The wet cloth pad was frequently changed as it gets dried during the procedure.

3) The temperature was maintained 3600C to 4000C.

Table No 32 Observations of heating pattern

Hours Temp(in 0C)


1 106
2 240
3 320
4 360
5 380
6 388
7 392
8 402

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4) When the sandhi bandhana was opened after swanga sheeta, the Parada globules

were found in the central portion of upper pot and in the lower pot about 82 grams

of unburnt Hingula was obtained.

5) Collected Parada was washed.

Precautions:
1) Completely dried Chakrikas were kept in Damaru Yantra. Sandhi

bandhana was done and allowed it to dry properly.

2) While heating upper pot was kept cool by placing wet pad over the pot.

3) Water was not allowed to fall on sandhi bandhana.

Results:
Initial quantity of Hingula -- 400 grams
Quantity of extracted Parada -- 212 grams
Gained Parada( % ) -- 53 %
Quantity of Residue -- 82 grams
Loss of Parada( %) -- 17 %
Probable cause of weight loss:
a. Some quantity of Parada remains in the pores of Damaru Yantra.
b. Due to various Gatis of Parada.

Hingula Satvapatana
Practical No 5:
Name of the Practical : Hingula Satvapatana
Date of Commencement : 17/10/2005
Date of completion : 20/10/2005
Reference : 5/38 - 39, Page No 82 - 83, Rasatarangini.
Material : Chakrikas 380 grams.
Cold Water
Equipments : Two equal sized mud pots, Gopi chandana, Agni
chullika and Cloth pad.
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Yantra : Damaru Yantra (Urdva patana yantra).


Procedure:
The same procedure was carried out as in Practical No 4 taking 380 grams of

Chakrikas of Hingula for the extraction of Parada.

Observations:
Table No 33 Observations during Hingula Satvapatana

Initial Wt Parada Temp Agni given Unburnt Hingula Gained Loss of


of Hingula extracted (in 0C ) (in hours) left in lower pot Parada Parada (%)
(%)
360 to
380 190 8 52 grams 50 20
400

Table No 34 Observations of heating pattern

Hours Temp (in 0C)


1 86
2 150
3 212
4 320
5 370
6 388
7 396
8 404
Other observations were made same as in Practical No 4.
Precautions:
Same as in Practical No 4.
Results:
Initial quantity of Hingula -- 380 grams
Quantity of extracted Parada -- 190 grams
Gained Parada (%) -- 50 %
Quantity of Residue -- 52 grams
Loss of Parada (%) -- 20 %
Probable cause of weight loss:
Same as in Practical No 4.

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Parada Shodhana
Practical No 6:
Name of the Practical : Parada Shodhana
Date of Commencement : 19/12/2005
Date of completion : 21/12/2005
Reference : 5/40 - 42, Page No 82-83, Rasatarangini.
Material : Hingulotha Parada 400 grams
Haridra Choorna 25 grams
Equipments : Khalva Yantra, Vastra, Conical flask, cloth.
Method : Mardana
Procedure:

1) 400 grams of Hingulotha Parada and 25 gram of Haridra choorna were mixed.

2) Mardana was done for 20 hours.

3) After mardana, this mixture was filtered in four-fold cloth.

4) Collect it in a clean conical flask.

Observations:

1) After one hour Mardana a very little quantity of Parada started disintegrating

into small globules and left out Parada remains as it is.

2) When Haridra Choorna was done mardana with Parada for about 2 hours, the

mixture turns to light Brown colour.

3) Mardana continued for 2 days with 10 hours a day.

4) Parada was not mixed with Haridra properly.

5) After 8 hours Haridra powder was very dark brown colour and shining.

6) Large quantity of Parada remains as it is.

7) After 20 hours mixture was filtered with the help of four-fold cloth.

Precautions:

1) Mardana should be done slowly and cautiously to avoid loss of Parada.

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2) Mardana should be done in one direction throughout the procedure.

3) Kalva should be kept covered when the process is not in progress.

Results:
Initial quantity of Parada -- 400 grams
Final quantity of Parada -- 395 grams
Quantity loss of Parada -- 5 grams
Probable cause of quantity loss:
1. Expelling out from the Khalva Yantra.
2. Due to filtration.

Preparation of Kupi

Practical No 7:

Name of the Practical : Preparation of Kupi.


Date of Commencement : 02/01/2006
Date completion : 16/01/2006
Material : Amber glass bottle, Cloth, Gopi chandana, Scissor,
Water.
Procedure:

1) A clean and dry amber glass bottle was taken and paste of Gopi chandana was

applied to the base so as to level the concavity of the bottom.

2) A cloth smeared with paste of Gopi chandana measuring 12 cm in width and

64 cms in length was applied over the kupi such that both ends of the cloth

come at opposite side of the neck of kupi.

3) Such type smearing the mud cloth at stretch covering whole kupi helps in

uniformity of mrutkapata and was allowed to dry completely.

4) In this way all the 7 layers were applied.

5) In the same manner 5 kach kupis are prepared.

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Observations:

1) Fine powder of Gopi chandana helps in preparing uniform smooth surface of

the kupi.

2) Paste of mud was prepared by adding little water as per the requirement.

3) It took 24 hours for drying of each layer.

4) Measurement of cloth was remained same for all the 7 layers.

5) It took 8 layers to prepare kupi.

Precautions:

1) The amber glass bottle devoid of air bubbles were selected.

2) Adequate quantity of water was taken to prepare the gopi chandana paste.

3) No air space was left between the consecutive layers of cloth.

4) The bottle was completely allowed to dry after each covering while applying

the multani mitti paste smeared cloth, the mouth of the kupis were kept closed

to prevent any contaminations.

Preparation of Parada choorna


Practical No 8:
Name of the Practical : Preparation of Parada choorna.
Date of Commencement : 23/01/2006
Date of completion : 25/01/2006
Reference : 4/65 - 67, Page No 115 - 116, Rasatarangini.
Material : Parada --- 300 grams (1 part)
Conc H2SO4 --- 450 grams (1.5 part)
Equipments : Pingani Khalva Yantra, Chullika Yantra, Sharava,
Sand, Glass Rod.
Temperature : 1500C 2000C
Procedure:

1) 300 grams of Shodhita Parada was taken in pingani kalva yantra.


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2) Another sharava is taken, which was filled with valuka up to 3/4th part.

3) Shodhita Parada yukta pingani kalva yantra was kept on valuka bharita

sharava.

4) Gandakamla was poured slowly in to the pingani khalva yantra.

5) Pingani khalva yantra was kept on gas stove and mandagni was given i.e,

starting heat is 800C and increase this temp gradually up to 1500C. This temp

is maintained until the end of the procedure.

6) The mixture in the pingani khalva was stirred continuously with the help of

glass rod throughout the process.

7) The mixture became white powder and the fumes were completely

diminished.

8) The pingani khalva yantra was kept for swangasheeta.

9) White colour, very shiny and crystalline Parada choorna was collected in an

airtight container.

Observations:

1) White fumes started slowly after 10 minutes of heating.

2) Fumes increased after 30 minutes and are very irritative.

3) After 4 hours, the mixture in the pingani khalva yantra became paste and light

brownish colour.

4) After 8 hours, some portion of the material was turned into crystals and the

remaining portion was like a paste.

5) After 12 hours, the material became completely globules and attained light

brown colour and after 19 hours, it became partially white in colour.

6) But brownish thick fumes were continuously present.

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7) After 23 hours, all paste was converted into white crystals. At this time the

fumes are very thick and whitish colour.

8) Temperature was maintained at 1500C.

9) After 25 hours, white fumes were diminished (Decreased) and less irritative.

10) After 26 hours, white shiny crystals were formed completely.

11) The mixture was completely dried.

12) After 27 hours, the fumes completely disappeared and kept as it is for 1 hour.

13) The end product was white in colour, smooth and Shiny.

14) The quantity of the end product Parada choorna was 450 grams, after the

combustion of mercury and concentrated sulphuric acid.

15) Whole procedure was carried out continuously for 28 hours.

Precautions:

1) Heat should be maintained up to 1500C.

2) Mask was compulsory.

3) Conc. H2SO4 poured slowly into the pingani khalva yantra.

4) The mixture was stirred only with the help of glass rod.

Results:
Parada -- 300 grams
Conc H2SO4 -- 450 grams
Obtained end product -- 475 grams
Total quantity -- 275 grams.

Probable cause of weight loss:


1. Due to moisture content in the mixture.
2. Evaporation of Sulphur dioxide fumes.

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Rasakarpoor Nirmana vidhi


Practical No 9:
Name of the Practical : Rasakarpoor Nirmana vidhi.
Date of Commencement : 13/02/2006
Date of completion : 15/02/2006
Reference : 6/68-71, Page No 115-116, Rasatarangini.
Material : Parada choorna 50 grams.
Saindhava lavana -- 50 grams.
Equipments : Prepared Kacha kupi, Valuka yantra (mud pot),
Thermometer, Loha shalaka, Mudra, Tamra patra,
Kalva Yantra, Chullika, Pyrometer, Gopichandana.
Method : Kupi pakva method.
Procedure:

The whole procedure was divided in to three phases.

