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Programming language: A programming language consists of a set of syntactic rules ( specifies the

formation of valid instructions ) and semantic ( specify the meaning of these instructions) , which
make it possible to write a program .

Algorithms: An algorithm is a step by step to solving a problem in which a solution is obtained in a

given time ( finite) process.

Machine language : native language of the computer.

Low-level language ( assembler)

Program : is a sequence of statements designed to perform a task .

Programming : A process of planning and creating a program . From a practical standpoint , a

program is written first with an algorithm in pseudocode or a programming tool and then
translated to a programming language such as C , C ++ , JAVA, etc.

Programmers : They are the writers and software developers.

Encryption: Encryption is writing in a programming language representation of the algorithm

developed in the previous stages . It is the process of translating an algorithm in pseudocode a
programming language . The solution is written in the syntax of high level language (eg Java , C ++ ,
etc. ) and a source program that is compiled below is obtained.

Source : Algorithm written in the programming language.

Translators : These are programs that translate in turn the source programs written in high level
language to machine code. Translators are divided into compilers and interpreters.

Interpreters : An interpreter is a translator that takes a source program , translates and then
executes it. The translation system is to translate the first sentence of the program into machine
language , translation is stopped, the statement is executed ; then the following statement is
translated, the translation is stopped, the statement is executed and so on until the end of the

Compilers: A compiler is a program that translates source programs written in high level language
into machine language . The complete language translation is performed in a single operation
called executable program because you can now run directly and as often as desired .

Compiling and running : Compiling is the process of translating source programs, object programs .
The program runs once compiled , then strictly checked and any errors that may appear are

Testing and Debugging : During these phases the programmer looks for errors in the earlier stages
and removes them. When a program runs , it can produce three types of errors: 1 - compilation
errors ; 2 - and 3 execution errors - logic errors . You will find that the more time spent on the
analysis and design phases , less will be spent on program debugging .
Compilation errors : They are usually caused by misuse of the rules of the programming language
and are usually syntax errors.

Runtime errors : These errors occur by instructions the computer can understand , but not run .
Typical examples are : divide by zero and square roots of negative numbers. In these cases the
program execution stops and an error message is printed.

Logical errors occur in the program logic and the source of error is usually the design algorithm.
These errors are the most difficult to detect, because the program can work and no compilation
errors or runtime , and can only noted the error by obtaining incorrect results. In this case must be
returned to the design phase of the algorithm, the algorithm change , change the source and
compile and run the program again .

Documentation: Writing the different phases of the software life cycle , essentially the analysis,
design and coding , together with user manuals and reference and rules for maintenance. The
importance of documentation should be highlighted for its decisive influence on the final product.
Poorly documented programs are difficult to read , harder to debug and almost impossible to
maintain and modify . The documentation of a program can be internal or external .

Internal documentation : The internal documentation is included within the program source code
with comments that help understanding the code.

External Documentation: The documentation includes external analysis , flowcharts , and / or

pseudocode , manuals with instructions to run the program and to interpret the results .

Maintenance: The program is updated and modified, whenever necessary, so that all the changing
needs of users are met.

Hardware: The physical part of a computer ( electronic devices ) .

Software: It is the logic of a computer (Programs) .

Assemblers : These are programs that translate programs written in mnemonic code in numerical
machine language instructions that are compatible and machine-readable . These translation
programs called assemblers because their task is to assemble the actual machine instructions with
mnemonics and identifiers that represent the instructions written in assembler.

executable program : The program or executable file is binary ( machine code ) whose content by
computer is interpreted as a program.

Flowcharts : A flow chart outlining the graph represents an algorithm . Actually , graphically shows
the steps or processes to follow to reach the solution of a problem.

Constants Constants are data that do not change during program execution .
Variables : Variables are objects that can change its value during the execution of a program.

Pseudocode: Pseudocode is a programming tool in which the instructions are written in English or
Spanish like words , which facilitate both writing and reading programs. In essence , the
pseudocode is a specification language (description ) algorithms. The use of such language makes
the final encoding step ( ie the translation into a programming language ) is relatively easy.

Problem analysis : The first step to solve a problem with computers is the analysis of the problem .
This phase requires a clear definition, where exactly is contemplated to do the program and the
outcome or desired solution. The problem is analyzed keeping in mind the requirements
specification given by the client company or the person responsible for the program.

Algorithm design : After analyzing the problem , a solution that will lead to an algorithm that
solves the problem it is designed .

Input devices: Input devices , as its name implies, are used to enter data (information) on the
computer for processing. Data is read from the input devices and stored in the central or internal
memory. Input devices convert input information into electrical signals that are stored in the
central memory . Typical input devices are keyboards , mice , joysticks , scanners , microphones,

Output devices : Output devices can represent the results (output) data processing . The typical
output device is the screen or monitor. Other output devices are printers ( print results on paper )
, plotters , speakers , etc.

Main memory (internal ) : The computer memory stores the data sent for processing from input
devices , programs that have been run and the results ready to be sent to an output device . In
most computers there are two types of main memory : random access memory RAM and read-
only memory ROM .

RAM : Random Access Memory RAM supports temporary storage of programs and data that is
used to store data temporarily , data and programs.

ROM : ROM, is a memory that stores information permanently in which you can not write (comes
prerecorded " recorded " by the manufacturer) because it is a read-only memory .

Central Processing Unit ( C.P.U ) : Controls the operation of the computer and performs its
functions of data processing , constituting the brain and heart of the computer or even your
nervous system. It is responsible for a convenient way to perform many calculations and
operations ordered by various programs installed on the computer.