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- Geometry Ch 1 Quiz 1 18-19
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Sunteți pe pagina 1din 127

Y

z v img = fx p y r21 r22 r23 t2

Z

1 1 r31 r32 r33 t 3

1

x K R 33 t X

http://www.joshuanava.biz/perspective/in-other-words-the-observer-simply-points-in-the-same-direction-as-the-lines-in-order-to-find-their-vanishing-

point.html

First person coordinate system World coordinate system

http://www.joshuanava.biz/perspective/in-other-words-the-observer-simply-points-in-the-same-direction-as-the-lines-in-order-to-find-their-vanishing-

point.html

( R SO(3), t 3

)

First person coordinate system World coordinate system

http://www.joshuanava.biz/perspective/in-other-words-the-observer-simply-points-in-the-same-direction-as-the-lines-in-order-to-find-their-vanishing-

point.html

( R SO(3), t 3

)

How to recover?

http://www.joshuanava.biz/perspective/in-other-words-the-observer-simply-points-in-the-same-direction-as-the-lines-in-order-to-find-their-vanishing-

point.html

( R SO(3), t 3

)

How to recover?

http://www.joshuanava.biz/perspective/in-other-words-the-observer-simply-points-in-the-same-direction-as-the-lines-in-order-to-find-their-vanishing-

point.html

Z direction in the world coordinate system

Z direction in the world coordinate system

u

v

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

v

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

vanishing points of world axes.

z v z = K [r1 r2 r3 t ] z

z vanishing point z point at infinity

R = [r1 r2 r3 ] SO(3)

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

vanishing points of world axes.

0

0

z v z = K [r1 r2 r3 t]

1

0

R = [r1 r2 r3 ] SO(3)

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

vanishing points of world axes.

z v z = Kr3

r3 = K -1v z / K -1v z

R = [r1 r2 r3 ] SO(3)

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

Geometric interpretation

v World z-axis

z-axis of world coordinate system

Camera axes

R = [r1 r2 r3 ] SO(3)

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

Geometric interpretation

v World z-axis

z-axis of world coordinate system

K -1v z

r3 = -1

K vz

sin sin

Camera axes = cos

R = [r1 r2 r3 ] SO(3) cos sin

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

Geometric interpretation

v World z-axis

z-axis of world coordinate system

= tan-1 ( r3 (1) / r3 (3) )

= cos-1r3 (2)

Camera axes Pan and tilt angles

R = [r1 r2 r3 ] SO(3)

( R SO(3), t 3

)

How to recover?

http://www.joshuanava.biz/perspective/in-other-words-the-observer-simply-points-in-the-same-direction-as-the-lines-in-order-to-find-their-vanishing-

point.html

z = [0 0 1 0]

T

z point at infinity

x = [1 0 0 0]

T

x point at infinity

u v z : z vanishing point

Columns of the rotation matrix represent

v vanishing points of world axes.

r3 = K -1z v z

v x : x vanishing point r1 = K -1z v x

r2 = r3 r1

Orthogonal rotation matrix

R = [r1 r2 r3 ] SO(3)

Calibration via Vanishing Points

Calibration via Vanishing Points

1 v1

K v1

1

v1 v3

K v3 v3

r3 = K -1z v z

r1 = K -1z v x

r2 = r3 r1

R = [r1 r2 r3 ]

v2

Exercise I

vy

vx

r1 = K -1z v x r2 = K -1z v y

R = [r1 r2 r1 r2 ]

Exercise II

vx

vy

Exercise II

vx

r1 = K -1v x / K -1v x

-1 -1 vy

r2 = K v y / K v y

Scale normalization

Exercise II

vx

vy

Exercise II

= sin-1r3 (2)

Exercise II

Pan angle

Tilt angle

( R SO(3), t 3

)

How to recover?