1) Poorva Karma 2) Pradhana Karma 3) Paschat Karma

1) Poorva Karma:

a) Preparation of Kacha Kupi.


b) Preparation of Prematerial.
c) Filling of Prematerial into Kacha Kupi.
d) Placing of Kacha Kupi in Valuka Yantra.

The following measures were carried out in this phase of the study.

a) Preparation of Kacha Kupi:

The preparation of Kacha Kupi was done as in Practical No 7.

b) Preparation of Prematerial:

i. The Preparation of Parada choorna was done as in practical No 6.

ii. Take Parada Choorna 50 grams and add equal quantity of Saindhava

lavana.

iii. The prematerial was prepared and weight was 100 grams.

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c) 100 grams of prematerial was cautiously filled into the Kacha Kupi occupied

lower 1/5th part of Kupi.

d) Placing of Kacha Kupi in Valuka Yantra:

First gopichandana smeared cloth was covered the whole at half of the

Valuka yantra and sand was spread uniformly over it of about 3 angulis. Now

Kupi filled with prematerial was kept over the sand at the center and

remaining part of the yantra should be filled with sand up to the neck of the

Kupi. Care should be taken while putting the sand as it may contaminate the

ingredients inside the Kupi for which it is duly corked. The cork was

prepared by Istika exactly fitting to the mouth of the Kupi.

2) Pradhana Karma:

a) Heating schedule (Kramagni tapa)

b) Observation and recording of Temperature.

c) Corking, sealing of Kacha Kupi and self-cooling of the Valuka Yantra.

The Kupi in Valuka yantra was heated for 12 hours in 3 stages of graded

heating i.e. Mruduagni, Madhyamagni and Tivragni.

The temperature was recorded with the help of Digital Pyrometer by inserting

the thermocouple in Valuka yantra; the tip was kept nearer to the bottom of

Kupi.

The temperature was maintained in 3 stages from

Mruduagni -- 1000C 1500C 4 hours


Madhyamagni -- 1500C 3000C 4 hours
Tikshnagni -- 3000C 4000C 4 hours.
Shalaka was inserted into the Kupi at the neck and stirred now and then to

avoid choking by fumes of prematerial.

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After Kupi paka lakshanas the corking of Kupi mouth was done with the help

of Ishtika cork, which was sealed with cloth smeared with multani mitti.

The Kupi paka lakshanas seen are

a) Complete off fumes.

b) Watery vapours are completely diminished.

c) Sita salaka are introduced into the kupi, which had not the white

granular coating of compound on it.

Teevragni was given for 4 hours after corking the Kupi.

Valuka yantra with Kupi was allowed for swanga sheeta for one day and was

removed later on.

Observations:

The Kupi pakwa was done for 12 hours continuously in Kramagni and the

observations made as follows

1) The gas stove was set to fire at 8 am on 14/02/2006

2) Initial temperature was 300C.

3) After 2 hours prematerial in the bottom started melting confirmed by sheeta

shalaka test.

4) At 3rd hour fumes started coming out from mouth of the Kupi along with that

little amount of watery vapours were seen when tamra patra was placed at the

mouth.

5) At 4th hour fumes are very thick and shalaka introduced now to clear the

choking of the neck of the Kupi.

6) At 8th hour watery vapours and fumes were completely disappeared; it is the

time of corking the Kupi.

7) Corking was done with cork and wrapped with two layers of Mrutkapat.
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Then sand surrounding the Kupi neck is removed up to 4 angulis.

8) Agni was increased. The temperature is ranging from 3000C to 4000C and the

same was maintained for 4 hours.

9) After 12 hours agni was stopped and valuka yantra was allowed to cool by

itself (Shwangasheeta).

10) It took nearly 12 hours for self-cooling i.e, after 24 hours, the Rasakarpoor

was collected and kept in airtight container.

Table No 35 Hourly temperature chart:

Time (in Hours) Temp (in 0C) Specific Observation


8.00AM (1st hour) 300C(Initial Temp) Agni started
9.00AM(2nd hour) 800C No fumes seen outside and inside the
Kupi.
10.00AM(3rd hour) 1480C Scanty fumes present along with water
vapours.
11.30AM(4,1/2th 1800C Watery vapours & fumes are very thick
hour) (large quantity).
12.30PM(5,1/2th 2000C Watery vapours were less in quantity.
hour)
1.00PM(6th hour) 2120C Watery vapours were less in quantity.
2.00PM(7th hour) 2660C Watery vapours & fumes were
disappeared. Copper foil test shows
presence of Hg particles.
3.00PM(8th hour) 3000C Corking was done. Tivragni was given at
the end of 8th hour.
4.00PM(9th hour) 3900C to 4000C This heat was maintained for 4 hours.

Precautions:
1) Prematerial was mixed with saindhava lavana and mardana done for half an

hour just before it is filled into the Kupi.

2) Valuka Yantra should be placed firmly over the rim of the stove and

surrounding space was packed with the help of Isthik.

3) The thermo couple of pyrometer was inserted properly in Valuka yantra.

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4) The maintenance of temperature was done carefully with the help of

pyrometer.

5) The intensity of Agni applied was in proportion with respect to Kramagni.

6) Care was taken while inserting the shalaka so that it does not touch the bottom

of Kupi.

7) Corking was done properly.

8) Fumes should not be inhaled and this was avoided by wearing facemask.

9) Istika cork was scrapped properly in such a way that it was not too loose or

tight so that it should fit exactly to the inner surface of the mouth of the Kupi.

10) The sand was removed up to 4 angulis from Kantha Bhaga before corking.

11) Soon after completion of specific time i.e.Chatarayam(12 hour)Agni was

stopped.

11) The Valuka yantra was allowed for self-cooling over the gas stove.

3) Paschat Karma:

a) Removal of Kacha Kupi from Valuka yantra.

b) Breaking of Kacha Kupi.

c) Collection of the final product.

After complete cooling, Valuka yantra was removed from the Gas stove.

Kupi was removed carefully by taking out the surrounding sand.

The mrutlepita Kupi was uncovered by scraping with a knife.

Jute dipped in kerosene was tied to the Kupi 2-3 cm below the level of

sublimated product and ignited. When the whole thread gets burnt off. It was

wrapped in wet cloth.

The bottle was broken in to 2 halves with a breaking sound.

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From the neck region Rasakarpoor was collected, scrapping with the help of

Knife and was stored in a clean air container.

Observations:

1) The colour of the outer layer of the Kupi was orange red in colour except 4

anguli from the neck, which was black when removed from the Valuka yantra.

2) No glass piece was seen along with the medicine.

3) In the bottom of the bottle some quantity of residue was left.

Precautions:

1) Scrapping of the layers of mrutkapata over Kupi was done carefully.

2) Jute dipped in Kerosene was tied in only one circle.

3) No force was applied to break the Kupi and avoid mixing of glass pieces with

the final product.

Results:
Prematerial --- 100 grams.
End Product --- 45 grams.
Residue --- 40 grams.
Loss --- 15 grams.
Probable cause of quantity loss:
1. Due to the Moisture contents of prematerial.
2. Due to temperature.

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Graph No 1 Showing the Temperature and Time duration of Valuka Yantra in


the preparation of Rasakarpoor:

Temp - Hour graph

450

400 397 400

350

300 300
Temp (in 0C)

266
250 250

200 200212
180
150 148
100
80
50 50
30 28
0
1

11

13

15

17

19

21

23
Time (in Hours)

Rasakarpoor Nirmana vidhi


Practical No 10:
Name of the Practical : Rasakarpoor Nirmana vidhi.
Date of Commencement : 27/02/2006
Date of completion : 29/02/2006
Procedure:
Same as in Practical No 9
Observations:
Same as in Practical No 9
Precautions:
Same as in Practical No 9
Results: Prematerial --- 100 grams.
End Product --- 30 grams.
Residue --- 50 grams.
Loss --- 20 grams
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Practical No 11:
Name of the Practical : Rasakarpoor Nirmana vidhi.
Date of Commencement : 14/03/2006
Date of completion : 16/03/2006
Procedure:
Same as in Practical No 9
Observations:
Same as in Practical No 9
Precautions:
Same as in Practical No 9
Results:
Prematerial --- 100 grams.
End Product --- 32 grams.
Residue --- 45 grams.
Loss --- 23 grams.

Practical No 12:
Name of the Practical : Rasakarpoor Nirmana vidhi.
Date of Commencement : 18/04/2006
Date of completion : 20/04/2006
Procedure:
Same as in Practical No 9
Observations:
Same as in Practical No 9
Precautions:
Same as in Practical No 9
Results:
Prematerial --- 100 grams.
End Product --- 35 grams.
Residue --- 46 grams.
Loss --- 19 grams

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Practical No 13:
Name of the Practical : Rasakarpoor Nirmana vidhi.
Date of Commencement : 24/04/2006
Date of completion : 26/04/2006
Procedure:
Same as in Practical No 9
Observations:
Same as in Practical No 9
Precautions:
Same as in Practical No 9
Results:
Prematerial --- 100 grams.
End Product --- 46 grams.
Residue --- 37 grams.
Loss --- 17 grams

Table No 36 Overall Results of Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi:

Sl Mixture Temperature Time End product Residue Loss


No (grams) (hours) (grams) (grams) (grams)
9 100 3600C - 4000C 12 45 40 15
10 100 3600C - 4000C 12 30 50 20
11 100 3600C - 4000C 12 32 45 23
12 100 3600C - 4000C 12 35 46 19
13 100 3600C - 4000C 12 46 37 17

Rasakarpoor was prepared five times. The quantity of prematerial & the
procedure was same in each practicals but the quantity of Rasakarpoor varies.

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Analytical Study:

Introduction:

Where science is challenged with the questions what and how, the discipline

of analytical science dares to solve the mysteries. Though put to practice rather

retrograde for the faculty of Ayurveda, the initiation of utilizing these modes of

evaluation, after a particular stage of awareness regarding the existence of structures

of the mineral, herbal and animal drugs, somewhat tallies with modern counter part.

Over the centuries, the communication gap has tremendously reduced

resulting in the large-scale manufacturing and wide distribution of Ayurvedic drugs at

different levels. The increasing need for drugs have made it incumbent that some sort

of uniformity in the manufacturing of Ayurvedic medicines should be brought about.

The need has also been felt for statutory control to ensure standards of Ayurvedic

drugs in the modern sense. Physical and chemical analysis of any drug should be

know to the confirm the genuinity and safety before experimented and administration

in human beings.

In the present study sample is collected after the completion of the preparation

and Physical analysis is carried out, subjected to modern analytical methods, in

Bangalore Test House and same physical analysis is carried out in J.T. College of

Pharmacy, Gadag.

1. Organoleptic characters:

Shodhita Hingula possess organoleptic qualities as red in colour, odourless

and fine in touch.

Rasakarpoor posses white in colour, odourless, fine in touch.

2. Loss on drying:

2 gram of Rasakarpoor accurately weighed, heated on electric oven up


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to 1100C and again weighed. The difference in weight was noted and calculated the %

loss on drying.

Result: 16.80 %

3. Determination of Total Ash:

Take about accurate 2-gram ground drug in a previously tared silica dish,

previously ignited and weighed. Scatter the ground dry in fine even layer on the

bottom of the dish. Incinerate by gradually increasing the heat not exceeding dull red

heat (4500C) until free from carbon. Cooled and weighed. Calculated the % of ash

with reference to the air-dried drug.

Result: 0.19%

4. Acid insoluble Ash:

Boil the Ash obtained in the process described under determination of total ash

for 5 minutes with 25 ml dilute hydrochloric acid. Collect the insoluble matter on a

filtered Whatmann no 42, ash less filter paper and wash with hot water. The residue

was taken in a crucible, dried and ignited. The % of acid insoluble ash was calculated

with reference to the moisture free drug.

Result: 0.02%.

5. Determination of pH:

The pH value of the sample was determined by a digital pH meter. One %

solution was prepared, as a sample was dry and in the form of powder. The powder of

the Rasakarpoor taken accurate one gram of the sample was weighed and dissolved in

100 ml water and pH was noted in the digital pH meter.

Result (1% Solution): 4.40

6. Solubility:

About one gram of the sample was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of


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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

the solvents. When the sample did not dissolve, an excess of solvent by 10 ml

quantity up to 100 ml was added and noted that was soluble in water (1 gram of

sample in 100 ml of water) and slightly soluble in chloroform (1 gram of sample in

600 ml to 1000 ml of chloroform) and soluble in water (1 gram sample in 600 ml to

1000 ml alcohol).

Results of Solubility tests

Water -- Soluble

Chloroform -- Slightly soluble

Alcohol -- Soluble

7. The fineness of particle test:

It can be possible to use the ordinary microscope for particle size measuring in

the range of 0.2 meters to about 100 meters. According to microscope method the

fine powder was sprinkled on the slide covered with covering slip and placed on a

mechanical stage. Initially standardization of micrometer was carried out by

coinciding with the lines of both ocular micrometer and stage micrometer and

standardization by using the formula.

SM / OM 10 = m

In the next step the stage micrometer was removed and mounted slide was

placed on a mechanical stage and focused. The particles are measured along with the

arbitrarily chosen fixed lines covered by the particles using the standard value.

Result: (Arithmetic mean of Rasakarpoor) 11.48 meter.

8. Flow property:

Rasakarpoor is a fine powder, there fore to maintain the actual dose and for

better dispensing. It is subjected to flow property test. Angle of repose by which we

can analyze good flow property.


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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

Angle of repose: It is maximum angle that can be obtained between the free

standing surface of a powder heap and the horizontal plane ie tan Q = 2h/D

When D is the diameter of the circle and h is the powder heap.

This test involves the hollow cylinder half is filled by Rasakarpoor with one

end sealed by transparent plate. The cylinder is rotated about its horizontal axis until

the powder surface cascades. The curved wall is lined with sand paper to prevent

preferential slip at this surface. If the value comes between 200 400 indicates

reasonable flow potential.

Result: Rasakarpoor = 32.010

9. Flow rates:

A sample indication of the ease with which a material can be induced to flow

is given by application of a compressibility index.

I = {(1-V) / Vo} 100.

Where V is the volume occupied by sample of the powder after being

subjected to a standardized tapping produces. Vo = Volume before tapping procedure.

In this procedure one measuring cylinder is taken & is filled with

Rasakarpoor. The level of the Rasakarpoor should be noted. Then at a height of 2 cm,

continuous 10 tapings should be done, after that the level of the Rasakarpoor in the

cylinder is once again noted and the value I is calculated with respect to the Vo and V

value. If the value I is below 15 % usually having good flow rates.

Result: Rasakarpoor = 27 %

10. Determination of Mercury:

Procedure:

Dissolve about 0.3 gms of the sample Rasakarpoor in 5 ml of Aquaregia and

add 100 ml of water. Add 40 ml of 0.05N EDTA, 5 ml of Ammonia buffer solution


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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

and 0.5 ml of solochrome black indicator. Titrate the solution with 0.05 M Zinc

Sulphate until the blue colour changes to Purple (do not overshoot the end point), add

3 gms of Potassium iodide, swirl to dissolve. Allow to stand for two minutes. Then,

continue the titration with Zinc sulphate solution to the same end point as before.

Each ml Zinc sulphate solution to the same end point as before. Each ml Zinc sulphate

solution required after addition of potassium iodide = 0.103 Hg.

Result: - Mercury = 70.8 %, Shodhita Hingula = 69.7 %

11. Determination of Chlorides:

Weigh accurately approximate quantity of sample of Rasakarpoor and dissolve

in sufficient distilled water. Add 0.1 ml of potassium chromate and titrate the solution

with 0.1 M silver Nitrate until the colour changes to reddish brown.

Calculate the % of chlorine in the sample. The factor for converting silver

chloride to chlorine is 0.03545.

Result: Rasakarpoor = 19.4 %

12. Determination of Sulphur:

Eschka Mixture: - Mix two parts calcined magnesia with one part of

anhydrous sodium carbonate.

Procedure:

Cover the bottom of a 50 ml crucible with 0.5 gm of Eschkas mixture. Weigh

accurately the approximate quantity of the sample material and mix it immediately

with 2 gms of Eschks mixture and put evenly on the previously weighed Eschks

mixture. Level the contents by tapping gently on a bench. Cover this uniformly with

0.5 gm of Eschka mixture. Place crucible in the muffle furnace. Raise the temperature

from room temperature to 8000C 250C in about one hour and then heat for further

90 minutes.
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Methodology

Transfer the ignited mixture completely as much as possible from the crucible

to a beaker containing 25 to 30 ml of water. Wash out the crucible thoroughly with

about 50 ml of hot distilled water and add the washings to the contents of the beaker.

Then test the supernatant liquid for complete precipitation by adding a few

drops of Barium chloride solution. If a precipitate is formed, add slowly further 3 ml

of the reagent, allow the precipitate to settle as before and test again, repeat this

operation until an excess of Barium chloride is present. When an excess of the

precipitating agent has been added, keep the covered solution hot, but not boiling for

an hour (Steam bath) in order to allow complete precipitation. The precipitation

should settle and a clear supernatant liquid should be obtained. Test the latter with a

few drops of barium chloride solution for complete precipitation. If no precipitate

obtained, the Barium Sulphate is ready filtration.