Case 3: Homography

http://www.joshuanava.biz/perspective/in-other-words-the-observer-simply-points-in-the-same-direction-as-the-lines-in-order-to-find-their-vanishing-

point.html

Planar world

X = [X Y 0 1]

u

v z m = K [r1 r2 r3 t] X

m = [u v 1]

T

X

Y X

= K [r1 r2 r3 t ] = K [r1 r2 t ] Y

0

1

1

P = [R t ]

2D homography

Planar world

X = [X Y 0 1]

u

v X

m = [u v 1] z m = H Y where H = K [r1 r2 t]

T

P = [R t ]

Exercise

Homography from four points:

H

H K=

-1

[r1 r2 t ] Note that r1 = r2 = 1

Exercise

Homography from four points:

: Normalization factor

Exercise

Homography from four points:

: Normalization factor

How to estimate the rotation and

translation of the robot from the

world point of view?

In the case of moving robot(rather than moving target), we

need to know the orientation/position of the robot in the world

==>

we need to how to pan/tilt the world oriented to the robot.

of the world!

Third person (world) perspective

XW

{W }

World coordinate system

{W } XW

{C }

P = K [R t ]

Camera coordinate system

First person perspective

XC'

{C' }

Camera coordinate at

world origin

{W } {C' }

XW XC

R

{C }

P = K [R t ]

Camera coordinate system

Coordinate transform from {W } to {C }

XC' = RXW

First person perspective

XC

{C' }

Camera coordinate at

world origin

t {W } {C' }

XW XC

R

{C }

P = K [R t ]

Camera coordinate system

Camera translation seen from {C }

First person perspective

XC

{C' }

Camera coordinate at

world origin

t {W } {C' }

XW XC

R

{C }

P = K [R t ]

Camera coordinate system

Camera translation seen from {C }

=

XC RXW + t

Looking a point in world through

the camera view point

First person perspective

XW

{W }

World coordinate system

t {C } {W }

{C } t

P = K [R t ]

Camera coordinate system

Third person (world) perspective

XW

{W }

World coordinate system

-t {C } {W }

{C } t

P = K [R t ]

Camera coordinate system

Third person (world) perspective

XW

{W }

World coordinate system

{C } {W' }

{W' } -1

C = -R t

R-1 = R T

t

C = -R-1t

World coordinate at camera center

P = K [R t ] = -R T t

= K [R -RC ]

= KR [I33 -C ]

Camera center seen from world coordinate system

Robot Perception:

Compute Projective Transformations

Kostas Daniilidis

A perspective projection of a plane

(like a camera image) is always a

projective transformation

Using the projective transformation the pose

of a robot with respect to a planar pattern:

How can we compute the projective

transformation between

and

The result of such a transformation would map any point in one plane to

the corresponding point in the other

and

How can we compute the projective

transformation between

intersection of vertical parallel the intersection

lines (0,1,0) of horizontal

parallel lines

(1,0,0)

C

How can we compute the projective

transformation between

intersection of vertical parallel the intersection

lines (0,1,0) of horizontal

parallel lines

(1,0,0)

C

How can we compute the projective

transformation between

intersection of vertical parallel the intersection

lines (0,1,0) of horizontal

parallel lines

(1,0,0)

C

Let us introduce a 4th point D

intersection of vertical parallel the intersection

lines (0,1,0) of horizontal

parallel lines

(1,0,0)

C

Knowledge of this projective transformation

makes Virtual Billboards possible!

Microsoft Office Lens App

Office Lens

What happens when the original set of points is not a square?

d a

a

d

c

c

b

c

b

Perception: Projective Transformations

and Vanishing Points

Kostas Daniilidis

Projective Transformation

Aka Homography or Collineation

Represents the perspective projection from a ground plane to an

image plane !

It is an invertible 3x3 matrix but has 8 independent parameters

For example if (X,Y) measured in meters on the ground and (u,v) in

pixels

or

If we know H, we can make back and forth

measurements:

10.2,2.3 in meters

600,644 in pixels

Homography columns as vanishing points

B A

Y X

B A

Y X

If we connect two vanishing points we obtain the horizon!

horizon

B A

Y X

Equation of horizon:

horizon

B A

Y X

Horizon with projection center build a horizon plane with normal

horizon

B A

Y X

Projection center

The horizon plane is parallel to the ground plane and hence

is the normal to the ground plane expressed via pixels!

horizon

B A

Y X

Projection center

Horizon gives complete info about how ground plane is

oriented! If horizon is horizontal the center it means that

optical axis is parallel to groundplane!