Filter the solution through an ash less filter paper (Whatmann No 42.) wash

the precipitate with small portion of hot water. Dry the paper and place it in a silica or

porcelain crucible, previously ignited to redness and cooled in desiccators and

weighed. Gradually increase the heat until the paper chars and volatile matter is

expelled.

Do not allow the paper to burst into flame as mechanical loss may thus ensue.

When charring is complete, raise the temperature of the crucible to dull redness and

burn off carbon with free excess of air. When the precipitate is white ignite the

crucible to red heat for 10 15 minutes. Allow the crucible to cool in air, transfer it to

desiccators and when cooled, weigh the crucible and contents. Repeat until constant

weight is attained. A blank is necessary calculated the % of Sulphur converting

Barium Sulphate 0.1374.

Result: Shodhita Hingula = 8.06 %


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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
K.L.E.Societys COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
J.T.COLLEGE CAMPUS, P.O.Box No.23
GADAG 582101. (Karnataka)
Phone: 08372-230042 (O), 08372-231887(R), Tel Fax: 08372 221443

To,
Dr. SUVARNA P. NIDAGUNDI
P.G. Scholar, Dept of Rasashastra,
D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.

Sub: Evaluation report of Ayurvedic sample (Rasakarpoor)


Sir,
The evaluation results of the above-referred sample are given below -
1. Orgenoleptic Character:
1 Physical State Solid
2 Colour White
3 Taste -
4 Odour Odourless
5 Texture Crystalline Powder
6 Appearance Shiny

2. Size of Particle:
Sample Arithmetic Mean
Rasakarpoor 11.48meter

3. Flow Rate and Property:


Compressibility
Sample Angle of repose
Index (I)
Rasakarpoor 32.010 27%

4. Ash Content:
Sample (Rasakarpoor)
Total Ash 0%
Acid Insoluble Ash -
Water soluble Ash -

5. pH and Solubility:
SL No Test Results
1 PH 4.5
2 Solubility Soluble in water & Acids

V.K.Chandur. Suresh.H.M.
(Dept of Pharmaceutics) (Dept of Pharmacognasy)
Methodology

Qualititative Test for the identification of Rasakarpoor by N.P.S.Test:

Aim of NPS Test:

To test whether the contents of the container of Bhasma /Sindhura is the same

that is claimed of its label. In other words to verify the quality of the

Bhasma/Sindhura etc.

Definition:

When a drop of clear solution of a substance (Bhasma / Sindhura) that is under

examination is put on one of the chemical reacting papers, a spot with a series of

changes in colour and pattern will appear. It is the study of this spot and colour at

three successive phases spreading over three different time intervals is known as the

Phased Spot Test.

Material Required:
1) Reagents.
2) Whatman paper No 1.
3) Glass rod, Vessel, Tray glass Capillary.
4) Centrifugal & Semi-micro test tubes.
Procedures: It includes the following steps

a) Preparation of Reagents.
b) Preparation of drug solutions
c) Preparation of chemical reacting papers.
d) Direction for preparing the solutions.
e) Spotting and its observations.
a) Preparation of Reagent
Table No.37 Preparation of Reagent
To Prepare 30 ml 100 ml
Conc. Acid Distilled water Conc. Acid Distilled water
5N HNO3 10 ml 20 ml 35 ml 65 ml

Note: Always add acid to distilled water with constant stirring.

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Methodology

Preparation of Aquaregia:

Mix 3 ml of conc. Hydrochloric acid with 1 ml of conc. Nitric acid.

b) Preparation of Drug solutions:

Take 0.25gm of Rasakarpoor sample into a test tube and add 0.5ml of 5N

HNO3.

Take 0.25gm of Rasakarpoor sample into another tube and add 0.5ml of

distilled water.

Take 0.25gm of Rasakarpoor sample into another tube and add 0.5ml of

aquaregia.

Heat the sample after adding the reagents, after the solution is cooled, it has to

be transferred into a semi-micro test tube.

Allow sufficient time to react with drug and to settle all the sediments at the

bottom of the test tube till a clear solution is seen above the sediment.

c) Preparation of 10% Potassium Iodide paper:

There are five types of chemical reacting papers. i.e.

1. 10% Potassium Iodide Paper.


2. 10% Potassium Bromide Paper.
3. 5% Potassium Ferrocyanide Paper.
4. 2.5% Potassium Ferrocyanide Paper.
5. Haridra Paper.
Since these readymade papers are not available in the market. So we should

know how to prepare these papers.

I selected 10% Potassium Iodide Paper for my study.

Take Whatman filter paper No 1 is suitable for this purpose. Cut the paper into

small pieces of size 14cm + 8cm.

Prepare the solutions according to the specific % given to the different papers.
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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

To prepare 10% Potassium Iodide Paper, take 10gm of Potassium Iodide and

mix with 100 ml of distilled water stir continuously until potassium iodide

dissolves.

d) Directions for preparing solutions:

1) Quantity of the Rasakarpoor -- 0.25gms


2) Quantity of the Reagent -- 0.5ml
3) Prepare one set of samples with -- 5N HNO3
-- Distilled water
-- Aquregiea.
4) To be heated -- Heated for a while after treated with
the reagent 5N HNO3, Distilled water
& Aquregiea.
5) Time allowed to react -- 24 Hours to 48 Hours (Shake the
sample now & then)
6) When to put on the reacting paper-- After 48 Hours.

e) Spotting & Observation of reactions of Rasakarpoor on 10% Potassium

Iodide Reacting Paper:

I) With 5N HNO3

Ist prepare the 5N HNO3 reagent and 10% Potassium Iodide Paper.

Then treat the 10% Potassium Iodide Paper with 2 drops solutions

prepared with 5N HNO3.

1st Phase: It is called immediate reaction. Immediately a brown spot forms. It

further turns white with moderate deep brown periphery. Before the end of

first phase one or two tiny and irregular dark particles form in the center of

the spot.

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Methodology

2nd Phase: It is called delayed reaction. The brown periphery widens merging with

its out side brown area and reducing the white space. The tiny and

irregular dark particles turn brick red.

3rd Phase: It is called late reactions. The formation of dark tiny particles in the

first phase which become brick red in the IIIrd Phase along with the

formation of free mercury globules is quite significant to standardize this

spot as standard spot of Rasakarpoor.

II) With distilled Water:

Rasakarpoor solution prepared with distilled water.

Treat 10% Potassium Iodide Paper with 1 drop of sample.

1st Phase: A very minute periphery of joint blackish colour with clear white

coloured circular spots space.

2nd Phase: Develops two or three dark, irregular and tiny particles.

3rd Phase: There were no further changes observed from 1st Phase. Only dark,

irregular and tiny particles were observed.

III) With Aquaregia:

Rasakarpoor solution prepared with aquregia.

Treat 10% Potassium Iodide Paper with 1 or 2 drop of sample.

1st Phase: Immediately a dark brown spots forms. It further turns to white with

moderate deep brown periphery and another circle was dark red irregular

shape.

2nd Phase: The brown periphery widens merging with its outside dark brown area

and reducing the white space. In the center orange colour irregular spot was

present.

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Methodology

3rd Phase: Central pale brown spot with dark brown periphery between the two

pink colour spot exist.

Precautions:

1. Centrifuge test tubes were used to prepare solutions and transferred the solution in

semi micro test tubes.

2. While adding the reagent or preparing Aquaregia, the respective bottle must be

hold above the level of eyes / head to allow the fumes that came out of the

container to go above the level of head.

3. A small quantity of the clear solution drawn using the dropper.

4. The narrow end of the dropper, just below the surface of the solution was

introduced into the solution and the solution of the sediment not disturbed.

5. The center of the paper should not be hold to avoid level slightest folded or

wrinkled of the paper; otherwise the formation of spot disturbed.

6. Put a drop of the solution on the chemical reacting paper one centimeter from

above the level of the paper.

7. 2nd drop was put immediately and exactly over the 1st drop to make a spot.

8. The spot studied under open daylight.

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Methodology

Qualitative Analysis of Mercuric Chloride:

Redical identification of HgCl2:

Qualitative analysis was carried out in Chemistry laboratory of Sri J.S.V.V.

Samsthes, Pre University Science College, Gadag.

Materials & Equipments:

Chemicals: 1) HgCl2 soln 2) Dilute HCl

3) H2S gas 4) Stannous Chloride (SnCl2)

5) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 6) Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

7) Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) 8) Chromyl Chloride (K2Cr2O7)

Equipments: 1) Test tubes 2) Spirit lamp

3) Stands 4) Holder (Test tubes)

5) Pipette 6) Glass rod

7) Measuring glass

Analysis for the presence of Hg++ and Cl ions was carried out by the following

tests:

Test for Hg++ ions:

Preparation of Rasakarpoor solution:

Take 10 ml of distilled water and add 1 gm of Rasakapoor powder stirring

continuously solution was prepared.

Take Rasakarpoor soln and add dilute HCl, pass H2S gas. The solution turns to

black PPT. The black PPT indicates Mercury ions (Hg++) may be present.

HgCl2 soln + dil HCl + H2S gas Black PPT

There fore, it indicates Hg++ ions may be present.

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Methodology

Confirmative Test for Mercury (Hg++) ions:

1. Take 2 ml of Rasakarpoor soln and add stannous chloride. It turns to white

crystalline PPT. This confirms Hg++ ion presence

HgCl2 soln + SnCl2 Turns to White crystalline PPT.

It confirms the presence of Hg++ ion.

2. Rasakarpoor Solution + Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Turns to White PPT.

Rasakarpoor soln + NaCl Turns to White crystalline PPT.

It confirms Hg++ ion presence.

Rasakarpoor Solution + Sodium Hydroxide Turns to Brownish black PPT.

Rasakarpoor Soln + NaOH HgO

It confirms the presence of Hg++ ion.

Test for Cl ion:

Prepared Rasakarpoor soln was taken in a test tube and add silver nitrate

solution. It turns to white curdy PPT.

Rasakarpoor soln + AgNO3 White curdy PPT.

There fore, it indicates Cl ion may be present.

Mercuric chloride is a covalent compound and does not give the usual

reactions of the chloride ions. Viz formation of hydrogen chloride with concentrated

sulphuric acid and chromyl chloride test etc.

The given compound contains Hg++ as +ve radical and Cl


as ve radical.

The compound is HgCl2.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY:
There may be wide variations in the susceptibility of different strains of

the same bacterial species to antibiotic. Several technologies are now available for

determination of microbial sensitivity to antimicrobial agent namely Cupplate

method, Serial dilution methods, Solid dilution method Ditch plate technique,

Gradient plate technique.

In the present study to asses the antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor is

performed by following Cup-plate method.

Anti microbial activity was carried out by Cupplate method and the following

procedure were conducted during Antimicrobial study at S.C.S.Collage of Pharmacy

Dept of Microbiology, Harapanhalli from 08/05/2006 to 15/05/2006.

Materials and Methods:

Materials:
1) Drugs:
a) Rasakarpoor b) Cefotaxime c) Fluconazole
2) Micro organism:
a) Staphylococcus aureus b) Streptococcus pyogenes.
c) Escherichia coli d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
e) Candida albicans f) Aspergillus flavus
3) Media Ingredients:
a) Potato dextrose agar b) Nutrient agar
c) Nutrient broth d) Alcohol
4) Equipments:
a) Autoclave b) Incubator
c) Test tubes d) Petriplates
e) Conical flasks f) Cork borer
g) Cotton h) Vernier caliper
i) Mask & Glows

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

Test and Standard drugs were prepared in distilled water.

Method:

Cup-Plate Method:

In this technique the test solution is placed in contact with agar, which is

already inoculated with test organism. After incubation, zone of inhibition

are observed. The cups were made aseptically with cork borer having 8mm diameter

and 3/4th part test solution was poured.

Procedure:

The complete procedure was carried out in 3 stages for both Antibacterial and

Anti Fungal activity of standard and tested drugs. All the chemicals used were of

High media company U.S.A and the glasswares used for study are sterilized by the

following standard procedure.

STAGE I
Preparation of inoculum.
Preparation of solutions of different drug concentration (Standard & Tested).
STAGE II
Preparation of agar media.
Inoculation of test organisms.
Application of solutions (Standard & Tested).
Incubation.
STAGE III
Reading of zone of Inhibition.
Interpretation of Results.
STAGE I
Preparation of Inoculum for bacteria:
2 gm +ve & 2 gm -ve bacteria were choosen for present study. Bacterias

selected for activity are as mentioned below.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

Gram +ve bacteria


1. Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87
2. Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC 32

Gram -ve bacteria


1. Escherichia coli MTCC 46.
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 442.

Fresh bacterial cultures were prepared using sterile nutrient broth.

Nutrient broth composition:

Table No 38 Nutrient broth composition

Sl No Ingredients Quantity
1 Peptone 5gms.
2 Beef extract 3 gms
3 NaCl 5 gms
4 Distilled water 1000 ml
5 pH 7.2 0.4

Required quantity of Nutrient broth was prepared as per the standard composition.

Nutrient broths were taken in four conical flasks and are sealed with alluminium

files. Then they are sterilized by autoclaving at 15lbs/sq.inch for 15 min.

After complete cooling 0.1ml of selected bacterial cultures were inoculated and

shaken well.

It was tested for pH and was found 7.4.

They are incubated at 370C 20C for 24 hrs.

Preparation of Inoculum for Fungai:

Funguses are used in antifungal activity:

1. Candida albicans MTCC 35


2. Aspergilluss flavus MTCC 62

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

Table No 39 Potato Dextrose Agar composition [HIMEDIA MO96]:

Sl No Ingredients Quantity
1 Peptone 200 gms.
2 Dextrose 20 gms
3 Agar 15 gms
4 Distilled water 1000 ml
5 pH 5.6 0.2

Required quantity of PDA was prepared as per the standard ratio.


The solution was sterilized in an autoclave for 15 min at 15lbs/sq.inch.
After cooling individual fungal cultures are inoculated into separate conical flask
by adding 1 ml of stock culture and are shaken well to assure proper mixing.
It was tested for pH and was found 5.6.

They are incubated at 270C 20C for 48 hrs.

Preparation of solutions of Tested and Standard drug concentration:

Preparation of test solutions

The Rasakarpoor solutions were prepared with 50 gm/ml and 100 gm/ml

concentrations and are labeled as T1 & T2 respectively. The samples were prepared in

distilled water.

Preparation of standard Anti bacterial solutions

The standard drug Cefotaxime solutions were prepared with 50 gm/ml and

100 gm/ml concentrations and are labeled as S1 & S2 respectively. The solutions

were prepared in distilled water.

Preparation of standard Anti fungal solutions

The fluconazole was selected for antifungal activity as standard drug. The

solutions were prepared with 50 gm/ml and 100 gm/ml concentrations and are

labeled as S1 & S2 resply.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

STAGE II

Preparation of agar media:

Agar media was used for both antibacterial and antifungal activity.

Table No 40 Nutrient Agar media composition [HIMEDIA MOO1]:

Sl No Ingredients Quantity
1 Peptone 5 gms.
2 Beef extract 3 gms
3 NaCl 5 gms
4 Agar 15 gms
5 Distilled water 1000 ml
6 pH 7.4 0.2

Required quantity of Agar media was prepared as per the standard composition of
HIMEDIA REF MOO1.
The pH was maintained at 7.4
It was essential for solidification and media has to be sterilized by autoclaving 15
lbs / sq inch for 15 min.
Preparation of Inoculum:

For Bacterial culture:

Sterile Nutrient agar media was cooled to 450C and mixed with 20% of

respective bacterial culture individually (That is 80 ml media and 20 ml culture).

For Fungal culture:

Sterile Nutrient agar medium was cooled to 450C and mixed with 20% of

respective fungal culture individually (That is 80 ml media and 20 ml culture).

Applications of solutions:

The inoculation prepared has to be transferred to petriplates immediately of its

preparation. After solidification of the media 4 holes are made at equal distance with

the help of sterile cork borer (8 mm diameter). These wells are used to inoculating
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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

different concentrations of standard antibacterial drug Cefotaxime [S1 50 gm/ml,

S2 100 gm/ml] and antifungal drug Fluconazole [S1 50 gm/ml, S2 100

gm/ml] and Tested drug Rasakarpoor [T1 50 gm/ml, T2 100 gm/ml]

Inoculated media is poured in to the petriplates to a depth of 3 to 4 mm.

Ensure that the layer of media is uniform in thickness, by placing the plate on a level

surface. All the procedure was carried out under aseptic conditions by using Laminar

airflow.

Incubation:

After introduction of Test and Standard drugs, the plates were placed in a

refrigerator at 80C - 100C for diffusion of drugs into the media. After two hours of

cold incubation, petriplates are transferred to Incubator and maintained at 370C 20C

for 24 hrs for bacteria. The fungal petriplates were incubated at 270C 20C for 48 hrs.

After the incubation period, the petriplates were observed for zone of

inhibition and measured using the Vernier caliper.