Horizon gives complete info about how ground plane is

oriented! If horizon is horizontal the center it means that

optical axis is parallel to ground-plane!

Image Plane

Horizon Horizon Plane

Ground-plane

If horizon moves to the bottom it means we look upwards!

If horizon moves to the bottom it means we look upwards!

Image Plane

Horizon

Horizon Plane

Ground-plane

If horizon moves to the top it means we look downwards !

If horizon moves to the bottom it means we look upwards!

Image Plane

Horizon Horizon Plane

Ground-plane

Horizon tells us how camera is oriented.

Constrains the collineation !

horizon

B A

Perception: Projective Transformations

and Vanishing Points

Kostas Daniilidis

Projective Transformation

Aka Homography or Collineation

Represents the perspective projection from a ground plane to an

image plane !

It is an invertible 3x3 matrix but has 8 independent parameters

For example if (X,Y) measured in meters on the ground and (u,v) in

pixels

or

If we know H, we can make back and forth

measurements:

10.2,2.3 in meters

600,644 in pixels

Homography columns as vanishing points

B A

Y X

B A

Y X

If we connect two vanishing points we obtain the horizon!

horizon

B A

Y X

Equation of horizon:

horizon

B A

Y X

Horizon with projection center build a horizon plane with normal

horizon

B A

Y X

Projection center

The horizon plane is parallel to the ground plane and hence

is the normal to the ground plane expressed via pixels!

horizon

B A

Y X

Projection center

Horizon gives complete info about how ground plane is

oriented! If horizon is horizontal the center it means that

optical axis is parallel to groundplane!

Horizon gives complete info about how ground plane is

oriented! If horizon is horizontal the center it means that

optical axis is parallel to ground-plane!

Image Plane

Horizon Horizon Plane

Ground-plane

If horizon moves to the bottom it means we look upwards!

If horizon moves to the bottom it means we look upwards!

Image Plane

Horizon

Horizon Plane

Ground-plane

If horizon moves to the top it means we look downwards !

If horizon moves to the bottom it means we look upwards!

Image Plane

Horizon Horizon Plane

Ground-plane

Horizon tells us how camera is oriented.

Constrains the collineation !

horizon

B A

Two view metrology

Perception: Kostas Daniilidis

We have learnt that the transformation from a

world plane (like the road plane) to the image is a

projective transformation !

What about two views of the same plane (faade)?

Projective transformation between two

images of the same plane!

1966 World Cup: England-Germany

Was it a goal?

Can we infer from

two different

viewpoints

whether the ball

was inside the

goal ?

Today, this is done

with what is called

Goal Line

Technology!

Let B be the ball ! The question is whether the vertical

projection of the ball P is behind the goal-line or not!

Let us also assume that we can find the vertical

vanishing points v and v in both images !

Vertical vanishing points

Then we know in both images the projections of

vertical lines l and l.

If we project them back on the soccer field we will

find the shadows of the vertical through the ball.

If we project them back on the soccer field we will

find the shadows of the vertical through the ball.

Shadows intersect at the desired point P !

How can we find the projection of P in one of the

image planes?

By computing the projections of the shadows!

The red lines in the right image plane!

By computing the projections of the shadows l and ls,

the red lines in the right image plane!

ls

But we only know l. But ls and l (left) are the projections

from the same shadow line on the soccer field.

ls

Because the soccer field is planar, they are related by a

homography (collineation).

ls

Homography of soccer field can be computed

because we see the same features:

If H is the homography between points, then

ls

And the projection p is

intersection of two lines

ls

So, was it a goal ?

No, the ball did not cross the line in full.

A lot more engineering behind geometry:

Synchronizing frames cross cameras

Size of the ball

Motion blure

England Germany 2010 !

Today, multiple cameras with very accurate

relative pose tracked! The Hawk-Eye.

Thanks to Reid and Zisserman!

http://www.learnopencv.com/how-computer-vision-solved-the-greatest-soccer-mystery-of-all-times/

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