Observations:

Bacterial culture was incubated at 370C 20C and fungi at 270C 20C
Zone of inhibition was measured by Vernier caliper
While mixing bacterial are fungal cultures, the temperature of Agar was
maintained above 450C
Inoculated media poured into the petriplates to a depth of 3 to 4mm & place
and platform to get uniform spreading of the media.
The growth of the bacterial & fungal cultures were indicated by the turbidity
of the media

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Methodology

Precautions:
1. pH of all the media was accurately maintained for normal ions uptake by
microorganisms.
2. Petridish, conical flask etc were properly sterilized by autoclaving at 15lbs/sq
inch for 15 minutes.
3. Activity was conducted by using gloves & mask and it was carried in the
Laminar airflow.
4. Zone of inhibition was recorded by placing the petriplates on colony counter.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Results and its interpretations:

Antibacterial activity:

Table No. 41. Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Staphylococcus


aureus (+ve):

Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Cefotaxime S1 Rasakarpoor T1 Cefotaxime S2 Rasakarpoor T2

34.33 22.00 34.83 27.00

Observing the above table, in 50gm/ml & 100gm/ml concentration the

Tested drug Rasakarpoor (T1& T2) shows less activity as compared with the Standard

drug Cefotaxime (S1& S2).

Graph No 2 Results of Standard and Tested drug over the Staphylococcus


aureus:

Staphyllococuss Aureus +ve

40
Zone of Inhibition in mm

34.33 34.88
35
30 27
25 22
20
15
10
5
0
S1 T1 S2 T2
Std & Tested Drug

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Table No. 42. Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Streptococcus


Pyogenes (+ve):

Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Cefotaxime S1 Rasakarpoor T1 Cefotaxime S2 Rasakarpoor T2

28.50 26.00 37.16 29.33

Above table showing, in 50gm/ml & 100gm/ml concentration the Tested

drug Rasakarpoor (T1& T2) shows less activity as compared with the Standard drug

Cefotaxime (S1& S2).

Graph No 3 Results of Standard and Tested drug over the Streptococcus


Pyogenes:

Streptococuss Pyogenes +ve

40 37.16
Zone of Inhibition in mm

35
28.5 29.33
30 26
25
20
15
10
5
0
S1 T1 S2 T2
Std & Tested Drug

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Table No.43. Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Escherichia coli


(ve):

Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Cefotaxime S1 Rasakarpoor T1 Cefotaxime S2 Rasakarpoor T2

28.00 30.33 30.16 35.16

Above table shows, in 50gm/ml & 100gm/ml concentration the Tested drug

Rasakarpoor (T1& T2) shows good activity as compared with the Standard drug

Cefotaxime (S1& S2).

Graph No 4 Results of Standard and Tested drug over the Escherichia coli:

Escherichia - Coli -ve

40 35.16
Zone of Inhibition in mm

35 30.33 30.16
28
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
S1 T1 S2 T2
Std & Tested Drug

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Table No.44. Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Pseudomonas


aeruginosa (- ve):

Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Cefotaxime S1 Rasakarpoor T1 Cefotaxime S2 Rasakarpoor T2

37.66 20.00 41.16 25.66

Observing the above table, in 50gm/ml & 100gm/ml concentration the

Tested drug Rasakarpoor (T1& T2) shows less activity as compared with the Standard

drug Cefotaxime (S1& S2).

Graph No 5 Results of Standard and Tested drug over the Pseudomonas


aeruginosa:

Psudomonas Aeruginosa -ve

45 41.16
Zone of Inhibition in mm

40 37.66
35
30 25.66
25 20
20
15
10
5
0
S1 T1 S2 T2
Std & Tested Drug

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Antifungal activity:

Table No.45. Efficacy of Fluconazole and Rasakarpoor against Candida


Albicans:

Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Fluconazole S1 Rasakarpoor T1 Fluconazole S2 Rasakarpoor T2

21.66 29.00 23.50 32.00

Above table shows, in 50gm/ml & 100gm/ml concentration the Tested drug

Rasakarpoor (T1& T2) shows good activity as compared with the Standard drug

Fluconazole(S1& S2).

Graph No 6 Results of Standard and Tested drug over the Candida albicans:

Candida Albicans

35 32
Zone of Inhibition in mm

29
30
23.5
25 21.66
20
15
10
5
0
S1 T1 S2 T2
Std & Tested Drug

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Table No.46. Efficacy of Fluconazole and Rasakarpoor against Aspergillus


flavus:

Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Fluconazole S1 Rasakarpoor T1 Fluconazole S2 Rasakarpoor T2

19.33 28.66 20.66 31.50

Observing the above table, in 50gm/ml & 100gm/ml concentration the

Tested drug Rasakarpoor (T1& T2) shows good activity as compared with the

Standard drug Fluconazole. (S1& S2).

Graph No.7. Results of Standard and Tested drug over the Aspergillus Flavus:

Aspergillus Flavus

35 31.5
Zone of Inhibition in mm

28.66
30
25 20.66
19.33
20
15
10
5
0
S1 T1 S2 T2
Std & Tested Drug

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Overall Results: Antibacterial activity:

Table No.47. Efficacy of standard and tested drug against gram +ve & gram
ve organisms:

Sl Organisms Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


No 50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Cefotaxime Rasakarpoor Cefotaxime Rasakarpoor
S1 T1 S2 T2
1 Staphylococcus 34.33 22.00 34.83 27.00
aureus +ve
2 Streptococcus 28.50 26.00 37.16 29.33
Pyogenus +ve
3 Escherichia 28.00 30.33 30.16 35.16
coli -ve
4 Pseudomonas 37.66 20.00 41.16 25.66
aeruginosa ve

The results reveals that the organisms have shown varied response to

Rasakarpoor compared to Standard drug (Cefotaxime). Test drug (Rasakarpoor) has

given less response to all organisms in both the concentrations except E Coli.

E Coli organism have shown more sensitivity to Test drug concentrations

compared to Standard drug (Cefotaxime) in both the concentrations.

Antifungal activity:

Table No.48. Efficacy of standard and tested drug against Fungal organism:

Sl Organisms Zone of Inhibition (in mm)


No 50gm/ml 100gm/ml
Fluconazole S1 RasakarpoorT1 Fluconazole S2 RasakarpoorT2
1 Candida
21.66 29.00 23.50 32.00
albicans
2 Aspergillus
19.33 28.66 20.66 31.50
flavus

The fungal organisms have shown significant zone of inhibition in 50 gm/ml,

100 gm/ml concentrations when compared with the Standard Fluconazole at 50

gm/ml, 100 gm/ml concentrations respectively.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Results

Note:

In the present study 2 gms +ve organisms viz Staphylococcus aureus MTCC

87, Streptococcus pyogenes 2 gms ve organisms viz Escherichia coli MTCC 46,

Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 442, 2 fungal organisms Candida albicans and

Aspergilluss flavus were used for antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor.

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of respective standard and Tested drug

were used in the concentration 50 gm/ml & 100 gm/ml.

The antimicrobial activity was carried by using 6 petriplates for each

organisms and the mean value of zone of inhibition was obtained by the six values of

each concentration of standard and tested drug. The mean value was calculated which

represents accurate zone of inhibition for both standard and tested drug mean values

are shown in table.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

Discussion:

Discussion is the vital part of the study, observations, interpretations and

answers are outcome of the current study which are discussed as underneath-

Rasakarpoor is Nirghandha Kupipakva Rasayana. It is neglected in

Pharmaceutical science, if processed properly and administered in minimal

dosage, it is highly effective against Krimi, Bahubhootavishapaha and

Twachagatarogas etc,

It is not in vogue of clinical practice because of its toxicity. But some states in

South India like Andra pradesha etc it has captured wide marketing, than any

other drugs and routinely used as a home remedy by the peoples for many

Infectious diseases with proper dosage, duration, kala and anupana which has

made it popular

By observing all these points it can be used in day to today clinical practice

with proper dosage and a better choice among the Rasa yogas.

Thus its our responsibility to spread its effectiveness in other parts of the

country, and as a research work it was selected for the study.

Pharmaceutical study:

Shodhana process:

Hingula shodhana using Nimbu swarasa as bhavana dravya might help in

detoxification, it is a complex of organic acids like Citric acids & Mallic acid,

which reacts with unwanted materials & form a complex, soluble in water

which is justified by recommendation of prakshalana with water. Solid organic

contents increase the weight.

.Bhavana procedure helps in reducing the size of the Hingula particles into

finer state, which helps in extraction of Parada from each part of it.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

Hingula Satvapatana:

Hingula satvapatana was done by using Urdhvapatana Yantra, it is quite

simple and easy.

It is considered as equivalent to Asthasamskarita Parada and

Samagunabalijarita Parada, as it is devoid of Naga, vanga and other doshas.

On the basis of results obtained during two procedures, the average yield of

Parada was around 52.2%. Loss may be due to the following reason

Chakrikas were not completely burnt because the duration of heat

supplied may be insufficient.

Some % of loss may be due to dhuma, jala and malagati.

It reacts with oxygen, forms Mercury and sulphur dioxide, other impurities

settle in the bottom. The Parada was condensed at the inner side of upper pot.

HgS + O2 Hg + SO2

Parada shodhana with Haridra Choorna:

Haridra is sensitive to the chemical changes, is used as Herbal reagent in many

instances. We assume that the impurities of Parada have a colour changing

activity.

Parada in its ashodhitavasta is known to cause shotha and vishavikaras.

Haridra has shothagna and vishagna properties, with effects of samskar,

Parada inculcate qualities from haridra. Hence become more appropriate to be

administered in various Parada karmas.

Parada Choorna:

Paradachoorna obtained was 475gms by the mixing of Parada (300gms) and

conc. Sulphuric acid (450gms) during heating.

Loss of 275 gms may be due to moisture content and evaporation of

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

sulphur dioxide.

According to the modern chemistry the intermediate product formed during

the preparation of mercuric chloride is mercuric sulphate.

Hg + 2 conc. H2SO4 HgSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O


HgSO4 + 2NaCl HgCl2 + Na2SO4
The method of preparation and proportion of the ingredients used are same

as paradachoorna. These two are white in colour, shiny and crystal like appearance.

During the preparation proper care is taken, not to inhale the fumes, as it is poisonous.

Preparation of Rasakarpoor:

Prematerial: In the preparation, the mixing of ingredients is made homogenous to get

proper compound.

Selection of Kupi: Kupi selection is very important, as to withstand heat during

procedure.

Mrutkapata for Kupi:

Mrutkapata helps in the regulation and maintenance of temperature inside the

kupi to facilitate the chemical reaction, as abrupt increase or decrease of temperature

may lead to breakage of kupi.

Filling the Kupi:

The kupi was filled with 100gms of prematerial that acquired lower 1/5th

space, as large quantity may hinder the sublimation.

Placing of Kupi in Valuka Yantra:

For valuka Yantra, Mud pot was used. It was rapped with 3-4 layers of

Mruthkapata up to 3/4th portion, which helps to avoid breaking.

Inside the valuka Yantra sand was spread up to 3 angulas to avoid the direct

touch of kupi to Yantra. It was placed firmly at the center without slant.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

The remaining portion of Yantra was filled with valuka. It renders resistance

to the apparatus from the atmospheric variations.

Inference made during Kramagni in Valuka Yantra:

Kramagni pattern is necessary for the preparation of Rasakarpoor because agni

plays an important role in the preparation to get proper product.

To measure the temperature at the base of the Kupi the thermocouple of the

pyrometer was placed in valuka Yantra at the level of the bottom of the Kupi,

to ensure optimum temperature during Kramagni procedure.

Shalaka sanchalana:

Sheeta shalaka sanchalana was made to observe the state of pre-material in

initial stage and in the final stage before corking to test whether the compound is

formed.

Observations of fumes and Water vapours:

The observation of fumes and water vapors is important in the preparation of

Rasakarpoor. Corking has to be done after complete evaporation of water molecules.

This was ascertained by Copper coin test. The evaporation of Parada can also be

tested by Copper foil; discoloration of Tamrapatra occurs if Parada is present.

Corking time:

Corking is the landmark of Tivragni. Immediately after corking the agni

should be increased to get proper product.

Shwangsheeta:

Kupi was allowed to swangasheeta. It is an important phenomenon though

Agni is stopped; Valukayantra retains the temperature for many hours, which might

help in the complete sublimation of the product.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

Kupi Bhedhana:

While doing the Kupibhedhana thread has to be tied in a single circle to avoid

improper breaking of kupi, which may lead to mixing of product with the glass piece.

Table No.49. Results of Rasakarpoor:

Sl No Mixture Temperature Time End Residue Loss


(gms) (hours) product (gms) (gms)
(gms)
8 100 3600C - 4000C 12 45 40 15
9 100 3600C - 4000C 12 30 50 20
10 100 3600C - 4000C 12 32 45 23
11 100 3600C - 4000C 12 35 46 19
12 100 3600C - 4000C 12 46 37 17

Rasakarpoor was prepared five times. The quantity of prematerial, heating

pattern & time duration was same but the quantity of end product is varied.

Rasakarpoor is prepared by adopting Bahirdhuma method, so the chance of

loss of compound may exists. Some % of loss may be while collecting.

The chemical reaction taking place during the preparation can be said as

below,

HgSO4 + 2NaCl HgCl2 + 2NaSO4

Anthardhooma method:

Preparation of Rasakarpoor was also done by this method for 2 times. The

temperature maintained was same as bahirdhuma method. The out come of

two procedures was on an average 57%. So the yield of Rasakarpoor is more

in case of Anthardhuma. This might be probably because the contents have no

chance to escape. In kupi Rasakarpoor was a Suchyakara (needle shaped)

appearance

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

Damaru Yantra method:

Rasakarpoor was also prepared by following Damaru Yantra method. Cold

pad was placed on upper pot, temperature was maintained like

Mruduagni 4 hours at 1000C to 1500C

Madhyamagni 4 hours at 1500C to 3000C

Tivragni 4 hours 3000C to 4000C

The yield obtained was an average 20%. Here the evaporation of fumes and

water vapors were profuse through the pores of pot. Irritating odour was

present. By Damaru Yantra method it was in powder form.

Probable mode of action of Rasakarpoor:

Parada is an essential ingredient of Rasakarpoor. It is having properties such

as Tridoshgna, Krimigna, Vrunanashaka, Vrunaropaka, Yogawahi, Rasayana etc. The

Rasakarpoor formed by Parada also exhibits Bhuthavishapaha, Krimigna and

Twakdoshahara properties. It is evident that the properties of Parada exist in

Rasakarpoor.

Rasakarpoor is chemically mercuric chloride. It is soluble in water. The

inorganic salts of mercury in small quantities or lethal to several gram +ve & gram

ve organisms.

Mercuric chloride absorbed from the intact mucus membrane of the alimentary

tract & produce systemic effects. It probably exhibits bacteriostatic action by

inhibiting sulphydryl enzymes of bacterio cells. Thus it interferes with the cellular

metabolism and function. The small dose of Rasakarpoor is advocated (1/64 to 1/32

Ratti), as it is highly toxic because of its solubility. Rasakarpoor is indicated in case of

many Twakvikaras, as it possesses astringent, corrosive property. Hence it can

produces antiseptic effects.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

Analytical study:

This part exposes the hidden facts about the final product when it was

critically analyzed with the help of physical and chemical parameters.

Shodhita hingula:

Organoleptic characters: It is a red in colour, odourless and fine in touch. The verna

of grahya hingula is Japakusumavat. In organoleptic analysis also it was reported as

red colour.

Percentage of Parada & Gandhaka: Parada content in Hingula is 69.7% and

Gandhaka is 8.06%. The values of Hingula are slightly less when compared to the

standards given in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Rasakarpoor:

Organoleptic characters: Analysis reveals that it is white in colour, odourless and

fine in touch. The reports of the analysis match with the characters explained for

Rasakarpoor in our classics.

Loss on drying: 16.80% reveals the presence of moisture in the Rasakarpoor. Which

may be due to hygroscopic nature of Rasakarpoor, so it should be always kept in

airtight container.

Total Ash: 0.19% indicates the presence of minimal amount of organic matter in the

final product.

Acid insoluble Ash: 0.02% suggests that the final product almost soluble in acid.

Determination of pH: Report shows that pH was 4.40, which suggest that

Rasakarpoor is acidic in nature. Drugs get easily absorbed in acidic media. Hence

Rasakarpoor absorbs and enters into the system and produces quick results.

Solubility: Reports reveals that it is completely soluble in water and alcohol, slightly

soluble in chloroform.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

Fineness of the particle: Rasakarpoor was subjected to fineness of particle size,

which was done with the help of microscope. Size of Rasakarpoor is 11.48meter. By

this test it known that Rasakarpoor particles are fine in nature. The rate of absorption

is directly proportional to the particle size of the drug, finer the particles better the

absorption. As the Rasakarpoor particle size is fine the absorption will be quick.

Flow property and flow rate: Since the drug was in powder form it was tested for

flow property. It suggests necessity of any adjuncts for proper flow of drug during

capsule or tablet preparation. Flow property was identified by Angle of Repose

(tan) and flow rate by compressibility index (I).

Flow property tan (Angle of Repose) = 32.010

Compressibility index (I)(Flow rate) = 27%

The result shows that the Flow property was good and Flow rate was moderate

because it contains some % of moisture needs the adjuncts in tablet or capsule

preparation.

Percentage of Parada & Chloride: The percentage of Parada obtained in the

Rasakarpoor is 70.08%, which is nearer to the standard value (65.92 to 70%)

mentioned in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

The percentage of chloride present in the Rasakarpoor is 19.4%, which is near

to the standard value (23 to 33%) mentioned in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

N.P.S.Test:

This test was performed for qualitative analysis as well as genuinity of

Rasakarpoor.

In the present study 5N HNO3, Distilled water and aquregiea were used as a

reagents. It was carried out in three phases to identify the sample of Rasakarpoor.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

With 5N HNO3: Brown periphery around the brick red spot was observed in all

phases, this brown colour was because of iodine papers. All the brick red irregular

spots may be Mercuric chloride.

With distilled water: - Minute periphery and slight blackish colour two or three dark,

irregular and tiny particles were observed.

With aquaregiea: - Pale brown spot with dark brown periphery between two pink

colour spots indicate Mercuric chloride.

Overall brown periphery around brick red spots and two pink colour spots

indicates it may be Mercuric chloride.

Antimicrobial Activity:

Antimicrobial activity is a technique in which response of an organism to a

particular antimicrobial agent can be established. Many methods are employed

for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of a drug. In the present study cup plate

method was selected. It is simple and relatively inexpensive which makes it

still the method of choice for the average laboratory.

Two gram +ve, Two gram ve bacterias and two fungai were selected for the

study. Because these microorganisms occur in large number in most natural

environments. These are the major causative factors for many infectious

diseases like respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, dysentery, skin disorders

etc.

Each kind of microorganism has specific growth requirements; most of the

microbes can be grown in culture medium in the laboratory. In the present

study Nutrient broth is chosen as a culture media for bacteria and Potato

dextrose agar media for fungai. These two are the basic media for cultivation

of respective organisms.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Discussion

Growth of organism was confirmed by turbidity of the media.

Agar universally used as a solidifying agent, it common for bacteria & fungi,

which has not been replaced by any other agent from 100 years.

Tested drug Rasakarpoor, standard antimicrobial drug Cefotaxime and

antifungal drug Fluconazole were used at 50gram/ml and 100 gram/ml

concentrations.

Results are expressed by determining the zone of inhibition measuring in mm

by using vernier caliper.

Results of Antimicrobial activity:

From the results, all the bacteria have shown antibacterial activity against

Rasakarpoor except E-coli organism all other tested organism have shown less

antibacterial activity than the standard drug.

The variations in the response of the microorganisms may be due to the

strains, which are used for the present study. It is clear that Rasakarpoor has

shown less activity against bacterias except E- coli.

Rasakarpoor has shown lesser activity, but has a definite comparable activity

thus Rasakarpoor can be our answer to the antibiotics in the management of

infectious conditions.

Rasakarpoor has much better antifungal activity than the proven drug

Fluconazole. It seems Rasakarpoor can be a better alternative to Fluconazole

& should be tried in clinical trial also.

So that we can have a showcase of antimicrobial ayurvedic drugs.

179
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Conclusion

Conclusion:

Rasakarpoor is one of the Sagni, Nirghandha, Bahirdhuma Kanthastha Kupipakva

Rasayana.

1. Pharmaceutical study:

Parada shodhana with Haridra choorna and Hingula Shodhana with Nimbu

swarasa have definite part in the detoxification and potencification.

Hingulotha Parada, prepared by Urdhvapatana Yantra is considered as best; it is a

quite simple and easy method to obtain shuddha Parada.

2. Analytical study:

Rasakarpoor is white in colour, odourless, fine in touch, soluble in water, alcohol,

and slightly soluble in chloroform.

Rasakarpoor is acidic in pH.

Loss on drying is revealing the presence of moisture.

Total ash reveals that presence of negligible amount of organic matter.

Fineness particle size signifies rate of absorption.

In Rasakarpoor, Hg is 70.8 % and Chloride 19.4 % validates the standard

specified.

3. Experimental study:

The selected microorganisms are causative agents for many common infections

manifested in day-to-day life.

Cup plate method is convenient, cost effective method for evaluation of

Antimicrobial activity.

An antifungal activity of Rasakarpoor has shown significant activity against

fungal organisms compared to standard drug in both the concentration.

It has less antibacterial activity, but in E-coli organism significant result exhibited.
180
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Conclusion

Overall Rasakarpoor have a significant antimicrobial activity.

Limitations:

Study was conducted against particular organisms.

Rasakarpoor was prepared by only Kupipakva, Bahirdhooma method.

Present study was limited for invitro experimental study.

Scope for the further study:

Further pharmaceutical study regarding standardization of Hingula

Satvapatana is required for significance of the data.

Rasakarpoor is required by adopting different pharmaceutical procedures.

Toxicity studies can be carried out.

A clinical study is required to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Rasakarpoor.

181
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Summary

Summary:

The present dissertation work entitled Preparation, Physico-Chemical

analysis of Rasakarpoor and its Antimicrobial activity deals with topics such as

Introduction, Objectives, Review of Literature, Methodology, Results, Discussion and

Conclusion.

Introduction:

Importance of Ayurveda, Rasashastra, Kupipakva rasayana and therapeutic

values of Rasakarpoor are stated. Brief explanation regarding Krimi and

Microorganisms were explained. The need and importance of present study was

explained.

Objectives:

Aims and objectives of the present study were mentioned.

Review of Literature:

Drug review:

Explanation about Hingula, Parada, Nimbu, Haridra, Saindhava lavana and

conc sulphuric acid were explained in detail. Different opinions of these drugs about

their paryay, bedha, shodhana, and pharmacological properties were explained.

Kupi pakva rasayana:

Kupipakva rasayana along with Rasakarpoor matra, properties, and different

procedures were explained.

Disease review:

Krimi according Ayurvedic classics and its modern aspect were explained.

The evolution and different procedures of the antimicrobial activity were explained in

brief.

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Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Summary

Methodology:

Pharmaceutical study:

It includes Pharmaceutical study, Analytical study and Experimental study.

The pharmaceutical study includes 13 practicals, which contains viz Hingula

shodhana, Hingula satvapatana, Parada shodhana, Paradachoorna, Preparation of kupi

and Rasakarpoor.

Analytical study:

It deals with Physico chemical analysis of Shodhita hingula and Rasakarpoor.

Shodhita hingula:

It was subjected to organoleptic characters and percentage of Mercury

and Sulphur.

Rasakarpoor:

It was subjected to organoleptic characters, Percentage of Mercury and

Chloride. Other procedures like pH, Solubility, Flow property, Flow rate, Fineness

of the particle, Total ash were carried out.

Experimental study:

Antimicrobial activity:

It includes antibacterial and antifungal activities, which were carried

out by Cupplate method. Cefotaxime selected as Standard drug for

antibacterial and fluconazole for antifungal activity. Two-gram +ve, two-gram

-ve and two fungi were taken. For standard drug and Rasakarpoor, solutions

were prepared in two different concentrations viz: 50gram/ml and

100gram/ml.

Observations were made carefully and the necessary precautions were taken.

183
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Summary

Results:

The results reveal that in antibacterial study, the organisms have shown varied

response to Rasakarpoor compared to Standard drug (Cefotaxime) except E Coli. In

fungal activity organisms have shown significant results. The results were interpreted

on the basis of Zone of inhibition, which was measured by measuring transparent

scale.

Discussion:

The methods of Hingula, Parada shodhana, Parada choorna, Hingula

satvapatana and their importance were discussed elaborately. Kupipakva rasayana and

the preparation of Rasakarpoor and the precautions taken during the preparation were

also discussed. The analytical, experimental studies results were also discussed.

Conclusion:

Conclusions of antimicrobial activity, Preparation of Rasakarpoor, Hingulotha

Parada and Analytical study are included.

184
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
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200
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Annexure

Annexure
Slokas

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clar u Uxlu SueqoUUexij ||5|38|| U.i
Fkumil rlh xmiMlcMueiq
aWlrlqsq xiq UxiluvUS|| 5|39|| U.i

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ux ciahir ii l:xUrSxq
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aSviqah rlql mMsmri
qlpuSxlSxr sZi lu vYri||5|42|| U.i

___________________________________________________________ 201
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
Annexure

UxMmU lqh
(UxiUlah, wwOxiUla: 65-71)

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xmsSM msM uqs c alkMqsq ||65||
cwMmq uv lSbi Mcm |
ulbr Mcm iurxxmSMrq ||66||
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Aj vwi i ch iuuir u mSmi ||67||
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mUqsr chqiSki McMmrq//68||
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umcSimri UxilMqu:||69||
Auo McMm xui Lu vislaq|
blxUlqkr UxqWUSx:||70||
esrowm lri mkll mkmri|
MmMhPxji xusm xMilcmxUri||71||

UxMmU ah:

UxMmUM: Zri oWpiuwmW:|


iuaSwvql aW cuul:||72||
AixUmvql uvwiMqlvl:|
muWMWU: Mq qkYr uwr:||73|
---------------------||75||

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___________________________________________________________ 202
Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity