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70-12,899

KOHL, James V ., 1942-


THE ROLE OF THE PEASANT IN THE BOLIVIAN
REVOLUTIONARY CYCLE, 1952-1964.

The U n iv e r s ity o f New M exico, P h .D ., 1969


H is to r y , modern

University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan

COPYRIGHT
by
Jam es V. Kohl
1970

THIS DISSERTATION HAS BEEN MICROFILMED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
THE ROLE OF THE PEASANT IN THE BOLIVIAN
REVOLUTIONARY CYCLE, 1952-1964

BY
JAMES V. KOHL
B .A ., U n iv e r s ity o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e rk e le y , 1964
M .A ., U n iv e r s ity o f New M exico, 1966

DISSERTATION

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment o f the


Requirements for the Degree of
D octor o f P h ilosop h y in H isto ry

in the Graduate School of


The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico

J u n e , 1969

iii

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This dissertation, directed and approved by the candidates
committee, has been accepted by the Graduate Committee of The
University of New Mexico in partial fulfillment of the require
ments for the degree of

D o cto r o f P h ilo so p h y i n H is to r y ____

THE ROLE OF THE PEASANT IN THE BOLIVIAN________


Title REVOLUTIONARY CYCLE, 1952-1964

____________________ James V. Kohl


Candidate

D epartm ent o f H is to ry
Department

Dean

Date

Committee

'. S '*
Chairman

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THE ROLE OF THE PEASANT IN THE BOLIVIAN
REVOLUTIONARY CYCLE, 1952-1964

BY
James V. Kohl

ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for the Degree of
D o cto r o f P h ilo so p h y in H is to r y

in the Graduate School o f


The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico
J u n e , 1969

iv

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THE ROLE OF THE PEASANT IN THE BOLIVIAN REVOLUTIONARY CYCLE, 1952-1964
Jam es V. K o h l, Ph.D.
D epartm ent o f H is to r y
The U n iv e r s ity o f New M exico, 1969

T h is stu d y exam ines th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n tr y i n th e B o liv ia n

N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n o f 1952-1964. The u n iq u e n e ss o f th e B o liv ia n p e a s

a n t r y d u rin g th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n was i t s p r o c l i v i t y to form r u r a l

i n t e r e s t o r g a n iz a tio n ( s y n d ic a te s ) to f a c i l i t a t e ach iev em en t o f i t s

g o a ls . From th e e a r l i e s t days o f th e R e v o lu tio n , p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s

w ere form ed in th e m ajo r p o p u la tio n zones o f th e c o u n try . S y n d ic a te

m i l i t i a s , c r e a te d a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e o r g a n iz a ti o n , l e n t a p a r a

m i l i t a r y c a s t to th e movement, p ro v id in g th e r e q u i s i t e f o r c e to ex p el

th e r u r a l e l i t e from th e c o u n tr y s id e . The MNR (N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n a ry

Movement) p o l i t i c a l r e v o lu t io n was made in th e c i t i e s , b u t th e d e s tr u c

t i o n o f o l i g a r c h i c a l power was acco m p lish ed i n a r u r a l c o n te x t by th e

p e a s a n tr y .

A lth o u g h th e R e v o lu tio n b eg an a s an u rb an c o n f r o n ta tio n betw een

c o n f l i c t i n g e l i t e s , i t s p re a d to th e r u r a l s e c t o r soon a f t e r th e i n i t i a l

v i c t o r y o f th e MNR i n s u r g e n t s . P e a s a n t re s p o n s e s to th e p o l i t i c a l d e f e a t

o f th e o lig a r c h y w ere v a r ie d and in c lu d e d r e f u s a l to work f o r la n d lo r d s ,

p r e s e n ta tio n o f a g e - o ld la n d c la im s a g a i n s t hacendados and f o r c e f u l ex

p ro p ria tio n o f r u r a l p r o p e r tie s . L an d lo rd s r e a c te d to th e R e v o lu tio n by

le g a l p lo y s to r e t a i n t h e i r la n d s , c o e r c iv e a tte m p ts to m a in ta in th e

s t a t u s quo and f l i g h t to th e s a f e t y o f th e n a t i o n 's c i t i e s .

The MNR, by th e A g ra ria n Reform D ecree o f A ugust 2 , 1953, so u g h t

to fo rm a lly r e s t r u c t u r e th e r u r a l o r d e r . The D ecree l e g a l l y d is p o s s e s s e d

th e o lig a r c h y o f i t s l a r g e h o ld in g s , b u t was l e s s c l e a r re g a r d in g th e

s t a t u s o f p r o p e r t i e s n o t o b v io u s ly in t h i s c a te g o r y , an u n c e r t a in t y which'

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a llo w e d f o r c o n tin u a tio n o f la n d lo r d - p e a s a n t c o n f l i c t s o v e r p r o p e r ty

rig h ts . P e a sa n t s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s i n t e n s i f i e d i n th e p o s t-A g ra ria n

Reform p e r io d a s a r e s u l t o f p e rs o n a l s tr u g g le s f o r le a d e r s h ip p o s i t i o n s .

The MNR e x e rc is e d c o n tro l o v er th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e s y n d ic a te movement

th ro u g h i t s power to rev o k e o f f i c i a l s a n c tio n from le a d e r s c o n s id e re d

u n a c c e p ta b le to th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement.

R u ral i n s t a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from p e a s a n t c o n f l i c t s s e v e r e ly

ta x e d th e a b i l i t y o f th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement to g o v ern th e n a tio n and

fo rc e d dependence upon th e m i l i t a r y f o r th e p r e s e r v a t io n o f o r d e r . Under

ly in g p o l i t i c a l q u e s tio n s w ere n e g le c te d a s p e a s a n t q u a r r e ls p lag u ed th e

c o u n try s id e , s u b je c t o n ly to tem porary s o lu ti o n s and i n h i b i t e d o c c a s io n

a l l y by th e p re se n c e o f th e r e g u la r m i l i t a r y . R u ra l a n a rc h y , p o l i t i c a l

d i s a f f e c t i o n and r e li a n c e upon m i l i t a r y fo r c e f o r th e im m ediate r e s o lu

ti o n o f p e a s a n t d is p u te s w ere c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f MNR governm ent.

A f te r th e d e f e a t o f th e o lig a r c h y , th e p e a s a n tr y p ro v id e d th e

w h erew ith a l f o r a new o r d e r b ased upon e l e c t o r a l l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f MNR

r u l e and p h y s ic a l d o m ination o f th e r u r a l s e c t o r . T h ere w ere, how ever,

u n fo rs e e n consequences o f th e p e a s a n t 's r o l e in th e R e v o lu tio n . R u ral

chaos engendered by p e a s a n t c o n f l i c t s d is r u p te d th e a g r i c u l t u r a l economy,

s e v e r e ly ta x ed th e p o l i t i c a l re s o u rc e s o f th e r e v o lu tio n a r y governm ent,

and f o s te r e d a dependence upon th e r e g u la r army f o r th e p r e s e r v a tio n o f

o rd e r.

F ollow ing th e m i l i t a r y coup o f 1964, th e p e a s a n tr y f a c e s th e

t h r e a t o f o l i g a r c h i c a l encroachm ents upon i t s m ost s i g n i f i c a n t and

t a n g i b l e r e v o lu tio n a r y a tta in m e n t la n d . The p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te

c o n tin u e s to assume a c r u c i a l r o le : w here s y n d ic a te s a r e pow erful,-

p e a s a n t g a in s a r e a s s u r e d ; where th e y a r e weak, la n d lo r d s a r e a g a in

re a s s e rtin g c o n tro l.
vi

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................. v iii

C h ap ter
I . INTRODUCTION................................................. . . 1

II. THE BOLIVIAN PEASANTRY TO 1952 ...................................................... 16

III. LAND TENURE PATTERNS ON THE EVE OF TEE


REVOLUTION................................................................................................ 37

IV. PEASANT AND RURAL VIOLENCE, A p r il 9 , 1952-


AUGUST 2 , 1953 ....................................................................................... 54

V. DIRIGENTE AND SINDICATO, APRIL 9 , 1952-


AUGUST 2 , 1953 ....................................................................................... 83

. V I. AGRARIAN REFORM IN A REVOLUTIONARY CONTEXT........................... 112

V II. CACIQUISMO EMERGENT, 1959-1960 . .................................................. 143

V III. PEASANT AND REVOLUTION, 1961-1964 191

IX. EPILOGUE: THE "REVOLUCION RESTAURADORA" ................................. 223

X. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS..................................................................... 228

APPENDIXES

A. Map o f th e R e p u b lic o f B o l i v i a .............................................. 244


B. Map o f th e D epartm ent o f C h u q u i s a c a ................................ 245
C. Map o f th e D epartm ent o f C o c h a b a m b a ................................ 246
D. Map o f th e D epartm ent o f La P a z ......................................... 247
E. Mapo f th e D epartm ent o f O r u r o .............................................. 248
F. Map o f th e D epartm ent o f P o t o s l ......................................... 249
G. Mapo f th e D epartm ent o f S a n ta Cruz . . . . . . . . . 250
H. G lo ssa ry o f T e r m s ......................................................................... 251

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 255

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LIST OF TABLES
Page

T a b le 1 . Land T enure Forms C l a s s i f i e d A cco rd in g to D epartm ents . . . 39

T a b le 2 . Land Tenure Forms C l a s s i f i e d by S iz e o f H o l d i n g s .......................... 45

v iii

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I . INTRODUCTION

Many tw e n t ie th c e n tu r y r e v o lu t io n a r y t h e o r i s t s , F id e l C a stro

and Che Guevara to c i t e two o u ts ta n d in g L a t i n A m erican exam ples, a rg u e

t h a t " o b je c t iv e c o n d itio n s " n eed n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x i s t in a p r e

r e v o lu tio n a r y s o c i e t y , b u t t h a t su ch c o n d itio n s can b e c r e a te d by

re v o lu tio n is ts . F o llo w in g t h i s l o g i c , n e a r l y a l l s o c i e t i e s a r e p o s s i b le

r e v o lu tio n a r y t a r g e t s . C e n tr a l to t h i s them e, a s i t r e l a t e s to many

u n d erd ev e lo p ed c o u n t r i e s , i s th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n t. G e n e ra lly

p o r tr a y e d a s dow ntrodden, o p p re s s e d and th e r e p o s i t o r y o f "good" in

c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to th e u rb a n " b a d ," th e w o r l d 's p e a s a n ts a r e con

s id e r e d a p o t e n t i a l l y e x p lo s iv e f o r c e to b e u t i l i z e d i n th e making o f

r e v o lu t io n .

T h e o rie s o f s o c i a l change w hich em p h asize " s u b je c tiv e " o v er

" o b je c tiv e " c o n d itio n s i n p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i e t y s t r e s s th e r e l a

ti o n s h i p betw een th e g u e r r i l l a fo co ( c e n t e r ) and th e p e a s a n t s o c ie t y .

I d e a l ly th e g u e r r i l l a band i s a i d e d , s u p p o r te d , n u r tu r e d by th e ex

p l o i t e d members o f r u r a l s o c ie t y who, in t u r n , a r e p o l i t i c i z e d by th e

g u e rrilla s . The th e o ry a s p r e s e n te d , f o r ex am p le, i n R egis D e b ra y 's

R e v o lu tio n i n th e R e v o lu tio n , i s r a t h e r c o n v in c in g .^

The r e c e n t B o liv ia n r e v o lu t io n a r y e x p e r ie n c e o f 1966-1967

w hich c u lm in a te d w ith th e d e a th o f Che G uevara and th e d is p e r s io n o f

h i s g u e r r i l l a f o r c e p r o v id e s a v i v i d exam ple t h a t p e a s a n t s o c ie t y i s

more complex th a n many t h i n k e r s m ig h t ch o o se to b e l ie v e and t h a t

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2

in d i v id u a l s d e s ir o u s o f a change i n L a t in A m erican s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e

would p r o f i t th ro u g h a c l o s e r lo o k a t th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n t in re v o -
2
lu tio n .

S o c ia l a n th r o p o l o g is ts te n d to view p e a s a n ts a s i n h e r e n tly
3
c o n s e r v a tiv e , s u s p i c io u s , j e a l o u s and u n re s p o n s iv e to l e a d e r s h ip .

R o b ert R e d f ie ld s u g g e s te d t h a t i d e a l l y p e a s a n t s o c ie t y i s c h a r a c te r iz e d

by i s o l a t i o n , " . . . th e f o l k s o c i e t i e s we know a r e made up o f p e o p le

who h av e l i t t l e com m unication w ith o u t s i d e r s , and we may c o n c e iv e o f

th e i d e a l f o lk s o c ie t y a s composed o f p e rs o n s h a v in g com m unication w ith

no o u t s i d e r s . " ^ G e o g r a p h ic a lly , R e d f ie ld a ls o o b serv ed p e a s a n t i s o l a t i o n :

"We may co n ce iv e o f th e members o f th e s o c i e t y a s re m a in in g alw ays

w ith in th e s m a ll t e r r i t o r y th e y o c c u p y ." ^ Even when by some c irc u m s ta n c e

fo rc e d to t r a v e l , th e p e a s a n t c o n tin u e d h i s i s o l a t i o n by com m unicating

o n ly w ith members o f h i s own g ro u p . In sum: " . . . w e may c h a r a c te r i z e

th e f o l k s o c ie t y a s s m a ll, i s o l a t e d , n o n l i t e r a t e , and homogeneous,

w ith a s tr o n g se n s e o f group s o l i d a r i t y " whose " . . . c o n v e n tio n a l

b e h a v io r i s s tr o n g ly p a t t e r n e d ." ^

R e d f i e l d 's n o tio n s o f p e a s a n t s o c i e t y , fo rm u la te d some tw en ty

y e a rs a g o , have p ro v id e d a b a s i s f o r r e -e x a m in a tio n by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s .

S idney M in tz , H orace M in er, O sc a r Lew is and George F o s te r have s in c e

c r i t i c i z e d R e d f i e l d 's " f o lk - u r b a n continuum " w ith i t s a lle g e d o v er

em phasis on p e a s a n t i s o l a t i o n . ^ R e d f i e ld 1s o r i g i n a l c o n c e p tu a liz a tio n s

c o n c e rn in g th e p e a s a n t e t h o s , w h ile o f te n v a r ie d in e m p h asis, have

rem ain ed e s s e n t i a l l y un ch an g ed . George F o s te r , c e r t a i n l y a R e d f ie ld

r e v i s i o n i s t , s u g g e s ts t h a t p e a s a n t s o c i e t y i s " . . . marked by s u s p ic io n

and d i s t r u s t , i n a b i l i t y to c o o p e ra te i n many k in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s ,

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3

s e n s i t i v i t y to th e f e a r o f sham e, p ro n e n e s s to c r i t i c i z e and g o s s ip ,
g
and a g e n e ra l view o f p e o p le and th e w o rld a s p o t e n t i a l l y d a n g e ro u s ."

I f t h i s i s in d e e d th e n a tu r e o f p e a s a n t s o c i e t y , how does t h i s

r e l a t e to th e p e a s a n t 's p o s i t i o n i n r e v o lu tio n ? H ere, E r ic Wolf

o f f e r s some i n s i g h t th ro u g h th e p ris m o f s o c i a l an th ro p o lo g y , s u g g e s tin g

t h a t , to d a te , th e p e a s a n t 's r o l e i n r e v o lu t io n h a s b een t h a t o f a

p o t e n t i a l l y e x p lo s iv e , a l b e i t t r a n s i t o r y , f o r c e . The im p etu s f o r rev o

l u t i o n comes n o t from b elo w , b u t from ab o v e. R e v o lu tio n i s th e p ro d u c t

o f th e G reat T r a d i t i o n ; th e L i t t l e T r a d i t i o n , o r p e a s a n t s o c ie t y , may

be u t i l i z e d as a f o r c e in f u r t h e r i n g th e r e v o lu t io n a r y p ro c e s s , b u t
9
r a r e l y i f e v e r does i t p ro v id e th e s p a rk o f r e v o lu t io n . E r ic Wo] f ,

d is c u s s in g p e a s a n t m ovements, n o te s t h a t " p e a s a n t movements, l i k e

p e a s a n t c o a l i t i o n s , a r e u n s ta b le and s h i f t i n g a lig n m e n ts o f a n t a g o n is ti c

and autonomous u n i t s , b o rn e a lo n g o n ly m o m en tarily by a m i l l e n i a l

dream .

The d i f f i c u l t y i n a r e v o lu tio n a r y s i t u a t i o n l i e s in m a rsh a lin g

p e a s a n t s u p p o rt f o r a s u s ta in e d p e r io d . P e a s a n t g o a ls a r e g e n e r a lly

s h o r t- te r m , c e n te r in g on th e r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f c o n c r e te , im m ediate

e n d s , e . g . , la n d re fo rm , s u f f r a g e . The p e a s a n t , once th e s e g o a ls a r e

r e a l i z e d , i s l i k e l y to become s a t i a t e d and c o n te n t t o p r e s e r v e h i s

im m ediate g a in s . S u s ta in e d p e a s a n t s u p p o r t i s th u s n o t e a s i l y main

ta in e d . F u r th e r , th e p e a s a n t, once s e c u r e i n th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f th e

im m ediate f r u i t s o f r e v o l u t i o n , o f te n becom es one o f th e m ost co n serv a

t i v e elem en ts o f p o s t - r e v o lu t io n a r y s o c ie t y :

. . . th e s h o r t- te r m i n t e r e s t o f th e i n d i v id u a l p e a sa n t
in e v ita b l y ta k e s p re c e d e n c e o v e r any lo n g -te rm en d s.
H a lte d i n t h e i r c o u rs e and pushed b ack i n t o t h e i r

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4

ev ery d ay c o n c e rn s , t h e r e f o r e , p e a s a n ts w i l l q u ic k ly r e la p s e
i n t o q u ie sc e n c e and p a s s i v i t y . ^

K a rl Marx s i m i l a r l y o b serv ed i s o l a t i o n among e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry

F ren ch p e a s a n ts . S t r e s s i n g th e in f lu e n c e o f econom ic p ro d u c tio n on

s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , Marx s u g g e s te d t h a t " T h e i r m ethod o f p ro d u c tio n

i s o l a t e s them from one a n o th e r , i n s te a d o f d raw in g them i n t o m utual


12
i n t e r c o u r s e ." P o o r com m unication i n t e n s i f i e d p e a s a n t i s o l a t i o n w h ile

th e sy stem o f p e a s a n t econom ic p r o d u c tio n p ro d u ced o b s e rv a b le s o c i a l

e ffe c ts :

T h e ir f i e l d o f p r o d u c tio n , th e sm a ll a l lo tm e n t o f la n d t h a t
each c u l t i v a t e s , a llo w s no room f o r a d i v i s i o n o f la b o r . . .
i t s h u ts o u t m a n ifo ld n e s s o f d e v e lo p m e n t, d i v e r s i t y o f t a l e n t ,
and th e lu x u ry o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s .

T h u s, Marx b e lie v e d t h a t th e f e u d a l economy c r e a te d a s i t u a t i o n

w here

Every s i n g l e fa rm e r fa m ily i s a lm o st s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . . .
i t e a rn s i t s l i v e l i h o o d more by a means o f in te r c h a n g e w ith
n a tu r e th a n by i n t e r c o u r s e w ith s o c i e t y . We hav e th e a l l o t
te d p a tc h o f la n d , th e fa rm e r and h i s f a m ily ; a lo n g s id e o f
t h a t a n o th e r a l l o t t e d p a tc h o f la n d , a n o t h e r fa rm e r and a n o th e r
fa m ily . A bunch o f th e s e makes up a v i l l a g e ; a bunch o f v i l
la g e s makes up a D e p a r tm e n t.^

P e a s a n t s o c i e t y , i s o l a t e d , s u f f e r i n g from p o o r com m unications,

w ith l i t t l e o r no s o c i a l c o h e sio n (a c c o rd in g to Marx) la c k e d c l a s s

aw aren ess e x c e p t i n i t s h o s t i l i t y to members o f o th e r c l a s s e s :

. . . i n so f a r a s th e r e e x i s t s o n ly a l o c a l c o n n e c tio n
among th e s e f a r m e r s , a c o n n e c tio n w h ich th e i n d i v i d u a l i t y
and e x c lu s iv e n e s s o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s p r e v e n t from g e n e r
a t io n among them any u n it y o f i n t e r e s t , n a t i o n a l c o n n e c tio n s ,
and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n iz a ti o n , th e y do n o t c o n s t i t u t e a c l a s s .

Marx a rg u e d , th o u g h , t h a t p e a s a n t s , how ever much th e y f a i l e d

to r e f l e c t c l a s s a w a re n e s s , d id i n f a c t c o n s t i t u t e a c l a s s b e c a u se o f

s i m i l a r econom ic c o n d i tio n s , c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , and common h o s t i l i t y

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5

to o t h e r c l a s s e s . L ack o f c l a s s a w a re n e s s , combined w ith th e n a tu r e

o f p e a s a n t s o c i e t y , f o r c e d Marx t o h a r s h c o n c lu s io n s re g a r d in g th e

r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e a s a n t to governm ent:

They c a n n o t r e p r e s e n t one a n o th e r , th e y m ust th e m se lv e s b e


r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e ir r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m ust a t th e same tim e
a p p e a r as t h e i r m a s te r , a s an a u t h o r i t y o v er them , a s an
u n lim ite d g o v ern m e n tal p ow er. . . . A c c o rd in g ly , th e p o l i t
i c a l in f lu e n c e o f th e a llo tm e n t fa rm e r f in d s i t s u lt im a te
e x p r e s s io n i n an E x e c u tiv e pow er t h a t s u b ju g a te s th e common
w eal to i t s own a u t o c r a t i c w i l l .

R e f le c tin g on th e c o u rs e o f e v e n ts i n r u r a l F ran ce fo llo w in g

th e F ren ch R e v o lu tio n , Marx o b se rv e d N a p o le o n ic la n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n

a s a m ixed b l e s s i n g le a d in g to w ard " e n sla v e m e n t and p au p erism ."!

A f te r th e o r i g i n a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f th e r u r a l la n d h o ld in g p a t t e r n s ,

u n fo rs e e n changes b eg an to o c c u r a s " th e C ity U su re r s te p p e d i n t o th e

sh o e s o f th e F eu d al L o rd , th e M ortgage s u b s t i t u t e d th e F eu d al D u tie s

fo rm e rly y ie ld e d by th e s o i l , b o u rg e o is C a p i ta l to o k th e p la c e o f th e
19
a r i s t o c r a c y o f Landed P r o p e r t y ."

T hus, M arx 's r e a s o n in g s u g g e s ts t h a t th e F ren ch p e a s a n t had

tr a v e l e d f u l l c i r c l e : th e b o u r g e o is la n d h o ld e r had b een tra n s fo rm e d

by th e a p p u rte n a n c e s o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i n t o an a g r a r i a n s la v e o f

th e new sy ste m . The d i f f e r e n c e la y n o t i n th e c o n d itio n s o f th e

p e a s a n t r y , b u t i n ch an g es w ith i n th e form o f th e so c io -e c o n o m ic sy stem .

The p e a s a n t no lo n g e r p ro v id e d th e back b o n e o f a f e u d a l s t r u c t u r e ; he

now su p p o rte d th e r u r a l s e c t o r o f an em erg in g c a p i t a l i s t sy ste m . The

change i n r u r a l c o n d itio n s f o llo w in g th e R e v o lu tio n a l t e r e d p e a s a n t

i n t e r e s t s a s th e r u r a l la n d h o ld e r b eg an to f i n d h i s " n a t u r a l a l l i e s

and le a d e r s among th e u rb a n p r o l e t a r i a t , w hose m is s io n i s th e o v e r -


20
throw o f th e b o u r g e o is s o c i a l o r d e r ."

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
6

V. I . L en in was f u l l y aw are o f th e pro b lem s in v o lv e d i n en

l i s t i n g p e a s a n t su p p o rt o f r e v o l u t i o n . N o tin g o b s e r v a tio n s made by

Marx and E n g e ls , L en in c r i t i c i z e d th e n o tio n t h a t th e R u ssian p e a s a n try

was n a t u r a l l y h o s t i l e to c a p i ta l is m :

. . . on th e c o n tr a r y [ p e a s a n ts ] a r e i t s d e e p e s t and most
d u ra b le fo u n d a tio n . . . b e c a u se a g r i c u l t u r e in g e n e r a l,
and th e p e a s a n tr y i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e w eighed down m ost
h e a v ily by th e t r a d i t i o n s o f th e d is ta n t p ast . . . tra d i
tio n s o f p a tr ia r c h a l l i f e . ^

The h a b i t s and custom s o f th e p e a s a n tr y made f o r d i f f i c u l t y in m o b il

iz i n g th e c o n s id e r a b le p o t e n t i a l e n e rg y o f th e s e m asses on th e s id e o f

r e v o lu t io n . L en in c a u tio n e d a g a i n s t o v e r-e m p h a sis on th e p e a s a n t

w ith o u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n : "We a r e w e ll aw are t h a t th e p e a s a n ts l i v e

ro o te d t o th e s o i l . The p e a s a n ts f e a r in n o v a tio n s , th e y c l in g te n -
22
a c io u s ly to o ld h a b i t s . " The p e a s a n t 's r o l e i n modem s o c ie ty was

ju d g e d to b e an in c o n s i s t e n t one by L en in who re a so n e d t h a t c a p i ta l is m ,

by i t s v e ry n a t u r e , tra n s fo rm e d p e a s a n ts i n t o p e t t y b o u r g e o is ie . The

p o s i t i o n o f th e p e a s a n t w ith i n th e c a p i t a l i s t sy stem was th u s one o f


23
v a c i l l a t i o n betw een wage w o rk er and p e t t y c a p i t a l i s t . T hese c o n d itio n s

w ere l a r g e l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r p e a s a n t r e lu c ta n c e i n c a p i t a l i s t c o u n tr ie s

to ta k e up th e b a n n er o f r e v o l u t i o n . W orse, th e p e a s a n tr y " . . . have

up to now rem ained a lo o f from th e s o c i a l i s t movement o f th e w orkers


24
and have jo in e d th e v a r io u s r e a c t i o n a r y and b o u rg e o is p a r t i e s . "

The in h e r e n tly c o n s e r v a tiv e c o n d itio n o f th e p e a s a n t m ight b e

changed th ro u g h exogenous f a c t o r s su ch a s w ar and p ro p ag an d a. The

R u sso -Jap a n ese War, L e n i n 's c a s e i n p o i n t , had th e e f f e c t o f " e n li g h te n -


25
in g " th e p e a s a n tr y ab o u t i t s lo w ly p o s i t i o n in R u ssia n s o c ie t y .

P e a s a n t r e v o lu t io n was n o n e th e le s s a d i f f i c u l t u n d e rta k in g , and L en in

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
7

c r i t i c i z e d th e a b o r tiv e R u ssian p e a s a n t r e v o l t s w hich fo llo w e d th e

War:

The p e a s a n t i n s u r r e c t i o n was p u t down b e c a u se i t was th e


i n s u r r e c t i o n o f an ig n o r a n t and u n i n t e l l i g e n t m ass, an
i n s u r r e c t i o n t h a t advanced no p o l i t i c a l demands . .
b e c a u se th e r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a n s had n o t y e t a l l i e d them
s e lv e s w ith th e u rb an p r o l e t a r i a n s . 26

L e n i n 's t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s tr u c t a s s ig n e d a c r u c i a l p o s i t i o n to

th e u rb an p r o l e t a r i a t whose t a s k i t was to r e v o lu t io n i z e th e p e a s a n tr y .

L en in fo llo w e d Marx and E n g els i n d iv id in g th e p e a s a n tr y i n t o th r e e


27
c a t e g o r ie s : r i c h , m id d le , and p o o r. The t a s k o f th e u rb a n p r o l e t a r

i a t , a f t e r d e f e a t o f th e b o u r g e o is ie , w ould b e to "u n sw e rv in g ly co n d u ct

i t s p o lic y to w ard s th e p e a s a n tr y " w h ile o b s e rv in g th e econom ic d i s t i n c

t i o n s w ith in th e p e a s a n tr y : "The p r o l e t a r i a t m ust s e p a r a t e , d em arcate

th e p e a s a n t t o i l e r from th e p e a s a n t h u c k s t e r , th e p e a s a n t who la b o u rs

from th e p e a s a n t who p r o f i t e e r s . In t h i s d e m a rc a tio n l i e s th e whole

e s s e n c e o f s o c ia lis m .

A llia n c e betw een th e u rb an p r o l e t a r i a t and th e p e a s a n tr y would

come a b o u t as a r e s u l t o f common p e r s e c u t io n by th e c a p i t a l i s t sy stem .

P s y c h o lo g ic a lly su ch an a l l i a n c e r e s u l t e d , i n th e p e a s a n t s e c t o r , from

" h a tr e d and en m ity to w ard s th e o p p re s s o rs and th e e x p l o i t e r s engendered

by th e c o n d itio n s o f l i f e " w hich n a t u r a l l y le d to a p e a s a n t-w o rk e r


29
a llia n c e . The d i f f i c u l t y in fo rm in g su ch an a l l i a n c e r e s u l t e d from

th e c a p i t a l i s t sy stem whose econom ic c o n d itio n s . . . o f commodity

p r o d u c tio n , i n e v i t a b l y tu r n th e p e a s a n t . . . i n t o a h u c k s te r and
30
p r o f ite e r ." N o th in g s h o r t o f r u t h l e s s p o li c y tow ard th e r i c h p e a s a n t

co u ld b e allo w ed i n r e v o lu t io n , w h ile p r o g r e s s iv e ly s o f t e r p o l i c i e s
31
w ould b e a p p lie d to th e m id d le and p o o r p e a s a n t s .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8

L e n in re c o g n iz e d th e r a r i t y o f p e a s a n t r e v o lu t io n and s t r e s s e d

th e need to re a c h th e p e a s a n tr y . F o r a r e v o lu t io n to q u a l i f y a s a

p e a s a n t r e v o l u t i o n , more was needed th a n a c o n s id e r a b le p e a s a n t p o p u la

tio n . T h u s, " a r e v o lu t io n t h a t does n o t r e v o lu t io n i z e th e a g r a r ia n

c o n d itio n s e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t i n g th e p e a s a n tr y , and d o es n o t b r in g

fo rw ard th e p e a s a n tr y a s one o f th e s o c i a l f o r c e s c r e a t i n g th e r e v o lu -
32
tio n " d id n o t f a l l w ith i n th e d e f i n i t i o n o f " p e a s a n t r e v o l u t i o n . "

Most im p o rta n t i n r e v o lu t io n s w hich e n l i s t e d p e a s a n ts as a

s o c i a l f o r c e w ere th e e f f e c t s upon th e p e a s a n ts a f t e r th e r e v o lu tio n .

I f su ch a r e v o lu t io n was to become s o c i a l , aim ing a t m o d e rn iz a tio n

( e i t h e r F a s c i s t , C a p i t a l i s t , o r Com m unist), th e p e a s a n tr y would b e

d e s tro y e d . A new m o d ern ized s o c ie ty n e c e s s a r i l y had to r i s e on th e

a sh e s o f p e a s a n t s o c i e t y . In r e f e r r i n g to t h i s phenomenon, L en in

s u g g e s te d t h a t :

The s u m - to ta l o f a l l th e economic c o n t r a d ic t io n s among th e


p e a s a n tr y c o n s t i t u t e s w hat we c a l l th e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f .
th e p e a s a n tr y . The p e a s a n ts th e m se lv e s v e ry a p t l y and s t r i k
in g ly c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s p ro c e s s w ith th e term " d e p e a s a n tiz in g ."
T h is p r o c e s s s i g n i f i e s th e u t t e r d i s s o l u t i o n o f th e o ld ,
. p a t r i a r c h a l p e a s a n tr y and th e c r e a t i o n o f new ty p e s o f r u r a l
i n h a b i t a n t s . 33

D e s tr u c tio n o f p e a s a n t s o c i e t y would t h e r e f o r e le a d to th e

c r e a tio n o f two new ty p e s o f r u r a l i n h a b i t a n t s : th e r u r a l b o u r g e o is ie


34
and th e a llo tm e n t- h o ld in g wage w o rk e r. In l a t e r s ta g e s o f th e

r e v o lu tio n th e s e r u r a l w o rk ers w ould b e a r th e a g r i c u l t u r a l b u rd en s o f

th e new s t a t e w ith th e a llo tm e n t- h o ld in g wage w o rk er who was view ed by

L enin a s a t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e . To g u ard a g a i n s t th e re a p p e a ra n c e o f

th e c a p i t a l i s t i c e th o s ( e . g . , h o a r d in g , p r i c e m a n ip u la tio n ) th e r u r a l

w o rk ers w ould n e c e s s a r i l y hav e to b e p la c e d on communal u n d e rta k in g s

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9

w ith e x c e ss la b o r t r a n s f e r r e d to th e u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l com plex. P easant

s o c i e t y , a s a n o th e r v e s t i g e o f c a p i t a l i s m , w ould b e d e s tro y e d i n th e

r e v o lu t io n a r y p ro c e s s o f Communist m o d e rn iz a tio n .

S tu d e n ts o f m o d e rn iz a tio n h av e lik e w is e a d d re s s e d th e m se lv e s

to th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n t w ith in t h i s p r o c e s s . C y r il E. B la c k , d i s

c u s s in g th e " p s y c h o lo g ic a l a s p e c t o f m o d e rn iz a tio n " o f t r a d i t i o n a l

s o c i e t i e s , s u g g e s ts th e s i n g u l a r im p o rtan ce o f th e p e a s a n t m e n t a l i t y ,

" . . . f o r i n th e l a s t a n a l y s i s i t i s on th e p e r c e p tio n s o f in d i v i d u a l
35
human b e in g s t h a t e v e r y th in g d e p e n d s ." B lack a l s o u n d e rs c o re s th e

c o n s e rv a tiv is m o f th e p e a s a n t:

The r a t h e r r i g i d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s
a l s o te n d s to i n h i b i t in d iv id u a lis m . H ost p e a s a n ts n e v e r
e x p e c t to change t h e i r o c c u p a tio n . . . . The se n s e o f a c h ie v e
ment in s p i r e d by a d e s i r e to g e t ahead o r to g a in new p r i v i l e g e s
i s c o n s e q u e n tly l i m i t e d . ^

The s t r u c t u r e o f p e a s a n t s o c i e t y f o s t e r s h o s t i l i t y to o u t s i d e r s

w hich p r e s e n ts d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r th o s e a g e n ts o f m o d e rn iz a tio n who w ould

a tte m p t to e f f e c t ch an g e. L e n i n 's u rb an p r o l e t a r i a t th u s h a s ex trem e

d i f f i c u l t y e n l i s t i n g a p e a s a n t a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t th e e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r .

A g ita to r s from th e u rb an p r o l e t a r i a t a tte m p tin g to s p re a d r e v o lu t io n

i n t o r u r a l a r e a s a r e t y p i c a l l y view ed w ith s u s p ic io n and d i s t r u s t . As

B lack f i n d s : "Having l i t t l e a b i l i t y to se e o th e r p o in ts o f view o r

a p p r e c ia te d i f f e r e n t ways o f d o in g t h i n g s , th e y r e g a rd a l l a l i e n p e rs o n s
37
and custom s a s h o s t i l e . " And, even f u r t h e r , " in d iv i d u a ls i n t r a d i t i o n a l

s o c i e t i e s h av e l i t t l e e x p e c ta tio n o f change i n t h e i r s t a t u s and b e l i e v e


38
t h a t th e a g e - o ld s o c i a l o r d e r i s d iv in e ly o rd a in e d and u n c h a n g e a b le ."

P e a s a n t s o c ie t y th e r e f o r e p r e s e n ts s e r io u s o b s ta c l e s t o m o d e rn iz a tio n

w h a te v e r th e means em ployed i n tra n s fo rm in g th e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
10

i n t o a .m o re modern one.

B a rrin g to n M oore, J r . , c a s t i n g a b o u t f o r th e c a u s e s o f p e a s a n t

r e v o l u t i o n , c o n clu d ed t h a t m ost h y p o th e s e s w ere i n v a l i d b e c a u se t h e i r

f o c i w ere to o r e s t r i c t e d : th e y a s s ig n e d to o g r e a t an em p h asis t o th e

r o l e o f th e p e a s a n tr y . "A m om ent's r e l e c t i o n on th e c o u rs e o f any

s p e c i f i c p r e - i n d u s t r i a l r e b e l l i o n r e v e a l s t h a t one ca n n o t u n d e r s ta n d

i t w ith o u t r e f e r e n c e to th e a c t io n s o f th e u p p e r c l a s s e s t h a t i n l a r g e
39
m easu re provoked i t . "

W ith r e s p e c t to t h e q u e s tio n o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y c a u s a t io n , Moore

c o n c u rs w ith e a r l i e r t h e o r i s t s who a s s ig n e d a c o n s e r v a tiv e p o s i t i o n

t o th e p e a s a n tr y . Moore p r e s e n ts th e i s s u e i n u n e q u iv o c a l la n g u a g e :

"By th e m se lv e s th e p e a s a n ts have n e v e r been a b l e to a c c o m p lish a

r e v o lu tio n . On t h i s p o in t th e M a r x is ts a r e c o r r e c t . . . .The p e a s a n ts
40
have to have le a d e r s from o th e r c l a s s a s . " The p e a s a n t r y , b e c a u se o f

i t s numbers and p o t e n t i a l l y e x p lo s iv e c o n d i tio n due to c e n t u r i e s o f

e x p l o i t a t i o n and acc u m u la ted g r ie v a n c e s , a f f o r d s c o n s id e r a b le en erg y

to whomever can s u c c e s s f u lly r e l e a s e i t . L ooking a t th e h i s t o r y o f

r e v o l u t i o n s , Mocre f in d s t h a t " th e p e a s a n ts h av e p ro v id e d th e d y n am ite

to b r in g down th e o ld b u i l d i n g ," b u t " t o th e s u b se q u e n t w ork o f re c o n

s t r u c t i o n th e y have b ro u g h t n o th in g ; i n s t e a d th e y have b een even in


41
F ra n c e i t s f i r s t v ic tim s ."

Some p a r t i c u l a r l y a s t u t e o b s e r v a tio n s c o n c e rn in g th e form s

o f r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r e w hich a llo w o r deny p e a s a n t r e v o lu t io n a r e

o f f e r e d by B a rrin g to n M oore, J r . B r i e f l y , Moore s u g g e s ts t h a t t h i s p ro b

lem r e l a t e s to th e sy stem o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c tio n in u s e . "Where th e

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11

la n d ed u p p er c l a s s h a s tu r n e d to p r o d u c tio n f o r th e m a rk e t i n a way

t h a t e n a b le s com m ercial in f lu e n c e s to p e rm e a te r u r a l l i f e , p e a s a n t
42
r e v o lu t io n s h ave b een weak a f f a i r s . " But i n a r e a s w here r u r a l commerce

h a s b e e n n e g le c te d f o r th e c o n tin u a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l form s o f p ro

d u c tio n , th e p o t e n t i a l f o r p e a s a n t r e v o lu t io n e x i s t s . T h is sy stem "may

le a v e b e n e a th i t a p e a s a n t s o c ie t y damaged b u t i n t a c t , w ith w hich i t


43
h as few c o n n e c tin g l i n k s . " R e v o lu tio n a ry p r e - c o n d i tio n s a r e f u r th e r e d

a s th e a r i s t o c r a c y t r i e s " to m a in ta in i t s s t y l e o f l i f e i n a ch an g in g
44
w o rld by e x t r a c t i n g a l a r g e r s u r p lu s o u t o f th e p e a s a n t r y ." T hus,

th e form and e x t e n t o f a r i s t o c r a t i c accom m odation to com m ercial a g r i

c u l t u r e may d e te rm in e n o t o n ly th e sp eed and d i r e c t i o n o f a c o u n t r y 's

m o d e rn iz a tio n , b u t e i t h e r p r e d is p o s e th e p e a s a n tr y t o r e v o lu t io n o r

a llo w f o r a p e a c e f u l t r a n s i t i o n to more m odern form s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l

p r o d u c tio n . C o m p a ra tiv e ly , Moore o b s e rv e s t h a t :

The main a r e a s w here p e a s a n t r e v o lu t io n s h av e i n modern tim es


h ad th e g r e a t e s t im p o rta n c e , C hina and R u s s ia , w ere a l i k e in
th e f a c t t h a t th e la n d e d u p p er c l a s s e s by and la r g e d id n o t
make a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n to th e w o rld o f commerce and in d u s
t r y and d id n o t d e s tr o y th e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l o r g a n iz a tio n
among th e p e a s a n t s . ^

G e n e r a lly , e x c e p t f o r v i o l e n t o u tb r e a k s su ch as m i l l e n n i a l o r

r e v i t a l i s t i c m ovem ents, r e v o lu tio n s b e g in i n t h a t s e c t o r o f s o c ie t y

w hich h a s b een r e f e r r e d to as th e G reat T r a d i t i o n . The L i t t l e T r a d i

t i o n , a s h a s b een s u g g e s te d , i s a r e p o s i t o r y o f f o r c e w hich may b e

u t i l i z e d by members o f th e G re a t T r a d i t i o n i n a tte m p ts to a l t e r th e

s o c i a l sy stem th ro u g h r e v o lu t io n . I t i s beyond th e sco p e o f t h i s u n d er

ta k in g to a tte m p t d is c u s s io n o f th e v a r i e t i e s o f c a u s a tio n w hich prom pt

members o f th e G re a t T r a d i tio n to s e i z e upon r e v o lu t io n as a means o f

b r in g in g a b o u t s o c i a l ch an g e. The r o l e p la y e d by th e p e a s a n tr y , i f

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
12

s u c c e s s f u lly e n l i s t e d i n t o th e r e v o lu t io n a r y c a u se by r e p r e s e n t a tiv e s

o f th e G re a t T r a d i tio n , i s o f r e le v a n c e and has b een b r i e f l y t r e a t e d

i n t h i s c h a p te r .

T h is p a p e r, th ro u g h ex am in a tio n o f th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n t in

th e B o liv ia n r e v o lu tio n a r y c y c l e , 1952-1964, w i l l a s s e s s th e s i g n i f i

cance o f a p a r t i c u l a r p e a s a n tr y d u rin g a s p e c i f i c p e r io d o f r e v o lu t io n

a ry change. A t p r e s e n t m ost th e o ry re g a r d in g r e v o lu t io n has been

w r i t t e n w ith in th e c o n te x t o f th e " c l a s s i c r e v o lu tio n s " o f w o rld


46
h is to ry . To th e e x t e n t t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o n c e rn in g th e w o rld s

p e a s a n tr y may b e made, th e r e i s some b a s is f o r th e c r e a tio n o f p a r a

digms c o n s tr u c te d upon g e n e r a l e v id e n c e ; n e v e r t h e le s s , such g e n e r a l i

z a tio n s o f te n f a i l to c o n s id e r im p o rta n t v a r i a t i o n s in p e a s a n t s o c ie t y .

P r e - r e v o lu tio n a r y r u r a l B o liv ia d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from

th e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s upon w hich much o f r e v o lu tio n a r y th e o ry has

b een d e r iv e d . I n s te a d o f th e p e a s a n tr y , la n d lo r d s and b o u r g e o is ie

o f fe u d a l E urope, r u r a l B o liv ia , s in c e th e p e r io d o f th e S p an ish Con

q u e s t, h as been co m p rised o f numerous s u b c u lt u r e s . C o - e x is tin g a r e

t r i b a l I n d ia n s , communal h a c ie n d a p e a s a n ts , c h o lo s (p e a s a n ts who h ave .

a d o p te d G re a t T r a d i tio n c u l t u r e t r a i t s ) , and th e m e stiz o s and "w h ite s"


47
o f r u r a l tow ns. Thus B o liv ia n s o c i e t y , a s i s g e n e r a lly th e c a s e in

L a tin A m erica, i s m arked by g r e a t e r h e te r o g e n e ity th a n th e European

s o c i e t i e s from w hich th e p re c e d in g r e v o lu tio n a r y m odels w ere d e riv e d .

F or t h i s r e a s o n , t h e r e i s a need f o r f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c s tu d y o f

th e d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i e t i e s o f th e New W orld.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13

N otes

^R egis D ebray, R e v o lu tio n i n th e R e v o lu tio n (New Y ork: Grove


P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ).
2
The d e s t r u c t i o n o f G u e v a ra 's movement d e m o n s tra te s th e d i f
f i c u l t y en c o u n te re d by g u e r r i l l a s i n a tte m p tin g to c r e a t e r e v o lu t io n
i n th e r u r a l s e c t o r .
3
S ee, f o r exam ple, George M. F o s t e r , T z in tz u n tz a n (B o sto n :
L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1 9 6 7 ), e s p e c i a l l y c h a p te r s 5 and 7.
4
R o b ert R e d f ie ld , "The F o lk S o c i e t y ," A m erican J o u r n a l o f
S o c io lo g y , L I I (J a n u a ry , 1 9 4 7 ), p . 296.

^ R e d fie ld , "The F o lk S o c ie ty ," p . 29 6 .

^ R e d fie ld , "The F olk S o c ie ty ," p . 297.

^For c r i t i c i s m o f R e d f i e ld 's model s e e : S id n ey W. M in tz , "The


F olk-U rban Continuum and th e R u ra l P r o l e t a r i a n Com m unity," A m erican
J o u r n a l o f S o c io lo g y , LIX (1 9 5 3 -1 9 5 4 ), p p . 1 3 6 -1 4 3 ; H orace M in er,
"The Folk-U rban C ontinuum ," A m erican S o c io lo g ic a l R eview , XVII (O c to b e r,
19 5 2 ), p p . 529-537; O sc ar Lew is i n " U rb a n iz a tio n W ith o u t Breakdown:
A Case S tu d y ," r e p r i n t e d from The S c i e n t i f i c M o n th ly , LXXV (1 9 5 2 ), in
Dwight B. H eath and R ic h ard N. Adams, C ontem porary C u ltu r e s and S o ci
e t i e s o f L a tin A m erica (New York: Random H ouse, 1 9 6 5 ), p p . 435-436;
and George M. F o s te r , "What i s F o lk C u ltu r e ? " A m erican A n th r o p o lo g is t,
LV (1 9 5 3 ), p p . 159-173.
g
F o s te r , T z in tz u n tz a n , p . 89.
g
G reat T r a d i tio n i s h e r e u sed i n r e f e r e n c e to t h a t c o n s t e l l a t i o n
o f v a lu e s , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , know ledge common t o , o r a c c e s s i b l e to
members o f th e u rb an s e c t o r o f s o c i e t y ; L i t t l e T r a d i t i o n i s u sed to
r e p r e s e n t th e c o rre s p o n d in g c o n s t e l l a t i o n common t o r u r a l s o c i e t y , f o lk
s o c ie t y p e a s a n t s o c i e t y .

^ E r i c W olf, P e a s a n ts (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n ti c e


H a ll , 1 9 6 6 ), p . 108.

^ W o lf , P e a s a n ts , p . 108.
12
K a rl Marx, The E ig h te e n th B rum aire o f L o u is B o n a p a rte , t r a n s l a t e d
by D a n ie l de Leon (3 rd e d .; C hicago: C h a r le s H. K e rr C o ., 1 9 1 4 ), p . 144.
13
M arx, E ig h te e n th B ru m aire, p . 144.
14
Marx, E ig h te e n th B ru m a ire, p . 145.

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
14

^"*Marx, E ig h te e n th B ru m a ire, p . 145.


16
M arx, E ig h te e n th B ru m a ire, p . 14 5 .

^ M a r x , E ig h te e n th B ru m a ire, p p . 1 4 5 -1 4 6 .
18
M arx, E ig h te e n th B ru m a ire, p . 149.
19
M arx, E ig h te e n th B ru m a ire, p . 150.
20
M arx, E ig h te e n th B ru m a ire, p . 151.

21v. I. L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by J . F in e b e rg ,


v o l. 1 (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 4 3 ), p . 173.
22
L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, v . 8 , p . 14 1 .
23
L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, v . 12, p . 29 6 .
24
L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, v . 1 2 , p . 29 6 .
25
L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, v . 3 , p . 10 9 .
26
L en in in Anna R o c h e s te r, L en in on th e A g r a r ia n Q u e stio n (New
York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 4 2 ), p . 3 0 .
27
K a rl Marx, C a p i t a l , e d . by Max E astm an (New York: Modern
L ib r a r y , 1 9 3 2 ).

L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, V . 3 , p . 9 .
29
L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, V . 8 , p . 9 .
30 .
L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, V . 8 , p . 9 .

1 t e n m ,
3L S e le c te d W orks, V . 8 , p . 132.

32T
L e n4in , S e le c te d W orks, V . 3 , p . 262.
33
L e n in , S e le c te d Works, V . 1 , p . 173.
34 .
L e n in , S e le c te d W orks, V . 1 , p . 173.

^ C y r i l E. B la c k , The Dynamics o f M o d e rn iz a tio n


and Row, 1 9 6 6 ), p . 24.

^ B l a c k , Dynamics o f M o d e rn iz a tio n , o . 25.


37
B la c k , Dynamics o f M o d e rn iz a tio n , p . 26.

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15

38
B lack} Dynamics o f M o d e rn iz a tio n , p . 26.
39
B a rrin g to n M oore, J r . , S o c ia l O rig in s o f D ic t a to r s h ip and
- Democracy (B oston: Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ), p . 457.
40
M oore, J r . , S o c ia l O r i g i n s , p . 479. M oore, on th e i s s u e o f
r e v o lu tio n a r y c a u s a tio n , ech o es an id e a common to c y c l i c a l t h e o r i s t s
su ch a s E r ic H o ffe r who s t r e s s e d th e im p o rta n c e o f "men o f w ords" i n
d i s c r e d i t i n g th e Old O rd e r; L y fo rd P . Edwards and C rane B r in to n , a l s o
c y c l i c a l t h e o r i s t s , s i m i l a r l y a s s ig n c r u c i a l em phasis to th e m id d le and
u p p e r c l a s s e s a s p r o v id in g th e r e v o lu t io n a r y im p e tu s.

^ H lo o re , J r . , S o c ia l O r i g i n s , p . 480.

^ M o o re , J r . , S o c ia l O r i g i n s , p . 459.
43
M oore, J r . , S o c ia l O r i g i n s , p . 460.
44
M oore, J r . , S o c ia l O r i g i n s , p . 460.
45
M oore, J r . , S o c ia l O r i g i n s , p . 467.
46
The A m erican, F r e n c h ,E n g lis h , and R u ssia n R e v o lu tio n s .
47
F o r a d is c u s s io n o f L a t i n A m erican s u b c u lt u r e s , s e e C h a rle s
Wagley and M arvin H a r r i s , "A Typology o f L a tin A m erican S u b c u ltu r e s ,"
r e p r i n t e d from A m erican A n th r o p o lo g is t, LV II (1 9 5 5 ), in Dwight B.
H eath and R ic h a rd N. Adams, C ontem porary C u ltu re s and S o c ie tie s o f
L a tin A m erica, pp. 4 2 -6 9 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
r

16

II. THE BOLIVIAN PEASANTRY TO 1952

R u ra l B o liv ia , w ith r e s p e c t to i t s in d ig e n o u s p e o p le s , has f o r

c e n t u r i e s been d iv id e d betw een t r i b a l and p e a s a n t a r e a s . The p r i n c i p a l

a r e a s o f t r i b a l s e tt le m e n t, th e D epartm ents o f B en i, S an ta C ruz, Pando

and T a r i j a , w ere n o te w o rth y f o r t h e i r la c k o f a g i t a t i o n and v io le n c e

d u rin g th e r e v o lu tio n a r y p e r io d .^ - These f o u r d e p a rtm e n ts c o n ta in v ery

m inor p e a s a n t p o p u la tio n s ; Beni and Pando a s w e ll a s e a s te r n S an ta Cruz

h a v e , i n a r e l a t i v e s e n s e , s u b s t a n t i a l numbers o f t r i b a l s w h ile T a r i j a

and w e s te rn S an ta Cruz a r e a r e a s o f r e l a t i v e l y la r g e w h ite and m e stiz o

p o p u la tio n s . As w i l l be d em o n stra te d in C h ap ter I I I , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t

t h a t th e la n d te n u re p a t t e r n s o f th e s e lo w land d e p a rtm e n ts v a ry c o n s id e r

a b ly from th o s e o f th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts.

The re g io n s o f g r e a t e s t r e v o lu tio n a r y a c t i v i t y i n th e r u r a l s e c

t o r , th e d ep artm en ts o f C h u q u isaca, La P az, Cochabamba, O ruro and P o to s i,

a r e a r e a s o f g r e a t e s t p e a s a n t p o p u la tio n . I t i s n o ta b le t h a t w here

p e a s a n t p o p u la tio n s w ere c o n c e n tr a te d and p o p u la tio n p r e s s u r e s w ere

m ost d e n se , su ch a s th e Cochabamba V a lle y , r e v o lu t io n a r y v io le n c e

o c c u rre d in extrem e fo rm s.

In ca C onquest

The g r e a t h i s t o r i c c o n q u e sts in th e re g io n s in c o r p o r a te d w ith in

th e b o u n d a rie s o f modern B o liv ia , a p a r t from th e T ihuanaco c u l t u r e o f

th e a l t i p l a n o a b o u t w hich l i t t l e i s p r e s e n tl y known, w ere a f f e c t e d by

th e In c a and S p an ish c i v i l i z a t i o n s . D uring th e r e ig n o f Topa In c a

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17

( c a . 1471-1493) th e In c a p e n e tr a te d th e B o liv ia n h ig h la n d s and e x e r te d


2
uneven c o n t r o l o v e r th e Aymara and t h e i r s u b - t r i b e s . In c a hegemony

o v e r t h i s a d m in is tr a t iv e d i v i s i o n , K o lla su y u , was e x e r c is e d u n t i l th e

tim e o f th e S p an ish c o n q u est o f A lto P e ru .

A p p a re n tly i n s e a r c h o f r i c h e s , a m o tiv e a l s o h e ld by S p an ish

c o n q u is ta d o r e s , Topa In c a s e n t an army n o r t h e a s t to th e c o n flu e n c e o f

th e Manu and Madre de D ios r i v e r s . From h e r e th e army tu r n e d due e a s t

and p e n e tr a te d in t o th e re a c h e s o f th e p r e s e n t B o liv ia n D epartm ent o f


3
B e n i. Topa I n c a 's army s u f f e r e d a number o f r e v e r s e s i n t h i s r e g io n

a t th e h an d s o f th e Mojo and C h irig u an o t r i b e s w hich c a u s e d , i n p a r t ,

th e m u tin y o f an a u x i l i a r y C o lla c o n tin g e n t o f th e In c a arm y. B ecause

o f d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d in w a rfa re a g a i n s t th e t r o p i c a l f o r e s t

t r i b e s o f e a s t e r n B o liv ia t h i s re g io n was n e v e r b ro u g h t w ith in th e In c a


. 4
em p ire.

The C o lla m utiny to u c h ed o f f a more w id e s p re a d r e b e l l i o n when

th e f l e e i n g army reac h ed i t s t r i b a l a r e a n o r th o f Lake T i t i c a c a and

s p re a d th e rumor t h a t th e I n c a army had b e e n d i s a s t r o u s l y d e f e a te d in

th e e a s t e r n ju n g l e s . The C o lla r e v o l t th e n s p re a d to th e L u p aca,

Omasuyu and P a c a sa t r i b e s o f th e T i t i c a c a B a s in .^ In resp o n se to th i s

r e v o l t th e In c a army m arched s o u th in t o th e T i t i c a c a B asin w h e re , a f t e r

much f i g h t i n g , i t subdued th e r e b e l C o lla an c L u p aca. A d d iti o n a ll y ,

th e h i t h e r t o u n in c o rp o ra te d Omasuyu and P a c a s a w ere co n q u ered b y th e

In c a .

Huayna Capac su ccee d ed Topa In c a i n 1493 and so u g h t c o n s o lid a

t i o n o f th e v a s t e m p ire. In an a tte m p t to s o l i d i f y th e l e s s in t e g r a t e d

p ro v in c e s w ith in th e em p ire Huayna Capac added m itim a e , o r s e t t l e r s ,

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18

t o th e Cochapampa (now Cochabamba) p ro v in c e b etw een Lake T i t ic a c a and

Lake P o o p o .^ The m itim ae system o f c o l o n iz a t io n f o s t e r e d c u l t u r a l d i f

f u s io n w ith i n th e In c a domain as p o p u la tio n s w ere r e lo c a te d to f a c i l i

t a t e p o l i t i c a l c o n tr o l o r p ro v id e a b u f f e r a g a i n s t h o s t i l e t r i b e s , in

t h i s c a s e e n c ro a c h in g C h irig u a n a .^

A n o th er a d m in is tr a tiv e d e v ic e u t i l i z e d by th e I n c a to f a c i l i

t a t e governm ent o f d iv e r s e p e o p le s was th e im p o s itio n o f th e Quechua

la n g u a g e upon c o l o n ia l s u b j e c t s . The u s e o f Quechua a s a lin g u a f r a n c a

was s t i p u l a t e d by In c a la w , w hich p ro v id e d s t e m p e n a l t i e s f o r f a i l u r e

t o te a c h c h ild r e n th e la n g u a g e . Jo h n Rowe n o te s t h a t Quechua n o t o n ly

a id e d com m unication w ith in th e e m p ire , b u t a l s o a f f o r d e d a "common


g
medium f o r g o v ern m en t." P re v io u s to th e I n c a co n q u e st a la r g e number

o f in d i v id u a l n a t iv e la n g u ag es w ere spoken i n a r e a s l a t e r c o n ta in e d

w ith i n th e em p ire . P r i o r to th e In c a and l a t e r S p a n ish c o n q u e s t,

B o li v ia p o s se ss e d more l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y th a n any a r e a o f South

A m erica.

The p r i n c i p a l g e o g ra p h ic a r e a s a f f e c t e d by In c a r u l e w ere th e

a l t i p l a n o and th e Cochabamba V a lle y . The in d ig e n o u s Aymara o f th e

a l t i p l a n o w ere c u l t u r a l r e c i p i e n t s o f In c a la n g u ag e and cu sto m s, and

th e Cochabamba V a lle y was s e t t l e d by Quechua sp e a k in g m itim a e . Both

th e s e r e g io n s would c e n tu r ie s l a t e r b e o f p rim a ry s i g n i f i c a n c e in

th e r u r a l s e c t o r o f th e R e v o lu tio n o f 1952.

S p an ish C onquest

The in d ig e n o u s p e o p le s o f B o liv ia w ere a g a in s u b je c te d to con

q u e s t i n th e s ix te e n th c e n tu ry when S p an ish c o n q u is ta d o r e s pushed i n t o

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19

A lto P e ru . A g ain , th e m ain im p act o f c o n q u e st was w rought n o t upon

th e t r o p i c a l f o r e s t t r i b a l s in th e o r i e n t e ( e a s t e r n j u n g l e s ) , b u t upon

th e Aymara o f th e a l t i p l a n o and now upon th e Quechua o f th e Cochabamba

V a lle y , N o rth P o to s i and C h u q u isaca.

A c c u ltu r a tio n w ith in th e a r e a p r e v io u s ly dom inated by th e In c a ,

b u t now co n q u ered by S p a in , r e s u l t e d from i n a d v e r te n t and h ap h az ard

c o n ta c t betw een In d ia n and S p a n ia rd and th e more fo rm a liz e d c o n ta c t

stem m ing from th e d e c is io n s o f S p a n ish c h u rc h and s t a t e . In b o th ex

changes th e dom inant S p a n ish c u l t u r e was th e donor and th e I n d ia n th e

c u ltu ra l re c ip ie n t. T h is model o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n h a s been r e f e r r e d to

a s " c o n q u e st c u l tu r e " by one t h e o r i s t who s u g g e s ts t h a t H is p a n iz a tio n

o f th e In d ia n i n th e A m ericas p ro cee d ed r a p i d l y d u rin g th e f i r s t y e a rs

o f c u l t u r e c o n t a c t, b u t th e n , a f t e r c o n ta c t had b een m a in ta in e d f o r
9
some tim e , " c u l t u r a l c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n " s e t i n . . A f te r t h i s p o i n t ,

new ly in tr o d u c e d c u l t u r a l e lem en ts w ere l e s s r e a d i l y a s s im ila -te d by

th e I n d ia n .

The I n c a , a s w e ll a s o th e r t r i b e s s u b je c te d to S p a n ish r u l e ,

had e i t h e r to a c c e p t H is p a n iz a tio n o r r e j e c t a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n t o th e

c o n q u e st c u l t u r e . George K u b le r, i n an e x a m in a tio n o f t h i s p r o c e s s ,

su g g e s te d th e term s " P ro to - I n c a " and "N eo-Ir.ca" to d e s ig n a te th e two

re s p o n s e s .^ A cco rd in g to K u b le r, th e P r o to - I n c a , th ro u g h t h e i r p a s

s i v e re s p o n s e to H is p a n iz a tio n w ere more a b l e to r e t a i n p re -c o n q u e s t

c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s th a n w ere th e h o s t i l e N e o - I n c a .^ The p a s s i v i t y o f

th o s e In c a who a c c e p te d S p an ish d o m in atio n drew l e s s a t t e n t i o n from

S p a n ish r e l i g i o u s and s e c u la r a u t h o r i t i e s , and t h i s a llo w e d f o r a more

c a s u a l s e l e c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l e le m e n ts . F or t h i s r e a s o n , th e P r o to - I n c a

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20

w ere a b le to a c c e p t S p an ish c u l t u r a l e le m e n ts , su ch a s r e l i g i o n and

m o r a ls , on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l w h ile r e t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s

and cu sto m s. A d d itio n a lly , i t was p o s s i b l e f o r th e P r o to - I n c a to p ro

duce I n d ia n c ro p s f o r p e r s o n a l consum ption and new ly in tr o d u c e d p i g s ,


12
h o r s e s , c a t t l e , g ra p e s , w heat and r y e f o r tr a d e o r t r i b u t e .

The N e o -In c a , h o w ev er, w ere s u b je c te d to a c u l t u r a l ir o n y : in

t h e i r e f f o r t to r e s i s t S p a n ish c o n q u e st and c u l t u r e th e y became more


13
a c c u ltu r a t e d th a n th e P r o to - I n c a . K u b le r c h a r a c te r iz e d N e o -In ca l i f e

a s "mass d i s p e r s a l , " s u g g e s tin g t h a t t h i s e x p e rie n c e p ro d u ced a l e v e l

in g o f c l a s s s t a t u s , changes i n r e l i g i o u s l i f e , and g r e a t e r a c c u l t u r a

t i o n th ro u g h in c re a s e d t r a d e , and t h e r e f o r e c o n t a c t, w ith S p an ish


14
c o lo n is ts . N eo -In ca a tte m p ts to p r e s e r v e p a s t c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s

n e c e s s i t a t e d g r e a t e r in te r c h a n g e w ith th e d onor c u l t u r e and drew th e

a t t e n t i o n o f in d i v i d u a l s , e . g . , c l e r i c s , who w ere th e g r e a t e s t a g e n ts

o f H is p a n iz a tio n .

T h e o r e t i c a l l y , th e r e a c t i o n o f th e N e o -In c a to th e p ro c e s s o f

S p an ish a c c u ltu r a t io n a p p e a rs to h ave much i n common w ith n a t i v i s t i c

o r r e v i t a l i s t i c t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g y .^ The a l i e n c u l t u r e

in tr o d u c e d by th e S p a n ia rd s and th e s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a ti o n o f th e con

q u e s t d is r u p te d In c a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s . In c a re s p o n s e t o t h i s

phenomenon v a r ie d from th e p a s s i v i t y and a p a th y o f th e P r o to - I n c a to

th e r e s i s t a n c e and n a tiv is m o f th e N e o -In c a .

The N eo -In ca r e j e c t e d th e p r o s p e c t o f f o r c e d i n t e g r a t i o n in to

th e dom inant S p an ish c u l t u r e and a tte m p te d to r e s t o r e in d i v i d u a l and

th u s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e q u ilib r iu m th ro u g h th e p ro c e s s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .

' In th e N eo -In ca s t a t e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n to o k th e form o f ad h e re n c e to

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
21

t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s w hich r e p r e s e n te d an i d e a l , o r " g o a l c u l t u r e , "

w h ile H is p a n ic c u l t u r e was view ed as in a d e q u a te , i n f e r i o r o r e v i l . ^

The r e v o lu tio n a r y n a tu r e o f th e N eo -In ca d e s i r e t o r e v i t a l i z e t r a d i

t i o n a l c u l tu r e r e p r e s e n te d a t h r e a t to S p an ish p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f

th e Andean r e g io n . C o n seq u en tly b o th S p a n ia rd and N eo -In ca w ere d riv e n

to th e u se o f f o r c e as a means o f im p le m e n ta tio n o f t h e i r in d i v id u a l

p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l sy ste m s .

The c o n te s t found S p an ish f o r c e s u p e r io r , and th e N eo -In ca

s t a t e w ith i t s h e a d q u a r te r s in V ilcabam ba was f i n a l l y co n q u ered d u rin g

th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f V ic e ro y F r a n c is c o de T o le d o . V icero y T oledo

f u r th e r e d N eo -In ca a c c u l t u r a t i o n th ro u g h f o r c i b l e co n fin e m en t to

" r e d u c tio n s " w hich w ere more a c c e s s i b le to S p an ish a u t h o r i t y and s u r

v e illa n c e .^

K u b le r s parad ig m f o r th e In c a w ould, o f c o u r s e , l e s s d ra m a ti

c a l l y h o ld t r u e f o r th e I n c a i c a r e a s u n d er S p an ish r u l e in A lto P e ru .

H ere, i n a r e a s such a s th e V i l l a I m p e ria l de P o t o s i , S p an ish m ita

( la b o r d r a f t ) demands w ould b o th sp eed a c c u l t u r a t i o n by f o r c i b l y moving

In d ia n p o p u la tio n s to m in in g re g io n s and c r e a t e re s e n tm e n t a g a in s t

c o l o n i a l r u l e b e c a u se o f th e r ig o r o u s demands o f m ita l a b o r . E x iste n t

dem ographic p a t t e r n s w ere d i s t o r t e d as m ita l a b o r e r s rem ained in o r

n e a r th e m ines a f t e r co m p le tin g t r i b u t e la b o r o b l i g a t i o n s to work f o r

pay o r to farm i n th e a r e a .

V io le n t o u tb u r s ts a g a i n s t S p an ish i n s t i t u t i o n s o c c u rre d sp o ra d

i c a l l y d u rin g th e c o l o n ia l p e r io d , th e m ost n o te w o rth y b e in g th e J o s i

G a b r ie l Tupac Amaru R e v o lt o f 1780, w hich le d to th e two s ie g e s o f La


X8
Paz i n 1781 by J u l i a n Apaza and A ndres Tupac Amaru. The r e v o l t s ,

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
22

r e s u l t i n g from d y s fu n c tio n i n I n d ia n s o c i e t y owing t o th e c u l t u r a l e x e r

t i o n s o f S panish r u l e , w ere d i s s i m i l a r to c l a s s i c r e v i t a l i z a t i o n move

m ents in t h a t th e y so u g h t c o n t r o l o v e r c o l o n ia l i n s t i t u t i o n s r a t h e r

th a n t h e i r o v erth ro w and th e c r e a t i o n o f a m i l l e n n i a l p re -c o n q u e s t
19
c u ltu re . A l e s s p u b lic iz e d r e v o l t o c c u rre d i n th e Cochabamba re g io n

in 1730 where th e g r e a t e s t number o f m e s tiz o s in th e V ic e r o y a lty o f P eru


20
w ere r e s i d e n t . T hese d ra m a tic o u tb u r s ts a g a i n s t S p an ish governm ent

a l l f a i l e d ; In d ia n r e s i s t a n c e to H is p a n iz a tio n a t v a r io u s l e v e l s n e v e r

t h e l e s s endured^ and u n t i l th e p r e s e n t th e m a jo r ity o f Quechua and

Aymara, d esc e n d a n ts o f th e I n c a p e o p le s , s t i l l c l i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l

r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .

A c c u ltu r a tio n p ro cee d ed s lo w ly i n "In d o -A m erica" w here th e means

by w hich Europeans c o n t r o l le d th e in d ig e n e o u s p e o p le s w ere i n d i r e c t and


21
n o t so im m ediately d i s r u p t i v e to community and fa m ily o r g a n iz a tio n .

By c o n t r a s t , i n a r e a s o f t r o p i c a l f o r e s t o r m a rg in a l c u l t u r e s th e p ro c e s s

o f a c c u ltu r a t io n was more r a p i d b e c a u se o f g r e a t e r v a r ia n c e i n th e

r e l a t i v e p o s itio n s o f S p an ish and in d ig e n o u s c u l t u r e s and th e more ex -

trem e means used to b r in g th e s e s u b je c t s u n d er th e sway o f c o l o n ia l

i n s t i t u t i o n s ( s la v e r y , enco m ien d a, r e p a r t im i e n to ) I n t e n s i t y o f c o n ta c t

betw een c u ltu r e s was l e s s in r e g io n s o f h ig h c u l t u r e , e . g . , th e A ndes, where

c o n t r o l o f in d ig e n o u s s t a t e and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s was s e iz e d and

S p an ish forms w ere s u b s t i t u t e d . C u ltu r e c o n ta c t was th u s e s s e n t i a l l y

one o f s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n to s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n .

C o n ta ct was m ost i n t e n s e betw een S p an ish c o l o n i s t s and r e p r e

s e n t a t i v e s o f m a rg in a l o r t r o p i c a l f o r e s t c u l t u r e s ( e . g . , s o u th e r n ,

n o r th e r n , e a s te r n B o liv ia ) , w hose s o c i a l o r g a n iz a tio n was f a m i l i a l and

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23

communal r e s p e c t i v e l y . B o liv ia n t r o p i c a l f o r e s t p e o p le s , b e c a u se o f

th e n a tu r e o f th e t e r r a i n , found i t e a s i e r to f l e e from th e S p a n ia rd s
23
th a n d id th e Andean n a t i v e s . When t r o p i c a l f o r e s t o r m a rg in a l t r i b e s

w ere u n ab le to e lu d e c o l o n ia l r u l e , th e y w ere r a p i d l y - a s s i m i l a t e d and

s tr ip p e d o f t h e i r v i l l a g e o r g a n iz a ti o n . H is p a n iz a tio n was th e r e f o r e

m ost r a p id and com plete w here p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l was m ost d i r e c t and

p e r s o n ail. 24

T h is th e o ry p ro v id e s a u t i l i t a r i a n fram ework when a p p lie d to

B o liv ia in th e p e r io d o f S p an ish r u l e . T r i b a l and m a rg in a l p o p u la tio n s

e i t h e r r e t r e a t e d f u r t h e r i n t o th e ju n g le s o r w ere tr a p p e d , g e n e t i c a l l y

c o n tr ib u tin g to th e grow th o f m e s tiz a je i n th e a r e a . Andean t r i b e s ,

in c lu d in g th e In c a m itim ae o f th e Cochabamba V a lle y , w ere a c c u ltu r a te d

a t a much slo w e r r a t e th a n th o s e t r i b e s o f lo w er c u l t u r e who w ere tra p p e d

i n th e mesh o f S panish c o n t r o l . The Aymara and K o lla su y u Quechua th u s

m a in tain ed t h e i r c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l i d e n t i t y to a much g r e a t e r e x te n t;

i t i s p r e c i s e ly in th e s e a r e a s , w hich c o n ta in th e b u lk o f th e B o liv ia n

p e a s a n tr y , w here th e R e v o lu tio n o f 1952 re a c h e d i t s m ost s i g n i f i c a n t

r u r a l p r o p o r ti o n s .

P e a s a n try d u rin g th e R e p u b lic a n and N a tio n a l P e rio d s

B o liv ia , co n tin u e d i t s r u r a l com plexion a f t e r th e o v erth ro w o f

Spanish r u l e . By 1900, 32 p e r c e n t o f th e p o p u la tio n was engaged in

a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s ; t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n was lo c a te d
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in th e h ig h la n d d ep artm en ts o f La P a z , O ru ro , P o to s i and C hu q u isaca.

In th e s e d e p a rtm e n ts, o n e - th i r d o f th e n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y , w ere found

" n e a r ly a l l o f th e w h ite and mixed r a c e s and a l l o f th e c i v i l i z e d

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
24

I n d ia n s , th e Quechuas and th e A ym aras, who a r e th e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s o f

th e c o u n*try . ..26

B o liv ia n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s fo llo w e d th e g e n e r a l L a tin

A m erican p a t t e r n : la r g e f i n e a s ( r u r a l e s t a t e s ) a r e c o n c e n tr a te d alo n g
27
th e r o u te s o f r a i l r o a d s and ro a d s and in th e f e r t i l e v a l le y b o tto m s.

In d ia n la n d s a r e s c a t t e r e d aro u n d th e l e s s p r o d u c tiv e b o tto m la n d s and

h ig h above th e f e r t i l e v a l l e y f l o o r s in th e a r i d sum m its. " I t i s in

o u t-o f - th e - w a y c o r n e r s o f th e c o u n try t h a t community la n d s a r e s t i l l

found.: among th e m o u n tain s w here w h ite s seldom p e n e t r a t e , in s e c lu d e d

a n g le s o f th e piedm ont s lo p e , among th e i s o l a t e d p e n in s u la s t h a t b o rd e r

Lake T i t i c a c a , on h ig h , i n a c c e s s i b l e r i d g e s , and o u t i n s e m i- d e s e r t
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w a s te s on th e open a l t i p l a n o . " The c lim a te o f th e v a l l e y b o tto m s

was more p le a s in g to th e S p an ish c o l o n i s t s a s w e ll a s co n d u civ e to th e

c u l t i v a t i o n o f E uropean c r o p s . B ottom lands w ere a ls o more i r r i g a b l e

th a n th e l o f t y s lo p e s .

In th e m id - n in e te e n th c e n tu r y , h ig h la n d In d ia n s (Quechua and

Aymara) w ere m ost po p u lo u s i n th e d e p a rtm e n ts o f La P a z , O ru ro , P o to s i

and C h u q u isaca. Cochabamba, w hich c o n ta in e d th e g r e a t e s t number o f

m e s tiz o s in th e e a r l y e ig h te e n th c e n tu r y , c o n tin u e d t h i s tr e n d a c e n tu ry

la te r. The te m p e ra te c lim a te o f th e Cochabamba V a lle y s a t t r a c t e d g r e a t

numbers o f S p an ish c o l o n i s t s and th e i n t e n s i t y o f human r e l a t i o n s w ith i n

t h i s r e s t r i c t e d a r e a en co u rag ed m e s t iz a j e .

In a s tu d y o f th e d e c lin e o f h ig h la n d B o liv ia n In d ia n com m unities

betw een 1854 and 1900, G eorge McCutchen M cBride p r e s e n te d e v id e n c e on

dem ographic, c u l t u r a l and la n d te n u r e ch an g es d u rin g t h i s p e r io d . M cB rid e's

s tu d y , b a se d on i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f th e B o liv ia n cen su s o f 1854, s u g g e s ts

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25

t h a t 67 p e r c e n t o f h ig h la n d I n d ia n s w ere l i v i n g in t r a d i t i o n a l commu-
29
n i t i e s i n 1877. Breakdown o f h ig h la n d com m unities c o n tin u e d i n t o

th e tw e n tie th c e n tu ry a s i n d u s t r i a l , com m ercial and a g r i c u l t u r a l demands

upon th e la n d i n t e n s i f i e d and g r e a t e r num bers o f communal In d ia n s w ere

d is p o s s e s s e d o f t h e i r la n d s . Between 1854 and 1900 In d ia n la n d s d e c re a s e d


30
by some 50 to 75 p e r c e n t . As t h i s tr e n d p ro g r e s s e d , r u r a l p a t t e r n s

o f la n d te n an cy became more e x tre m e , and th e g u lf betw een r i c h w h ite

and m e stiz o f in q u e r o s (ow ners o f r u r a l e s t a t e s ) and In d ia n s e r f s , te n

a n t fa rm e rs , r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a n s in c r e a s e d .

The r u r a l la n d te n u r e sy ste m e x i s t a n t i n B o liv ia on th e ev e o f

th e R ev o lu tio n o f 1952 e x e m p lif ie s th e t r a d i t i o n a l f e u d a l p a t t e r n e s ta b

li s h e d by S p an ish c o l o n i s t s i n th e New W orld. As B a rrin g to n M oore, J r .

n o te s , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een r u r a l lan d o w n ers and th e p e a s a n tr y i s

o f g r e a t s ig n i f i c a n c e t o th e l a t e r p r o c e s s o f m o d e rn iz a tio n : in a re a s

w here th e p e a s a n tr y does n o t p ro d u ce f o r a m ark et economy, b u t r a t h e r

t o i l s f o r a f e u d a l la n d h o ld e r , th e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r r u r a l v io le n c e in
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th e m o d e rn iz a tio n p r o c e s s i s g r e a t e s t . B o liv ia p ro v id e s a c l a s s i c

exam ple o f such a sy stem and w h ile la n d te n u r e p a t t e r n s w ere fo rm a lly

a l t e r e d by th e R e v o lu tio n o f 1952, p r e v io u s a tte m p ts to change th e

s t a t u s quo had b een made some tw en ty y e a r s e a r l i e r .

P ost-C h aco War P e rio d

The Chaco War o f 1932-1936 a f f o r d s th e s tu d e n t o f B o liv ia n

h i s t o r y w ith a c o n v e n ie n t w a te rs h e d betw een p a s t and f u tu r e c o u rs e s o f

e v e n ts . In s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l te r m s , th e d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s o f th e

Chaco War a c te d a s an a c c e l e r a t o r to f u r t h e r d i s e q u i l i b r a t e th e B o liv ia n


32
s o c i a l sy stem . C la s s ic r e v o l u t i o n s ( e . g . , F rench and R u ssia n ) were

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
26

b ro u g h t ab o u t p a r t l y b e c a u se o f th e a c c e l e r a t o r e f f e c t o f w artim e e x p e r

ie n c e . F rench d e f e a t i n 1781 and R u s s ia n d e f e a t i n 1917 pushed p a r t l y

d y s f u n c tio n a l s o c i e t i e s i n t o r e v o l u t i o n . The B o liv ia n example does n o t

r e v e a l a s p ro x im a te a c a u s a l th r e a d b etw een th e phenomenon o f f o r e ig n

w ar and r e v o lu t io n , b u t th e th r e a d i s n o n e th e le s s a p p a r e n t.

The im m ediate p o st-C h aco War p e r io d was marked by a tte m p ts to

a l t e r e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l fo rm s . In th e p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e ,

l e f t i s t p a r t i e s such a s th e MNR (M ovim iento N a c io n a lis ta R e v o lu c io n a r io ) ,

POR ( P a r tid o O brero R e v o lu c io n a r io ) , and PIR ( P a r tid o de l a I z q u ie r d a

R e v o lu c io n a ria ) w ere formed t o p ro v id e p o l i t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s to th e

t r a d i t i o n a l sy ste m . I n d iv i d u a ls o f l a t e r p ro m in en ce, e . g . , J o s e A ntonio

A rze, T r i s t a n M arof, J o s e A g u irre G a in s b o rg , V ic to r Paz E s te n s s o ro and

H em an S ile s w ere a c tiv e i n th e new ly c r e a te d l e f t i s t p a r t i e s .

L ess p ra g m a tic , a lth o u g h a l s o o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e , was th e


34
l i t e r a r y tu r n o f a t t e n t i o n to w ard th e I n d ia n a s s u b j e c t . The h e r o ic ,

b u t t r a g i c r o l e p la y e d by th e B o liv ia n I n d ia n i n th e Chaco c o n f l i c t

fo rc e d th e a t t e n t i o n o f p o s t-w a r w r i t e r s on th e n o b i l i t y o f t h i s p r e

v io u s ly n e g le c te d l i t e r a r y s u b j e c t . I n d i g e n i s t a l i t e r a t u r e p la y e d a

s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t in th e n a t i o n a l reaw ak en in g fo llo w in g th e w ar by

a p p e a lin g to th e c o n s c ie n c e and em o tio n o f th e l i t e r a t e G reat T r a d i t i o n .

S ta te m e n ts o f MNR le a d e r s r e f l e c t i n g th e o r i g i n s o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l

view s s u g g e s ts an i n t e l l e c t u a l d e b t owed t o I n d i g e n i s t a l i t e r a t u r e o f
35
th e Chaco P e r io d .

R e la te d to In d ig en ism o was th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a number o f

r u r a l In d ia n s c h o o ls . M id d le - c la s s r e fo rm e rs su ch a s E liz a r d o and R aul

P rez so u g h t r e g e n e r a tio n o f th e I n d ia n th ro u g h em phasis on u n iq u e ly

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27

n a t iv e s o c i a l fo rm s. T h u s, lo o k in g b ack to p r e - H is p a n ic tim e s , th e s e

I n d ig e n i s ta s e s t a b l i s h e d an I n d ia n s c h o o l, W a r is a ta , on th e a l t i p l a n o .

W a ris a ta , modeled a f t e r th e a y l l u (Aymara ex ten d ed k in g ro u p ), was th e

f i r s t o f a number o f s c h o o ls b u i l t d u rin g t h i s p e r io d b y In d ia n s u n d er

I n d ig e n i s ta s u p e r v is io n . T h is form o f In d ig en ism o e n c o u n te re d d i f f i

c u l t y , a s th e t h r e a t p o s ite d t o th e t r a d i t i o n a l o r d e r by th e p r o s p e c t

o f an e d u c a te d In d ia n lo w er c l a s s c r e a te d a good d e a l o f r e s i s t a n c e
36
and cu lm in a te d in th e d e s t r u c t i o n o f W a ris a ta .

F i n a l l y , th e Chaco War had e f f e c t s upon th e p e a s a n ts th e m se lv e s

as i l l u s t r a t e d by th e a c t i v i t i e s c e n te r e d aro u n d th e a r e a o f th e Ana

Rancho i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y w h ere, in 1936, a group o f p e a s a n t Chaco

War v e te r a n s form ed a s i n d i c a t o , o r u n io n . T h is s y n d ic a te , f o r e r u n n e r

o f th e r u r a l o r g a n iz a tio n s w hich would p r o l i f e r a t e d u rin g th e N a tio n a l

R e v o lu tio n , p ro v id e d th e o r g a n iz a tio n n e c e s s a ry to advance p e a s a n t

in te re s ts .

E x p erien ce a s p r i s o n e r s o f w ar in P araguay a p p e a rs to have demon

s t r a t e d to th e Ana Rancho p e a s a n ts th e p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s o f c o n c e rte d

group u n d e rta k in g w h ich , i n P a ra g u a y , had r e s u l t e d in b e t t e r tr e a tm e n t


37
by t h e i r c a p t o r s . T h is s p e c i f i c e x p e r ie n c e , combined w ith f e e l i n g s

o f in d i v id u a l d ig n i ty and w o rth engendered by s e r v ic e i n th e Chaco War,

a p p a r e n tly s tim u la te d th e p e a s a n ts to a c t i o n . In 1936 p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te

le a d e r s a t Ana Rancho to o k th e i n i t i a t i v e and a c t u a l l y r e n te d a p o r ti o n

o f la n d owned by th e Convent o f S a n ta C la ra . P re v io u s to t h i s move,

hacendados in th e a r e a h ad r e n te d la n d from th e Convent w hich th e y worked

w ith co lo n o s from th e Ana Rancho a r e a .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
28

The s y n d i c a t e 's b o ld and u n p re c e d e n te d a c t o f r e n t i n g th e la n d

was lo o k ed upon f a v o r a b ly b y E duardo A rze L o u r e ir o , S e c r e ta r y o f I n d ia n

A f f a i r s , who p r e s s e d f o r en a c tm e n t o f a l e g a l d e c re e r e c o g n iz in g th e
38
s i n d i c a t o o r g a n iz a tio n a t Ana R ancho. In M arch, 1936, a n o th e r law

was p a sse d r e q u ir in g lan d o w n ers to c o o p e ra te w ith p e a s a n ts who w ished


39
to e s t a b l i s h r u r a l s c h o o ls .

Hacendados in th e Ana Rancho a r e a soon re c o g n iz e d th e t h r e a t

p r e s e n te d by th e s i n d i c a t o and b eg an to p r e s s th e governm ent to d i s -


40
s o lv e th e o r g a n iz a ti o n . C o n f l i c t betw een p e a s a n ts and la n d lo r d s b eg an

i n 1937 and in c re a s e d u n t i l 1939 when c a r a b in e r o s ( p o lic e ) from Cocha

bamba w ere u sed to a r r e s t a number o f s y n d ic a te l e a d e r s . N e v e r th e le s s ,

th e s in d ic a to c o n tin u e d to f u n c ti o n d e s p ite a d v e r s it y , and by 1941

m ost o f i t s members had managed t o buy la n d , th u s changing t h e i r s o c i a l

s t a t u s from s e r f to p iq u e ro (ow ner o f a sm a ll p l o t ) .

By 1946 th e c e n t r a l s c h o o l a t Ana Rancho, now c a l l e d U curena, had

spawned some 41 s m a lle r s c h o o ls i n th e su rro u n d in g a r e a and a t t h i s tim e

J o s e R o ja s , l a t e r an im p o rta n t le a d e r i n th e 1952 R e v o lu tio n , was e l e c t e d


41
p r e s id e n t o f th e s i n d i c a t o .

Thus th e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l system was c h a lle n g e d on a

number o f f r o n t s in th e p o st-C h a c o War y e a r s . E xcept f o r th e b r i e f r e

gim es o f p r e s id e n t s D avid T oro and German Busch (1936-1939) and P r e s id e n t

G u a lb e rto V i l l a r r o e l (1 9 4 3 -1 9 4 6 ), r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e e s t a b l i s h e d

o r d e r h e ld sway. H e rb e rt K le i n , exam ining th e Toro-B usch " m i l i t a r y

s o c i a l i s t " p e r io d , found th e p e a s a n tr y t o t a l l y ig n o re d by th e s e r e

fo rm e rs : "C o n sp icu o u sly a b s e n t from a l l o f th e s e e a r l y p o s t-w a r m o d erate


42
program s was th e q u e s tio n o f la tif u n d is m o and o f th e I n d ia n m a s s e s ."

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29

T h at b o th .th e T oro-B usch a d m in is tr a t io n s f a i l e d to a t t a c k th e " q u e s tio n

o f la tif u n d is m o " m ust b e g r a n te d . G iven th e l i m i t e d s o c i a l v i s i o n o f

th e s e o f f i c e r s a s w e ll a s r e a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l c o n s id e r a tio n s , i t would

h ave been f o l l y to h av e a tte m p te d a more r a d i c a l p ro g ram . Toro and

B usch, how ever, d id n o t a l t o g e t h e r ig n o r e th e p e a s a n tr y . D uring f o u r te e n

m onths o f te n u re P r e s id e n t T oro e n a c te d n in e law s o f d i r e c t concern to

th e p e a s a n t p o p u la tio n ; P r e s id e n t Busch e n a c te d f i v e s t a t u t e s r e l a t i n g

t o th e p e a s a n t r y . ^

Of th e n in e law s p a s s e d d u r in g th e T oro a d m in is tr a t io n , th r e e

d e a l t w ith e d u c a tio n , th r e e w ere a tte m p ts to p r o t e c t th e p e a s a n try from

v a r io u s form s o f a b u se s s u f f e r e d a t th e h an d s o f th e o lig a r c h y , and

a n o th e r g ra n te d l e g a l s t a t u s t o p e a s a n t m a rr ia g e s perfo rm ed by members
44
o f th e c le r g y . B usch, c o n s i s t e n t w ith h i s " s p i r i t u a l " i n t e r e s t in

n a t i o n a l r e g e n e r a tio n , f i r s t p a s s e d a d e c re e e s t a b l i s h i n g th e "Day o f
45
th e In d ia n " (A ugust 2) as a n a t i o n a l h o li d a y . T h is h o lid a y , Busch

b e lie v e d , would s e r v e to " g iv e g r e a t e r v a lu e to th e In d ia n m asses"


46
a s w e ll a s " c r e a t e th e p ro p e r atm o sp h ere f o r th e ca u se o f th e I n d ia n .

A d d itio n a lly , th e Busch governm ent p a s s e d two law s co n cern ed w ith p e a s a n t

e d u c a tio n , one d e a lin g w ith p e a s a n t m a rria g e s and a n o th e r e s t a b l i s h

in g a M in is try o f L abor and S o c ia l P r o v is io n whose ta s k s (tw e n ty -fo u r


47
s p e c i f i e d ) in c lu d e d th e d e fe n s e o f p e a s a n t r i g h t s and p r o p e r ty . T hus,

w h ile n e i t h e r Toro n o r Busch c o u ld b e l a b e l l e d an a g r a r i a n r a d i c a l ,

t h e i r program s d id n o t o v e rlo o k th e p e a s a n t s e c t o r . In d e e d , i n h i s t o r i c a l

p e r s p e c t iv e , th e " m i l i t a r y s o c i a l i s t " a d m in is tr a t io n s w ere p r o g r e s s iv e .

P rim e c o n s id e r a tio n was g iv e n t o th e n eed f o r e d u c a tin g th e r u r a l m a sse s,

and a r e a l i s t i c and im a g in a tiv e p ro g ram , th e A y llu s c h o o l, was i n i t i a t e d . .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
30

B u s c h 's "Day o f th e In d ia n " so u g h t to d ev elo p p e a s a n t and In d ia n con

s c io u s n e s s w h ile o th e r d e c r e e s a tte m p te d t o p r o t e c t p e a s a n ts from m al-


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tr e a tm e n t and i l l e g a l t a x e s . I t i s im p o s s ib le h e r e to e s tim a te to

w hat e x t e n t th e s e d e c r e e s w ere im plem en ted . W ith o u t a th o ro u g h a l t e r a

t i o n o f th e power s t r u c t u r e su ch re fo rm s p ro b a b ly w ent no f u r t h e r th a n

th e p r e s i d e n t 's p a l a c e . N e v e r th e le s s , i n th o u g h t i f n o t i n a c t i o n , b o th

a d m in is tr a tio n s c o n tr ib u te d i n some p a r t t o th e l a t e r id e o lo g y o f th e .

N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n . P r e s id e n t T o ro , i n th e Supreme D ecree o f December

1 6, 1936, p r e s e n te d h i s p o s i t i o n v i s - 5 - v i s th e p e a s a n t r y : "The in c o r

p o r a tio n o f th e a b o r i g i n a l r a c e s to a l l a c t i v i t i e s o f n a t i o n a l l i f e i s

th e f i r s t d e b t o f th e S ta t e f o r i t s im p o rta n c e i n th e p r e s e n t and f u tu r e
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o f B o l i v i a ." Im m ed iately a f t e r th e coup w hich p la c e d him i n o f f i c e ,

Toro and h i s "Mixed J u n ta " ap p ro v ed a p rogram o f a c t i o n w hich in c lu d e d

" . . . c r e a tio n o f a n a t i o n a l f o u n d a tio n t h a t w i l l s tu d y a l l th e ques

ti o n s r e l a t i v e to th e I n d ia n c l a s s , t h e i r in c o r p o r a tio n i n t o c i v i l i z e d

l i f e and th e d i v i s i o n o f l a n d s . P r e s i d e n t Busch spoke o f " . . . a

s o c i a l i s t c o n s c ie n c e t h a t in v o lv e s p r i m a r i l y a p ro fo u n d tr a n s f o r m a tio n

o f our r a c ia l d e fe c ts . . .

G u a lb e rto V i l l a r r o e l (1943-1946) was a t l e a s t p a r t l y r e s p o n s ib le

f o r th e i n i t i a t i o n o f two im p o rta n t p e a s a n t re fo rm d e c r e e s . A Supreme

D ecree o f May 1 5 , 1945, a b o lis h e d th e i n s t i t u t i o n o f f r e e s e r v ic e s

' w hereby In d ia n s w ere r e q u ir e d to le n d p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s to p a tro n e s


52
w ith o u t re m u n e ra tio n . A r t i c l e Two o f th e d e c re e s t a t e d t h a t In d ia n s

co u ld n o t be fo rc e d to work la n d s o t h e r th a n t h e i r own w ith o u t paym ent;

A r t i c l e Four d is a llo w e d f o r c e d movement o f I n d ia n s fro m h a c ie n d a to

o th e r lo c a tio n s w ith o u t t h e i r c o n s e n t; A r t i c l e Tw elve p r e s c r ib e d a r r e s t

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
31

53
f o r in d i v id u a l s co m m ittin g v io le n c e a g a i n s t I n d ia n s . On th e same

d a te P r e s id e n t V i l l a r r o e l s ig n e d a D ecree d e c l a r in g th e p r a c t i c e s o f

p o n g u eaje (p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e re n d e r e d by an a d u l t m ale) and m ita n a je


54
(h o u seh o ld s e r v ic e re n d e re d b y an a d o l e s c e n t fem a le) i l l e g a l . -The

r i g h t s o f th e p e a s a n tr y w ere l e g a l l y ad v an ced w ith th e en actm en t o f

th e s e two law s a lth o u g h , a g a in , one may w e l l q u e s tio n t h e i r im plem enta

tio n . T h at th e V i l l a r r o e l governm ent d id h av e some i n t e r e s t i n th e

a c t u a l en fo rcem en t o f th e re fo rm d e c r e e s i s su g g e s te d by i t s is s u a n c e

o f a n o th e r d e c re e g iv in g m in in g , a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s

s i x t y days to comply w ith th e law o f A u g u st 1 9 , 1936, w hich r e q u ir e d

su ch co n cern s t o e s t a b l i s h r u r a l s c h o o ls f o r t h e i r w o rk e rs c h i l d r e n .

F a il u r e to do so was to be p u n is h a b le by fin e.'* '* F i n a l l y , th e V i l l a

r r o e l A d m in is tra tio n e s t a b l i s h e d a com m ission to stu d y th e q u e s tio n o f


56
th e m u tu al o b li g a ti o n s o f p r o p e r ty ow ners and p e a s a n ts . S p e c if ic

p r o v is io n s r e q u ir e d p e a s a n ts t o w ork no more th a n f o u r days a week f o r

t h e i r p a tro n e s w h ile f r e e l a b o r e r s w ere t o be p a id no l e s s th a n Bs. 20

p e r *day. 57

The to n e and c o n te n t o f law s r e l a t i n g to th e p e a s a n tr y e s t a b

li s h e d d u rin g th e s e two p e r io d s i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . The b u lk o f

" m il ita r y s o c i a l i s t " l e g i s l a t i o n w as aim ed p r im a r ily a t e d u c a tio n and

r e l i g i o n , w h ile th e V i l l a r r o e l l e g i s l a t i o n i s n o tew o rth y f o r i t s co n c e rn

w ith a b o l i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e and d e t a i l e d a r t i c l e s a s s u r in g im p le

m e n ta tio n o f th e d e c r e e s . The " m i l i t a r y s o c i a l i s t " p e a s a n t l e g i s l a t i o n

a p p e a rs c o n s is te n t w ith th e p o s t- w a r c o n c e rn f o r n a t i o n a l r e g e n e r a tio n ,

w h ile th e V i l l a r r o e l law s seem t o r e f l e c t co n ce rn w ith th e more immedi

a t e problem s o f th e p e a s a n tr y . B oth w ere to become i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f

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32

t h e m is tiq u e o f th e MNR R e v o lu tio n , w hich h e ld t h a t th e N a tio n a l R evolu

t i o n was th e l o g i c a l and i n e v i t a b l e c u lm in a tio n o f th e s e two e a r l i e r

re fo rm p e r io d s .

F aced w ith r i s i n g o p p o s itio n , th e Old Regime became dep en d en t

upon th e power o f th e B o liv ia n m i l i t a r y to s u p p o r t i t s a d m in is tr a tio n

and r e t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r d i s s i d e n t s w ith i n th e s o c i a l s y ste m . An ob

s e r v a ti o n o f Chalm ers Jo h n so n i s a p p lic a b le to B o liv ia d u rin g th e p o s t -

Chaco War p e r io d : "The rem ote c a u se s o f a r e v o lu t io n power d e f l a t i o n

and a l o s s o f a u t h o r i t y may e x i s t w ith o u t a r e v o lu t io n o c c u r r in g , i n

w hich ca se th e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a sy stem w i l l r e s t on th e e l i t e s monopoly

on armed f o r c e on th e p r e v e n tio n o f r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s from o rg a n iz in g


..58
and on th e m ain ten an ce o f r o l e p erfo rm a n ces th ro u g h d e t e r r e n c e .

In an a l t o g e t h e r odd move th e Mamerto U r r i o l a g o i t i a governm ent

allo w ed f r e e e l e c t i o n s i n 1951 and th e MNR c a n d i d a te s , V ic to r Paz

E s te n s s o ro f o r p r e s i d e n t and H em an S i l e s f o r v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , p o lle d

45 p e r c e n t o f th e v o t e . The MNR, a s a p o t e n t i a l a g e n t o f m o d ern iza

t i o n , was anathem a to th e O ld O rd er and th e e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were


59
n u l l i f i e d by a t e c h n i c a l i t y . P r e s id e n t U r r i o l a g o i t i a th e n l e f t th e

co u n try u n d er th e c o n t r o l o f a m i l i t a r y j u n t a le d by G e n e ra l Hugo

B a lliv ia n . Faced w ith e l i t e i n t r a n s i g e n c e , a n u l l i f i e d e l e c t i o n , and

a m i l i t a r y j u n t a i n c o n t r o l o f th e n a t i o n , th e MNR p l o t t e d and su cceed ed

i n s ta g in g a r e v o l u t i o n . ^ The MNR R e v o lu tio n b ro k e o u t , p re m a tu re ly ,

on A p r il 9 , 1952. By A p r il 1 2 , 1952, MNR in s u r g e n t s had su cceed ed in

s e iz i n g th e governm ent.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33

N otes

The in d ig en o u s t r i b e s o f th e s e a r e a s a r e t r e a t e d in J u l i a n
S tew ard , ( e d . ) , Handbook o f th e S outh A m erican In d ia n s (W ashington,
D .C .: Bureau o f A m erican E th n o lo g y B u l l e t i n s , n o . 143, 1 9 4 6 ), I I I ,
p p . 381-533.
2
John H. Rowe, " In c a C u ltu re a t th e Time o f th e S p an ish Con
q u e s t," Handbook o f th e South A m erican I n d i a n s , I I , p p . 207-208.
3
B urr C. B rundage, Empire o f th e In c a (Norman, Oklahoma:
U n iv e r s ity o f Oklahoma P res.s, 1 9 6 3 ), p . 211.
4
W endell C. B e n n e tt, "The Andean H ig h la n d s: An I n tr o d u c t io n ,"
Handbook o f th e South A m erican I n d ia n s , I I , p . 24.

^Rowe, "In ca C u ltu re a t th e Time o f th e S p a n ish C o n q u est,"


Handbook, I I , pp. 207-208.

^The m itim ae was an I n c a i c sy stem f o r c o lo n iz in g a r e a s o f


p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y w ith in th e e m p ire . The m itim a e , o r c o l o n i s t s ,
a s s u re d th e In ca o f a n u c le u s o f lo y a l s u b j e c t s w ith in a p a r t i c u l a r
a d m in is tr a t iv e a r e a .

^Pedro de C ieza de Leon, Del S e n o rio de lo s In c a s (Buenos A ire s


E d ic io n e s A rg e n tin a s S o la r , 1 9 4 3 ), p . 131.
g
Rowe, " In ca C u ltu re a t th e Time o f th e S p a n ish C o n q u est,"
Handbook, I I , p . 270.
q
George F o s te r , C u ltu re and C onquest (C h icag o : Q uadrangle
Books, 1960), pp. 227-234.

^ G e o rg e K u b le r, "The Quechua in th e C o lo n ia l W orld," Hand


book, I I , pp. 331-410.

^ K u b l e r , "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W orld," Handbook, I I ,


pp. 341-343.

^ K u b l e r , "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W o rld ," Handbook, I I ,


p p . 354-359.

^ K u b l e r , "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W o rld ," Handbook, I I ,


pp. 343-345.

^ K u b l e r , "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W o rld ," Handbook, I I ,


p . 343.

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34

A th e o ry o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n w hich s t r e s s e s th e e f f e c t s o f th e
p ro c e s s on th e in d i v id u a l i s p ro v id e d in A nthony F .C . W allac e, C u ltu re
and P e r s o n a li ty (New York: Random H ouse, 1 9 6 0 ), p p . 144-152.

^ W a lla c e , C u ltu r e and P e r s o n a l i t y , p . 149.

^ K u b l e r , "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W o rld ," Handb o k , I I ,


p . 337.
18
K u b le r, "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W orld," Handbook, I I ,
p p . 384-391.

^ K u b l e r , "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W o rld ," Handbook, I I ,


p p . 387-390, d is c u s s e s th e r e v o l t and i t s o b j e c t i v e s .
20
K u b le r, "The Quechua i n th e C o lo n ia l W orld," Handbook, I I ,
p . 385.
21
Elman R. S e r v ic e , " In d ia n -E u ro p e a n R e la tio n s in C o lo n ia l
L a t in A m erica," A m erican A n th r o p o lo g is t, LV II (J u n e , 1 9 5 5 ), p p . 4 1 1 -4 2 5 .
22
S e r v ic e , " In d ia n -E u ro p e a n R e la tio n s in C o lo n ia l L a tin A m erica,"
A m erican A n th r o p o lo g is t, p p . 4 1 6 -4 1 8 .
23
S e r v ic e , " In d ia n -E u ro p e a n R e la tio n s in C o lo n ia l L a tin A m eric a,"
A m erican A n th r o p o lo g is t, p . 423.

* S e r v ic e , " In d ia n -E u ro p e a n R e la tio n s in C o lo n ia l L a tin A m eric a,"


A m erican A n th r o p o lo g is t, pp. 4 2 1 -4 2 2 .
25
George McCutchen M cB ride, "The A g r a r ia n I n d ia n Comm unities
o f H ighland B o li v ia ," A m erican G e o g ra p h ic a l S o c ie ty R esearc h S e r i e s ,
n o . 5, 1921, p . 1.
26
M cBride, "The A g ra ria n I n d ia n Communities o f H ig h lan d B o li v ia ,"
A m erican G e o g rap h ic al S o c ie ty , p . 2 .
27
The L a tin A m erican f in c a o r h a c ie n d a i s d is c u s s e d i n C h ap ter
F iv e o f Frank Tannenbaum, Ten Keys to L a t in A m erica (New Y ork: A lf r e d A.
K nopf, 1966), pp. 77-89.
28
M cBride, "The A g ra ria n I n d ia n Com m unities o f H ig h lan d B o li v ia ,"
A m erican G eo g rap h ic al S o c ie ty , p . 11.
29
M cBride, "The A g ra ria n In d ia n Communities o f H ig h lan d B o li v ia ,"
A m erican G eo g rap h ic al S o c ie ty , p . 2 2 .
30
M cBride, "The A g ra ria n In d ia n Comm unities o f H ig h lan d B o li v ia ,"
A m erican G eo g rap h ic al S o c e ity , p . 26.

^ M o o re , J r . , S o c ia l O r ig in s , p p . 4 6 7 -4 6 8 ,4 6 9 ,4 7 7 -4 7 8 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
35

32
Chalm ers J o h n so n , R e v o lu tio n and th e S o c ia l System ( S ta n f o r d :
Hoover I n s t i t u t i o n on War, R e v o lu tio n and P e a c e , 1 9 6 4 ), pp. 1 3 -2 2 , and
h i s l a t e r and more d ev elo p ed R e v o lu tio n a ry Change (B o sto n : L i t t l e , Brown
and C o ., 1 9 6 6 ), pp. 1 0 3-105, d is c u s s e s th e p ro b lem o f w artim e d e f e a t
and r e v o lu t io n .
33
Jo h n so n , R e v o lu tio n and th e S o c ia l System , p . 13.
34 /
In t h i s c o n n e c tio n s e e , f o r exam ple, th e w orks o f R aul B o telh o
G o sa lv ez, A lc id e s A rg u ed as, J e s u s L ara and F ernando D rez de M edina.
35
S ee, f o r exam ple, th e v ext o f th e Supreme D ecree f o r th e r e
o r g a n iz a ti o n o f th e army p u b lis h e d i n El D ia r i o , J u l y 2 6 , 1953, p . 4 .

" ^ E liz a rd o P e re z , W a ris a ta (La Paz: Empresa I n d u s t r i a l G r a f ic a


E. B u r i l l o , 1 9 6 2 ), pp. 333-373.
37
J o r g e D a n d le r-H a n h a rt, "L o cal G roup, Community and N a tio n : A
S tudy o f C hanging S tr u c t u r e i n U curena B o l i v i a ," u n p u b lis h e d M.A. t h e s i s ,
D epartm ent o f A n th ro p o lo g y , U n iv e r s ity o f W isc o n s in , 1967, p p . 5 3 -5 4 .
38
D a n d le r-H a n h a rt, "L o cal G roup," p p . 5 8 -5 9 .
39
D a n d le r-H a n h a rt, "L o cal G roup," p . 59.
40
D a n d le r-H a n h a rt, "L o cal G roup," p p . 6 1 -6 2 .
41
From 1946-1952 th e PIR, w ith i t s r a d i c a l la n d re fo rm program ,
was i n f l u e n t i a l in th e s i n d i c a t o . J o s e R o ja s , S a lv a d o r V asquez and
German D e lg a d illo , a l l im p o rta n t le a d e r s i n th e MNR R e v o lu tio n , s u p p o rte d
th e PIR in t h i s p e rio d .
42
H e rb e rt K le in , "D avid Toro and th e E s ta b lis h m e n t o f 'M i l i t a r y
S o c ia lis m ' i n B o liv ia ," H is p a n ic A m erican H i s t o r i c a l R eview , XLV (F eb
r u a r y , 1 9 6 5 ), p p . 36 -3 7 . The Busch A d m in is tr a tio n i s a l s o t r e a t e d by
K le in i n "German Busch and th e E ra o f 'M i l i t a r y S o c ia lis m ' in B o li v ia ,"
H is p a n ic A m erican H i s t o r i c a l Review , XLVII (May, 1 9 6 7 ), p p . 166-184.

J o s e F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io (La Paz:


E d i t o r i a l F e n ix , 1953), p p . 354-399, p r o v id e s th e m ost co m p le te c o m p ila
t i o n ; a n o th e r , a lth o u g h l e s s com prehensive s o u r c e , i s M iguel B o n ifa z ,
L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l (Cochabamba: Im p ren ta U n i v e r s i t a r i a ,
1 9 5 3 ), p p . 5 0 6 -509, 512-519.
44 /
F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d i o , p p . 354-363,
365-36 9 , 369-370; 380-383, 378-380, 386-387; 3 8 3 -3 8 6 , and a l s o B o n ifa z ,
L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, p p . 512-518, 5 0 7 -5 0 9 , 5 0 6 -5 0 7 .
45 ,
F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d i o , p p . 388-389.
46 /
F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d i o , p . 388.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36

47 / t
F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io , p p . 390,
396-399; 394-395; 391-393, and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g ra rio -
I n d ig e n a l, p p . 519-520.

^ F l o r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io , p p . 380-383,


386-387, 388-389, 391-393 ( e s p e c i a l l y a r t i c l e s "m ," " n ," " n ," "p,'-1
" r , " " r r , " and " s " ) , and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c i6 n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l,
p p . 507-509.
49 F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io*n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io , p . 354, and
a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, p . 512.

^ P o r f i r i o D iaz M achicao, H i s t o r i a de B o liv ia . T oro, B usch,


Q u i n t a n i l l a , 1936-1940 (La Paz: E d i t o r i a l " J u v e n tu d ," 1 9 5 7 ), p . 24.

^ P o r f i r i o D iaz M achicao, H i s t o r i a de B o liv ia . T oro, B usch,


Q u i n t a n i l l a , 1936-1940 (La 'Paz: E d i t o r i a l " J u v e n tu d ," 1 9 5 7 ), p . 4 2 .
52 /
F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d i o , pp. 4 1 9 -4 2 3 ,
and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, pp. 520-523.
53
F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io , pp. 520,
422, and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, p p . 5 2 1 ,5 2 2 -5 2 3 .

" ^ F lo re s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io , p p . 4 2 4 -4 2 5 ,


and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, pp. 524-525.

^ F l o r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d i o , pp. 4 2 5 -4 2 7 ,


and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, pp. 525-526.

^ F l o r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io , p p . 4 2 7 -4 2 9 ,
and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, p p . 526-528.

^ A r t i c l e s "a" an d " s " i n F lo r e s M oncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a


d e l I n d i o , p . 428, and a l s o B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, p . 527.
58
Jo h n so n , R e v o lu tio n a ry Change, p . 153.
59
By law a c a n d id a te had to r e c e iv e a m a jo r ity o f th e v o te s c a s t
to w in an e l e c t i o n . I f a c a n d id a te d id n o t r e c e iv e a m a jo r ity , a s th e
MNR w ith 45 p e r c e n t f a i l e d to do i n 1951, th e n th e e l e c t i o n was to b e
d e c id e d by c o n g re s s . W ith c o n g re s s c o n t r o l l e d by th e Old O rd e r, th e
MNR c o u ld n o t have e x p e c te d to b e a llo w e d a n e l e c t i o n v ic to r y r e g a r d
l e s s o f th e p l u r a l i t y w hich th e y p o ll e d i n 1951.

^ A c c o rd in g to A lfre d o C andia G ., who c o lla b o r a t e d in th e MNR


c o n s p ira c y , th e p a r ty p la n n e d r e v o lu t io n s some f o u r te e n tim es b e f o r e
th e A p r il 9, 1952 s u c c e s s . A lfre d o C andia G ., E l D i a r i o , A p r il 21,
1952, p . 5.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37

. III. LAND TENURE PATTERNS ON THE EVE OF THE REVOLUTION

R a re ly , i f e v e r , h av e r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d a g r a r i a n c e n s u s e s

been co m p leted in c o u n tr ie s im m ed iately p r i o r to s o c i a l r e v o lu t io n .

The B o liv ia n A g ra ria n C ensus o f 1950 a f f o r d s t h a t c o u n try some u n iq u e

n e s s in t h i s r e s p e c t . From cen su s d a ta i t i s p o s s i b le to d e r iv e

s t a t i s t i c a l in d ic e s r e l a t i n g to th e v a r io u s p a t t e r n s o f la n d te n u r e

found i n each o f th e n a t i o n 's n in e d e p a rtm e n ts. E x am in atio n o f cen

su s f ig u r e s s u g g e s ts t h a t th e f i v e h ig h la n d d ep artm en ts s h a r e common

form s o f la n d te n u re d i s t i n c t from p a t t e r n s common to th e f o u r low land

d e p a rtm e n ts . I t a l s o a p p e a rs t h a t t h e r e i s some r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een

la n d h o ld in g forms and th e d e g re e o f r e v o lu tio n a r y v io le n c e e x p e rie n c e d

i n th e c o u n tr y s id e . In a r e a s o f m ost a r c h a ic la n d te n u r e p r a c t i c e s ,

th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts, r e v o lu t io n a r y v io le n c e was g r e a t e s t .

T h is c h a p te r w i l l f i r s t exam ine th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e

e i g h t form s o f la n d te n u r e e x ta n t i n 1950 in th e two g ro u p s o f d e p a r t

m ents ( P a r t I ) . N ext, th e p a t t e r n s o f la n d te n u r e in p r a c t i c e a t t h i s

tim e w i l l be r e l a t e d to s i z e o f in d i v id u a l r u r a l la n d h o ld in g s ( P a r t I I ) .

Each " p a r t" w i l l b e f u r t h e r s u b d iv id e d in t o th e n in e forms o f la n d

te n u re p r a c t i c e d p re v io u s to th e R e v o lu tio n . The two c h a r t s from

w hich i n t e r p o l a t i o n s h av e been d e r iv e d a r e appended (T a b le s 1 and 2 ) .

Then, su c h c o n c lu s io n s a s may b e drawn from th e d a ta w i l l be p o s tu la te d

w ith r e f e r e n c e to l a t e r e v e n ts o f th e R e v o lu tio n in th e r u r a l s e c t o r .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
38

P a rt I : D ep artm en tal D ata

I t may be seen (T a b le 1, p . 39) t h a t th e f i v e h ig h la n d d e p a r t

m ents o f C huquisaca, La P az, Cochabamba, O ruro and P o to s i c o n s t i t u t e a

m a jo r ity o f th e R e p u b lic 's la n d h o ld in g s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , 66.5% o f th e

t o t a l h e c ta r e s a r e found in th e s e f i v e d e p a rtm e n ts w ith th e d iv i s i o n

a s fo llo w s : La P az, 22.7%; C h u q u isaca, 16.2%; Cochabamba, 11.0%;

O ru ro , 9.9%; and P o to s i, 6.8%.

The p e rc e n ta g e o f th e t o t a l number o f h e c t a r e s c u l t i v a t e d in

B o liv ia in 1950 and s i t u a t e d in th e s e d e p a rtm e n ts i s a n even more im

p r e s s i v e 85.1%. W ith in th e s e d ep artm en ts La Paz c u l t i v a t e d th e g r e a t

e s t number o f h e c t a r e s , 23.8%. P o to s i c u l t i v a t e d 21% o f th e n a t i o n a l

t o t a l , Cochabamba, 19.2%, C h u q u isaca, 12.6%, and O ru ro , 3.5%.

O rd erin g th e d ep artm en ts w ith r e s p e c t to i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t i

v a t i o n , one o b serv es t h a t th e same r e l a t i v e s ta n d in g i s p r e s e r v e d w ith

th e one e x c e p tio n o f La Paz w hich moves from f i r s t to t h i r d p la c e .

P o to s i now le a d s th e p e rc e n ta g e s w ith 6.2% u n d er c u l t i v a t i o n , Cocha

bamba fo llo w s w ith 3.5%, La Paz w ith 2.57*, C huquisaca w ith 1.6%, and

O ruro w ith .7%.

a ) Lands O p erated by S o le Owner

A lthough o n ly 30.56% o f th e t o t a l h e c t a r e s o p e r a te d by s o le

ow ners w ere found in th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts , th e s e ow ners c u l t i v a t e d

64.53% o f th e n a t i o n 's t o t a l . W ith in th e f i v e d ep artm en ts th e b r e a k

down i s a s fo llo w s : 17.3% o f la n d o p e ra te d by s o le ow ners was lo c a te d

i n C h u quisaca; 5.02% in P o to s i; 4.2% in La P az: 3.8% i n Cochabamba, and

.3% in O ruro.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T a b le 1 . Land T enure Forms C l a s s i f i e d A cco rd in g to D epartm ent

< ^ |n

U S iV E R S rii OF FiEW MEXICO 1


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H 63 614 % 9*4

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Ndmero y S u p e r f ic ie de l a s Unidades C ensales Segdn su
Regimen de E x p lo ta c io n , p o r D epartam entos

TOTAL DE UNIDADES CENSALES

No. de S u p e rfic ie S u p e rf. con


DEPARTAMENTOS In fo r- T o tal C u ltiv o s
m a n tes- Has. H as.

TOTAL REPUBLICA 86.377 3 2 .7 4 9 .8 4 9 ,5 0 6 5 4 .2 5 8 ,0 9

CHUQUISACA 7 .6 3 4 5 .2 9 2 .7 4 8 ,1 8 8 2 .4 3 8 ,6 4

LA PAZ ................................. 7 .3 5 2 7 .4 2 1 .3 2 8 ,5 5 1 8 8 .1 2 7 ,4 7

COCHABAMBA 31.9 96 3 .5 9 0 .3 6 9 ,7 3 1 2 5 .7 0 2 ,6 5

ORURO 1.239 3 .2 5 0 .2 1 7 ,0 1 2 2 .8 2 6 ,3 1

POTOSI ................................. 1 5 .6 8 3 2 .2 2 3 .4 0 3 ,3 4 1 3 7 .6 8 3 ,1 3

TARIJA ................................. 9 .8 6 4 1 .7 6 3 .8 7 0 ,7 7 2 5 .8 6 6 ,9 3

SANTA CRUZ 9 .4 8 5 3 .7 7 8 .0 5 2 ,7 3 5 8 .2 4 2 ,4 0

BENI ...................................... 2 .6 8 6 4 .1 1 2 .7 4 6 ,7 0 1 0 .5 5 8 ,6 3

PANDO .................................... 438 1 .3 1 7 .1 1 2 ,4 9 2 .8 1 1 ,9 3

R e p u b lic a de B o l i v i a . M in is te r io de H acien d a. Censo A g ro p e c u a rio . 1950.


La P az: U -Jreccion N a c io n a l de E s t a d l s t i c a y Censos, 1950, p . 67,

UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO LIBRARY


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372!
Nbfc4-K?23
T o Wjl t . 3^

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LES
l
PROPIAS DEL OPERADOR
OPERADOR SOLO OPERADOR CON
S u p erf. con JORNALEROS, E
C u ltiv o s
No. de Su perf. Total S u p e r f . con No. de S
Has.
In fo rm . Has. C u l t i v . Has. In fo rm . H

6 5 4 .258,09 56.259 9 .5 3 6 .4 2 1 ,8 0 1 2 3 .3 2 7 ,5 5 8.13-7

8 2 .4 3 8 ,6 4 4.512 1 .6 4 7 .9 0 5 .1 7 1 8 .3 0 2 ,9 1 1.791

1 8 8 .1 2 7 ,4 7 3.496 400.507,95 7 .0 7 1 ,8 6 1.958

12 5 .7 0 2 ,6 5 25.791 358.592,07 2 9 .6 1 6 ,7 1 2.357

2 2 .8 2 6 ,3 1 421 25.609,04 6 03,27 126

1 3 7 .6 8 3 ,1 3 9 .055 478.611,62 2 3 .9 9 0 .3 1 748

2 5 .8 6 6 ,9 3 4 .7 ^0 973.438,64 1 2 .2 2 7 .3 2 118

5 8 .2 4 2 ,4 0 6.320 1 .8 5 4 .9 4 8 ,8 7 2 4 .1 5 8 ,6 0 907

1 0 .5 5 8 ,6 3 1.670 2 .8 7 2 .3 7 8 .1 8 5 .6 3 3 ,7 7

2.811,9-3 234 914.430,26 1 .7 2 2 ,8 0

1950.

I
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SL OPERADOR -PROPRIAS DEL OPERADOR
OPERADOR CON COLONOS,
JORNALEROS, ETC. O perador con C o lonos, No. de
J o m a le ro s , e tc . I n fo r -
: f . con No. de S u p e rf. j.o ta l S u p e rf. con C u ltiv o s mantes
Lv. H as. In fo n u . H as.

127,55 8.13-7 290.164,69 13 .5 98


1 2 .7 0 1 .0 7 6 ,5 7

4 9 .0 2 8 ,2 4 1 .0 05
102,91 1 .7 9 1 3 .0 4 4 .4 5 0 ,0 1
9 6 .0 3 1 ,7 1 589
>71,86 1 .9 5 8 3 .3 1 1 .1 6 7 .1 8
7 5 .0 0 4 ,3 2 2.020
>16,71 2 .357 2 .8 9 1 .4 0 7 .1 9
1 0 .3 1 9 ,8 6 57
>03,27 126 4 0 0 .3 9 8 ,7 8
33 .8 5 0 ,5 2 3 .6 46
>90,31 748 6 2 8 .9 0 5 ,8 5
576,05 4 .4 5 8
127,32 118 1 6 6 .8 7 8 ,0 8
23 .1 5 2 ,8 1 1 .4 16
L58,6 0 907 1 .6 2 5 .9 5 4 ,3 8
2 .2 0 1 ,1 8 277
>33,77 6 3 1 .9 1 5 ,1 0
130
'2 2 ,8 0

I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SRADOR ARRENDATARIO S

.onos, No. de S u p e r f ic ie S u p e rf. con


In fo r- T o ta l C u ltiv o s No. de
:iv o s m antes H as. H as. In fo r
m a n ts
13.598 1 .9 8 3 .7 6 4 ,6 3 44.466,68
3.033

1 .005 3 1 1 .8 8 2 ,0 0 5.9 7 7 ,1 6
35
589 5 6 0 .7 4 6 ,8 4 4 .9 9 1 ,4 2
112
2.0 2 0 2 0 4 .4 7 5 ,3 7 12.224,68
1.595
57 2 0 .9 3 4 ,2 5 519,68
21
3.646 3 1 .4 3 8 ,6 9 4 .1 8 5 ,2 0
599
4 .458 .3 6 0 .5 0 1 ,4 6 11.374,85
424
1.416 4 3 .5 8 5 ,7 2 3 .4 0 7 ,9 1
124
277 1 3 8 .7 4 9 ,0 5 1 .0 4 8 ,2 1
123
130 3 1 1 .4 5 1 ,2 5 737,57

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
MEDIEROS COMUNARIOS
con
5
No. de S u p e r f ic ie S u p erf. con No. de S u p e r fic ie
I n fo r - TOi_d C u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l
man'ies H as. Has. m antes Has.

58
3 .0 3 3 3 8 2 .1 1 4 ,7 2 5 .2 0 6 ,3 3 3 .779 7 .1 7 8 .4 4 8 ,5 ;

L6
35 3 .7 4 3 .8 9 1 67,62 243 1 4 8 .4 5 8 ,0 ]
42
112 .2 .0 8 0 ,2 6 2 43,78 1 .1 3 1 3 .0 0 9 .5 6 0 ,6 ;
68
1 .595 1 0 .3 9 3 ,5 4 1 .7 0 8 ,4 5 132 8 2 .9 3 0 ,7C
68
21 1 .9 9 5 ,4 3 24,99 611 2 .7 8 4 .3 1 5 ,5 ]
20
599 1 8 .9 0 2 ,5 1 1 .6 5 3 ,5 7 1 .5 2 5 1 .0 3 8 .5 7 5 ,0 !
85
424 6 0 .9 7 1 ,1 7 1 .0 3 1 ,9 7 12 7 4 .4 8 0 , i :
91
124 9 .6 1 6 .9 0 258,05 125 4 0 .1 2 8 ,5 ]
21
123 2 7 4 .4 1 1 ,0 2 1 17,90
57

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
COMUNARIOS TOLERADOS
COMUNARIOS S u p e r f . con No. de S u p e r fic ie
C u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l
u p e r f . con No. de S u p e r f ic i e H as. m a n tes Has.
u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l
as. m antes Has.
1 7 0 .1 0 6 ,4 4 617 105.425,65
.2 0 6 ,3 3 3.779 7 .1 7 8 .4 4 8 ,5 7

6 .1 3 7 ,6 4 10 5 .2 8 2 ,5 0
16 7 ,62 243 1 4 8 .4 5 8 ,0 1 7 9 .3 3 6 ,6 2 26 6 .5 1 0 ,3 1
24 3 ,78 1 .131 3 .0 0 9 .5 6 0 ,6 7 6 .1 8 2 ,8 1 66 6 .8 5 6 ,8 5
.708,45 132 8 2 .9 3 0 ,7 0 1 0 .7 9 3 ,1 5
2 4,99 611 2 .7 8 4 .3 1 5 ,5 1 6 6 .1 6 5 ,2 8 66 1 .0 7 2 ,2 3
653,57 1.525 1 .0 3 8 .5 7 5 ,0 5 2 7 4 ,6 0 25 1 .3 2 4 ,1 0
031,97 12 7 4 .4 8 0 ,1 2
1 .2 1 6 ,3 4 292 4 7 .2 2 1 ,0 3
258,05 125 4 0 .1 2 8 ,5 1 118 3 7 .0 4 4 ,8 8
11 7 ,9 0
14 113,75

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
POSEEDORES DE
[UNARIOS TOLERADOS TIERRAS FISCALES

e r f . con No. de S u p e r f ic ie S u p e rf. con No. de


tiv o s In fo r- T o ta l C u ltiv o s In fo r
m an tes H as. H as. mant es

.1 0 6 ,4 4 617 1 0 5 .4 2 5 ,6 5 1 .9 3 3 ,3 0 818

.1 3 7 ,6 4 10 5 .2 8 2 ,5 0 3 5 ,2 1 8

.3 3 6 ,6 2 26 6 .5 1 0 ,3 1 6 3 ,3 4 18

.1 8 2 ,8 1 66 6 .8 5 6 ,8 5 8 9 ,8 7 13

.7 9 3 ,1 5 ------------- --------

.1 6 5 ,2 8 66 1 .0 7 2 ,2 3 3 24,46 41

274,60 25 1 .3 2 4 ,1 0 2 7 ,5 5 66

.2 1 6 ,3 4 292 4 7 .2 2 1 ,0 3 1 .0 3 8 ,7 6 263

H8 3 7 .0 4 4 ,8 8 3 2 0 ,0 6 351

!4 113,75 3 4 ,0 5 58

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
POSEEDORES DE
TIERRAS FISCALES POSEEDORES DE TIERRAS FISCALES GRANJAS COOPERATIVAS

No. de S u p e r f ic ie S u p e rf. con No. de S u p e r f ic ie


In fo r- T o ta l C u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l
m antes Has. H as. m antes H as.

818 4 3 9 .2 6 3 ,7 4 6 .4 3 3 ,8 3 136 4 3 3 .333,82

8 4 6 .3 4 9 ,6 0 9 06,83 30 8 4 .6 7 7 .0 0

18 5 34,18 127,31 22 13 0 .2 2 1 ,1 6

13 2 7 .5 5 4 ,9 8 604,00 22 8 .1 5 9 ,0 3

3 1 6 .9 6 4 .0 0

41 1 2 .2 0 7 ,8 9 1 .5 7 8 ,8 8 3 1 3 .6 8 9 ,5 0

66 1 2 3 .7 7 7 ,2 0 348,34 1 2 .5 0 0 .0 0

263 2 2 .1 3 3 ,5 7 1 .5 6 3 ,3 5 38 13 4 .4 6 3 ,7 5

351 11 6 .6 8 9 ,0 9 1 .0 9 3 ,8 6 15 41-559,38

58 9 0 .0 1 7 ,2 3 211,26 2 1 . 100.00

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
POSEEDORES DE TIERRAS FISCALES GRANJAS COOPERATIVAS SOC. AGRIC.

S u p e r fic ie S u perf. con No. de S u p e r f ic i e S u p e rf. con


T o ta l C u ltiv o s I n fo r - T o ta l C u ltiv o s
Has. Has. mantes H as. H as.

4 3 9 .2 6 3 ,7 4 6 .4 3 3 ,8 3 136 4 3 3 .3 3 3 ,8 2 1 2 .6 1 9 ,2 7

4 6 .3 4 9 ,6 0 906,83 30 8 4 .6 7 7 .0 0 1 .8 8 3 ,0 3

534,18 127,31 22 1 3 0 .2 2 1 ,1 6 261,43

2 7 .5 5 4 ,9 8 604,00 22 8 .1 5 9 ,0 3 27 1 ,81

3 1 6 .9 6 4 .0 0 565,36

1 2 .2 0 7 ,8 9 1 .5 7 8 ,8 8 3 1 3 .6 8 9 ,5 0 5 .9 3 4 ,9 1

1 2 3 .7 7 7 ,2 0 348,34 1 2 .5 0 0 .0 0 6 ,2 5

22 .1 3 3 ,5 7 1 .5 6 3 ,3 5 38 1 3 4 .4 6 3 ,7 5 6 .4 4 6 ,5 8

1 1 6 .689,09 1 .0 9 3 ,8 6 15 4 1 -5 5 9 ,3 8 143,65

9 0 .0 1 7 ,2 3 211,26 2 1 . 100.00 106,25

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40

C o n s id e r a tio n o f c u l t i v a t e d s o le owned la n d makes f o r a d i f f e r e n t

d e p a rtm e n ta l a rra n g e m e n t. I n Cochabamba 24.01% o f s o le owned c u l t i v a t e d

la n d s w ere fo u n d ; in P o t o s i , 19.5%; in C h u q u isaca, 14.8%; i n La P a z ,

5.7%; i n O ru ro , .5%.

T hus, Cochabamba and P o to s i w ere n o te w o rth y f o r th e h ig h p e r

c e n ta g e o f c u l t i v a t e d la n d w ith r e s p e c t to th e d e p a rtm e n ta l t o t a l o f

h e c t a r e s c u l t i v a t e d by s o l e o w ners. A p p a re n tly la n d c u l t i v a t e d b y s o le

o p e r a to r s in th e s e d e p a rtm e n ts was w orked c o m p a ra tiv e ly more i n t e n s e l y

th a n s i m i l a r la n d in o th e r d e p a rtm e n ts (8.3% and 5% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .

T h is i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n Cochabamba w here o n ly 3.5% o f th e

la n d was c u l t i v a t e d .

b ) S o le Owned Land O p e ra te d w ith C o lo n o s, J o m a l e r o s , e t c . ( la n d s


w orked by s e r f s , d a y - l a b o r e r s , e t c . )

Of t h i s form o f la n d te n u r e 80.91% o f th e t o t a l h e c t a r e s w ere

lo c a te d in th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts . S p e c i f i c a l l y , 26.07% o f th e t o t a l

i s found i n La P az; 23.97% i n C h u q u isac a; 22.77% in Cochabamba; 4.95%

i n P o to s i; and 3.15% in O ru ro .

I n th e f i v e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts 91.06% o f t h i s form o f la n d

te n u r e was u n d er c u l t i v a t i o n . La Paz c u l t i v a t e d th e g r e a t e s t number

o f h e c t a r e s , 33.1%; Cochabamba c u l t i v a t e d 25.9%; C h u q u isaca, 16.9%;

P o t o s i , 11.7%; and O ru ro , 3.56%.

I n th e t h r e e d e p a rtm e n ts o f La P az, C h u q u isaca and Cochabamba

was found 72.81% o f s o l e owned la n d o p e ra te d w ith c o lo n o s , j o m a l e r o s ,

e t c . , and 75.9% o f c u l t i v a t e d la n d s o f t h i s ty p e . I t a l s o i s o f n o te

t h a t P o to s i had th e h ig h e s t i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t i v a t i o n (5 .4 % ), fo llo w e d

by La P a z , 2.9%, Cochabamba and O ru ro , 2.6%, and C h u q u isaca, 1.6% .

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41

c ) A r r e n d a ta r io s ( te n a n t fa rm e rs )

A t o t a l o f 56.94% o f t e n a n t farm ed la n d s w ere fo u n d i n th e

h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts. The in d i v i d u a l t o t a l s a r e : La P a z , 28.27%;

C h u q u isa c a , 15.72%; Cochabamba, 10.31% ; P o t o s i , 1.58%; and O ru ro ,

1.06% .

Of c u l t i v a t e d te n a n t farm ed la n d s a t o t a l o f 62.74% w ere lo c a te d

i n th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts w ith 27.49% found i n Cochabamba, 13.44%

i n C h u q u isa c a , 11.23% i n La P a z , 9.41% i n P o t o s i , and 1,17% i n O ru ro .

W ith in th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts 95.4% o f th e t o t a l number o f

h e c t a r e s w ere found in th e t h r e e d e p a rtm e n ts o f La P a z , C h u q u isac a,

and Cochabamba. Of th e s e t h r e e d e p a r tm e n ts , two a r e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e

fo r in te n s ity of c u ltiv a tio n : P o t o s i , w hich c u l t i v a t e d 13.3% o f i t s

te n a n t farm ed la n d , and Cochabamba, w here 5.5% o f t h i s ty p e o f la n d

was c u l t i v a t e d . In c o n t r a s t , La Paz c u l t i v a t e d o n ly .9% o f a l l te n a n t

farm ed la n d .

d) M ed iero s (co -o w n ers)

T h is la n d te n u r e form was i n t e n s e l y c u l t i v a t e d i n th e h ig h la n d

d e p a rtm e n ts : 9.71% o f co-owned la n d was found i n th e s e d e p a rtm e n ts ;

w h ereas 72.96% o f c u l t i v a t e d co-owned la n d was fo u n d h e r e .

The p e rc e n ta g e s o f co-owned la n d s i n th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts

a r e u n ifo rm ly s m a ll. P o t o s i , 4.95%; Cochabamba, 2.72%; C h u q u isa c a ,

.98%; La Paz,. .54%; O ru ro , .52%.

However, p e rc e n ta g e s f o r c u l t i v a t e d co-owned la n d s lo c a te d i n

th e s e d e p a rtm e n ts a r e much g r e a t e r : Cochabamba, 32.81%; P o t o s i , 31.76%;

La P a z , 4.68%; C h u q u isaca, 3.22%; and O ru ro , .48%.

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42

I t i s a p p a re n t from d a t a c o n c e rn in g co-owned la n d s t h a t P o to s i

and Cochabamba a r e n o te w o rth y f o r th e i n t e n s i t y w ith w hich th e la n d

was w orked. Whereas o n ly 7.67% o f t h i s la n d te n u r e form was found in

th e D ep artm en ts o f P o to s i and Cochabamba, a t o t a l o f 64.57% o f c u l

t i v a t e d co-owned la n d was worked in th e s e two d e p a rtm e n ts .

e ) Com unarios ( j o i n t ow ners)

C ensus f ig u r e s f o r t h i s la n d te n u r e p a t t e r n s u g g e s t e x tre m e ly

w ide p r a c t i c e i n th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts ; 98.4% o f j o i n t l y owned la n d s

w ere lo c a te d i n th e s e d e p a rtm e n ts. The s p e c i f i c breakdow n i s a s f o l

lo w s: La P a z , 41.92%; O ru ro , 38.79%; P o to s i, 14.4%; C h u q u isaca,

2.07%; and Cochabamba, 1.16%.

The combined f ig u r e f o r c u l t i v a t e d j o i n t l y owned la n d s i n th e

h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts i s 99.12% , w ith L a Paz c o n t r i b u ti n g th e h ig h e s t

p e r c e n ta g e , 46.64%, P o to s i f o llo w in g w ith 38.90%, O ruro w ith 6.34%,

Cochabamba w ith 3.63%, and C h u q u isaca w ith 3.61%.

T hese f i g u r e s r e f l e c t th e e x t e n t o f j o i n t l y owned la n d s owned

and worked in th e th r e e d e p a rtm e n ts o f La P a z , O ru ro , and P o to s i,

th e com bined t o t a l o f w hich a c c o u n ts f o r 95.18% o f a l l jo in t-o w n e d

la n d i n th e R e p u b lic . A ls o , th e s e th r e e d e p a rtm e n ts c o n s t i t u t e th e

b u lk o f c u l t i v a t e d la n d worked u n d er t h i s sy stem o f te n u r e (91.88% ).

A ltho u g h 38.79% o f j o i n t l y owned la n d was found i n O ruro and o n ly

14.47% in P o t o s i , f ig u r e s r e l a t i n g t o i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t i v a t i o n a re

ev en lo w e r: .4% o f j o i n t l y owned la n d was c u l t i v a t e d i n O ruro w h ile

6.4% was c u l t i v a t e d in P o t o s i .

Land te n u re p a t t e r n s f ) T o le ra d o s ( " s q u a t t e r s " ) and g ) T i e r r a s

F i s c a l e s (governm ent la n d s ) a r e more common to th e f o u r lo w lan d d e p a r t -

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43

m ents th a n to th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts . B ecause o f th e n e g l i g i b l e

r o l e o f th e lo w lan d p e a s a n t i n th e R e v o lu tio n , census d a ta f o r th e s e

form s o f la n d te n u re w i l l b e v e ry b r i e f l y p r e s e n te d .

f ) T o le ra d o s ( " s q u a t t e r s " )

The combined t o t a l o f la n d s h e ld by " s q u a tte r s " in th e h ig h la n d

d e p a rtm e n ts comes to 18.71% , w h ile th e t o t a l f o r c u l t i v a t e d la n d s i s

26.53%. In th e f iv e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts , Cochabamba, La P a z , and

C huqu isaca c o n ta in e d th e l a r g e s t number o f h e c ta r e s h e ld in t h i s sy stem

o f la n d t e n u r e . However, P o t o s i , Cochabamba, and La Paz a r e th e d e p a r t

m ents w here th e b u lk o f c u l t i v a t e d h e c t a r e s worked in t h i s manner w ere

fo u n d . " S q u a tte r s " worked t h e i r la n d s w ith g r e a t e s t h ig h la n d i n t e n s i t y

i n th e D epartm ent o f P o to s i (30.3% ).

g) T i e r r a s F i s c a l e s ( f e d e r a l la n d s )

As was th e c a s e w ith th e p re c e d in g la n d te n u re p a t t e r n , t i e r r a s

f i s c a l e s w ere more common to th e lo w lan d th a n th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts.

The t o t a l f o r th e f i v e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts c o n s ti tu te d o n ly 19.72%

o f th e R e p u b lic s t o t a l number o f h e c t a r e s h e ld i n t h i s m anner. C huqui

s a c a w ith 10.55% and Cochabamba w ith 6.27% w ere th e two h ig h la n d

d e p a rtm e n ts w ith th e l a r g e s t a r e a s o f t i e r r a s f i s c a l e s . The f ig u r e s

f o r c u l t i v a t e d h e c t a r e s a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t , w ith P o to s i c u l t i v a t i n g

24.54% o f th e n a t i o n a l t o t a l , fo llo w e d by C h u quisaca w ith 14.09%,

and Cochabamba w ith 9.39%. T i e r r a s f i s c a l e s w ere worked most i n t e n s e l y

i n P o to s i (12.9%) and La P az (23.8% ), a lth o u g h th e v e ry sm a ll f i g u r e s

f o r La Paz D epartm ent i n d i c a t e l i t t l e co m p arativ e s i g n i f i c a n c e . The

number o f h e c t a r e s h e ld a s t i e r r a s f i s c a l e s in th e h ig h la n d d ep a rtm e n ts

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44

an d c u l t i v a t e d was 50% o f th e n a t i o n a l t o t a l .

h) G ran jas C o o p e ra tiv a s ( c o o p e r a tiv e farm s)

T h is la n d te n u re form , in th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts, c o n s t i

tu te d 58.54% o f th e n a t io n a l t o t a l . W ith in th e s e f i v e d e p a rtm e n ts,

C huquisaca w ith 19.54% and La Paz w ith 30.05% c o n ta in e d th e b u lk o f

c o o p e r a tiv e farm la n d s . A c u m u la tiv e t o t a l o f 70.647 i s th e f ig u r e

f o r th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts re g a r d in g p e r c e n ta g e o f c u l t i v a t e d hec

t a r e s i n B o liv ia . C h u q u isaca, 14.95%, and P o to s i, 47.03%, w ere th e

d ep artm en ts w ith th e g r e a t e s t number o f c u l t i v a t e d c o o p e r a tiv e farm

la n d s . P o to s i was a l s o th e d ep artm en t w here t h i s p a t t e r n o f la n d

te n u re was worked m ost i n t e n s e l y in th e h ig h la n d s (43.4% ).

P a rt I I ; S iz e o f H o ld in g s

P a r t I o f t h i s c h a p te r o rd e re d c e n s a l d a ta w ith r e s p e c t to th e

n in e d ep artm en ts o f th e R e p u b lic ; P a r t I I w i l l o r d e r th e d a ta w ith

r e s p e c t to s i z e o f h o ld in g s .

On th e eve o f th e R e v o lu tio n , 49.64% o f th e in fo rm a n ts owned

le s s th a n t h r e e h e c ta r e s eac h (T a b le 2 , p . 4 5 ) . They, c o l l e c t i v e l y ,

h e ld o n ly .13% o f th e la n d . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h i s la n d was c u l

t i v a t e d w ith a n i n t e n s i t y o f 55;43%, w h ereas th o s e owning more th an

th r e e h e c t a r e s each c u l t i v a t e d an a v e ra g e o f o n ly 1.93% o f t h e i r la n d .

In p a r t i c u l a r , th o s e owning 10,000 o r more h e c t a r e s to g e th e r (615

in fo rm a n ts ) p o s s e s s e d 49.57% o f a l l la n d , b u t c u l t i v a t e d o n ly 13.12%

o f th e t o t a l .

a ) Lands O p erated by S o le Owner

Of th e in fo rm a n ts who w ere s o l e o p e r a to r s o f t h e i r la n d , 57.11%

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T ab le 2 . Land T enure Forms C l a s s i f i e d by S iz e o f H oldings

UKIVER-'ITY O F NEW M EXICO LIBRARY


XX
3* 181

-ro3^ v^rr ^

a n c h o r c la sp
H 63 614 x 9 H
MADE INUSA-

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO LIBRARY
XX Numero y S u p e r f ic ie de l a s Unidades Censales Segun su
i_3>
E x te n s io n y Regimen de Explotacion
H 6^4-KS23_

No. de S u p e rfic ie S u p e rf. con


EXTENSION In fo r- T o tal C u ltiv o s
m antes Has. H as.

T o ta l de U nidades C e n s a le s,
R epU blica de B o l i v i a .............. 86.377 32.749.849,50 6 5 4 .2 5 8 ,0 9

U nidades C. de menos de 1
h e c ta re a . . 24.747 10.879,83 5 .7 1 5 ,4 9

De 1 2 ,9 H as. . . . 18.130 31.961,59 1 8 .0 3 0 ,9 1

De 3 a ft
4 ,9 8 .3 2 1 31.036,47 1 6 .2 8 2 ,1 0

De 5 5 ft
9 ,9 8 .7 9 0 59.085,95 2 5 .9 5 2 ,8 6

De 10 a ft
1 9 ,9 5 .8 8 1 76.958,91 2 6 .0 1 4 ,6 1

De 20 a II
3 4 ,9 3 .4 4 1 85.763,66 2 1 .2 4 7 ,0 8

De 35 ft
4 9 ,9 1 .3 9 1 56.651,25 1 3 .1 6 4 ,2 0

De 50 a tv
7 4 ,9 1 .8 8 1 107.711,33 1 9 .3 5 1 ,5 5

De 75 a It
9 9 ,9 895 75.465,95 1 5 .3 7 3 ,3 4

De 100 It
1 9 9 ,9 2 .2 3 8 295.114,43 4 1 .3 6 6 ,0 8

De 200 a AGO O tt
2.4 9 4 756.072,84 7 0 .4 6 1 ,5 6

De 500 ft
9 9 9 ,9 1.5 3 9 1 .049.332,11 6 4 .3 2 9 ,0 3

De 1 .0 0 0 a 2 .4 9 9 ,9 ft
2.139 3 .2 9 0 .8 7 9 ,4 1 9 5 .3 6 4 ,0 3

De 2.5 0 0 a 4 .9 9 9 ,9 ft
1 .8 6 1 5 .4 3 3 .8 9 6 ,7 1 7 1 .6 4 2 ,1 7

De 5.0 0 0 a 9 .9 9 9 ,9 tt
797 5 .1 4 6 .3 3 4 ,5 8 5 5 .3 6 4 ,3 6

De 10.000 H e c ta re a s y mas . . 615 1 6 .233.954,41 8 5 .8 5 0 ,6 5

S in In fo rm a c io n .......... 1.2 1 7 8.750,07 8 .7 4 8 ,0 7

R e p d b lic a de B o l i v i a . M in is te r io de H acienda Censo A aroD ecuario. 1950.


La P az: D ir e c c io n N a c io n a l de E s t a d i s t i c a y C ensos, 1950, p . 2 .

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Segun su

PROPIAS DEL OPERADOR


O perador Solo O perador con Co]

S u p e rf. con No> de S u p e rf. T o ta l S u p e r, con No. de


C u ltiv o s In fo rm . H as. C u l t i v . H as. Inform .
H as.

56.259 9 .5 2 6 .4 2 1 ,8 0 1 2 3 .3 2 7 ,5 5 8.137
>0 65 4 .2 5 8 ,0 9

19.133 8 .7 4 3 ,4 9 4 .2 2 9 ,2 0 140
53 5 .7 1 5 ,4 9
12 .9 9 8 2 3 .0 2 2 ,6 2 1 2 .0 8 1 ,9 4 336
>9 1 8 .0 3 0 ,9 1
5 .5 4 2 2 0 .8 0 8 ,5 1 1 0 .1 4 9 ,1 0 277
1 6 .2 8 2 ,1 0

15 2 5 .9 5 2 ,8 6 5 .8 9 3 3 9 .5 9 7 ,7 0 1 5 .6 3 3 ,8 0 480

11 2 6 .0 1 4 ,6 1 3 .7 0 0 4 7 .7 9 1 ,3 7 1 3 .9 2 4 ,3 0 646

>6 2 1 .2 4 7 ,0 8 2 .029 4 9 .5 9 4 ,0 8 9 .6 9 5 ,5 6 628

.5 1 3 .1 6 4 ,2 0 652 2 6 .2 5 6 ,5 5 4 .4 7 4 ,3 2 349

13 1 9 .3 5 1 ,5 5 939 5 1 .8 8 7 ,9 6 5 .4 4 7 ,6 9 478

5 1 5 .3 7 3 ,3 4 379 3 1 .6 0 4 ,2 0 2 .8 8 8 ,9 1 291

925 1 1 6 .1 1 2 ,6 3 6 .8 8 7 ,5 3 755
3 4 1 .3 6 6 ,0 8
895 2 6 1 .5 7 5 ,6 3 7 .9 8 9 ,7 5 950
14 7 0 .4 6 1 ,5 6
519 3 4 9 .6 6 8 ,1 6 6 .2 5 0 ,7 7 658
.1 6 4 .3 2 9 ,0 3
720 1 .0 7 1 .7 3 9 ,3 2 1 1 .4 7 4 ,1 6 832
1 9 5 .3 6 4 ,0 3

1 7 1 .6 4 2 ,1 7 897 2 .4 6 7 .1 1 8 ,9 1 5 .8 2 0 ,2 3 554

8 5 5 .3 6 4 ,3 6 282 . 1 .6 4 1 .2 7 3 ,6 4 3 .2 8 2 ,3 6 309

1 8 5 .8 5 0 ,6 5 146 3 .3 1 9 .4 4 9 ,0 5 2 .9 1 9 ,9 5 256

7 8 .7 4 8 ,0 7 610 177,98 1 7 7 ,9 8 198

a rio . 1950.
2.

I
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
PROPIAS DEL OPERADOR
PROPIAS DEL OPERADOR
o O perad o r con C o lo n o s, J o m a l e r o s , e t c .
O perad o r con Colonos,
S u p e r. con No. de S u p e rf. T o ta l J o m a l e r o s , e t c .,
C u lt iv . Has. In fo rm . H as. S u p e rf. con C u ltiv o s

1 2 3 .3 2 7 ,5 5 8 .137 1 2 .7 0 1 .0 7 6 ,5 7 29 0 .1 6 4 ,6 9

4 .2 2 9 ,2 0 140 8 5 ,00 58,07

1 2 .0 8 1 ,9 4 336 634,49 383,97

1 0 .1 4 9 ,1 0 277 1 .0 6 2 ,8 8 5 78,81

1 5 .6 3 3 ,8 0 480 3 .3 9 2 ,3 0 1 .7 4 0 ,4 5

1 3 .9 2 4 ,3 0 646 9 .1 5 6 ,3 6 4 .1 7 4 ,2 2

9 .6 9 5 ,5 6 628 1 6 .5 1 6 ,3 3 6 .3 1 2 ,9 8

4 .4 7 4 ,3 2 349 1 4 .4 4 8 ,6 2 5 .1 0 9 ,2 9

5 .4 4 7 ,6 9 478 2 8 .0 8 3 ,2 0 8 .4 3 5 ,1 0

2 .8 8 8 ,9 1 291 2 4 .6 9 4 ,3 0 6 .5 4 6 ,3 1

6 .8 8 7 ,5 3 755 1 0 4 .8 0 2 ,1 1 2 0 .4 7 0 ,6 1

7 .9 8 0 .7 5 950 2.90. 6 1 5 .?4 3 1 .0 3 0 ,6 9

6 .2 5 0 ,7 7 658 4 5 4 .0 0 1 ,7 2 2 9 .9 0 9 ,5 8

1 1 .4 7 4 ,1 6 832 1 .3 0 7 .8 8 9 ,8 2 4 4 .4 1 8 ,8 8

5 .8 2 0 ,2 3 554 1 .7 0 4 .2 7 2 ,0 0 3 6 .8 3 5 ,6 8

3 .2 8 2 ,3 6 309 1 .9 7 8 .6 8 2 ,7 9 3 6 .3 9 9 ,8 5

2 .9 1 9 ,9 5 256 6 .7 5 5 .4 6 0 ,2 9 5 0 .5 2 1 ,0 8

177,98 198 7 .2 3 9 ,1 2 7 .2 3 9 ,1 2

I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
?ROPIAS DEL OPERADOR ARRENDATARIOS

)p erad o r con C olonos, No. de S u p e r fic ie S u p erf. con


No. de
J o m a le ro s , e t c . , I n fo r - T o ta l Has. C ultivos
In fo r -
S u p erf. con C u ltiv o s mantes Has.
mantes

>90.164,69 1 3.598 1 .9 8 3 .7 6 4 ,6 3 44.466,68


3.033

58,07 4 .160 1 .4 7 3 ,2 8 1.064,38


959
383,97 3 .224 5 .6 4 7 ,5 1 3.836,11 908
578,81 1 .925 7 .0 2 0 ,9 2 4.370,00 271
1 .7 40,45 1 .727 1 1 .4 5 7 ,6 4 6.449,20 242
4 .1 7 4 ,2 2 1.019 1 3 .3 8 1 ,6 2 5 .164,47 112
6 .3 1 2 ,9 8 385 9 .4 9 2 ,5 5 2.217,19 57
5 .1 0 9 ,2 9 121 4 .9 0 1 ,3 7 753,07
10<
8 .4 3 5 ,1 0 122 6 .9 3 9 ,3 1 966,39
135
6 .5 4 6 ,3 1 65 5 .5 2 4 ,9 4 837,15
2
2 0 .4 7 0 ,6 1 182 2 2 .7 9 0 ,3 9 2.479,99
3
3 1.0 30,69 i/^. 4 8 .2 9 6 ,4 2 2 .6 3 1 ,7 1
2
2 9 .9 0 9 ,5 8 66 4 2 .6 2 5 ,8 3 2 .2 0 7 ,9 4

4 4 .4 1 8 ,8 8 129 1 8 3 .5 1 8 ,5 3 3 .2 7 9 ,0 6

3 6 .8 35,68 83 2 4 2 .2 4 7 ,8 2 4 .0 0 4 ,9 4

3 6 .3 9 9 ,8 5 30 2 0 2 .9 7 3 ,0 0 567,67

5 0 .5 2 1 ,0 8 41 1 .1 7 5 .3 5 0 ,7 3 3 .5 1 4 ,6 4

7 .2 3 9 ,1 2 150 122,77 122,77

I
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s COMUNARIC
MEDIEROS
Su perf. con
No. de S u p e r f ic ie S u perf. con No. de
C u ltiv o s In fo r -
I n fo r - T o ta l H as. C u ltiv o s
Has. mantes
mantes Has.

r4 .466,68
3.033 3 8 2 .1 1 4 ,7 2 5 .2 0 6 ,3 3 3.779

1 .0 6 4 ,3 8 278,81 221
959 417,07
3 .8 3 6 ,1 1 980,27 351
908 1 .4 8 9 ,7 4
4 .3 7 0 ,0 0 1 .0 0 3 ,1 3 559,20 143
271
6 .4 4 9 ,2 0 1 .5 9 1 ,9 7 662,21 221
242
5 .1 6 4 ,4 7 501,36 246
112 1 .3 6 0 ,4 9
2 .2 1 7 ,1 9 145,86 219
57 1 .4 8 6 ,7 3
753,07 283,73 140
109 4 .4 5 2 ,5 9
966,39 514,12 166
139 8 .4 5 6 ,9 5
837,15 119
27 2 .1 8 2 ,0 4 119,49
2 .4 7 9 ,9 9 124,85 290
39 5 .0 9 0 ,7 5
2 .6 3 1 ,7 1 808,00 421
24 6 .9 0 7 , j .0
2 .2 0 7 ,9 4 5 7 ,9 4 244
7 5 .3 8 4 ,2 6
3 .2 7 9 ,0 6 98,47 361
34 5 4 .4 1 5 ,7 0
4 .0 0 4 ,9 4 83,39 204
76 1 9 5 .5 8 6 ,5 0
567,67 19,50 145
8 4 2 .5 3 1 ,0 0
3 .5 1 4 ,6 4 0 ,7 6 146
2 4 9 .7 5 0 ,3 3
122,77 8,3 7 142
19 8 ,3 7

I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
COMUNARIOS
COMUNARIOS
S u p e r f . con No. de
S u p erf. con No. de S u p e r f ic ie
C u ltiv o s In fo r
C u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l H as. mant es
H as.
Has. mantes H as.

1 7 0 .1 0 6 ,4 4 617
5 .2 0 6 ,3 3 3.779 7 .1 7 8 .4 4 8 ,5 2

6 2 ,54 61
278,81 221 1 1 6 ,6 3
336,25 124
980,27 351 6 0 3 ,9 7
248,02 74
559,20 143 5 4 3 ,6 1
748,26 108
662,21 221 1 .5 3 1 ,5 8

3 .3 6 2 ,7 4 1 .5 5 3 ,3 0 57
501,36 246
2 .3 3 2 ,7 8 41
145,86 219 5 .6 0 5 ,5 2
2 .3 4 5 ,9 3 6
283,73 140 5 .8 9 4 ,0 5
3 .5 2 6 ,6 9 9
514,12 166 1 0 .2 3 4 ,9 5
4 .6 7 1 ,8 0 3
119,49 119 1 0 .2 6 9 ,0 4
1 0 .5 3 1 ,9 3 13
124,85 290 4 0 .7 3 0 ,0 5
2 7 .2 1 5 ,5 4 7
808,00 421 1 3 8 -3 2 9 ,2 5
2 5 .2 0 1 ,4 9 16
57,94 244 1 6 8 .1 5 1 ,1 4
3 4 .1 4 8 ,8 6 14
i 98,47 361 5 7 6 .5 2 6 ,0 4
2 4 .1 5 9 ,4 1 10
l 83,39 204 6 8 9 .9 4 2 ,1 0
1 4 .4 2 4 ,7 2 4
I 19,50 145 1 .1 5 3 .8 4 8 ,1 5
1 7 .5 4 7 ,0 9 1
t 0 ,7 6 146 4 .3 7 1 .7 0 7 ,9 2
1 .0 5 1 ,8 3 69
f 8 ,3 7 142 1 .0 5 1 ,8 3

I
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
COMUNARIOS
COMUNARIOS

S u p e r f . con No. de
S u p erf. con No. de S u p e r f ic ie
C u ltiv o s In fo r
C u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l Has.
H as. mant e s
Has. mantes H as.

1 7 0 .1 0 6 ,4 4 617
5 .2 0 6 ,3 3 3.779 7 .1 7 8 .4 4 8 ,5 2

221 6 2,54 61
,
278,81 116,63
336,25 124
9 80,27 351 603,97
2 48,02 74
I 5 5 9 ,2 0 143 5 43,61

r 7 48,26 108
6 62,21 221 1 .5 3 1 ,5 8

3 .3 6 2 ,7 4 1 .5 5 3 ,3 0 57
1 5 01,36 246
2 .3 3 2 ,7 8 41
\ 145,86 219 5 .6 0 5 ,5 2
2 .3 4 5 ,9 3 6
) 283,73 140 5 .8 9 4 ,0 5

1 0 .2 3 4 ,9 5 3 .5 2 6 ,6 9 9
) 514,12 166

1 0 .2 6 9 ,0 4 4 .6 7 1 ,8 0 3
r 119,49 119

4 0 .7 3 0 ,0 5 1 0 .5 3 1 ,9 3 13
) 124,85 290
2 7 .2 1 5 ,5 4 7
3 8 08,00 421 1 3 8 .3 2 9 ,2 5

1 6 8 .1 5 1 ,1 4 2 5 .2 0 1 ,4 9 16
5 5 7 ,9 4 244
3 4 .1 4 8 ,8 6 14
3 98,47 361 5 7 6 .5 2 6 ,0 4
2 4 .1 5 9 ,4 1 10
D 83,39 204 6 8 9 .9 4 2 ,1 0
1 4 .4 2 4 ,7 2 4
3 19,5 0 145 1 .1 5 3 .8 4 8 ,1 5

4 .3 7 1 .7 0 7 ,9 2 1 7 .5 4 7 ,0 9 1
3 0 ,7 6 146

1 .0 5 1 ,8 3 1 .0 5 1 ,8 3 69
7 8 ,3 7 142

I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-COMUNARIOS TOLERADOS POSEEDORES DE
TIERRAS FISCALES
S u p e rf. con No. de S u p erficie S u p e rf. con No. de
C u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l C u ltiv o s In fo r-
H as. m antes H as. H as. m antes

1 7 0 .1 0 6 ,4 4 617 105.425,65 1 .9 3 3 ,3 0 818


52

62,54 61 16,97 8 .1 8 65
63
336,25 124 223,84 1 42,58 183
97
. 248,02 74 273,46 1 60,00 85
61
748,26 108 692,35 355,98 108
58
1 .5 5 3 ,3 0 57 653,04 238,16 92
74
2 .3 3 2 ,7 8 41 890,56 . 149,23 80
52
2 .3 4 5 ,9 3 6 251,00 6 2 ,9 8 14
05
3 .5 2 6 ,6 9 9 497,75 8 8 ,0 0 21
95
4 .6 7 1 ,8 0 3 256,93 3 5,40 9
04
1 0 .5 3 1 ,9 3 13 1.609,50 1 28,63 26
05
2 7 .2 1 5 ,5 4 7 1.945.50 86,89 15
25
2 5 .2 0 1 ,4 9 16 12.417,00 1 59,26 . 16
14
3 4 .1 4 8 ,8 6 14 22.592,00 2 7 ,25 33
04
2 4 .1 5 9 ,4 1 10 30.800,00 39,57 21
10
1 4 .4 2 4 ,7 2 4 2 0 . 000,00 39,53 14
15
1 7 .5 4 7 ,0 9 1 12.300,00 207,91 11
92
1 .0 5 1 ,8 3 69 5,75 3 ,7 5 25
83

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
POSEEDORES DE
POSEEDORES DE TIERRAS FISCALES
TIERRAS FISCALES
S u p erf. con No. de
C u ltiv o s In fo r- S u p e r f ic i e Superf. con No. de
Has. T o ta l C ultivos I n fo r -
m antes Has.
Has. mantes

1 1 .9 3 3 ,3 0 818
4 3 9 .2 6 3 ,7 4 6.433,83 136

7 8 .1 8 65
2 4 ,77 12,39 8
4 1 4 2 ,5 8 1S3
3 2 9 ,8 3 266,57 6
6 160,00 85
3 0 9 ,5 6 210,59 4
5 355,98 108 379,32
744,17 11

4 238,16 92 431,05 9
1 .1 4 1 ,4 9
6 . 149,23 80 2 .1 3 2 ,8 9 374,20 2

0 6 2 ,9 8 14 4 47,07 134,88

5 8 8 ,0 0 21 1 .2 6 1 ,9 6 174,67 7

3 3 5 ,4 0 9 774,50 197,75 2

3 1 28,63 26 3 .0 4 4 ,0 0 583,80 8

3 86,89 15 4 .3 6 3 ,7 0 539,73 13

3 159,26 . 16 9 .1 3 1 ,0 0 322,62 13
3 27,2 5 33 4 9 .0 2 8 ,0 0 575,39 16
3 39,5 7 21 5 5 .9 1 1 ,5 0 57,08 16
3 3 9,5 3 14 7 1 .5 0 0 ,0 0 85,26 5
3 207,91 11 2 3 9 .1 0 0 ,0 5 2.069,28 12

j 3 ,7 5 25 19,25 19,25 4

I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
POSEEDORES DE TIERRAS FISCALES GRANJAS COOPERATIVAS SOC. AGRIC.

S u p e r f ic i e S u p e rf. con No. de S u p e r f ic i e S u p e rf. con


T o ta l C u ltiv o s In fo r- T o ta l C u3t1vos
H as. Has. m antes H as. Has

4 3 9 .2 6 3 ,7 4 6 .4 3 3 .8 3 136 4 3 3 .3 3 3 ,8 2 1 2 .6 1 9 ,2 7

2 4 ,7 7 1 2 ,39 8 2 ,6 2 1 ,9 2

329,83 266,57 6 9 ,5 9 3 ,2 2

3 0 9 ,5 6 210,59 4 1 4,40 6 ,3 8

744,17 379,32 11 7 8 ,24 2 3 ,6 4

1 .1 4 1 ,4 9 431,05 9 111,80 2 7,7 5

2 .1 3 2 ,8 9 3 74,20 2 4 5 ,0 0 1 9 ,2 8

447,07 134,88 ----- -----

1 .2 6 1 ,9 6 174,67 7 3 4 9 ,2 5 198,89

774,50 197,75 2 160,00 76,53

3 .0 4 4 ,0 0 583,80 8 9 3 5 ,0 0 158,74

4 .3 6 3 ,7 0 5 39,73 13 4 .0 0 0 ,0 0 1 " 9 ,25

9 .1 3 1 ,0 0 322,62 13 7 .9 5 3 ,0 0 219,43

4 9 .0 2 8 ,0 0 575,39 16 2 5 .1 7 0 ,0 0 1 .3 4 1 ,9 6

5 5 .9 1 1 ,5 0 5 7 ,0 8 16 4 8 .0 1 7 ,8 8 641,87

7 1 .5 0 0 ,0 0 8 5 ,26 5 3 5 .5 2 6 ,0 0 545,47

2 3 9 .1 0 0 ,0 5 2 .0 6 9 ,2 8 12 3 1 0 .8 3 6 ,0 4 9 .0 6 9 ,9 4

19,25 19,25 4 1 2 5 ,0 0 125,00

I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
46

owned t h r e e h e c ta r e s o r l e s s . T h is group owned a p p ro x im a te ly o n e - t h i r d

o f a p e r c e n t o f a l l la n d o f t h i s ty p e and y e t c u l t i v a t e d o v e r 50% o f

it. Those owning th e re m a in in g 99.67% , on th e o t h e r h an d , c u l t i v a t e d

o n ly 1.13%.

O ver th r e e - q u a r t e r s o f s o l e o p e r a to r s owned l e s s th a n te n

h e c ta re s each. The t o t a l amount o f la n d owned by th e s e in d i v i d u a l s was

l e s s th a n one p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l la n d o f t h i s ty p e and y e t o v e r 45%

o f i t was c u l t i v a t e d . Those s o l e o p e r a to r s owning more th a n te n h ec

t a r e s each c u l t i v a t e d an a v e ra g e o f o n ly . 86 % o f t h e i r la n d .

b) S o le Owned Land O p e ra te d w ith C o lo n o s, J o m a l e r o s , e t c . (la n d s


w orked by s e r f s , d a y - l a b o r e r s , e t c . )

N e a rly 45% o f th o s e in d i v i d u a l s engaged i n t h i s form o f la n d te n

u r e owned l e s s th a n 100 h e c t a r e s each o r a t o t a l o f l e s s th a n one p e r c e n t

(.77% ) o f a l l la n d s w orked i n t h i s m anner. P e rs o n s in t h i s c l a s s i f i c a

t i o n c u l t i v a t e d an a v e ra g e o f a p p ro x im a te ly 34% o f t h e i r la n d s ; i n c o n t r a s t ,

p e rs o n s owning 100 h e c t a r e s o r more c u l t i v a t e d a n a v e ra g e o f 2.04%.

A n o th er s i g n i f i c a n t d i v i s i o n g ro u p s lan d o w n ers w ith p r o p e r t i e s

o f - l e s s th a n 2 ,5 0 0 h e c t a r e s and th o s e w ith p r o p e r t i e s o f 2 ,5 0 0 h e c t a r e s

o r m ore. The group w ith s m a lle r la n d h o ld in g s ( l e s s th a n 2 ,5 0 0 h e c t a r e s )

com prised 83.81% o f th e t o t a l s o le ow ners o f la n d o p e r a te d w ith c o lo n o s ,

j o m a l e r o s , e t c . , b u t h e ld o n ly 17.76% o f th e t o t a l la n d . The s m a lle r

la n d h o ld in g s a r e c u l t i v a t e d w ith an i n t e n s i t y o f 7.06%; th e l a r g e r la n d

h o ld in g s w ith an i n t e n s i t y o f 1.25%.

c ) A r r e n d a ta r io s ( te n a n t f a r m e r s )

The m a jo r ity o f te n a n t fa rm e rs owned l e s s th a n one h e c t a r e , th e

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
47

a v e ra g e la n d h o ld in g c o n s is ti n g o f s l i g h t l y more th a n o n e - th i r d h e c t a r e .

T hese s m a ll p l o t s o f la n d w ere c u l t i v a t e d w ith h ig h i n t e n s i t y (72.25% ).

In 1950, o v er 91% o f a l l te n a n t fa rm e rs owned l e s s th a n 35

h e c ta re s each. C o l l e c t i v e l y , th e y h e ld l e s s th a n 2.5% o f la n d worked

b y t h i s form o f te n u r e ; how ever, th e s e s m a ll lan d o w n ers c u l t i v a t e d

a p p ro x im a te ly 52% o f te n a n t-fa rm e d la n d u n d er c u l t i v a t i o n .

T enant fa rm e rs w ith la r g e la n d h o ld in g s a r e n o te w o rth y f o r low

in te n s ity of c u ltiv a tio n . Those owning betw een 5 ,0 0 0 and 10,000

h e c t a r e s , f o r exam ple, h e ld 59.25% o f la n d worked u n d er t h i s form o f

te n u r e , b u t c u l t i v a t e d l e s s th a n .3% o f i t .

d ) M edieros (co -o w n ers)

Of a l l co-ow ners o f la n d , 61.56% h e ld l e s s th a n th r e e h e c t a r e s ,

t h i s la n d f a l l i n g i n t o even d i v i s i o n s betw een th o s e co-ow ners h o ld in g

l e s s th a n one h e c t a r e and th o s e h o ld in g betw een one and th r e e h e c t a r e s .

T h is t o t a l , how ever, com prised o n ly .5% o f a l l co-owned la n d . Of

th e s e la n d s , o v e r 66 % w ere c u l t i v a t e d a s compared to a p p ro x im a te ly

51% o f so le-o w n ed c u l t i v a t e d la n d .

The m a jo r ity o f la n d h e ld i n t h i s fo rm o f te n u r e (51.19%)

was owned by co-ow ners w ith betw een 1 ,0 0 0 and 2 ,500 h e c t a r e s . The p e r

c e n ta g e o f la n d c u l t i v a t e d by th e s e l a r g e lan d o w n ers was b u t 1.79%.

e ) Comunarios ( j o i n t ow ners)

Comunario la n d s w ere grouped in l a r g e h o ld in g s . The p e rc e n ta g e

o f j o i n t l y owned la n d c o n s t i t u t i n g p l o t s o f one h e c t a r e o r l e s s was

n e g l i g i b l e f o r t h i s s tu d y l e s s th a n . 01 %.

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48

T hese j o i n t ow ners h o ld in g 200 h e c t a r e s o r l e s s , a p p ro x im a te ly

56% o f a l l j o i n t o w n ers, c o l l e c t i v e l y owned o n ly 1 . 10 % o f la n d worked

i n t h i s m anner. A t o t a l o f 3.86% o f j o i n t ow ners h e ld a s i g n i f i c a n t

p e rc e n ta g e (60.9%) o f com unario la n d s .

The i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t i v a t i o n o f com unarios i s c o m p a ra tiv e ly

h ig h . In h o ld in g s o f up to 200 h e c t a r e s , a t l e a s t o n e - th i r d o f th e

la n d was u n d er c u l t i v a t i o n i n 1950.

f ) T o le ra d o s ( " s q u a t t e r s " )

Over 75% o f to l e r a d o s h e ld l e s s th a n 35 h e c ta r e s e a c h , alm o st

30% h o ld in g l e s s th a n t h r e e h e c t a r e s . L ess th a n 20% o f t h i s ty p e o f

la n d was h e ld by to l e r a d o s w ith l e s s th a n 1 ,0 0 0 h e c ta r e s e a c h , t h i s

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o n ta in in g o v e r 84% o f t h i s ty p e o f la n d h o ld e r . Only

f i v e in d i v id u a l s h e ld 3 2 ,3 0 0 h e c t a r e s , o v e r 30% o f t h i s p a t t e r n o f la n d

te n u re .

I n t e n s i t y o f c u l t i v a t i o n was h i g h e s t , 62.21%, among to le r a d o s

w ith betw een one and t h r e e h e c t a r e s . Almost 8 % o f c u l t i v a t e d la n d o f

t h i s ty p e was worked b y p e rs o n s h o ld in g l e s s th a n th r e e h e c t a r e s . The

f i v e to le r a d o s who h e ld o v e r 30% c u l t i v a t e d ap p ro x im a te ly 1.8% o f t h e i r

la n d .

g) T i e r r a s F is c a l e s ( f e d e r a l la n d s )

Of p e rs o n s who w orked f e d e r a l la n d s , alm o st 54% h e ld l e s s th a n

te n h e c t a r e s e a c h , a t o t a l o f .32% o f a l l la n d o f t h i s ty p e . T hese

la n d h o ld e r s c u l t i v a t e d 61.7% o f t h e i r la n d s , 13.5% o f th e t o t a l c u l t i

v a te d governm ent la n d . F e d e r a l la n d h o ld e rs w ith 500 o r few er h e c t a r e s

c o n s t i t u t e d 85.33% o f th e t o t a l f o r t h i s form o f te n u r e . T h is group

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49

h e ld o n ly 3.32% o f governm ent la n d b u t c u l t i v a t e d o v e r 50% o f th e

t o t a l c u l t i v a t e d la n d .

I t may be n o te d t h a t 32.16% o f a l l c u l t i v a t e d la n d was worked

by th o s e p e rs o n s h o ld in g 10,000 h e c t a r e s o r more (1.34% o f th e t o t a l

f e d e r a l la n d h o ld e r s ) . However, th e s e la r g e h o ld in g s w ere c u l t i v a t e d

w ith v e ry low i n t e n s i t y (1.46% ).

h ) G ra n ja s C o o p e ra tiv a s (c o o p e r a tiv e farm s)

C o o p e ra tiv e farm s o f l e s s th a n th r e e h e c ta r e s co m p rised l e s s

th a n . 0 1 % o f a l l g r a n ja s c o o p e r a tiv a s and th o s e co m p risin g l e s s th a n

35 h e c t a r e s , o n ly .06%. The g r e a t e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f la n d s h e ld in

c o o p e r a tiv e fa rm s, 71.73%, w ere grouped in ex p an ses o f 10,000 h e c t a r e s

o r m ore. A d d itio n a lly , o v er 71% o f la n d s c u l t i v a t e d u nder t h i s form o f

te n u r e w ere found i n h o ld in g s o f 1 0 ,0 0 0 h e c t a r e s o r m ore.

I t i s n o tew o rth y t h a t o n ly 2.88% o f a l l la n d s worked i n t h i s

fa s h io n w ere un d er c u l t i v a t i o n in 1950. A gain i t may b e se e n t h a t th e

s m a lle r la n d h o ld in g s w ere w orked w ith g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y . L andhold

in g s o f l e s s th a n 200 h e c ta r e s w ere c u l t i v a t e d w ith an i n t e n s i t y o f

30.27%; th o s e h o ld in g s o f 200 h e c t a r e s o r more w ith an i n t e n s i t y o f

2.80%.

C o n c lu sio n s

Land te n u re forms e x ta n t in B o liv ia p r i o r to th e R e v o lu tio n

f a l l i n t o two g ro u p s. The more common p a t t e r n s o f la n d te n u re found

i n th e h ig h la n d d ep artm en ts in v o lv e d group la b o r : l a t i f u n d i o s w orked

by c o lo n o s , j o r n a l e r o s , e t c . , la n d w orked by te n a n t fa r m e r s , la n d s

j o i n t l y h e ld and c o o p e ra tiv e fa rm s; th o s e p a t t e r n s o f te n u re more

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50

common to th e lo w lan d d e p a rtm e n ts w e re : la n d h e ld by " s q u a t t e r s , "

f e d e r a l la n d s , so le-o w n ed la n d and co-ow ned la n d .

I t i s n o te w o rth y t h a t i n th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts , worked

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y b y g ro u p s o f p e a s a n ts f o r a c l a s s o f e l i t e a b s e n te e

l a n d lo r d s , v io le n c e w ould b e g r e a t e s t i n th e r e v o lu tio n a r y u p h eav al

o f 1952-1964. A s m a ll l a t i f u n d i o c l a s s (615 in f o r m a n ts , o r .71% o f

th e t o t a l ) h e ld a p p ro x im a te ly 50% o f a l l la n d i n 1950, w h ile .13% of

a l l la n d was h e ld by 50% o f th e r u r a l p o p u la tio n i n h o ld in g s o f th r e e

h e c ta re s o r le s s .

P e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n was n e a r ly

e x c lu s iv e ly c o n fin e d to th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts w here th e overwhelm

in g m a jo r ity o f th e n a t i o n 's p o p u la tio n w as, and i s , c o n c e n tr a te d .

On th e eve o f th e R e v o lu tio n , th e m a jo r it y o f hacen d ad o s h e ld e s t a t e s

i n t h i s r e g io n . I n 1948, th e number o f h ig h la n d h a c ie n d a s , by d e p a r t

m ent, was: Cochabamba, 6 6 ,9 1 7 ; P o t o s i , 8 ,9 7 1 ; La P a z , 8 ,5 0 7 ; C h u q u isaca,

7 ,7 3 9 ; O ruro, 2 2 4 .^ H ig h lan d I n d ia n co m m u n ities, descended from th e

p r e - I n c a i c A y llu (e x te n d e d k in g ro u p ) num bered 502 a t t h i s tim e w ith

g r e a t e s t c o n c e n tr a tio n i n th e d e p a rtm e n ts o f La P az (282 com m unities)


2
and O ruro (213 c o m m u n itie s). As d a t a from th e Censo A g ro p ecu ario

o f 1950 shows, a v e ry few lan d o w n ers h e l d th e overw helm ing b u lk o f th e

n a t i o n a l dom ain; i n 1939, e i g h t h ace n d ad o s h e ld a combined a r e a one-


3
t e n t h th e s i z e o f th e R e p u b lic . E s t a t e s o f 6 ,6 2 1 ,1 3 8 h e c t a r e s and
4
1 ,4 6 2 ,5 0 0 h e c t a r e s w ere r e p o r te d i n 1950. The Bohan M is s io n , in 1942,

found two h a c ie n d a s o f 4 2,600 h e c t a r e s and 6 2 ,5 0 0 h e c t a r e s r e s p e c t i v e l y

i n Cercado P r o v in c e , O ruro D e p a rtm e n t, and r e p o r te d s e v e n ty -s e v e n

e s t a t e s o f betw een 1 ,0 0 0 and 1 0 ,5 0 0 h e c t a r e s i n th e Province."* C ocha-

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
51

bamba D ep artm en t, w ith a h ig h d e n s it y o f p o p u la tio n , c o n ta in e d a s i g

n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e number o f h a c ie n d a s p r i o r t o th e R e v o lu tio n . Im por

t a n t f o r l a t e r r e v o lu t io n a r y d ev elo p m en ts was th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f

l a t i f u n d i o s i n th e p r o v in c e s o f P u n a ta ( 1 6 ,7 6 3 ) , Q u ill a c o ll o ( 1 4 ,5 5 1 ),

C liz a ( 7 ,4 8 7 ) , T a r a ta ( 7 ,3 1 6 ) , C h ap are ( 6 ,3 2 0 ) , A ra n i ( 5 ,5 1 7 ) , and

C a p in o ta ( 4 ,1 6 8 ) .^

The p re c e d in g c e n su s d a t a d e m o n s tra te s th e extrem e i n e f f i c i e n c y

o f n e a r ly a l l form s o f B o liv ia n la n d te n u r e p r a c t ic e d in th e p r e

r e v o lu tio n a r y p e r io d , and s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n firm s th e c r i t i c a l o b se rv a

ti o n s made d u rin g th e p e r io d by f o r e ig n s tu d e n t s o f B o liv ia n a g r i

c u ltu ra l p ra c tic e s . I f any s i n g l e axiom may b e d e riv e d from th e d a t a ,

i t is : i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t i v a t i o n d e c lin e d i n ap p ro x im ate in v e r s e

p r o p o r tio n to in c r e a s e d s i z e o f la n d h o ld in g s . T hus, f o r exam ple,

in fo rm a n ts owning l e s s th a n t h r e e h e c t a r e s c u l t i v a t e d t h e i r p r o p e r ty

w ith an i n t e n s i t y o f 55.43% , w h ile la n d h o ld e r s w ith o v er t h r e e h ec

t a r e s c u l t i v a t e d an a v e ra g e o f 1.93% o f t h e i r la n d .

R e v o lu tio n was a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a g r a r i a n refo rm in

B o liv ia a s th e la n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y , w h ich d e r iv e d i t s s t a t u s from p o s

s e s s io n o f th e h a c ie n d a w ith i t s " b ig h o u s e ," c h a p e l and p e a s a n t w o rk e rs,

would n o t co u n ten an ce ch an g e . Andean i s o l a t i o n was p a r t l y r e s p o n s ib le

f o r th e c o n tin u a n c e o f t h i s sy stem :

A lthough u n d er p r e s s u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n o th e r a r e a s
o f L a t in A m erica, s o c i a l p r e s t i g e i n B o liv ia c o n tin u e s ' to b e
d ete rm in e d by c o n t r o l o f la n d r a t h e r th a n a more l i q u i d form
o f w e a lth ; t h e r e f o r e th e f i n c a h a s g r e a t s e n tim e n ta l v a lu e to
th e la n d lo r d and p r o v id e s th e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e so n e c e s s a r y
i n h i s c l a s s o f s o c i e t y .^

O b se rv e rs o f th e B o liv ia n h a c ie n d a n o te d th e c l o s e d , i n t r a n s i g e n t , and

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52

ig n o r a n t a t t i t u d e o f la n d lo r d s tow ard a g r a r i a n re fo rm and th e r e s e n t

m ent and h o s t i l i t y o f th e p e a s a n tr y o f te n e x p re s s e d i n v io le n c e in
g
th e y e a r s p re c e d in g th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n . C o n tin u an ce o f t h i s

sy stem r e s u l t e d p r im a r ily from th e "bonds o f e n fo rc e d ig n o ra n c e " o f


+ 9
th e p e a s a n t "and in many in s ta n c e s u n la w fu l c o e r c io n " o f th e p a tr o n .

On th e a l t i p l a n o " th e s t a t i c , u n h e a lth y r u r a l l i f e imposed by th e

deadhand m a n o ria l sy stem h as g iv e n r i s e t o a huge u rb a n p r o l e t a r i a t

w hich h a s rem ained la r g e l y u n p r o d u c tiv e , th e re b y in c r e a s in g th e p r e s

s u r e o f p o p u la tio n on th e A l t i p l a n o s m eagre food s u p p ly . . . . " ^

S a t i s f i e d w ith th e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e d e r iv e d from th e h a c ie n d a sy stem ,

th e B o liv ia n r u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y rem ained o b liv io u s to t h e i r n a tio n a l

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and th e need f o r re fo rm o f a sy stem begun in c e n tu r ie s

gone b y . F o re ig n o b s e rv e rs o f B o liv ia n h a c ie n d a l i f e on th e eve o f

th e R e v o lu tio n n o te d th e a d v en t o f r o a d s , th e r a i l r o a d and th e tru c k

l i n k s w ith th e modern w o rld and h a r b in g e r s o f change and s t r e s s e d

th e im pact o f th e s e f a c t o r s upon a h i t h e r t o i s o l a t e d p e a s a n t r y . ^ The

p r o s p e c t o f an awakened p e a s a n tr y and an i n t r a n s i g e n t r u r a l e l i t e

prom pted th e fo llo w in g p r o p h e tic ju d g m en t, w r i t t e n i n 1947: "A t h i r d

a lte rn a tiv e . . . i s a r e v o lu t io n t h a t w ould d is p o s s e s s th e p a tro n s

[ s i c ] and p la c e th e la n d s i n th e hands o f th o s e t h a t work them. Such

a c a ta s tr o p h e i s c e r t a i n to fo llo w i f th e p a tr o n c an n o t d em o n strate
12
h i s u s e f u ln e s s to s o c i e t y ."

S c a rc e ly f i v e y e a r s l a t e r t h i s p ro p h ecy w ould s e e f u l f i l l m e n t

i n th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53

N otes

^ R a fa e l A. R e y e ro s , H i s t o r i a S o c ia l d e l In d io B o liv ia n o (2nd
e d . , La P az: E d i t o r i a l F e n ix , 1 9 6 3 ), p . 9 .
2
R e y e ro s, H i s t o r i a S o c ia l d e l I n d io B o liv ia n o , p . 9 .
3
W illia m S. S to k e s , "The 'R e v o lu c iS n N a c io n a l' and th e MNR
i n B o l i v i a ," In te r-A m e ric a n Economic A f f a i r s , X II (S p rin g , 1 9 5 9 ),
p . 38.

^ S to k e s , "The R e v o lu cio n N a c io n a l and th e MNR................... "


p . 38.

^ R ey ero s, H i s t o r i a S o c ia l d e l In d io B o liv ia n o , p . 10.

^ R ey ero s, H i s t o r i a S o c ia l d e l In d io B o liv ia n o , p . 167.

^F rank L . K e l l e r , " F in c a I n g a v i: A M ed iev al S u r v iv a l on th e


B o liv ia n A l t i p l a n o , Economic G eography, XXVI (J a n u a ry , 1 9 5 0 ), p . 42.
g
D avid W eeks, "Land T enure in B o l i v i a , " J o u r n a l o f Land and
P u b lic U t i l i t y E conom ics, X X III (A ugust, 1 9 4 7 ), p . 328; and F rank L.
K e l l e r , " F in c a I n g a v i: A M ed iev al S u rv iv a l on th e B o liv ia n A l t i
p la n o ," p p . 3 7 -3 8 , 4 9 -5 0 .
g
F ran k L. K e l l e r , " F in c a I n g a v i: A M ed iev al S u r v iv a l on th e
B o liv ia n A l t i p l a n o , " p . 4 2 ; and David Weeks, "Land T enure i n B o l i v i a ,"
p p . 328, 331.

^ F r a n k L . K e l l e r , " F in c a In g a v i: A M ed iev al S u r v iv a l on th e
B o liv ia n A l t i p l a n o , " p . 49.

^ F r a n k L . K e l l e r , " F in c a I n g a v i: A M ed iev al S u r v iv a l on th e
B o liv ia n A l t i p l a n o , " p . 4 3 .
12
D avid W eeks, "Land T enure i n B o l i v i a , " p . 336.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IV. PEASANT AND REVOLUTION, APRIL 9 , 1952-AUGUST 2 , 1953

Exam ining th e r o le o f th e p e a s a n t i n th e d e s tr u c t io n o f th e

A ncien Regime, i t a p p e a rs t h a t two s e p a r a t e p h a se s need to b e made

d is tin c t: th e a c t u a l i n s u r r e c t i o n a r y p h a se o f r e v o lu tio n when an

e n tre n c h e d governm ent i s b e in g o v e rth ro w n ; and th e l a t e r p e rio d o f

c o n s o lid a tio n when th e r e v o l u t i o n , i f i t c u ts d e e p ly enough, becomes

s o c ia l. O ften i n s tr o n g ly c e n t r a l i z e d n a t i o n s , th e f i r s t o r in s u r

r e c t io n a r y p h a s e , o c c u rs in an u rb an c o n te x t w h ile th e second p h a s e ,

t h a t o f c o n s o lid a tio n , ta k e s p la c e i n a r u r a l c o n te x t. D uring th e

in s u r r e c t io n a r y p h ase o f th e B o liv ia n R e v o lu tio n , th e u rb an s tr o n g

h o ld s o f pow er, La P a z , P o t o s i , S a n ta C ru z , Cochabamba, O ru ro , T a r i j a ,

w ere s e iz e d by th e r e v o lu tio n a r y f o r c e s . M in e rs , f a c t o r y and r a i l r o a d

w o rk e rs, MNR c o n s p ir a t o r s , to w n sp eo p le and c a r a b in e r o s to g e th e r w ith

d i s a f f e c t e d members o f th e armed f o r c e s com bined to o u s t th e o lig a r c h y

d u rin g t h i s p h a s e , A p r il 9 -1 3 , 1 9 5 2 .^ P e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v ery

l i m it e d h e r e , a lth o u g h th e s t r u g g l e i n La Paz may h ave b e n e f i t e d , in


2
p a r t , from p e a s a n t s u p p o r t.

A lfre d o C andia G ., d u rin g t h i s p e r io d an MNR s u p p o r te r and

one o f th e p r i n c i p a l c o n s p ir a to r s i n th e R e v o lu tio n , a lle g e d t h a t th e

i n s u r r e c t io n was e l a b o r a t e l y p la n n e d , c o n s i s t i n g o f two p o s s i b le p h a s e s .

Due to e a r l y s u c c e s s , th e R e v o lu tio n d id n o t p ro c e e d f u r t h e r th a n th e

f i r s t , u rban p h a s e . I f n e c e s s a r y , th o u g h , th e M o v im ie n tista s had

p re p a re d f o r th e c o n tin g e n c y o f a lo n g e r i n s u r r e c t i o n w hich would have

pushed in t o th e r u r a l s e c t o r , th u s i n i t i a t i n g a second p h a s e . In t h i s

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55

e v e n t th e MNR had p la n n e d to e n l i s t p e a s a n t s u p p o rt i n th e d e p a rtm e n ts


4
o f La P a z , O ru ro , P o to s f , Cochabamba, S u c re , and T a r i j a . A m assiv e

g e n e r a l s t r i k e i n th e u rb a n c e n t e r s by f a c t o r y and r a i l r o a d w o rk ers

was p la n n e d t o c o in c id e w ith th e p e a s a n t r e v o l t . Only th e b ro a d o u t

l i n e s o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l scheme a r e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , b u t th e e v i

dence i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e MNR was a p p r is e d o f th e d if f e r e n c e s among th e

B o liv ia n p e a s a n tr y , th e a r e a s o f d e n s e s t p e a s a n t p o p u la tio n , and th e

c a p a c ity f o r v io le n c e among p e a s a n ts o f v a r io u s r e g io n s . T hat t h i s

p la n n ed p h ase o f th e R e v o lu tio n was t o h av e u t i l i z e d p e a s a n ts from th e

h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts s u g g e s ts t h a t th e MNR h ad some know ledge o f r u r a l

c o n d itio n s ; t h i s would be th e r e g io n m ost m arked by r u r a l v io le n c e

d u rin g th e R e v o lu tio n . A lfre d o C a n d ia s d i s c l o s u r e , i f v a l i d , f u r t h e r

s u g g e s ts t h a t th e MNR in 1952 was much more d e s p e r a te i n i t s r e v o lu

tio n a r y d e s ir e s th a n th e y h ad b een i n th e c i v i l w ar o f 1949 when

p e a s a n t s u p p o rt was n o t so u g h t b e c a u se o f f e a r among some MNR l e a d e r s

about th e co n seq u en ces o f u n le a s h in g a p e a s a n t movement.^

C o n v e n tio n a l wisdom p o r t r a y s th e MNR le a d e r s h ip a s p ra g m a tic

i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to th e q u e s tio n o f a g r a r i a n re fo rm . The A g ra ria n

Reform D ecree o f A ugust 2 , 1 9 5 3 , i t i s g e n e r a lly a rg u e d , was a p o l i t i

c a l l y in s p i r e d move aim ed a t e n h a n c in g th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movements

p o s i t i o n as r e f o r m i s t a f t e r th e p e a s a n ts h a d , in f a c t , a lre a d y p o s

s e s s e d th e land.** A cco rd in g to R ic h a rd P a tc h , " th e In d ia n p o p u la tio n o r

g a n iz e d s y n d ic a te s in d e p e n d e n t o f th e governm ent and f o r c e d en actm en t o f

an a g r a r ia n re f o r m ," and " th e MNR h ad p la n s f o r an e v e n tu a l a g r a r i a n

re fo rm , b u t no p la n n e d re fo rm co u ld h av e b e e n a s sw eeping a s th e one

i n i t i a t e d by th e I n d ia n s th e m s e lv e s and o n ly fo rm a liz e d by th e governm ent

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56

d e c re e - la w o f A ugust 2 , 1 9 5 3 ."^ T h u s, th ro u g h th e D e c re e , th e MNR o n ly

g r a n te d l e g a l s a n c tio n to an a lr e a d y e x i s t i n g c o n d itio n i n th e c o u n try

s id e . A r e l a t e d q u e s tio n w hich h a s g e n e r a te d d e b a te among a c a d em ician s

c o n c e rn s th e p ro c e s s by w hich p e a s a n ts su c c e e d e d i n o b ta in in g t h e i r

la n d s . R ic h ard P a tc h a rg u e s t h a t th e r e v o lu t io n a r y im p etu s i n th e

r u r a l s e c t o r s p ra n g from th e Cochabamba V a lle y w here cam pesinos around

U cu ren a, a lre a d y o rg a n iz e d i n s y n d ic a te s and u n d e r th e le a d e r s h ip o f

J o s R o ja s , tu rn e d o u t th e p a t r o n e s , s e iz e d t h e i r la n d s and s e n t o u t

a c a d re o f p e a s a n t a g i t a t o r s who " o f te n . . . w ere th e f i r s t to b r in g

news o f th e r e v o lu t io n to I n d ia n v i l l a g e s o f rem o te v a l l e y s and l o f t y


8
p la te a u s ." T hus, a c c o rd in g to P a tc h , " a s th e w ild f i r e o f r e v o l t

and hope ra c e d th ro u g h th e v i l l a g e s , th e e n t i r e cam pesino movement was

c o m p le te ly o u ts id e th e c o n t r o l o f th e n a t i o n a l governm ent o r th e MNR


9
p a r ty l e a d e r s . The o n ly c e n t e r i t re c o g n iz e d was U c u re n a ." T h is

argum ent w hich s t r e s s e s th e L i t t l e T r a d i tio n a s th e p rim e c a u s a l f a c t o r

i n th e s p re a d o f r e v o lu t io n th ro u g h th e c o u n tr y s id e h a s a t t r a c t e d a

number o f a d h e r e n t s . ^ A n o th er a rg u m e n t, advanced by Dwight B. H eath ,

dow nplays th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n tr y i n t h i s a s p e c t o f th e R e v o lu tio n

w h ile fo c u s in g upon th e r o l e o f th e MNR a g i t a t o r s and s y n d ic a te o rg a n

iz e r s .^ T h is c o n f l i c t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s u n d e r s ta n d a b le , g iv e n

th e m ethodology employed by th e p r o t a g o n i s t s . As e t h n o l o g i s t s , b o th

P a tc h and H eath o r i g i n a l l y u n d e rto o k l o c a l i z e d s t u d i e s (P a tc h : th e

U curena a r e a ; H eath: th e Y u n g as), l a t e r o f f e r i n g n a t i o n a l g e n e r a l i

z a t io n s b a se d on r e s u l t s o b ta in e d from s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The

problem w ith t h i s a p p ro ac h l i e s i n i t s u se o f in d u c tiv e r e a s o n in g w hich

ig n o r e s B o liv ia n r e g io n a lis m . D ata v a l i d f o r th e U curena a r e a o f th e

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57

Cochabamba V a lle y , o r f o r th e Y ungas, may v e ry w e ll n o t be a p p lic a b le

to th e a l t i p l a n o . B o li v ia , w ith i t s g r e a t d i v e r s i t y , does n o t le n d

i t s e l f to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e .

T h is c h a p te r w i l l exam ine th e i n i t i a l p e r io d o f th e R e v o lu tio n

i n th e r u r a l s e c t o r from A p r il 9 , 1952, t o th e A g ra ria n Reform D ecree

o f A ugust 2 , 1953. The l a t t e r d a te i s an a r b i t r a r y one from th e s ta n d

p o in t o f a c t u a l r u r a l dev elo p m en ts and i n no s e n s e r e p r e s e n ts a w a te r

shed f o r th e u n f o ld in g o f r u r a l h i s t o r y a t t h i s tim e . R a th e r, i t s e rv e s

a s a l e g a l landm ark d iv id in g B o liv ia n h i s t o r y i n t o p r e - and p o s t-

A g ra ria n Reform p e r io d s . T h is c h a p te r w i l l be concerned w ith th e

i n t e n s i t y and d i r e c t i o n o f p r e s s u r e s w hich u lt i m a t e l y le d to th e en

actm en t o f an A g ra ria n Reform D e c re e .

H i s t o r i c a l l y , i f o n ly i n a l e g a l s e n s e , i t can be d em o n strated

t h a t th e MNR was co n cern ed w ith th e s t a t u s o f th e p e a s a n t. As a lre a d y

r e l a t e d , d u rin g th e V i l l a r r o e l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , law s w ere e n a c te d

a b o lis h in g some o f th e more i n e q u i t a b l e form s o f p e r s o n a l s e r v itu d e

p r a c t ic e d i n th e c o u n try . The law s w ere n o t e n fo rc e d due to th e power

o f th e o lig a r c h y , and th e r u r a l s t a t u s quo rem ained u n in te r r u p te d .

A nything s h o r t o f a th o ro u g h g o in g s o c i a l r e v o lu t io n would le a v e th e

p r e v a i l i n g s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e u n im p aired and th u s c a p a b le o f

s u b v e r tin g l e g a l s a n c tio n s p o s i t i n g a t h r e a t to th e e s ta b l is h e d o r d e r .

Thus i t seems u s e l e s s to c r i t i c i z e th e M N R -V illarro el a d m in is tr a tio n

f o r f a i l u r e to im plem ent t h i s s e r i e s o f la w s . P o litic a l r e a litie s a t

th e tim e c e r t a i n l y o b v ia te d e n fo rcem en t o f refo rm l e g i s l a t i o n . However,

th e f a c t t h a t t h i s a d m in is tr a t io n co n cern ed i t s e l f w ith problem s o f r u r a l

e d u c a tio n o r p e r s o n a l s e r v it u d e i n d i c a t e s a d e g re e o f i n t e r e s t i n re fo rm .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
58

The MM, w h ile i t f a i l e d t o h av e a s p e c i f i c a g r a r i a n refo rm


12
program , d id h av e a g e n e r a l view o f r u r a l n e e d s by A p r il 9 , 1952. As

e a r l y a s 1942, i n i t s "P rogram and P r i n c i p l e s o f A c tio n ," th e p a r ty

re c o g n iz e d th e n eed f o r a s tu d y o f th e I n d ia n a g r a r i a n problem i n o rd e r

to in c o r p o r a te th e p e a s a n tr y i n t o th e n a t i o n a l l i f e and r e s t r u c t u r e
13
th e a g r i c u l t u r a l economy.

Im m ed iately f o llo w in g th e i n s u r r e c t i o n a r y p h a se o f th e Revolu

t i o n , a c t in g P r e s id e n t H ernan S i l e s a p p o in te d a p r o v i s i o n a l c a b in e t
14 ^
w hich d id n o t in c lu d e a M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s . N uflo Chavez

O r t i z , l a t e r a p p o in te d M in is te r o f P e a s a n t and I n d ia n A f f a ir s by P re s i

d e n t Paz E s te n s s o r o , was a t t h i s tim e a s s ig n e d th e p o s i t i o n o f M in is te r

o f Work and S o c ia l P r o v is io n . P o p u la r p r e s s u r e s f o r a g r a r i a n refo rm

s u rfa c e d a s e a r l y a s A p r il 1 6 , 1 9 52, when P r e s i d e n t Paz E s te n s s o r o ,

r e tu r n in g to E l A lto A ir p o r t from e x i l e i n A r g e n tin a , was g re e te d by

a crowd o f 6 0,000 s u p p o r t e r s , many o f whom c a r r i e d s ig n s a s k in g f o r

a g r a r ia n r e f o r m . ^ L a te r H ernan S i l e s , i n a p u b lic sp e e c h , tr a c e d

MM h i s t o r y from i t s b e g in n in g i n 1941, n o ti n g a p r o je c te d program o f

v a s t scope w hich would in c o r p o r a te th e p e a s a n t i n t o th e p o l i t i c a l and

econom ic l i f e o f B o l i v i a . ^ W ith in th e R e v o lu tio n a ry movement, th e

l e f t i s t V an g u ard ia w ing q u ic k ly p u sh ed f o r a c t i o n on th e r u r a l q u e s tio n

and i n a l e t t e r t o th e P r e s id e n t a sk ed f o r im m ediate l i q u i d a t i o n o f

l a t i f u n d i o and im provem ent o f r u r a l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . ^

I n re s p o n s e to th e need f o r g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n tow ard th e r u r a l

s e c t o r , a M in is tr y o f I n d ia n and P e a s a n t A f f a i r s was e s t a b l i s h e d , and

tw e n ty -e ig h t y e a r o ld N u flo ChSvez O r t i z was a p p o in te d to th e o f f i c e


18
o f M in is te r . The new c a b in e t p o s t in c o r p o r a te d a w ide ran g e o f

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59

re s p o n s ib ilitie s . In a d d i tio n to th e b ro a d ta s k s o f in c o r p o r a tin g th e

I n d ia n groups i n t o th e n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , s tu d y in g th e n eed s o f a g r i

c u l t u r a l w o rk e rs, im proving r u r a l h e a l t h and h y g ie n e , u rg in g c o lo n i

z a t i o n , and d e v e lo p in g c r e d i t i n a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a tiv e s , th e M in is tr y

was to d e a l w ith p e a s a n t j u s t i c e , law and e d u c a tio n a s w e ll a s sp o n so r


19
a n th r o p o lo g ic a l and a r c h a e o lo g ic a l s t u d i e s .

N uflo C havez, from a w e a lth y landow ning fa m ily in S an ta C ruz,

e n e r g e t i c a l l y a d d re s s e d h im s e lf to th e p ro b lem s o f th e M in is tr y . In

an in te r v ie w h e ld i n th e e a r l y m onths o f th e R e v o lu tio n , S r. Chlivez

d is c u s s e d th e ta s k s o f th e m in is tr y w hich e n v is io n e d a new a g r a r ia n

o r d e r b ased on I n d ia n com m unities w o rk in g th e la n d c o o p e r a tiv e ly . He

c a u tio n e d a g a in s t p o s s i b le dev elo p m en ts s i m i l a r to th o s e o f 1880 when

an e r s tw h ile move to d ev elo p p e a s a n t h o ld in g r e s u l t e d i n trem endous

t e r r i t o r i a l lo s s e s by th e I n d ia n communes and co n co m ita n t g a in s by th e


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o lig a r c h y . The M in is te r s t a t e d h i s o p p o s itio n to th e m in ifu n d io

sy stem o f a g r a r ia n re fo rm on th e gro u n d s t h a t su ch d iv i s i o n would be


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p r e j u d i c i a l to p r o d u c tio n . U n p ro d u ctiv e f in c a s and h a c ie n d a s would,,

how ever, be e x p r o p r ia te d and p la c e d u n d e r th e t e c h n ic a l d i r e c t i o n o f

th e s t a t e . U ltim a te ly th e m i n is tr y s o u g h t developm ent o f human r e

so u rc e s. T h is n e c e s s i t a t e d a b o l i t i o n o f th e t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l s o c i a l

sy ste m b a se d on " m a s te r - s la v e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s and th e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a


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wage la b o r sy stem . A t t h i s tim e th e M in is tr y ad v o c a te d c r e a tio n o f

c o l l e c t i v e work c o n t r a c t s w ith th o s e p a tr o n e s am enable to a change in


23
r u r a l s t r u c t u r e com m ensurate w ith modern te c h n iq u e s . T h is ap p ro ach

was c o n s is te n t w ith an e a r l i e r s ta te m e n t i n w hich Chavez d e c la r e d : "We

a r e g o in g to o r i e n t th e A g ra ria n Reform aro u n d th e b a se o f s tr e n g th e n in g

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60

c o l l e c t i v e communal p r o p e r ty and im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e c a p i t a l i s t s ta g e


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i n p r i v a t e p r o p e r ty , l i q u i d a t i n g f e u d a lis m ." E a r l i e r Chavez ta lk e d

o f m e c h a n iz a tio n o f In d ia n com m unities a s w e ll a s o f th e need f o r g r e a t e r

e f f o r t s i n e d u c a tio n "to w ard th e end o f e f f e c t i v e l y in c o r p o r a tin g th e


25
two m i lli o n In d ia n s i n t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . "

The a g r a r ia n p ro b lem , Chavez d e c l a r e d , was p r im a r ily p o l i t i c a l

b u t a ls o in v o lv e d t e c h n ic a l and econom ic c o n s id e r a tio n s . The p o l i t i c a l

problem was to be s o lv e d b y , o r th r o u g h , th e i n t e g r a t i o n o f th e r u r a l

m asses i n t o n a t io n a l l i f e . ' The re m a in in g t e c h n i c a l and econom ic con

s i d e r a t i o n s would b e a tta c k e d by a r e v o lu t io n a r y change i n r u r a l a g r i

c u ltu ra l p ra c tic e s . L a tif u n d io s and c h u rc h la n d h o ld in g s would b e ex

p r o p r ia t e d and g iv e n to p e a s a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h is move would a t

once enhance th e s t a t u s o f th e p e a s a n tr y and d e s tr o y th e r u r a l la n d

te n u re s t r u c t u r e . Any new c a p i t a l i s t c y c le sh o u ld b e c o n tin g e n t upon

th e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y . The n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f th e

la n d d e se rv e d a l l th e n a t i o n 's e n e r g i e s ; and th e p ro c e s s o f a g r a r i a n

re fo rm , re a so n e d th e M in is te r , was a b o u r g e o is m ethod, b u t n o n e th e le s s

would a c q u ir e p ro fo u n d r e v o lu tio n a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s e r v in g to u n i t e

th e cam pesino c l a s s . ^

The M i n i s t r y 's ap p ro ach to th e a g r a r i a n re fo rm is s u e was marked

by m o d e ra tio n ; r a d i c a l p a r c e l i z a t i o n o f th e la n d a s o c c u rre d i n th e

M exican R e v o lu tio n was opposed b e c a u se o f i t s p r e j u d i c i a l e f f e c t s on

p r o d u c tio n ; o n ly u n p ro d u c tiv e f in c a s w ere to b e e x p r o p r ia te d and p a tro n e s

who ag ree d to c o o p e ra te w ith th e re fo rm p ro g ram w ould b e g iv e n work

c o n t r a c ts f o r r u r a l la b o r ; a new r u r a l sy ste m o f wage la b o r e r s was to

b e c r e a te d . MNR p ropaganda showed r e s t r a i n t and m o d e ra tio n i n t r e a t i n g

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61

th e a g r a r i a n p ro b lem w ith th e o r d e r o f A g ra ria n Reform s t r e s s e d o v e r


27
th e " a n a rc h y o f th e A g r a r ia n R e v o lu tio n ." M o d eratio n may a l s o be

seen i n th e f a i l u r e o f th e MNR t o s a n c ti o n r u r a l v io le n c e by th e p e a s

a n try * i t s c r e a t i o n o f a r u r a l m o b ile p o li c e f o r c e to r e s t r a i n r u r a l

a g i t a t i o n , th e re b y d is c o u r a g in g a tte m p ts a t r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n o f th e

s t a t u s quo, i t s r e p e a te d p l e a s f o r c o n tin u e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p ro d u c tio n

w hich w ould n e c e s s i t a t e r u r a l s t a b i l i t y , d e n u n c ia tio n and e n c a r c e r a -

t i o n o f r u r a l a g i t a t o r s e n c o u ra g in g r e v o lu t io n a r y means f o r en d in g

th e t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l o r d e r , a r r e s t o f r a d i c a l s y n d ic a l l e a d e r s , and

g u a ra n te e s o f r u r a l p r o p e r ty . I n sum, t h i s f e a r o f v io l e n c e , empha

s i s on s t a b i l i t y and m o d e ra tio n , r e s p e c t f o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r ty ( e x c e p t,

o f c o u r s e , la r g e f in c a s ) s u g g e s ts t h a t MNR le a d e r s h ip was m o tiv a te d

by m o d erate m id d le - c la s s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . A g la n c e a t th e move

m e n t's l e a d e r s , m o s tly drawn from m id d le - c la s s o c c u p a tio n s e c o n o m is ts ,


28
la w y e rs , w r i t e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s c o n firm s t h i s ju d g m en t. The te rm
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" r e s t r a i n e d r e v o lu t io n " i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l ic a b l e to t h i s p e r io d .

D uring th e e a r l y d ay s o f th e R e v o lu tio n th e MNR co n cern ed i t

s e l f p r im a r ily w ith th e fo rm a tio n o f com m ittees to d is c u s s th e p e a s a n t

s e c t o r , m e e tin g s w ith p e a s a n t d e l e g a t i o n s , and r e i t e r a t i o n o f th e

g o v e rn m e n t's p o s i t i o n r e g a r d in g p r e v io u s ly e n a c te d re fo rm l e g i s l a t i o n .

Ten days a f t e r th e R e v o lu tio n b e g a n , th e M in is te r o f P e a s a n t and I n d ia n

A f f a i r s i n v j t e d a group o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p e a s a n ts to m eet w ith him


30 . . .
and d is c u s s th e o r g a n iz a ti o n o f th e new M in is tr y . A t th e tim e i t was

announced t h a t th e m i l i t a r y w ould assum e th e t a s k o f i n s t r u c t i n g p e a -


31
s a n ts o f d r a f t age i n th e u s e o f farm m a ch in ery .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
62

B eg in n in g i n th e f i r s t month o f th e R e v o lu tio n , cam pesino

d e le g a tio n s from v a r io u s d e p a rtm e n ts a r r i v e d i n La Paz s e e k in g a u d i

e n c e s w ith th e P r e s id e n t o r w ith N u flo C havez. The d e le g a tio n s e x p re s s e d

a l le g ia n c e t o th e r e v o lu tio n a r y governm ent and to th e h e r i t a g e o f G u al-

b e r t o V i l l a r r o e l and p r e s e n te d p e t i t i o n s r e q u e s tin g v a r io u s l y , la n d

r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , improvement o f r u r a l h y g ie n e , t a x r e d u c tio n s on co c a

and f r u i t s , a g r a r ia n te c h n ic i a n s , a r u r a l work co d e, s c h o o ls , d r u g s ,

v e .t e r i n a r i a n s . 32

T hroughout t h i s e a r l y p e r io d , th e MNR governm ent a ffirm e d ad

h e re n c e to p re v io u s a g r a r ia n re fo rm s , e s p e c i a l l y th o s e m easu res e n -
33
a c te d d u rin g th e RADEPA-MNR a d m in is tr a t io n o f 1943-1946. The MNR

r e i t e r a t e d i t s s u p p o rt and co n ce rn f o r th e p e a s a n tr y w h ile u n d e rs c o r

in g i t s re fo rm lin e a g e tr a c e d th ro u g h th e V i l l a r r o e l a d m in is tr a tio n

and th e Toro-B usch p . r i o d . I n a more c o n c re te a c t r e f l e c t i n g i n t e r e s t

i n th e p e a s a n tr y as w e ll as a good d e a l o f p o l i t i c a l acumen, th e MNR

f r e e d p e a s a n t le a d e r s im p riso n ed by th e o lig a r c h y f o r p o l i t i c a l a g i t a -
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tio n . A d d itio n a lly , th e two d e c r e e s a b o lis h in g p o n g u eaje and

m ita n a je , w hich had b een d e c la r e d i l l e g a l by th e V i l l a r r o e l a d m in is -


35
t r a t i o n , w ere r e a f f ir m e d .

P e a s a n t re s p o n s e to th e R e v o lu tio n g e n e r a lly f e l l in t o th r e e

c a t e g o r ie s : r e f u s a l to w ork f o r la n d lo r d s on th e grounds t h a t th e

May 15, 1945 D ecree, s t a t i n g t h a t co lo n o s co u ld n o t b e f o r c e d to work

w ith o u t p re v io u s co n sen t and j u s t r e t r i b u t i o n , c o n s ti tu te d l e g a l

p re c e d e n t f o r such a c t io n ; l e g a l a p p e a l f o r e x p r o p r ia tio n o f l a t i -
36
fu n d ia s ; and a c t u a l s e iz u r e and d i v i s i o n o f la n d . P easant s tr ik e s ,

b a s e d on th e p re c e d e n t o f th e V i l l a r r o e l D ecree o f May 1 5 , 1945, w ere

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
63

p r im a r ily c o n fin e d to th e f i r s t few m onths o f th e R e v o lu tio n . L a te r,

a s th e p r o s p e c t o f an A g ra ria n Reform D ecree grew c l o s e r , p e a s a n ts r e

fu s e d to w ork, p r e f e r r i n g t o w a it f o r th e D ecree w hich w ould g r a n t them

t h e i r own la n d s . L e g a l a p p e a ls f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f la n d began s h o r t l y

a f t e r th e o n s e t o f r e v o lu tio n w ith some p e a s a n ts a d v an c in g cla im s

d a tin g b ack c e n t u r i e s . P e a s a n ts o f th e commune o f C h ru n g a lla p r e

s e n te d a p e t i t i o n w hich th e community h ad b een p r e s s in g f o r s e v e n ty -

two y e a r s , and th e A y llu H i l a t a , w ith docum ents d a t in g from th e Span-

i s t c o n q u e s t, pushed f o r l e g a l r e v e r s io n o f la n d l o s t in th e more r e c e n t
38
p a s t. P e a s a n ts i n P o to s i and C h u q u isaca D ep artm en ts p e t i t i o n e d f o r

th e e x p r o p r ia tio n o f e x - p r e s id e n t Mamerto U r r i o l a g o i t i a 's h a c ie n d a

and th e f in c a "Buena V is ta " ( P o to s i) and "O ropoza" (C h u q u isa c a ), c i t -


39
in g th e law s p assed d u rin g th e V i l l a r r o e l a d m in is tr a t io n as p r e c e d e n t.

In March and A p r il, 1953, p e a s a n ts in th e d e p a rtm e n ts o f S ucre and

Cochabamba began s e i z i n g la n d s . T h is method o f r e d i s t r i b u t i o n was

r e l a t i v e l y w id esp read i n th e Cochabamba re g io n o f V i l l a V is c a r r a ,

Sacabamba, M a ta ra n i, M achacam arca, C h i l i c c h i , Ayamampu, and S ik im ira

w here co lo n o s c e a se d w orking f o r la n d lo r d s and b egan w orking p a r c e ls


41
o f la n d f o r th e m s e lv e s .

Hacendados w ere n o t f a v o r a b ly d is p o s e d to w ard p e a s a n ts who

su d d en ly d e f ie d t r a d i t i o n a l so c io -e c o n o m ic norm s. The su d d en n ess o f

th e R e v o lu tio n , rum ors o f r u r a l u p r i s i n g s , and f e a r o f lo n g su p p re s se d

h o s t i l i t y combined w ith th e i s o l a t i o n o f r e s id e n c e among th e In d ia n

m asses o b v io u s ly d is tu r b e d th e r u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y . R esponses to t h i s

s i t u a t i o n v a r ie d . Some p a tro n e s f l e d t o th e c i t i e s , lo n g c e n te r s o f

w h ite and m e stiz o c u l t u r e ; o th e r s a tte m p te d to m a in ta in th e e s t a b l i s h e d

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
64' .

o r d e r th ro u g h c o e rc io n and v io le n c e ; s t i l l o th e r s a p p e a le d to th e
42
r e v o lu tio n a r y governm ent f o r r e a s s u r a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n . A t P a ta -

m anta, on th e a l t i p l a n o , a la n d lo r d c o n tin u in g to w ie ld c o n s id e r a b le

power d ir e c te d an a t t a c k by c a r a b in e r o s from P u c a ra n i a g a i n s t a p e a s a n t .
43
c o n c e n tr a tio n which r e s u l t e d in numerous c a s u a l t i e s . And i n th e

Cochabamba V a lle y th e P r e f e c t d is p a tc h e d p o li c e and an a g r a r i a n i n

s p e c to r to c o n tr o l a p e a s a n t g a th e r in g on th e p r o p e r ty o f an i n f l u -
44
e n t i a l la n d lo r d . A n o th er re s p o n s e to f e a r o f a g r a r i a n refo rm was

th e l e g a l s u b d iv is io n o f l a t i f u n d i o among numerous h e i r s . O th er la n d s
45
w ere s o ld o u t r i g h t .

The s i t u a t i o n was f r ig h t e n in g f o r th o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e

O ld O rd e r, h e i r s to f o u r c e n t u r ie s o f e l i t e d o m in a tio n . S u b co n scio u s

f e a r s from i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f p e a s a n ts would h a u n t g u i l t y p a tr o n e s ;

c o n s c io u s f e a r s o f p e a s a n t v io le n c e would add to i n s e c u r i t y . In l a t e r

y e a rs p e a s a n t h o s t i l i t y to u r b a n ite s would f u r t h e r s p re a d a p p re h e n sio n

among th e u p p er and m iddle c l a s s e s . But d u rin g th e 1952-1953 r e v o lu

ti o n a r y y e a rs th e r u r a l o lig a r c h y s t i l l so u g h t t o r e t a i n a d e g re e o f

c o n t r o l o v e r e v e n ts .

P e a s a n t r e a c tio n to th e R e v o lu tio n a ls o v a r i e d . Urged to con

t i n u e w orking u n t i l c o d i f i c a t i o n o f th e p ro p o sed a g r a r i a n refo rm d e c re e

was co m p leted , some p e a s a n ts co m p lied , f a i t h f u l l y f u l f i l l i n g tim e-h o n o red

la b o r p r a c t i c e s ; o th e r s l e s s p a t i e n t d rove o u t th e la n d lo r d s and s e iz e d

th e la n d . The s ix te e n months betw een th e i n s u r r e c t i o n a r y p h a se o f th e

R e v o lu tio n and en actm en t o f th e A g ra ria n Reform Law w ere marked b y an

in c r e a s e i n th e fre q u e n c y and i n t e n s i t y o f p e a s a n t v io le n c e w h ich , f o r

p u rp o se s o f o r g a n iz a tio n , may be d iv id e d i n t o i n t e r - and i n t r a - c l a s s con

flic ts .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
65

I n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e q u e n t d u rin g th e

A p r il 9 , 1952-A ugust 2 , 1953, p h ase o f th e R e v o lu tio n a lth o u g h i t would

assum e la r g e p r o p o r tio n i n l a t e r y e a r s when th e m a jo r ity o f la n d h o ld e r s

h ad b een d r iv e n o f f th e la n d and power s t r u g g l e s w ould d ev elo p among

p e a s a n t c a c iq u e s jo c k e y in g f o r c o n t r o l o f key p e a s a n t a r e a s . E a r ly

o c c u rre n c e s o f i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t on th e a l t i p l a n o w ere ev id e n c e d a t

th e f in c a " N u e stra S en o ra de La P a z ," w here two armed p e a s a n t bands

c la s h e d , and in Omasuyos P r o v in c e , when cam pesinos o f Y anacachi fo u g h t


46
th o s e o f T a ip i P e ro n i o v e r a boundary q u e s tio n . In A u g u st, 1952,

N uflo Chavez t r a v e l l e d to Cochabamba i n o r d e r to in t e r c e d e in a d is p u te

betw een te n a n t fa rm e rs o f th e f i n c a "V acas" and c o lo n o s o f S an ta C la r a


47
o v e r problem s r e l a t e d to la n d p u rc h a s e s by th e g ro u p s . A lso in

Cochabamba, cam pesinos i n th e M a ta ra n i and A iq u ile zones c la s h e d o v er


48
th e q u e s tio n o f s y n d ic a te le a d e r s h ip .

The seco n d form o f v io l e n c e , i n t e r - c l a s s i n n a t u r e , was o f

g r e a t e r im p o rtan ce d u rin g t h i s p e r io d . I n t e r - c l a s s s t r i f e g e n e r a lly

to o k th e form o f c la s h e s betw een p e a s a n ts and p a t r o n e s , o r p e a s a n ts

and p o l i c e . P e a s a n ts n e a r T iah u an acu a p p e a le d to th e C e n tr a l T ia -

h u an acu Union f o r a id a g a i n s t a la n d lo r d and h i s o v e r s e e r . The p a tro n

h e ld la n d a d ja c e n t to th e communal sa y a n a s (s m a ll p l o t s o f la n d worked

i n u s u f r u c t) w here h i s o v e r s e e r had s h o t a t and th e n b e a te n a p e a s a n t


49
g i r l who a p p a r e n tly h ad tr e s p a s s e d . The p e a s a n ts f e a r e d t h a t t h i s

a c t i o n p re sa g e d a fo rth c o m in g move to u su rp t h e i r la n d . In a n o th e r

in c i d e n t on th e a l t i p l a n o , p e a s a n ts o f th e A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te o f C o lla n a

p r o t e s t e d a g a in s t an a t t a c k on one o f t h e i r members by th e la n d lo r d

o f th e h a c ie n d a "Ayo-Ayo. Near P u e rto A co sta on th e n o r th e a s t s h o re

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66

o f Lake T i t i c a c a cam pesinos armed w ith r i f l e s and c lu b s a tta c k e d th e

h a c ie n d a " Y a ra c o a ," b u rn in g b u il d in g s and k i l l i n g a colono."*^

I n t e r - c l a s s v io le n c e was more p r e v a l e n t i n th e d e n s e ly popu

l a t e d re g io n o f th e Cochabamba V a lle y . S in d ic a to s h ad b een o rg a n iz e d

and f u n c tio n in g i n th e a r e a f o r many y e a r s and h ad d ev elo p ed a t r a d i

t i o n o f c l a s s c o n s c io u s n e s s . The o l d e s t o f th e s e s i n d i c a t o s was t h a t

o rg a n iz e d i n th e v i c i n i t y o f Ana R an ch o -U cu ren a, th e w ell-know n S in d i-

c a to Campesino de l a V a lle , l a t e r t o be a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e le a d e r s h ip


52
o f th e d i r i g e n t e J o sg R o ja s .

An i n t e r e s t i n g an d r e v e a lin g exam ple o f p e a s a n t d i s a f f e c t i o n

was r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c i d e n t w hich t r a n s p i r e d i n th e P ro v in c e o f

C a p in o ta w here a c h ic h a ( a l c o h o l i c b e v e ra g e ) t a x c o l l e c t o r on th e f in c a

"A pillap am p a" was b e a te n and k i l l e d by a group o f cam pesinos v i o l e n t l y


53
opposed to t h i s ta x form . A p p a re n tly r u r a l i n s t a b i l i t y f o llo w in g

th e o n s e t o f r e v o lu tio n prom pted th e cam p esin o s to p h y s ic a l ly a t t a c k

t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y o b n o x io u s t a x . A n o th er p e a s a n t group dynam ited and

b u rn e d numerous t a x c o l l e c t o r s b u il d in g s i n f u r t h e r e x p r e s s io n o f

re s e n tm e n t a g a i n s t ta x r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .

The g r a v e s t in s t a n c e o f t h i s form o f v io l e n c e o c c u rre d in

e a r l y November, 1952, i n th e Colom i a r e a w here p e a s a n t s , c a r r y in g

-m a c h e te s , b lo c k e d a ro a d on th e h a c ie n d a "E m usa," w reck in g a tr u c k and

a b u s in g i t s o c c u p a n ts . Then a p p ro x im a te ly 3 ,0 0 0 p e a s a n ts a tta c k e d th e
54
town o f C olom i, b u rn in g num erous h o u s e s . The cam pesinos had c u t th e

to w n 's te le p h o n e l i n e s , and i t was im p o s s ib le f o r th e to w nspeople to

f l e e by th e ro a d s w hich w ere u n d er p e a s a n t c o n t r o l . An h o u r a f t e r th e

a s s a u l t on C olom i, an e s tim a te d 4 ,0 0 0 cam p esin o s c a r r y in g r i f l e s , m achine

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67

g u n s, and dynam ite o v e rra n th e r e g io n , b u r n in g t h r e e h a c ie n d a s and

e x a c tin g a human t o l l o f f i v e wounded and one d e a d . A p re s id e n tia l

com m ission i n v e s t i g a t i n g th e s e i n c i d e n t s found t h e i r o r i g i n i n i l l -

tr e a tm e n t a f f o r d e d th e p e a s a n ts by th e la n d lo r d o f h a c ie n d a " E m u s a ." ^

I n an e f f o r t to c u r t a i l f u r t h e r v i o l e n c e , th e M in is tr y o f P e a s a n t A f f a ir s

fo rb a d e n ig h t m e e tin g s by cam p esin o s, and a week l a t e r found i t n e c e s

s a r y to d is p a tc h two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to d e te rm in e th e c a u s e s o f d i f

f i c u l t y i n two new f o c i o f a g i t a t i o n Arque and V i l l a R i v e r o . T h e

M i n i s t r y s a g e n ts recommended t h a t " n o t o n ly sh o u ld th e p a tro n e s be

s a n c tio n e d , b u t a ls o th e In d ia n s who com ported th e m se lv e s in an in s o -


57
l e n t m anner b e f o r e th e p a t r o n e s ."

A lso i n November 1952, th e P r e f e c t o f th e D epartm ent o f Cocha

bamba g ra n te d " g u a r a n te e s " to J o s e P ered o S . , owner o f th e f in c a

"Quimsa Mayo" a t S acab a, who had b een k id n a p p ed and th r e a te n e d w ith


58
d e a th by a group o f cam p esin o s. The lan d o w n er was sav ed from p o s s ib le

d e a th by th e tim e ly a r r i v a l o f o th e r h ace n d ad o s whose p re s e n c e d is p o s e d

th e p e a s a n ts to f l i g h t . A ls o , on th e f i n c a " N o v i lle r o ," owned by

S en o ra I s a b e l de Romero, th e la n d la d y and h e r a d m in is tr a t o r w ere


59
th r e a te n e d by p e a s a n ts and f e a r e d t h a t an in v a s io n was im m inent.

The n e a rb y owner o f "H acienda C h u jc h u a h u a n u sc a ," a t A n zald o , was a ls o

in t im i d a te d by h i s p e a s a n t s , who, he b e l i e v e d , w ere a b o u t to sto rm th e


60
h a c ie n d a i n o r d e r to c o n f is c a te i t s s t o r e s .

C o n tro l o f th o ro u g h fa re s by cam pesino g ro u p s , a s r e p o r te d b e

f o r e , was to b e a r e c u r r e n t phenomenon i n th e c o u n try s id e th ro u g h o u t

th e R e v o l u t i o n . ^ O wnership o f m otor v e h i c l e s f o r p e r s o n a l u se i n L a tin

A m erica i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f e le v a te d s o c i a l s t a t u s , and t h i s was u n d e rs to o d

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68

f u l l w e ll by p e a s a n ts who employed th e t a c t i c o f s e iz i n g and c o n t r o l

lin g ro ad s. M o tiv a tio n f o r such t a c t i c s v a r i e d , b u t in a t l e a s t one

in s ta n c e th e c a u se was f i n a n c i a l . Cam pesinos from Chapare b lo c k e d th e

ro a d to th e A g u irre zone i n Decem ber, 1952, i n t im i d a ti n g m o to r is ts and


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c o l l e c t i n g t o l l s f o r th e r i g h t t o p ro c e e d .

The Cochabamba V a lle y r e g io n c o n tin u e d to p ro d u ce th e g r e a t e s t

number o f v i o l e n t i n t e r - c l a s s i n c i d e n t s . In e a r l y J a n u a ry , 1953, th e

o f f i c e o f th e M in is te r o f Campesino A f f a i r s a t P u n ata e x p re s s e d co n cern

o v e r th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a cam pesino u p r is in g i n th e V i l l a R iv e ro r e g io n
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b u t f a i l e d to p ro v id e d e t a i l s r e g a r d in g th e p ro b lem . A p p roxim ately

one week l a t e r a t th e sm a ll town o f P o jo , C a rra sc o P r o v in c e , p e a s a n ts

armed w ith c lu b s and s to n e s , u n d er c o v e r o f d a rk n e s s , a tta c k e d th e

h a c ie n d a o f M a tla s Z e g a rra . B efo re a t t a c k i n g , th e g ro u p , summoned by

th e tru m p e tin g o f p u tu tu s ( h o r n s ) , g a th e re d on a sm a ll h i l l o v e rlo o k

in g th e town and th e n , w ith th e c ry "D eath to th e p a t r o n e s ," a s s a u lt e d


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th e h a c ie n d a . S u c c e s s fu l i n th e v e n tu r e , th e cam pesinos g a th e re d

to g e th e r th e l a n d l o r d 's p e r s o n a l b e lo n g in g s and f l e d . R e s p o n s ib ility

f o r th e a c t was p la c e d on th e d i r i g e n t e s J o s e R o ja s , Modesto S e ja s ,

and E m ilio Chac 8 n . ^

In th e r u r a l a r e a , f e a r was n o t s o l e l y c o n fin e d to la n d lo r d s

a n t i c i p a t i n g p e a s a n t u p r is in g s . P e a s a n ts a l s o f e a r e d r e p r e s s io n by

p a tro n e s s e e k in g c o n tin u a tio n o f th e s t a t u s quo and r e g u la r a g r i c u l

t u r a l o u tp u t. C la ss i n t e r e s t s w ere s tr o n g ly in g r a in e d among h ace n

d a d o s. An i n s t r u c t i v e example i s t h a t o f J o rg e Meza, one o f B o l i v i a 's

more famous M a rx is ts and le a d e r o f th e PIR , who f i r e d a m achine gun a t

a group o f cam pesinos w h ile s h o u tin g "W ith th e b lo o d o f In d ia n s I w i l l

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69

66
im prove my la n d s . M T h is a c t i o n rem in d s one o f co n tem p o rary P e ru

w here members o f th e A g ra ria n Reform Com m ission, a s la n d lo r d s , p r e ju d ic e

th e cau se o f a g r a r ia n re fo rm . **7

In e a r l y J a n u a ry , 1953, h u n d red s o f an g ry p e a s a n ts a r r iv e d
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i n Cochabamba i n s e a r c h o f weapons to p r o t e c t th e m se lv e s from la n d lo r d s .

A few days l a t e r , i n L u rib a y (La Paz D e p a rtm e n t), a la r g e group o f


69
p e a s a n ts assem bled to p r o t e s t a b u s e s by la n d lo r d s . And th e Cocha

bamba p r e s s n o te d th e g rav e s i t u a t i o n w hich had a r i s e n due to ab u se s


70
on th e p a r t o f owners o f h a c ie n d a s a g a i n s t cam p esin o s. E l D ia r io

a t t r i b u t e d th e p e a s a n t u p r is in g s to i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f p e a s a n ts by la n d -

7l o r da s . 71

V io le n ce a g a in e r u p te d i n th e Colom i r e g io n o f C hapare P ro v in c e
72
when p e a s a n ts o ccu p ied a number o f h a c ie n d a s . F u r th e r d is o r d e r sp re a d

to Sacabamba, M a ta ra n i, Airampu and o th e r d i s t r i c t s o f th e Cochabamba

V a lle y a s w e ll a s to n e a rb y T a r a ta w here a la n d lo r d was b e a te n i n th e

fa c e by p e a s a n ts and th e n m arched to th e P e a s a n t C e n tr a l S y n d ic a te o f
"7 '5

Sacabamba a d is ta n c e o f f o r t y k i l o m e t e r s . ~ A n o th er la n d lo r d , owner

o f th e f in c a "La A lc o h o le r ia ," was m urdered and ro b b ed o f a r e v o lv e r

and 10,0 0 0 B s . 74

R u ral i n s t a b i l i t y p r i o r to th e A g r a r ia n Reform D ecree was n o t

c o n fin e d s o le l y to th e a l t i p l a n o and Cochabamba V a lle y r e g io n s . In

S a n ta Cruz D ep artm en t, n e a r th e town o f San J a v i e r , a p e a s a n t a c tin g

i n th e c a p a c ity o f a g r i c u l t u r a l in s p e c t o r was b r u t a l l y m urdered by s i x

l a n d l o r d s . 7^ L an d lo rd s in th e Cochabamba V a lle y a r e a h a d , m eanw hile,

form ed a " R u ra l F e d e r a t io n ." 7^ T h is o r g a n iz a ti o n a c te d a s a p r e s s u r e

group f o r th e advancem ent o f hacendado i n t e r e s t s . To a t t a i n t h i s end

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
70

th e F e d e r a tio n denounced th e a c t i v i t y o f a g i t a t o r s who w ere i n c i t i n g


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p e a s a n ts p r im a r ily i n th e v i c i n i t y o f T o to r a . Form al c o m p la in ts ,

a s f o r exam ple one c r i t i c i z i n g th e c o o r d in a to r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s ,

V ic to r Z a n n ie r, f o r a l le g e d l y th r e a te n i n g th e F e d e r a tio n w ith a march

o f 100,000 p e a s a n ts to Cochabamba, w ere a l s o u se d to t r y t o in f lu e n c e


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p u b li c o p in io n ab o u t th e s i t u a t i o n i n th e c o u n tr y s id e . A n o th er i n

t e r e s t g ro u p , th e "Pro-Cochabam ba C o m m ittee," a l s o came to th e f o r e

d u rin g t h i s p e r io d . O s te n s ib ly i t so u g h t to t r y to w ork tow ard an

end to r u r a l v io le n c e , b u t i t s p rim a ry co n ce rn was th e d e c lin e i n

a g r i c u l t u r a l p ro d u c tio n cau sed by th e c o n tin u a l i n s t a b i l i t y in th e


79
V a lle y . The Committee was d e s ir o u s o f b r in g i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f

b o th r u r a l i n t e r e s t g ro u p s , p e a s a n ts and la n d l o r d s , to g e th e r to d i s

c u s s some form o f s e t t l e m e n t . An i n d i c a t i o n o f th e C o m m ittee's sym

p a t h i e s i s found in i t s s ta te m e n t p ro p o s in g a m e e tin g betw een la n d lo r d s

and p e a s a n ts : " In view o f th e a la rm in g e v e n ts o c c u r r in g o f l a t e in

th e Cochabamba c o u n tr y s id e , e s p e c i a l l y in th e r e g io n s o f T o to r a , Mizque

and In d e p e n d e n c ia , w here th e cam pesinos a s s a u l t e d h a c ie n d a h o u ses and


80
w hipped th e la n d o w n e rs .. . ."

Thus by A p r il 1953, th r e e d i s t i n c t and fo rm a l o rg a n s f o r

f u r t h e r i n g v a r io u s c l a s s i n t e r e s t s h ad been form ed. P e a s a n ts o rg a n iz e d

s y n d ic a t e s ; la n d lo r d s e s ta b l is h e d a R u ra l F e d e r a tio n i n Cochabamba, and

a R u ra l B o liv ia n S o c ie ty on th e a l t i p l a n o ; and to w n sp eo p le w ere r e p r e -


81
s e n te d by o r g a n iz a tio n s su ch as th e Pro-Cochabam ba C om m ittee.

In th e month p re c e d in g th e D ecree o f A g ra ria n R eform , p e a s a n ts

c o n tin u e d to a s s a u l t la n d lo r d s i n th e Cochabamba r e g io n . I n th e

v i c i n i t y o f Q u ill a c o ll o P ro v in c e la n d lo r d s o f th e h a c ie n d a s "U cho-U cho,"

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71

"V ilo m a," and "La Q uebrada" w ere a s s a u l t e d by p e a s a n t g ro u p s and t h e i r

h o u ses s a c k e d . Item s r e p o r te d s t o l e n in c lu d e d q u a n t i t i e s o f p o t a t o e s ,

c o m , b a r l e y , some t o o l s , m e c h a n ic a l im plem ents f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , c a r

p e n try t o o l s and v e stm en t and je w e ls o f th e c h a p e l o f th e h a c ie n d a


82
La Q uebrada. I t was a l le g e d t h a t th e p e a s a n ts w ere u n d er o r d e r s from
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th e d i r i g e n t e S in fo ro s o R iv e s o f U cu ren a. In th e town o f C li z a ,

p e a s a n ts from th e s i n d i c a t o o f U curena f o r c i b l y d e ta in e d th e la n d lo r d s

Jo s E sco b ar P a d i l l a , V ic to r O rtu n o , and J o rg e R iv e ro , who w ere acc u se d

o f b e in g F a la n g is ta s (members o f th e c o n s e r v a tiv e F ala n g e S o c i a l i s t a


84
B o liv ia n a p a r t y ) . The t h r e e , a lo n g w ith th r e e o th e r men in c lu d in g

th e m u n ic ip a l t r e a s u r e r o f S acab a , E rn e s to M ontano, and N e lid a G o n zale z,

a s c h o o l te a c h e r from S acab a , w ere b ro u g h t by th e p e a s a n ts to th e Cocha

bamba j a i l . ^

P e a s a n ts i n s e a r c h o f weapons in v a d ed a number o f h a c ie n d a s

i n th e Comarapa re g io n and l a t e r moved i n t o th e town w here a ju d g e and


86
an o f f i c e r o f th e M in is tr y o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s w ere b e a te n . R e s id e n ts

o f n e a rb y I t o c t a P u c a ra w ere f r i g h t e n e d by th e sound o f p u tu tu s s i g n a l -
87
in g n i g h t l y p e a s a n t m e e tin g s d u rin g th e l a s t d ays o f Ju n e 1953.

L a te r i n th e m onth, i n h a b i t a n t s o f Ayo-Ayo w ere s i m i l a r l y d is tu r b e d


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by p e a s a n t g a th e r in g s in th e h e i g h t s aro u n d th e town.

A n o th er v a r i e t y o f i n t e r - c l a s s c o n f l i c t common to t h i s p e r io d ,

and to l a t e r y e a r s , was v io le n c e r e s u l t i n g from p e a s a n t h o s t i l i t y to

u rb a n ite s . MNR le a d e r s made a p o in t o f r e i n f o r c i n g p e a s a n t d i s t r u s t

o f u r b a n it e s by r e f e r r i n g , f o r ex am p le, to c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i s t s i n
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th e c i t i e s . T h is form o f v i o l e n c e , one o f g e n e r a liz e d h o s t i l i t y .

tow ard u rban d w e lle r s , i n c o n t r a s t to th e more common a c t s o f s p e c i f i c

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
72

m a lin te n t com m itted a g a i n s t la n d lo r d s o r g o v ern m e n tal r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,

was e s p e c i a l l y common to th e Cochabamba V a lle y i n th e p re -A g ra ria n

Reform m onths o f R e v o lu tio n .

I n November, 1952, th e governm ent found i t n e c e s s a ry to send

th e P r e f e c t o f Cochabamba, German V era T a p ia , to C liz a b e c a u se o f f e a r

o f an im m inent a t t a c k on th e town by p e a s a n ts i n th e a r e a . The P re

f e c t a r r i v e d i n C liz a and was g r e e te d by cam pesinos " f i r i n g t h e i r

arms and th e h o a r s e r o a r o f p u tu tu s f i l l i n g th e a i r w ith sa d omen.


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. . . A s e a o f h an d s s t i r r e d sp a c e w ith th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c V1 s i g n . "

Senor V era T a p ia a d d re s s e d th e cam p esin o s, a s k in g f o r an end to t h e i r

b e l l i g e r e n t a c t i v i t y ; th e p e a s a n ts a g re e d and v io le n c e was th e re b y

a v e r te d .

R e s id e n ts o f Cochabamba f e a r e d v io le n c e a s h u n d red s o f campe

s in o s from th e s u rro u n d in g r e g io n a r r i v e d i n th e c i t y armed w ith guns

and c l u b s , s e e k in g th e r e l e a s e o f a group o f d i r i g e n t e s who had been


91
a r r e s t e d and j a i l e d th e p r e v io u s w eek. The p e a s a n ts am assed i n th e

P la z a C a le ta y u d , w here th e d i r i g e n t e s Chacon and S e ja s sp o k e , a sk in g

f o r th e freedom o f th o s e d i r i g e n t e s th e n im p ris o n e d . D is o rd e r e ru p te d

when one Rosa M o rales G u ille n , s p e a k in g from a b a lc o n y o v e rlo o k in g

t h e s q u a r e , denounced Chac6 n a s a com m unist. The d i r i g e n t e a tte m p te d

to r e p l y , b u t was drowned o u t by th e d in o f a u to h o r n s . At t h i s p o i n t ,

p o li c e ru sh e d upon th e scen e and lo b b e d t e a r g as a t th e p e a s a n ts assem

b le d i n th e s q u a r e . In th e e n s u in g m elee a p o licem an was sav ed from

s e r io u s i n j u r y when a p e a s a n t d is c h a r g e d a r u s t y weapon a t him , w h ich ,


92
l u c k i l y , la c k e d a b u l l e t . T h ere w ere no o th e r r e p o r te d i n j u r i e s .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
73

The p o p u lace o f O ru ro , on th e a l t i p l a n o , e x p re s s e d a p p re h e n sio n

fo llo w in g the.C ochabam ba i n c i d e n t , f e a r i n g s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t y d u rin g


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th e "G re at P arad e" p la n n e d by th e A g ra ria n S o c ie ty o f B o liv ia . The

p a ra d e o f cam pesinos was h e ld w ith o u t i n c i d e n t , b u t th e p r e s s sug

g e s te d c o n s id e r a b le d is c o m fo rt e v id e n c e d by to w nspeople o v er th e i n t r u

s io n o f th e mass o f p e a s a n ts i n t o th e c i t y .

The month im m ed iately p r i o r to th e announcem ent o f th e A g ra ria n

Reform D ecree i s n o te w o rth y f o r b o th amount and d e g re e o f p e a s a n t-

u rb an v io le n c e . In th e p ro v in c e s o f T a r a ta , C li z a , P u n a ta , and A ra n i,

cam pesinos marched i n t o towns and f o r c i b l y e n te r e d h o u ses i n s e a rc h o f


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w eapons. A c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n a r o s e i n T a r a ta a s p e a s a n ts and towns

p e o p le s k irm is h e d , w ith f o u r d e a th s stem m ing from th e c l a s h . In th e

e a r l y m orning, b e f o r e th e in c u r s io n i n t o T a r a ta , 200 cam pesinos from

U curena s e a le d o f f ro a d s le a d in g to th e tow n. E n te r in g i n q u e s t o f

w eapons, th e y in v ad ed th e tow n, a ls o s e iz i n g p e r s o n a l go o d s. When th e

p o p u la ce r e s i s t e d , f i g h t i n g b egan w ith numerous c a s u a l t i e s r e p o r te d .

At ap p ro x im ate ly 4 :0 0 P . M. th e p e a s a n ts r e t i r e d o n ly to r e t u r n a t

1:00 A. M. th e fo llo w in g m o rn in g . The tow nspeople w ere re a d y f o r t h i s

c o n tin g e n c y , and w id e s p re a d s k ir m is h in g r e s u l t e d a s p e a s a n ts c ry in g
95
"We w i l l e x te rm in a te T a r a ta " sack ed h o u s e s . In n e ig h b o rin g San

B e n ito a man was s e r i o u s l y b e a te n by p e a s a n ts when he t r i e d to s to p

th e in v a s io n o f an h a c ie n d a . T hroughout th e V a lle y , ro a d s w ere b lo c k ed

and th e Cochabamba t r a i n was s to p p e d , s e a r c h e d , and fo rc e d by campe

s in o s to r e tu r n to th e c i t y . T r a d i t i o n a l means o f c o n t r o l f a i l e d to

c o n s tr a in th e p e a s a n ts . At V i l l a V is c a r r a , th e l o c a l c h i e f o f p o lic e

te le g r a p h e d th e o f f i c e o f Los Tiem pos, n o t i f y i n g th e p a p e r o f p e a s a n t

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
a t t a c k s on th e p o lic e s t a t i o n f o r th e p u rp o se o f s e c u r in g w eapons.

The c h i e f added t h a t th e d i r i g e n t e L orenzo P ad ro so as w e ll a s d i r i -


i
g e n te s from U curena h ad th r e a te n e d a t t a c k s upon a number o f s e le c te d

h o u ses i n th e town f o r w hich th e p o l i c e c o u ld no lo n g e r g u a ra n te e p r o -


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te c tio n . A lso d u rin g t h i s week o f v io l e n c e , p e a s a n ts a tta c k e d th e

p u eb lo o f V ila V ila w here s i x p e o p le w ere k i l l e d and a n o th e r e le v e n

w o u n d e d .^

A f te r th e c la s h betw een cam pesinos and tow nspeople a t T a r a ta ,

a number o f wounded p e a s a n ts h ad b een ta k e n to th e H o s p ita l Viedma

i n Cochabamba f o r tr e a tm e n t. Two d ay s a f t e r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , a

band o f cam pesinos from U curena e n te r e d th e b u ild in g armed w ith r i f l e s

and r e v o lv e r s , s e a r c h in g f o r t h e i r wounded com rades and th r e a te n in g


98
wounded p a t i e n t s from T a r a ta .

Campesinos i n n o rth w e s t P o to s i D epartm ent p la n n ed an a t t a c k on

th e town o f C hayanta b u t th e im pending a t t a c k was a v e r te d th ro u g h th e

tim e ly i n t e r c e s s i o n o f MNR r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and le a d e r s o f th e p e a s a n t


99
s in d ic a to o f L l a lla g u a who so u g h t o u t and a r r e s t e d th e i n s t i g a t o r s .

T h is p la n n ed in v a s io n o f L l a ll a g u a r e f l e c t s c o n s id e r a b le c o o r d in a tio n

and c o o p e ra tio n among p e a s a n ts i n th e r e g io n ; cam pesinos from C h a rc a s,

S a c a c a , and s u rro u n d in g a r e a s h ad p la n n e d j o i n t a c t io n .

Summary

The MNR, d u rin g th e i n s u r r e c t i o n a r y p h ase o f r e v o lu t io n , d id

n o t u t i l i z e p e a s a n t s u p p o r t, b u t p la n s had a p p a r e n tly b een made to en

l i s t th e p e a s a n tr y i n th e e v e n t o f a lo n g e r i n s u r r e c t i o n w hich would

have sp re a d to th e r u r a l s e c t o r . I n th e c o n tin g e n c y o f a more g e n e r

a l i z e d r e v o lu t io n , p e a s a n t s u p p o r t was to b e so u g h t p r im a r ily i n th e

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75

h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts .

P e a s a n t s y n d i c a t e s , form ed i n th e e a r l y months o f th e N a tio n a l

R ev o lu tio n , w ere in s tr u m e n ta l i n p r o v id in g th e f o r c e n e c e s s a ry to s e iz e

la n d s and d r iv e o f f th e la n d e d e l i t e . T h u s, th e s in d ic a to p ro v id e d

a means f o r c o n s o li d a ti o n o f th e R e v o lu tio n i n th e r u r a l s e c t o r th ro u g h

d e s tr u c t io n o f th e s o c io -e c o n o m ic b a s i s o f o l i g a r c h i c a l r u l e . The

p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te movement was m u l ti- c a u s a l and d ep en d en t upon l o c a l

v a r i a b l e s ; i n some a r e a s , s y n d ic a te s w ere o rg a n iz e d by th e l o c a l p e a s

a n t r y , in o t h e r s , th e i n i t i a t i v e was p ro v id e d by MNR a g i t a t o r s .

P e a s a n t la n d s e i z u r e s p ro m p ted , i n p a r t , th e A g ra ria n Reform

D ecree o f A ugust 2 , 1953. As s u c h , th e D ecree was an e x p e d ie n t m easure

by w hich th e r e v o lu t io n a r y governm ent so u g h t to l e g i s l a t e some d eg ree

o f o rd e r i n t o th e e x p r o p r i a t i v e p r o c e s s . The MNR, how ever, had shown

an i n t e r e s t in a g r a r i a n re fo rm b e f o r e th e p e a s a n t s e iz u r e s began as

MNR a g i t a t o r s , i n some a r e a s , w ere th e v anguard o f s y n d ic a te fo rm a tio n

and th e r e f o r e , u l t i m a t e l y , o f e x p r o p r ia tio n .

L an d lo rd re s p o n s e s to r e v o lu t io n a r y c o n d itio n s w ere v a r ie d and

in c lu d e d l e g a l s u b d iv is io n o f l a t i f u n d i o s among h e i r s to a v o id ex p ro

p r i a t i o n u n d er th e fo rth c o m in g A g ra ria n Reform D ecree; o u t r i g h t s a l e

o f p r o p e r t i e s ; a tte m p ts to m a in ta in c o n t r o l o v er p r o p e r ty ; and f l i g h t

to th e c i t i e s . I n t e r - c l a s s v io le n c e r e s u l t e d a s la n d lo r d s and p e a s a n ts

assumed new r o l e s . C o n s id e ra b le i n t r a - c l a s s v io le n c e was cau sed by

c o n f l i c t s among d i r i g e n t e s and b o u n d ary d is p u te s r e l a t i n g to q u e s tio n s

o f la n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n .

V io le n c e o f th e v a r i e t i e s d is c u s s e d h e r e r e s u l t e d i n b ro a d

m easure from th e d is e q u i lib r i u m o f t h i s e a r l y p e r io d o f th e R e v o lu tio n

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
76

a s p e a s a n ts and la n d lo r d s r e a c te d to new and p o t e n t i a l r o l e s i n th e

s o c i a l sy stem . The s i t u a t i o n was c o m p lic a te d d u r in g th e s e s i x t e e n

m onths by th e v e ry amorphous s t a t u s o f b o th g ro u p s p en d in g p ro clam a

t i o n o f r e v o lu tio n a r y m easu res w hich w ould s i g n i f i c a n t l y change t r a d i

t i o n a l s t a t u s e s and r o l e s . I t i s n o te w o rth y t h a t b o th p e a s a n t and

la n d lo r d r e s o r t e d to th e fo rm a tio n o f p r e s s u r e g ro u p s p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te

and r u r a l la n d lo r d f e d e r a t i o n to f u r t h e r t h e i r c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . E lite

in t r a n s ig e n c e i n p a r t b ro u g h t on th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n ; th e r u r a l

a r i s t o c r a c y c o n tin u e d t o s t r u g g l e to m a in ta in i t s p o s i t i o n d u rin g

t h i s , a s d u rin g l a t e r p e r io d s o f th e R e v o lu tio n . A good d e a l o f th e

im p etu s b e h in d th e r u r a l r e v o lu t io n r e s u l t e d from th e p r e s s u r e , o f te n

i n th e form o f o v e r t v io l e n c e , b ro u g h t to b e a r a g a i n s t th e la n d e d e l i t e

by cam pesinos o rg a n iz e d to g e th e r i n s i n d i c a t o s .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
77

N otes

^E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 9 , 1952, p . 1.
2
Dwight B. H eath o f f e r s an o p p o sin g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : "T here i s
no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t th e Aymara p la y e d any r o l e in th e f ig h t in g in A p r il
1952," H eath , "The Aymara In d ia n s and B o l i v i a 's R e v o lu tio n s ," I n t e r -
A m erican Economic A f f a i r s , X V III ( S p rin g , 19 6 6 ), p . 32. E l D i a r i o ,
A p r il 12, 1952, p . 2 ; and a l s o a t e l l i n g o b s e r v a tio n i s a f f o r d e d by
a p e a s a n t i n El D i a r i o , December 31, 1952, p . 7, who s t a t e d t h a t in
a c l a s h w ith a la n d lo r d p e a s a n ts u t i l i z e d "arm s w ith w hich we con
t r i b u t e d to th e triu m p h o f th e i n s u r r e c t i o n o f A p r i l ."
W hile th e r e a r e d if f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o v er j u s t how
u n im p o rta n t th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n tr y in th e o v erth ro w o f th e Old
O rd e r, a z e a lo u s and u n q u a l if ie d s ta te m e n t to th e c o n tr a r y , p la c in g
"key cau se" f o r th e R e v o lu tio n in " th e s e e th in g re se n tm e n t o f th e
f e u d a l la n d lo r d by th e I n d ia n s e r f " i s advanced by David G. Greene in
" R e v o lu tio n and th e R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Reform in B o liv ia ," I n t e r -
A m erican Economic A f f a i r s , XIX (W in te r, 1 9 6 5 ), p . 7.

^F or t h i s r e v e l a t i o n s e e : E l D ia r io , A p r il 21, 1952, p . 5;
E l P a i s , A p r il 22, 1952, p . 5 ; A p r il 30, 1952, p . 2.

^E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 1 , 1952, p . 5.

\jose F ellm an V e la rd e , V ic to r Paz E s te n s s o ro : El Hombre y


l a R e v o lu c io h , 2nd ed . (La P az: Empresa I n d u s t r i a l G ra fic a E.
B u r i l l o , 1 9 5 5 ), p . 228.

^See R ic h ard P a tc h , " B o liv ia : U .S. A s s is ta n c e in a R evolu


ti o n a r y S e t t i n g , " in R ic h a rd N. Adams, e t a l . , S o c ia l Change in L a tin
A m erica Today (New York: A lf r e d A. K nopf, 19 6 1 ), pp. 124-128.

^ R ich ard P a tc h , " B o liv ia : The R e s tr a in e d R e v o lu tio n ," A nnals


o f th e A m erican Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c ia l S c ie n c e , CCCXXXIV
(M arch, 1 9 6 1 ), p p . 1 2 3 -128. E v id en ce to th e c o n tra r y i s p r e s e n te d in
A g u stih B a r c e l l i S ., Medio S ig lo de Luchas S in d ic a le s en B o liv ia (La
P az: E d i t o r i a l d e l E s ta d o , 1 9 5 7 ), p . 319.
O
P a tc h , " B o liv ia : U .S . A s s is ta n c e in a R e v o lu tio n a ry S e t t i n g ,"
p. 122.
9
P a tc h , " B o liv ia : U .S. A s s is ta n c e in a R e v o lu tio n a ry S e t t i n g ,"
p . 122.

^ S e e , f o r exam ple, A n ib al Q u ijan o O bregoh, "C ontem porary P e a s a n t


M ovements," in Seymour M a rtin L ip s e t and Aldo S o l a r i , e d s ., E l i t e s in
L a t in A m erica (New Y ork: O xford U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ), p . 318;
C o rn e liu s H. Zondag, The B o liv ia n Economy, 1952-65: The R e v o lu tio n and
i t s A fte rm a th (New York: F r e d e r ic k A. P ra e g e r, P u b lis h e r s , 19 6 6 ), p . 145

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
78

C h a rle s H. W eston, J r . , "An Id e o lo g y o f M o d e rn iz a tio n : The C ase o f


th e B o liv ia n MNR," J o u r n a l o f In te r-A m e ric a n S t u d i e s , X ( J a n u a ry , 1 9 6 8 ),
p p . 9 8 , 100.

^ S e e , f o r exam ple, Dwight B. H e a th , "A View from th e G rass


R o o ts: P e a sa n t S y n d ic a te s Among th e Aymara o f th e B o liv ia n Y u n g as,"
mimeographed copy o f a p a p e r g iv e n a t th e C o n feren ce on P e a s a n t Move
m e n ts, I t h a c a , New Y ork, D ecem ber, 1966, p p . 7 -9 , and a l s o h i s "The
Aymara In d ia n s and B o l i v i a 's R e v o lu tio n s ," p . 34.
12
The P IR , how ever, s p e n t a good d e a l o f tim e and e f f o r t o rg an
iz i n g p e a s a n t s in d i c a t o s a t a tim e when t h i s s e c t o r o f th e p o p u la tio n
was d is e n f r a n c h iz e d and i t s s u p p o r t, t h e r e f o r e , n o t o f im m ediate p o l i t i
c a l v a lu e .
13
C ite d i n R o b ert J . A le x a n d e r, The B o liv ia n N a tio n a l R evolu
t i o n (New B runsw ick, New J e r s e y : R u tg e rs U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ).

^ E 1 D ia rio , A p r il 1 2 , 1952, p . 1 .

^ E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 1 6 , 1952, p . 1 .

^ E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 1 6 , 1952, p . 1 .

~^E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 1 8 , 1952, p . 4 .
18
The new M in is tr y i s d is c u s s e d i n : E l D i a r i o , A p r il 1 5 , 1952,
p . 4; E l D ia r io , J u ly 1 6 , 1952, p . 15; E l D i a r i o , J u ly 2 8 , 1952, p . 8 .

^ E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 8 , 1952, p . 4 ; E l P a i s , A p r il 2 0 , 1952, p . 5
E l P a i s , A p r il 3 0 , 1952, p . 2 .
20
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 6 .
21
E l D i a r i o . A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 6 . T h is ap p ro ach to a g r a r ia n
refo rm i s d em o n strab ly d i f f e r e n t th a n t h a t p r e s e n te d by R ic h a rd P a tc h :
" S u flo Chavez became an e a r l y and i n s i s t e n t a d v o c a te o f an extrem e
ty p e o f a g r a r ia n re fo rm . H is c o n c e p t, i f c a r r i e d o u t , would have
d iv id e d a l l th e la n d in a r e a s o f p re d o m in a n tly In d ia n p o p u la tio n in t o
m in ifu n d io s . . . ," P a tc h , " B o liv ia : U. S. A s s is ta n c e i n a R evolu
ti o n a r y S e t t i n g , " p . 123.
22
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 6 .
23
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 6 .
24
E l D i a r i o , June 6 , 1952, p . 6 .

2 ~*E1 D ia rio -, May 1 6 , 1952, p . 7.

26 E1 D i a r i o , J u ly 1 0 , 1953, p . 6 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79

^ E 1 D i a r i o , J u iy 1 0 , 1953, p . 6 .
28
V ic to r Paz E s te n s s o r o , e c o n o m is t; Hernan S i l e s , e c o n o m ist;
F ernando D iez de M edina, w r i t e r ; A ugusto C espedes, w r i t e r ; 'W alter
G uevara A rze, e c o n o m ist.
29
R ich ard P a tc h em ploys th e te rm in h i s " B o liv ia : The R e s tr a in e d
R e v o lu tio n ," A nnals o f th e A m erican Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c ia l
S c ie n c e , CCCXXXIV (M arch, 1 9 6 1 ), p p . 123-132.
30
E l P a i s , A p r il 1 9 , 1 9 52, p . 4 . The " O rg a n iz a tio n a l Com
m is s io n " f o r th e new M in is tr y in c lu d e d th e fo llo w in g i n t e l l e c t u a l s
and d i r i g e n t e s : Max Mendoza L6 p e z , H e rb e rto Anez, J u l i o Ponce de
Leon, F e li x Eguino Z a b a lla , L u is S andoval Mor6 n , V ic e n te A lv arez
P l a t a , C a rlo s Ponce S a n jin e s , A lfre d o G u a c h a lla , C hipana Ramos, A lv a re z
Mamani, and N. A paza.

^ E1 P a i s , A p r il 19, 1952, p . 4 .
32
E l D ia r io re c o rd e d th e r e q u e s ts o f th e s e p e a s a n t d e le g a tio n s
m ost f u l l y . F or s p e c i f i c s s e e E l D i a r i o , A p r il 2 0 , 1952, p p . 5 , 11;
A p r il 2 5 , 1952, p . 5 ; A p r il 2 6 , 1952, p . 4 ; May 1 , 1952, p . 5 ; May 9 ,
1952, p . 5 ; June 1 8 , 1952, p . 7 ; Ju n e 2 1 , 1952, p . 6 ; J u ly 2 , 1952,
p . 6 ; A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 6 ; A ugust 5 , 1952, p . 4 ; A ugust 11, 1952,
p . 4 ; A ugust 13, 1952, p . 4 ; S eptem ber 14, 1952, p . 7; O cto b er 2 8 ,
1952, p . 3 ; March 2 1 , 1953, p . 6 ; and E l P a i s , December 30, 1952, p . 4 .
33
R ic h ard P a tc h , " B o liv ia : U. S. A s s is ta n c e i n a R e v o lu tio n a ry
S e t t i n g , " p . 122; C h a rle s H. W eston, J r . , "An Id eo lo g y o f M o d e rn iz a tio n :
The C ase o f th e B o liv ia n MNR," J o u r n a l o f In te r-A m e ric a n S tu d ie s ,
X (J a n u a ry , 1 9 6 8 ), p . 9 8 .
34
Announcements o f am nesty f o r p e a s a n ts and m in ers im p riso n ed
f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w ere p r i n t e d i n E l P a i s , A p r il 1 7 , 1952, p . 4;
A p r il 22, 1952, p . 5; May 1 3 , 1952, p . 5 ; and in E l D i a r i o , A p r il 16,
1952, p . 1; A p r il 21, 1952, p . 5 ; J u ly 8 , 1952, p . 5; J u ly 2 3 , 1952,
p . 6 ; O cto b er 2 1 , 1952, p . 4.

^ E 1 P a l s , A p r il 1 7 , 1952, p . 4 ; May 10, 1952, p . 2; May 23,


1952, p . 5 ; June 4 , 1952, p . 5 ; Ju n e 17, 1952, p . 521.
36
J o s l F lo r e s Moncayo, L e g is la c io n B o liv ia n a d e l I n d io , p . 420;
M iguel B o n ifa z , L e g is la c io n A g r a r io - I n d ig e n a l, p . 521.
37
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 2 7 , 1953, p . 1 1 ; F eb ru ary 2 4 , 1953, p . 4;
a l s o , E l P a i s , May 2 9 , 1952, p . 4 ; J u ly 4 , 1952, p . 4 .
38
E l D i a r i o , May 1 3 , 1952, p . 4 ; December 10, 1952, p . 7 .

^ E1 P a x s , A ugust 3 0 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , March 14, 1953, p . 5 ; A p r il 14, 1953, p . 5 .

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
80

41
E l D i a r i o , March 14, 1953, p . 5 .
/o
For a b r i e f , i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c d is c u s s io n o f th e h a c ie n d a
r e s p o n s e , s e e Dwight B. H e a th , "Land Reform i n B o l i v i a , " I n t e r -
A m erican Economic A f f a i r s , X II (S p r in g , 1 9 5 9 ), p p . 4 - 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , December 3 1 , 1952, p . 7 .
44
E l D i a r i o , November 1 0 , 1952, p . 3 .

^ S e e Dwight B. H e ath , "Land Reform i n B o l i v i a , " In te r-A m e ric a n


Economic A f f a i r s , p p . 1 2 -1 3 ; docum entary e v id e n c e r e l a t i n g to la n d lo r d
re s p o n s e s i s r e p o r te d i n E l P a l s , December 2 4 , 1952, p . 5 ; E l D i a r i o ,
F e b ru a ry 2 2 , 1953, p . 5 .
46
E l D i a r i o , May 1 3 , 1952, p . 4 .
47
E l D i a r i o , Augus't 1 7 , 1952, p . 7 .
48
E l D i a r i o , M arch 2 2 , 1953, p . 7 .
49
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 1 6 , 1953, p . 5 .

~*^E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 0 , 1953, p . 5 .

^ E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 0 , 1953, p . 5 .
52
T h is s y n d ic a te h a s b een s tu d ie d by J o r g e D a n d le r-H a n h a rt,
"L o cal Group, Community and N a tio n : A S tu d y o f C hanging S tr u c t u r e in
U curena, B o l i v i a ," (u n p u b lish e d M a s te rs t h e s i s , D epartm ent o f A n th ro
p o lo g y , U n iv e r s ity o f W isco n sin , 1 9 6 7 ).
53
E l D i a r i o , November 6 , 1952, p . 5 .

^ E1 P a l s , November 7 , 1952, p . 5 .

~*~*E1 D i a r i o , November 1 0 , 1952, p . 4 .

^ E 1 P a i s , November 2 0 , 1952, p . 5 .

^ E1 P a i s . November 20, 1952, p . 5 .

~*^E1 P a i s , November 21, 1952, p . 5 .

^ E l _ P a i s , December 6 , 1952, p . 5 .

^ E 1 P a r s . December 6 , 1952, p . 5 .

^ F o r p o s t- R e v o lu tio n a ry a c t i v i t y s e e , f o r exam p le, Dwight B.


H e a th , "The Aymara I n d ia n s and B o l i v i a s R e v o lu tio n s ," p . 3 8 .

*^E1 P a i s , December 10, 1952, p . 5 .

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
81

63
El P a i s , J a n u a ry 6 , 1953, p . 5.
64
E l D ia r io , J a n u a ry 12, 1953, p . 5.

*^ E 1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 9 , 1953, p . 5.

^ E 1 D ia r io , A p r il 2 9 , 1953, p . 5.

^ S e e M ario C. V asquez, H acie n d a, P eo n aje y Servidum bre en lo s


Andes P eruanos (Lima: E d i t o r i a l E s tu d io s A n d in o s, 1 9 6 1 ), pp. 5 0 -5 1 .
68
E l D i a r i o , Ja n u a ry 12, 1953, p . 5 .
69
E l D ia r io , J a n u a ry 17, 1953, p . 5.

^ R e p o r te d in E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 17, 1953, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , J a n u a ry 15, 1953, p . 5.

^ E 1 D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 6 , 1953, p . 5 ; F e b ru a ry 9 , 1953, p . 7;
F e b ru a ry 12, 1953, p . 5.

^ E 1 D i a r i o , A p r il 19, 1953, p . 5.

^ E 1 D i a r i o , A p r il 19, 1953, p . 5.

^ E l D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 2 2 , 1953, p . 7.

^ T h e r u r a l i n t e r e s t g ro u p , w h ile o f im p o rtan ce d u rin g th e s e


y e a r s , n e v e r th e le s s h i s t o r i c a l l y a n te d a te d th e r e v o lu tio n a r y p e r io d .
Eduardo Romecin n o te d th e com m ercial a c t i v i t i e s o f su ch a group in
th e Yungas r e g io n d u rin g th e 1 9 2 0 's . Romecin, " A g r i c u lt u r a l A d a p ta tio n
i n B o li v ia ," G e o g rap h ic al R eview , XIX ( A p r il, 19 2 9 ), p . 253; R a fa e l
A. R eyeros r e f e r s to O ruro R u ra l S o c ie ty , an hacendado i n t e r e s t group
founded in 1942 to combat a co lo n o s t r i k e , in H is t o r i a S o c ia l d e l In d io
B o liv ia n o (2nd e d . ; La P az: E d i t o r i a l F e n ix , 1 9 6 3 ), p . 187.

^ E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 8 , 1953, p . 7.

^ E 1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 8 , 1953, p . 7.

^ E l D i a r i o , A p r il 28, 1953, p . 7.
OQ __ __,
E l D ia r io , A p r il 2 8 , 1953, p . 7. -
81
The R u ra l B o liv ia n S o c ie ty was formed by a l t i p l a n o la n d lo r d s
to com bat " th e a g i t a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s in numerous r e g io n s o f th e a l t i
p la n o , c r e a te d by p r o f e s s io n a l a g i t a t o r s o f communist a f f i l i a t i o n . " El
D i a r i o , Ju n e 14, 1952, p . 6 .
80
El D i a r i o , J u ly 1 , 1953, p . 7.

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82

^ E 1 D i a r i o , J u ly 1 , 1953, p . 7 .
84
The p o s i t i o n o f th e c o n s e r v a tiv e F a la n g e S o c i a l i s t s B o liv ia n s
p a r t y i s b e s t s e t f o r t h i n M ario R olon A naya, P o l l t i c a y p a r t i d o s en
B o liv ia (La P az: L i b r e r i a E d i t o r i a l " J u v e n tu d ," 1 9 6 6 ), p p . 2 4 3 -2 6 7 .
The FSB i s a ls o d e s c r ib e d by R ic h a rd P a tc h , "The B o liv ia n F a la n g e ,"
A m erican U n i v e r s i t i e s F i e l d S t a f f ; W est C o a st S outh A m erica S e r i e s ,
V I, No. 4 (May 1 4 , 1 9 5 9 ), p p . 1 -1 0 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o . J u ly 1 , 1953, p . 7 .
86
E l D i a r i o . J u ly 1 , 1953, p . 5 .

*^ E 1 D i a r i o . J u ly 2 9 , 1953, p . 5 .
88
E l D i a r i o . J u ly 2 9 , 1953, p . 5 .
89
Speech o f C a rlo s S e r r a te R e ic h , "To th e Cam pesinos o f P a p e l-
pam pa," i n C a rlo s S e r r a te R e ic h , Qug e s P r o f u n d iz a r La R e v o lu c i 6 n (La
P az: D ire c c io n N a c io n a l de In fo rm a c io n e s , 1 9 6 4 ), p . 5 4 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , November 2 2 , 1952, p . 5 .
91
E l D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 3 , 1953, p . 3 . I n fo rm a tio n r e g a r d in g an
im pending a t t a c k on Cochabamba may b e found i n E l D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 1 ,
1953, p . 5 .

92 e i D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 3 , 1953 , p . 5 .

93 e i D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 4 , 1953 , p . 5 .
94
E l D ia r io . J u ly 2 , 1953, p . 7 .

95 E1 D ia r io , J u ly 3 , 1953, p . 7.

96e i D i a r i o , J u ly 2 , 1953, p . 7 .

97 e i D i a r i o , J u ly 5 , 1953, p . 7 .

98 e i D ia r io , J u ly 5 , 1953, p . 7 .

99 e i D ia r io , J u ly 11, 1953, p . 5 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
83

V. DIRIGENTE AND SINDICATO, APRIL 9 , 1952-AUGUST 2 , 1953

D ir ig e n te s

An im p o rta n t developm ent d u rin g th e s e e a r l y m onths i n B o liv ia

im p o rta n t f o r th e R e v o lu tio n i n g e n e r a l and p e a s a n t s o c i e t y i n p a r t i c u

l a r was th e em ergence o f th e p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e ( l e a d e r ) . W ith in p e a s

a n t s o c ie t y th e d i r i g e n t e , who w ould b e a s s o c ia t e d w ith le a d e r s h ip o f th e

cam pesino s y n d ic a te , was t o r i v a l and a t tim e s c o -o p t th e p o s i t i o n o f

suprem e s t a t u s from th e o l d e r , t r a d i t i o n a l h o ld e r o f t h i s p r e s t i g e , th e

Aymara j i l a k a t a o r Quechua a l c a l d e .^- The R e v o lu tio n s s ig n if i c a n c e

i n t h i s r e s p e c t r e l a t e d to th e o r g a n iz a ti o n , by p e a s a n t s , o f s in d ic a to

p r e s s u r e g ro u p s whose i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e c o n ta in e d a number o f p o s ts

o f v a ry in g power and p r e s t i g e capped by th e d i r i g e n t e , who u s u a lly

h e ld th e p o s i t i o n o f S e c r e ta r y G e n e ra l o r E x e c u tiv e S e c r e ta r y .

T r a d i tio n a l p e a s a n t s o c i e t y i n B o l i v i a , a s e ls e w h e re , c o n s is te d

o f a c i v i l - r e l i g i o u s s e r i e s o f fo rm a l and in fo rm a l p o s i t i o n s ran k ed

a c c o rd in g to a g e , s e r v i c e , and w e a lth . T h is h i e r a r c h y , o f te n c a l l e d a

carg o sy stem , in v o lv e d a la d d e r o f o b l i g a t i o n s w hich an in d i v id u a l

w ould b e g in to clim b a t an e a r l y age a n d , i f s u c c e s s f u l , com p lete by

re a c h in g p o s i t i o n s o f c o u n c il member and th e n , u l t i m a t e l y , j i l a k a t a
2
o r a lc a ld e . The suprem e p o s t was marked by a g e , i t ta k in g c o n s id e r a b le

tim e and ex p en se (fro m , e . g . , s p o n s o rs h ip o f v a r io u s cere m o n ies) to

s c a le th e s o c i a l la d d e r . T h is sy stem p ro b a b ly s u r v iv e d i n a l t e r e d form

i n th e B o liv ia o f th e e a r l y 1950 s a f t e r c e n t u r i e s o f e v o lu tio n . The

N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n p ro v id e d a n o th e r com peting sy stem i n th e p e a s a n t

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84

s i n d i c a t o a lth o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s t a t e th e n a t u r e and d e g re e o f

e f f e c t t h i s developm ent w rought on th e t r a d i t i o n a l sy ste m . One i n f o r

mant b e l ie v e s i t to c o n s t i t u t e a m ajo r change i n p e a s a n t s o c i a l s t r u c -


3
tu re . The developm ent o f com peting o r a l t e r n a t e p o s i t i o n s w ith in th e

s y n d ic a te , a t any r a t e , had an im p act on th e p e a s a n tr y .

The name o f J o s e R o jas i s m ost commonly a s s o c ia t e d w ith le a d e r

s h ip o f th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te d u rin g th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n . T h is

owes p a r t l y to R o ja s power i n Cochabamba V a lle y and p a r t l y to th e

im pact o f R ich ard P a tc h 's W ritin g upon th e l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e

d e a lin g w ith th e R e v o lu tio n . I t may b e s e e n , how ever, t h a t th e r e w ere

a g r e a t number o f d i r i g e n t e s e x e r t in g c o n t r o l o v e r p e a s a n t zones d u rin g

th e s e y e a r s o f r e v o lu tio n . J o s e R o ja s , w h ile c e r t a i n l y o f g r e a t s t a t u r e

due to h i s c o n tr o l o v er th e p o w erfu l s y n d ic a te a t U cu ren a, was j u s t one

o f many r e g io n a l p e a s a n t c h i e f t a i n s and w ould i n f a c t b e r i v a l e d in

l a t e r y e a r s by a n o th e r d i r i g e n t e from n e a rb y C li z a , M iguel V e iz a g a .

In t h i s c h a p te r w i l l be exam ined th e r i s e o f d i r i g e n t e and s i n

d i c a t o , th e two b ein g m u tu a lly d e p e n d e n t, d u r in g th e e a r l y m onths o f

R e v o lu tio n .

The tim e span h e r e , A p r il 9 , 1952-A ugust 2 , 1953, p a r a l l e l s

t h a t o f th e p re c e d in g c h a p te r . T h ere i s a n o th e r p a r a l l e l w ith e v e n ts

d is c u s s e d in C hapter F o u r: b eh in d th e v io l e n c e i n th e r u r a l s e c t o r

s to o d , q u ite o f te n , th e p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e an d h i s s i n d i c a t o . O rg an ized

v io le n c e was th u s a method s e iz e d upon by t h e s y n d ic a te to f u r t h e r th e

ends o f i t s le a d e r s , ends o f th e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and th e c o l l e c t i v e

p o s i t i o n o f th e p e a s a n tr y .

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85

I n any g iv e n in s ta n c e o n e, tw o, o r a l l th r e e ends m ig h t be m et.

V io le n c e , o r th e t h r e a t o f v i o l e n t a c t i o n , c o n s t i t u t e d th e m ost power

f u l r e v o lu t io n a r y p r e s s u r e w hich th e cam pesino c o u ld b r in g to b e a r in

f u r th e r a n c e o f c l a s s i n t e r e s t s th ro u g h o u t th e r e v o lu tio n a r y y e a r s .

The A ltip la n o

S in d ic a to o r g a n iz a tio n d u rin g t h i s p h ase o f th e R e v o lu tio n may

b e d iv id e d i n t o two r e g io n s o f g r e a t e s t a c t i v i t y : th e a l t i p l a n o and

th e Cochabamba V a lle y . The f i r s t a r e a c o n ta in s p r i n c i p a l l y Aymara-

s p e a k in g p e a s a n ts ; th e se c o n d , Quechua s p e a k e r s . P e a s a n t a c t i v i t y and

le a d e r s h ip w ere n e a r ly e x c lu s iv e ly c o n f in e d to th e s e two re g io n s w ith

t a c t i c s and te c h n iq u e s r a p i d l y d i f f u s i n g betw een th e a r e a s .

On th e a l t i p l a n o , m ost commonly i n th e v i c i n i t y o f O ruro,

A n to n io Mamani A lv a re z h e ld th e p o s i t i o n o f "maximum l e a d e r ." P r io r

to th e R e v o lu tio n , A n to n io Mamani A lv a re z t r a v e l e d th e a l t i p l a n o as a

C a llaw ay a, an Aymara p e d d le r o f w h ite m a g ic , s e l l i n g c u r e s f o r p e a s a n t

m a la d ie s and a f f l i c t i o n s . I n t h i s c a p a c it y , he f a m i l i a r i z e d h im s e lf

w ith th e n a t u r a l and human g eo g rap h y o f th e v a s t p la te a u r e g io n w h ile .


4
le s s e n in g th e p r o v in c ia lis m o f h i s p e a s a n t h e r i t a g e .

S c a rc e ly two weeks a f t e r th e i n s u r r e c t i o n a r y p h ase o f th e

N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n b eg an , A n to n io Mamani A lv a re z , to g e th e r w ith h is

r i v a l - t o - b e , Gabino A paza, to u r e d th e a l t i p l a n o s o l i c i t i n g p e a s a n t

c o o p e r a tio n w ith th e new governm ent th ro u g h c o n tin u e d a g r i c u l t u r a l

p r o d u c tio n .^ Mamani A lv a r e z 's c a r e e r a s a d i r i g e n t e was to b e mer

c u r i a l , a l t e r n a t i n g c o o p e r a tio n w ith an d o p p o s itio n to th e d e s ir e s o f

th e MNR governm ent. Two m onths a f t e r c o o p e r a tin g w ith th e d i c t a t e s o f

th e governm ent and u rg in g p e a s a n ts to m a in ta in p r o d u c tio n , an d o f c o u rs e

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86

s t a b i l i t y , th e "maximum le a d e r " was e x p e lle d from h i s p o s i t i o n o f p e a s

a n t spokesman w ith i n th e cam pesino s e c t o r o f th e B o liv ia n W orkers C e n tr a l

(COB) f o r a number o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , in c lu d in g e x p l o i t a t i o n o f campe

s in o s th ro u g h c o l l e c t i o n o f ram as ( f e e s ) F o r t h i s r e a s o n th e COB r e

s o lv e d " to e x p e l from i t s bosom A n to n io Mamani A lv a re z f o r b e in g an

a d v e n tu ro u s e le m e n t, d i s l o y a l and an in s tr u m e n t o f th e f o r c e s t h a t w ere

d is p la c e d by th e p o p u la r u p r is in g o f A p r i l .

A d d re ssin g a crow d, a lo n g w ith P r e s id e n t Paz E s te n s s o r o , on th e

Day o f th e I n d ia n , A ugust 2 , 1952, th e d i r i g e n t e a sk e d th e p e a s a n ts

to p ro d u ce and work f o r th e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o f th e c o u n try w h ile re m a in -


g
in g p a c i f i c . C o n tin u in g , Mamani A lv a re z s t a t e d : "T h ere w i l l b e a law

i n hand i n o r d e r to c a s t i g a t e th o s e t h a t a b u se u s , b u t i n no way sh o u ld

we p ro c e e d w ith v io le n c e ; we w i l l n o t b u rn h o u se s n o r m o le s t p a tr o n e s ,

t h i s . . . goes a g a i n s t th e p o s t u l a t e s o f th e g lo r i o u s R e v o lu tio n o f
9
A p r il f o r w hich you and I s t r u g g l e and s u f f e r . " S t i l l p o p u la r , Mamani

A lv a re z was i n v i t e d by th e cam pesinos o f C a p in o ta to v i s i t th e community

a s a s y n d ic a te o r g a n iz e r . The cam p esin o s s p e c i f i c a l l y a sk e d f o r Mamani

A lv a re z r a t h e r th a n S in fo ro s o R iv a s , L u is B ustam ente and G abino Apaza

whom th e y la b e le d as e x p l o i t e r s , e x - s e r v a n ts o f th e R o sea, and Communist


10
a g e n ts .

D u rin g 1953, p r i o r t o th e A g ra ria n Reform D e c re e , A n to n io Mamani

A lv a re z c o n tin u e d to a l t e r n a t e betw een s t a t e s o f good and bad g ra c e w ith

th e MNR a d m in is tr a t io n . I n F e b ru a ry , N u flo Chavez te le g r a p h e d O ruro

r e q u e s tin g th e p o li c e to a r r e s t th e d i r i g e n t e f o r su p p o sed s u b v e r s iv e

a c tiv itie s .^ A p p a re n tly th e d i r i g e n t e h ad a g a in b e e n a c c u se d o f c o l

l e c t i n g ram as from p e a s a n ts a ro u n d O ru ro . Soon a f t e r i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n

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87

O ru ro , Mamani A lv a re z was f r e e d by p r e s i d e n t i a l o r d e r a s P az E s te n s s o r o

r e c e iv e d a c o n s id e r a b le volume o f m a il from s i n d i c a t o s s u p p o r tin g th e

l e a d e r and r e q u e s tin g h i s r e l e a s e . ^

The fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n from p e a s a n ts i n P o to s i D ep artm en t su g

g e s ts th e e x te n t o f th e "maximum l e a d e r s " in f l u e n c e :

The cam pesino s y n d ic a te s a sk th e Supreme Government t h a t th e


Commission o f A g ra ria n Reform c o n s id e r names o f cam pesino d i
r i g e n t e s so t h a t th e y m ight c o o p e ra te i n th e e d i t i n g o f th e
. . . D ecree. . . . They p ro p o se . . . [a s an A g ra ria n Reform
C om m issioner] A n to n io Mamani A lv a re z , w e ll known d i r i g e n t e o f
th e m asses o f th e c o u n t r y . ^

In a s ta te m e n t (made w h ile a g a in u n d e r a r r e s t ) Mamani A lv a re z claim e d

le a d e r s h ip o f o v e r f i f t y s y n d ic a te s b e c a u se o f h i s ex em p lary co n d u ct
14
and s e r v ic e to th e n a t i o n . A n o th er s ta te m e n t by th e d i r i g e n t e a f

f o r d s a r a r e g lim p se o f th e m an 's p o l i t i c a l v ie w s:

Many a f f ir m t h a t o u r movement f o r th e In d ia n i s d i r e c t e d
a g a i n s t th e r i g h t o f p r o p e r ty and a g a i n s t th e p a t r o n e s .
T h is i s a p ro fo u n d e r r o r . . . we d e s i r e s o c i a l j u s t i c e
and t h a t th e la n d s w hich w ere s n a tc h e d by th e l a t i f u n
d i s t s sh o u ld be r e s t o r e d . The p a tr o n e s t h a t a r e e x t o r t i n g
my c l a s s . . . m ust answ er b e f o r e j u s t i c e i n o r d e r to r e n
d e r a cc o u n t f o r t h e i r a c t s .

N o th in g v e ry r a d i c a l i s s u g g e s te d h e r e ; i n s t e a d , we f i n d an em phasis

on th e c o n c re te la n d and j u s t i c e . T h is exam ple p r e s e n t s th e "maximum

le a d e r " a s a man o f m o d e ra tio n and good te m p er c l e a r l y n o t th e ty p e

o f f i g u r e one a s s o c ia t e s w ith a g r a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n .

Throughout t h i s p e r io d A n to n io Mamani A lv a re z was p e r i o d i c a l l y


16
ja ile d fo r a v a rie ty o f ir r e g u l a r it ie s . A ls o , r i v a l r y betw een Mamani

A lv a re z and a n o th e r a l t i p l a n o d i r i g e n t e , G abino A paza, b egan i n e a r l y

1953. In O ru ro , one month b e f o r e th e d e c re e o f A g r a r ia n R eform , A n to n io

Mamani A lv arez denounced Gabino A paza c h a rg in g t h a t h e was u n d e r th e

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88

in f lu e n c e o f com m unists who so u g h t t o i n c i t e th e I n d ia n s to r e b e l l i o n . ^

Gabino A paza, n o te d E l D ia r io , e x p re s s e d th e same a c c u s a tio n s a g a in s t

A lv a re z M a m a n i.^

Gabino A paza, r i v a l to A lv a re z Mamani f o r c la im to th e t i t l e

"maximum le a d e r " o f th e a l t i p l a n o , a l s o a p p e a rs a m o d e ra te , p a c i f i c

a d v o c a te o f ch an g e. In a sp eech d e l iv e r e d d u rin g th e 1953 a n n iv e r s a r y

o f th e R e v o lu tio n , Apaza s t a t e d t h a t th e p e a s a n tr y p le d g ed a l l t h e i r

c o o p e ra tio n to th e MNR governm ent and m a in ta in e d t h a t i t was f a l s e t h a t

th e cam pesinos w ere a tte m p tin g to s u b v e r t th e o r d e r and a p p r o p r ia te

la n d s . He f u r t h e r s t a t e d :

Now t h a t th e c o u n try n eed s more p r o d u c tio n , th e cam pesinos n o t


o n ly w i l l work e i g h t h o u rs b u t te n and tw elv e to c o l la b o r a t e
w ith th e G overnm ent, and i n o r d e r to d e fe n d i t when th e c i r
cum stances demand, th e p e a s a n ts p o s s e s s re g im e n ts w e ll o rg an
iz e d and arm ed.

A g ain , n o t th e a g r a r i a n r a d i c a l , b u t th e r u r a l re fo rm e r em erges from

t h i s r h e t o r i c w ith i t s s t r e s s on c o o p e r a tio n w ith th e g overnm ent, and

d is c la im e r t h a t p e a s a n ts w ere s u b v e r tin g th e o r d e r by e x p r o p r ia tio n

o f h a c ie n d a s . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s i s a t r u s t i n th e MNR g o v ern m en ts

re fo rm i n t e n t i o n s a t r u s t n o t s h a re d by m2r.y co n tem p o rary acad em ician s

who f e e l t h a t o n ly p e a s a n t la n d s e i z u r e s f o r c e d th e R e v o lu tio n a ry g o v e m -
20
ment i n t o is s u in g th e A g ra ria n Reform D e c re e . A paza s c a l l f o r in

c re a s e d work demanded a good d e a l o f p a t ie n c e a s th e p r e - r e v o l u tio n a r y

la n d te n u re sy stem p r e v a ile d a t t h i s d a t e . F i n a l l y , th e em phasis on

work p r e s e n te d h e r e , i f heeded by th e cam pesino c l a s s , would o b v ia te

r e v o lu tio n a r y v io le n c e due to th e r ig o r o u s demands o f a g r i c u l t u r a l la b o r .

I n a l a t e r sp eech Apaza u n d e rsc o re d h i s m o d e ra tio n by g u a ra n te e in g t h a t


21
th e p e a s a n tr y would rem ain n o n - v io l e n t. He a t t r i b u t e d r e p o r t s o f r u r a l

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v io le n c e to th e m a c h in a tio n s o f th e la n d lo r d s w h ile w arn in g a g a i n s t th e

d u p l i c i t y o f th e F ala n g e S o c i a l i s t a B o liv ia n a (FSB) "who h ave ta k e n

ch arg e o f th e d e s ig n s o f th e o li g a r c h y , p r e te n d in g to s a t i s f y th e p e a s -
22
a n t s w ith p ro m ises t h a t we know w i l l n o t b e f u l f i l l e d . "

In two p r e s s r e l e a s e s Apaza w arned th e p e a s a n tr y o f in d i v id u a l s

s o l i c i t i n g c o n t r i b u ti o n s (ram as) f o r th e c r e a t i o n o f a g r a r i a n s y n d i-
23
c a te s and c o o p e r a tiv e s . Many o f th e s e men w ere d is h o n e s t, and th e

p r a c t i c e had b een d e c la r e d i l l e g a l by th e Supreme D ecree o f May 1 5 ,


24
1945. Apaza d ir e c te d p e a s a n ts e n c o u n te rin g th e s e i n d i v id u a l s to tu r n

them in to th e n e a r e s t l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s . A lth o u g h h e a p p a r e n tly av o id ed

i n c a r c e r a t i o n , th e d i r i g e n t e was s u b je c te d to d e n u n c ia tio n and a c c u s a tio n

o f com m unistic le a n in g s . I n one d e n u n c ia tio n no l e s s th a n e le v e n s i n d i -


25
c a to s ch arg ed him w ith u n d erm in in g th e u n it y o f th e MNR.

T hese two d i r i g e n t e s , com peting f o r c o n t r o l o f th e a l t i p l a n o s

p e a s a n t p o p u la tio n , sh a re d a number o f t r a i t s : m o d e ra tio n , an em phasis

on work and s u s ta in e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c tio n , c r i t i c i s m o f v io le n c e

a g a i n s t th e la n d lo r d s , and a p a t i e n t a t t i t u d e to w ard th e s t a t e o f con

d i t i o n s in r u r a l a r e a s u n t i l p ro m u lg a tio n o f th e A g ra ria n Reform D e c re e .

T hese t r a i t s w ere n o t a s common i n d i r i g e n t e s o f th e Cochabamba r e g io n .

The p re v io u s c h a p te r h a s exam ined th e phenomenon o f r u r a l v io le n c e

d u rin g t h i s p e r io d . I t i s n o t c o i n c id e n t a l t h a t i n th e Cochabamba V al

l e y , th e a r e a s o f g r e a t e s t p e a s a n t v io l e n c e , would b e found th e more ex

trem e p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e s .

The Cochabamba V alley

T hroughout th e r e v o lu tio n a r y p e r io d m ost p e a s a n t a c t i v i t y t r a n s

p ir e d i n th e Cochabamba re g io n w here a number o f p o w e rfu l d i r i g e n t e s

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90

c o n t r o l l e d th e d e s tin y o f th e r e g i o n 's p e a s a n t m a sse s. I n th e s e e a r l y

m o n th s, S in fo ro s o R iv a s , E x e c u tiv e S e c r e ta r y o f th e S y n d ic a l F e d e r a tio n

o f Campesino W orkers, was c o n s id e re d " d i r i g e n t e maximo" o f th e V a l l e y 's

p e a s a n ts . R iv a s , a Quechua I n d ia n , s h a re d a num ber o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

w ith h i s Aymara c o u n t e r p a r ts . He was o f te n denounced a s an " a g i t a t o r "

and com m unist, acc u se d o f i n c i t i n g v io l e n c e , and o f v a r io u s i r r e g u l a r

itie s ( e . g . , c o l l e c t i o n o f ra m a s ). A lthough h e s u f f e r e d i n c a r c e r a t i o n ,

n e v e r t h e l e s s , a t o th e r tim e s he e n jo y e d th e s a n c ti o n o f th e MNR le a d e r -
26
s h ip . In h i s p u b lic s p e e c h e s , S in fo ro s o R iv a s ask ed th e p e a s a n tr y

f o r p a t i e n c e , h a rd work and n o n -v io le n c e w h ile a w a itin g th e a g r a r i a n

re fo rm d e c r e e . S peaking b e f o r e a c o n g re g a tio n o f some 1 2 ,0 0 0 p e a s a n ts

a t Cochabamba, R iv as s t a t e d t h a t th e p e a s a n tr y was awakened and b e c a u se

o f cam pesino s u p p o rt th e governm ent was s h ie l d e d from c o u n t e r - r e v o lu ti o n .

He a l s o ask ed f o r th e m e c h a n iz a tio n o f a g r i c u l t u r e , th e e x i l e o f t r a i t o r s
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and r u r a l s t a b i l i t y . In an e a r l i e r sp e e c h th e d i r i g e n t e sp o k e o f th e

cam p esin o , s t a t i n g t h a t th e n a t i o n a l i s t i c cam p esin o s d id n o t n eed w eap-


29
ons i n o r d e r to d e m o n stra te t h e i r s u p p o rt o f th e g o v ern m en t. R iv as

r e f e r r e d f r e q u e n tly to th e a c t i v i t y o f "com m unist a g i t a t o r s who d id

n o t d e s i r e th e l i b e r a t i o n o f th e o p p re sse d c l a s s e s w ith o u t i n i t i a t i n g
,,30
c o n f l i c t s o f b e n e f i t to th e R osea.

I n an in te r v ie w c o n c e rn in g th e s u b j e c t o f a g r a r i a n re fo rm ,

R iv a s e x p re s s e d th e o p in io n t h a t A g ra ria n Reform in v o lv e d th e l i b e r a -
3
t i o n o f th e cam pesinos who had s u f f e r e d h u n d re d s o f y e a r s o f o p p r e s s io n .

R esponding t o a q u e s tio n r e g a r d in g th e amount o f tim e r e q u ir e d f o r

r e a l i z a t i o n o f A g ra ria n Reform , th e p e a s a n t le a d e r r e p l i e d :

The c o n s o lid a tio n o f th e A g ra ria n Reform . . . r e q u i r e s many


y e a r s . We h av e u n d e rs to o d t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e to change

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
91

a s i t u a t i o n w hich h a s en d u red f o r su ch a tim e i n m onths o r a


y e a r . We have to w a ir p a t i e n t l y and t r u s t t h a t th e p ro c e s s
w i l l be r e a l i z e d . 32

A g a in , i n c o n c lu s io n , R iv a s c a l l e d f o r p e a c e an d t r a n q u i l i t y i n th e

c o u n tr y s id e .

The d i r i g e n t e e x p e rie n c e d d i f f i c u l t y w ith r i v a l s s e e k in g con

t r o l o f th e V a ll e y 's p e a s a n t s . P r im a r ily s u c h c o m p e titio n , d u rin g t h i s

p e r io d , came from E m ilio Chacon and C a rlo s M ontano, who cau sed R iv a s

a good d e a l o f tr o u b le th ro u g h numerous d e n u n c ia tio n s . In J a n u a ry

1953, a t a m eetin g o f cam pesino le a d e r s from a l l p ro v in c e s o f Cocha

bamba D epartm ent, w ith a p p ro x im a te ly 1 ,5 0 0 cam pesino r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s

p r e s e n t , th e q u e s tio n o f Chacon an d Montano was p r e s e n te d . The p e a s a n ts

who had assem b led in a d is p la y o f f o r c e to s u p p o rt th e "maximum l e a d e r ,"

S in fo ro s o R iv a s, found i t n e c e s s a r y to d is c u s s th e t h r e a t p o s i t e d by

th e r i v a l d i r i g e n t e s . F o r th e p a s t two o r t h r e e m onths i t a p p e a rs

t h a t Chacon and M ontano, w ith t h e i r b a s e lo c a te d n e a r P o jo , had u n d e r

ta k e n a cam paign o f v e r b a l a t t a c k a g a i n s t R iv a s ' F e d e r a tio n , c a l l i n g


33
i t s le a d e r s h ip p e t t y b o u rg e o is and i t s a c t i v i t i e s r e a c t i o n a r y .

C oncerning R ivas h im s e lf , i t was s a i d t h a t h e had engaged in th e i l l e g a l

c o l l e c t i o n o f ramas and t h a t h is le a d e r s h ip had f a i l e d to ad v an ce th e


34
p e a s a n t c a u se .

The cam pesino le a d e r s p r o t e s t e d th e m a c h in a tio n s o f Chacon and

Montano a s o p p o r t u n i s t i c . T hese r i v a l s w ere condemned a s e le m e n ts o f

known e x tre m is t a f f i l i a t i o n who w ere more f r ie n d s o f th e R e v o lu tio n


35
th a n o f A g ra ria n Reform. In c o n c lu d in g th e m e e tin g , a number o f

cam pesinos ask ed f o r m ore e f f e c t i v e means o f c u rb in g com m unistic a c t i v i -


36 s
t i e s in th e c o u n tr y s id e . A month l a t e r b o th E m ilio Chacon and C arlo s

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
92

M ontarb , to g e th e r w ith P an ta leo 'n C hacdh, w ere e x p e lle d from th e MNR

f o r a c tio n s a g a i n s t n a t i o n a l u n i t y , and E m ilio Chacon was so u g h t by

p o l i c e f o r a lle g e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an a t t a c k a g a i n s t p a tro n e s a t

T,
P o jo . 37

A f te r th e Cochabamba m e etin g o f th e p e a s a n t f e d e r a t io n had t e r

m in a te d , a r e p o r t e r f o r th e d a i ly E l P a is in te r v ie w e d th e d i r i g e n t e

Simon Sanchez, P r e s s S e c r e ta r y f o r th e A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te o f T o to ra -

pampa, who r e l a t e d a r e c e n t e x p e r ie n c e : S an ch ez, a lo n g w ith tw e n ty -

n in e o th e r d i r i g e n t e s , h ad jo u rn e y e d to La Paz f o r th e p u rp o se o f

a s k in g th e governm ent s r a t i f i c a t i o n o f S in fo ro s o R iv as as S e c re ta ry

G e n e ra l o f th e A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te F e d e r a tio n . P r e s id e n t Paz E s te n ss o ro

t o l d th e cam pesinos to fo llo w R iv a s , b e w ary o f communist dem agoguery,

work h a rd on th e s a y a n a s , and w a it p a t i e n t l y f o r th e A g ra ria n Reform


38
D e c re e . T h is in c id e n t r e f l e c t s th e MNRs s a n c tio n o f R iv a s, un

d o u b te d ly b e c a u se o f h i s m od erate p o s i t i o n , a s w e ll a s o f f i c i a l d e s ir e s

f o r r u r a l s t a b i l i t y and c o n tin u e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c tio n . The f a c t

t h a t th e t h i r t y p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e s h ad b een h o u sed i n th e b a r r a c k s o f

th e Regiment Sucre a ls o o f f e r s some i n d i c a t i o n o f a c t u a l MNR a t t i t u d e s

tow ard th e low er c l a s s e s , o f f i c i a l p ro p ag an d a and th e r e v o lu tio n a r y

myth o f th e e q u a l i t y o f w o rk e r, m id d le c l a s s , and cam pesino n o tw ith

s ta n d in g .

S in d ic a to s

One o f th e more s i g n i f i c a n t d ev elo p m en ts among th e p e a s a n try

in th e B o liv ia n N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n was th e o r g a n iz a tio n and p r o l i f

e r a t i o n o f p e a s a n t s in d i c a t o s to f u r t h e r p e a s a n t i n t e r e s t s . As d i s

c u sse d b r i e f l y b e f o r e (C h ap ter Tw o), p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s a n te d a te d th e

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
93

R e v o lu tio n b u t e x h ib ite d n e i t h e r th e sco p e n o r a g g r e s s iv e n e s s w hich

c h a r a c te r iz e d p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y ex am p les. The p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te w ith

i t s armed m i l i t i a was b u t one o f many p ro p s d e s ig n e d by th e MNR to

b u ttre s s i t s r u le . In a d d i t i o n th e governm ent o rg a n iz e d m in e rs , y o u th

and women's m i l i t i a s , s y n d ic a l p o li c e and r u r a l g u a r d s , c a r a b in e r o s


39
a s w e ll as MNR army, a i r f o r c e and navy f o r c e s . The scheme in c o r

p o r a te d th e id e a o f d i v i s i o n o f power w ith no s e c t o r (su p p o se d ly ) pow er-


40
f u l enough to o v e rb a la n c e th e o t h e r s . T h is c o n c e p tio n c o n s ti tu te d

a fo rm id a b le o b s ta c l e to c o .u n te r - r e v o l u tio n i s t s s e e k in g a r e t u r n to

o lig a rc h ic a l r u le . In p r a c t i c e i t s sh o rtc o m in g s w ere o b v io u s , as

d em o n strated by th e m i l i t a r y coup o f November, 1964.

W ith in th e MNR v i s i o n o f pow er, d iv id e d among a c o n s t e l l a t i o n

o f i n t e r e s t s (w o rk e rs, p e a s a n ts and m i d d l e - c l a s s ) , th e p e a s a n t s y n d i

c a t e assumed an i n t e g r a l p o s i t i o n . M ain ten an ce o f th e e v o lv in g a g r a r ia n

re fo rm and d e fe n s e o f th e MNR regim e w ere th e p rim a ry ta s k s o f th e

p easan t s in d ic a to . The r e a l i t i e s o f B o liv ia n r e v o lu tio n a r y p o l i t i c s

t h r u s t th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te i n t o y e t a n o th e r r o l e , t h a t o f pawn in th e
41
in n e r s tr u g g le s o f MNR f a c t i o n s . In th e e a r l y y e a r s o f th e R e v o lu tio n ,

p e a s a n t s in d i c a t o s f a c i l i t a t e d change o f th e a g r a r i a n s t a t u s qu o , th u s

f u r t h e r i n g r e v o lu t io n a r y e n d s. I n l a t e r y e a r s th e s i n d i c a t o would be

m o b iliz e d f o r th e p e r s o n a l g a in o f i t s d i r i g e n t e o r th e n eed s o f th e

MNR r u li n g c l iq u e .

The p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te was o f f i c i a l l y s a n c tio n e d by th e MNR

w ith members o f i t s V an g u ard ia w ing i n c h a rg e o f a c t u a l l y en co u rag in g

o r g a n iz a tio n o f a number o f s y n d ic a t e s . S in d ic a to s w ere a l s o e s ta b l is h e d

by m in e rs , who had c o n s id e r a b le p re v io u s e x p e r ie n c e w ith t h i s form o f

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
94

o r g a n iz a tio n . N uflo Chavez and V ic e n te A lv a re z P l a t a e a r l y e n l i s t e d

su p p o rt o f le a d e r s i n th e S y n d ic a l F e d e r a tio n o f B o liv ia n Mine W orkers


42
to a id i n th e ta s k o f p e a s a n t s y n d ic a lis m . P e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e s and

s u p p o r te r s o f such l e f t i s t p a r t i e s a s th e POR and PC a ls o o rg a n iz e d

s y n d ic a t e s . 43

The O ffic e o f Campesino A f f a i r s c o n s id e re d s y n d ic a l iz a tio n one

o f th e u n d e rly in g c a u se s o f r u r a l u n r e s t and p e a s a n t- p a tr o n f r i c t i o n in

th e c o u n try s id e . A d is p a tc h from th e M in is tr y p u b lis h e d in E l P a ls

o u tlin e d th e problem o f i n c i p i e n t s y n d i c a l i z a t i o n and p re s e n te d th r e e

p o in ts i n e x p la n a tio n : f i r s t , th e r e v o lu t io n a r y e f f e c t s on th e r u r a l

p o p u la tio n awakened from l e th a r g y ; se c o n d , i n t r u s i o n o f f o r e ig n elem en ts

among th e p e a s a n t m a sse s, i . e . , r u r a l a g i t a t o r s and s y n d ic a te o rg an

i z e r s ; t h i r d , e l i t e r e s i s t a n c e to p e a s a n t o r g a n iz a tio n and co n tin u e d


44
p r o te c tio n o f la n d lo r d i n t e r e s t s by some a u t h o r i t i e s . A nother cau se

o f tu rm o il a ls o c i t e d by th e M in is tr y was p e a s a n t p r e s s u r e to o b ta in

refo rm p a r c e ls o f la n d a s e s t a b l i s h e d by th e V i l l a r r o e l D ecree o f

May 15, 1 9 4 5 .45

The p e a s a n t s i n d i c a t o sy ste m w hich s p re a d th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try

d u rin g th e e a r l y y e a r s o f th e R e v o lu tio n was a r a t h e r e la b o r a te o rg a n i

z a tio n com prised o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l s e r i e s o f o f f i c e s . T here was a good

d e a l o f v a r i a t i o n among in d i v i d u a l s y n d ic a t e s , b u t g e n e r a lly th e o r

g a n iz a tio n was e s ta b l is h e d in th e fo llo w in g m anner: S e c re ta ry o f

Government, o r E x e c u tiv e S e c r e ta r y ; S e c r e ta r y o f R e la tio n s ; S e c re ta ry

o f T re a su ry ; S e c r e ta r y o f P ro c e e d in g s ; S e c r e ta r y o f O rg a n iz a tio n ;

S e c re ta ry o f C o n f li c ts ; S e c r e ta r y o f C o o p e ra tiv e s ; S e c r e ta r y o f M i l i t i a ;

S e c r e ta r y o f .P r e s s and P ro p ag an d a; S e c r e ta r y o f C h a r ity ; S e c re ta ry o f

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
95

L ia s o n ; S e c r e ta r y o f A g i ta tio n ; S e c r e ta r y o f E n t a i l ; S e c r e ta r y o f
46
S o c ia l A id; and S e c r e ta r y o f S p o r ts .

The A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te o f C liz a p r o v id e s a s p e c i f i c exam ple o f

an im p o rta n t p e a s a n t s y n d ic a t e . Headed by J o s e R o ja s as S e c r e ta r y o f

G overnm ent, th e o th e r o f f i c e s in c lu d e d : S e c r e ta r y G e n e ra l, S. Lucas

D e lg a d illo ; S e c r e ta r y o f E n t a i l , Damian C havez; S e c r e ta r y o f T r e a s u r y ,

Manuel M aldonado; S e c r e ta r y o f P ro c e e d in g s and O r g a n iz a tio n , E m eterio

C la r o s ; S e c r e ta r y o f S p o rts and S tu d ie s , S e ra p io I r i a r t e ; D e le g a te b e

f o r e E x t e r io r O rg a n iz a tio n 's , A ndres Q u isp o ; and an A s s i s t a n t , E n c a r-


47
n a c io n C olque.

A n o th er s i n d i c a t o , a t S ic a y a (C a p in o ta P r o v in c e , Cochabamba

D ep a rtm e n t), was o rg a n iz e d t h u s l y : S e c r e t a r y o f G overnm ent, C e sa r

M o rales; S e c r e ta r y o f P ro c e d u re , C elso M edina; S e c r e ta r y o f R e l a ti o n s ,

T e le s f o r o O r e lla n a ; S e c r e ta r y o f C u lt u r e , Berno C olque; S e c r e ta r y of

C o n f l i c t s , Lorenzo J u r a ; S e c r e ta r y o f T r e a s u r y , M ariano V i l l c a ; and


48
S e c r e ta r y o f P r e s s , J o s e A rz e . T hese o r g a n iz a ti o n s w ere u s u a ll y

d e m o c ra tic w ith o f f i c e s f i l l e d by e l e c t i o n and so u g h t th e d e fe n s e o f


49
p e a s a n t c l a s s and group i n t e r e s t s .

The s y n d ic a te may b e view ed a s a r e g io n a l r u r a l governm ent w ith

o f f i c e r s a s s ig n e d to p erfo rm th e n e c e s s a r y f u n c tio n s o f governm ent

(E x e c u tiv e S e c r e ta r y o r S e c r e ta r y o f G overn m en t), e x t e r i o r r e l a t i o n s

(S e c r e ta r y o f R e l a t i o n s ) , d e fe n s e ( S e c r e t a r y o f C o n f l i c t s ) , w ar (S e c re

t a r y o f M i l i t i a ) , as w e ll a s p ro p ag an d a and p r e s s , e d u c a tio n and c h a r i t y .

I n d iv id u a l s y n d ic a te governm ents w ere o rg a n iz e d around th e s i n d i c a t o de

h a c ie n d a , a b o u t th e b a s e o f w o rk e rs o f a d e te rm in e d f i e f . T hese w ere

th e n grouped to g e th e r i n t o s u b - c e n t r a l e s c a n p e s in a s ; th e s u b - c e n te r s

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96

in t u r n form ed p a r t s o f th e l a r g e r c e n t r a l p r o v i n c i a l w hich c o n s t i

t u t e d p a r t o f th e even l a r g e r F e d e ra c io n D e p a rta m e n ta l. N a tio n a l

d e le g a te s o f th e S y n d ic a l F e d e r a tio n o f Cam pesinos r e p r e s e n te d th e

p e a s a n tr y w ith i n th e COB."^ M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s , N u flo C havez,

a l s o h e ld a p o s i t i o n i n th e COB a s a s p e c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e
52
A g ra ria n F e d e r a tio n o f Cochabamba.

The r e g io n a l C e n t r a l S y n d ic a te o f th e V a lle y r e p r e s e n te d tw e n ty -

fo u r s e p a r a t e s i n d i c a t o s from th e p ro v in c e s o f A r a n i, P u n a ta , C li z a ,

and T a r a ta , and was form ed i n D ecem ber, 1952, a s an a g e n t o f c e n t r a l i

z a t io n to f a c i l i t a t e r e l a t i o n s w ith th e S y n d ic a l F e d e r a tio n o f Campe-


53
s in o s . T h is r e g io n a l in s tr u m e n t, o rg a n iz e d i n a m anner s i m i l a r to

th e i n d i v i d u a l s y n d ic a t o s , s u g g e s ts t h a t th e d i r i g e n t e , J o s e R o ja s ,

w h ile n o t o f f i c i a l l y s a n c tio n e d by th e MNR, n e v e r t h e le s s h e ld a p o s i

t i o n o f s u b s t a n t i a l p r e s t i g e and power in th e Cochabamba r e g io n i n t h i s

e a r l y p e r io d o f th e R e v o lu tio n .

The r e g io n a l s y n d ic a te h ie r a r c h y a l s o s e r v e s a s a ro u g h in d e x

o f d i r i g e n t e s t a t u r e i n t h i s e a r l y p h ase o f th e R e v o lu tio n : E x e c u tiv e

S e c r e t a r y , J o s e R o ja s (H acien d a U c u ren a); S e c r e ta r y G e n e ra l, C riso stc m c

I n t u r i a s (H acien d a de L edezm a); S e c r e ta r y o f R e l a ti o n s , D em etrio T o r r ic o

(H acienda de L edezm a); S e c r e ta r y o f O r g a n iz a tio n , Ju a n de l a Cruz Z u r i ta

(V a lle H erm osa); S e c r e ta r y o f C o n f l i c t s , A bdfas I l l a n e s (P rez R ancho);

S e c r e ta r y o f J u s t i c e , Ferm fn T o r r ic o (H acienda de Ledezm a); S e c r e ta r y

o f C u ltu r e , N ic a n o r F ran co (S a n ta C la r a ) ; S e c r e ta r y o f P r e s s and P r o -


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p ag an d a , Is o d o ro S oto ( P o r v e n ir ) . Of th e d i r i g e n t e s ch o sen f o r th e s e

p o s i t i o n s w ith in th e r e g io n a l s y n d ic a t e , b o th J o s R o ja s and S a lv a d o r

Vsquez w ould c o n tin u e to w ie ld c o n s id e r a b le in f lu e n c e i n th e r e g io n

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97

th ro u g h o u t th e R e v o lu tio n .

A n o th er r e g io n a l s in d ic a to was e s t a b l i s h e d i n m id-Novem ber,

1952, to s e r v e th e n e e d s o f p e a s a n ts i n th e s o u th w e s te rn p o r ti o n o f

Cochabamba D ep artm en t. The A g ra ria n S y n d ic a l F e d e r a tio n o f Cochabamba

w ith i t s s e a t a t S ip e s ip e r e p r e s e n te d o v er tw en ty in d i v id u a l s y n d ic a te s

i n th e p ro v in c e s o f A yopaya, Q u i l l a c o l l o , C a p in o ta , and o th e r s o u th

w e s te rn p r o v i n c e s . ^ The r e g io n a l s y n d ic a te d is p a tc h e d s p e c i a l a g r i

c u l t u r a l a g e n ts whose m is s io n i t was to e x p la in th e r i g h t s and o b l i

g a tio n s o f c a m p e s in o s .^ The F e d e r a tio n a l s o p r o te s t e d a g a i n s t c o u n te r

r e v o lu tio n a r y s ta te m e n ts a p p e a rin g i n th e p r e s s and asked, f o r th e

n a tio n a liz a tio n o f l a t i f u n d i o s . ^ A d d iti o n a ll y , th e fo rm a tio n o f co

o p e r a t iv e s f o r sm a ll and medium p r o p e r ty ow ners was s t r e s s e d by th e

F e d e r a tio n , w hich a l s o c a l l e d f o r " a show o f th e i n d e s t r u c t i b l e r e v o lu -


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t i o n a r y a l l i a n c e o f th e p r o l e t a r i a t and ca m p e sin o ." The a g g r e s s iv e

p o s i t i o n tow ard a g r a r i a n refo rm ta k e n by th e Cochabamba F e d e r a tio n i s

p e rh a p s e x p la in e d by th e ex trem e dem ographic p r e s s u r e w hich c h a r a c te r

iz e d th e a r e a i n w h ich , a s n o te d b e f o r e (C h a p te r I I ) , p e a s a n t a g i t a t i o n

f o r la n d i n th e r e g io n d a te d from th e 1 9 3 0 's .

Throughout th e s e m o n th s, s y n d ic a te s w ere founded i n p e a s a n t

a r e a s o f th e R e p u b lic . In th e h ig h la n d r e g io n , s y n d i c a l i z a t i o n p r o -
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ceeded ap ace i n P o to s x , O ru ro , S u c re , and La Paz D ep artm en ts. Cocha

bamba D ep artm en t, d is c u s s e d e a r l i e r , was p e rh a p s th e re g io n o f g r e a t e s t

s y n d ic a liz a tio n . In A ra n i, by exam ple, some 25 ,0 0 0 p e a s a n ts in th e

p ro v in c e w ere o rg a n iz e d i n t o s y n d ic a te s to d e fe n d th e R e v o l u t i o n . ^

By J a n u a ry , 1953, s i n d i c a t o fo rm a tio n was w e ll e s ta b l is h e d i n Cocha

bamba, a lth o u g h in some z o n e s, su ch a s M izque, s y n d ic a l iz a tio n r e p o r te d ly

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98

had b een im peded by e x c e s s iv e r u r a l v io l e n c e . A lth o u g h th e zones o f

d e n s e s t p e a s a n t p o p u la tio n , th e h ig h la n d s , w ere a l s o th e a r e a s o f g r e a t

e s t s y n d i c a l i z a t i o n , th e r e w e re , n o n e t h e le s s , p e a s a n t s i n d i c a t o s formed

e ls e w h e re . I n th e Y ungas, w here s y n d ic a te s w ere c r e a te d a s e a r l y as

O c to b e r, 1952, th e A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te o f N o rth Yungas pronounced i t s

l o y a l t y to th e R e v o lu tio n and p le d g e d in c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p ro d u c -
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tio n . I n lo w lan d S a n ta Cruz D epartm ent i t was announced m J a n u a ry ,

1953, t h a t s y n d ic a te s w ere b e in g o rg a n iz e d i n a f f i l i a t i o n w ith th e

COB, and a month l a t e r , f i f t e e n s i n d i c a t o s w ith 8 ,0 0 0 members had been


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form ed. The T u p iza a r e a lik e w is e u n d erw en t s y n d i c a l i z a t i o n , and th e

MNR found i t n e c e s s a r y to d is p a tc h a com m ission to f in d a s o l u t i o n to


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an im p asse b etw een p e a s a n ts and la n d lo r d s .

The r a p id grow th o f p e a s a n t s y n d ic a lis m owed p a r t l y to an

awakened c l a s s i n t e r e s t ro u se d by r e v o lu t io n a r y a c t i v i s t s and p a r t l y

to a f in a n c ia l in c e n tiv e . S in d ic a to members w ere e n t i t l e d to coupons

w hich allo w ed huge d is c o u n ts on p r ic e - s u p p o r t e d g o o d s. "The oppor

t u n i t y to buy s u g a r a t 50 b o li v ia n o s a pound when i t was s e l l i n g e l s e - .

w here f o r 800, lu r e d many men to s ig n t h e i r n a m e s ." ^

A n o th er o r g a n i z a t i o n a l developm ent d u r in g t h i s p e r io d was th e

c r e a tio n o f a sy stem o f "cam pesino work ju d g e s " to i n t e r p r e t work

c o n t r a c t s , l i t i g a t i o n and o th e r problem s a r i s i n g betw een p e a s a n ts and

la n d lo r d s . By Decem ber, 1952, ju d g e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n La P az,

O ru ro , Cochabamba, S u c re , S a n ta C ru z, P o to s x , and T a r i j a w ith j u r i s

d i c t i o n o v e r th e a fo re m e n tio n e d D ep artm en ts a s w e ll a s T u p iz a , R i b e r a l t a ,

N o rth and South C h ic h e s , S outh Lxpez (P o to sx D e p a rtm e n t), N o rth and


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South C i n t i (C h u q u isaca D e p a rtm e n t), B e n i, and Pando.

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99

W hile th e s y n d ic a te may h e view ed a s an in s tr u m e n t f o r th e

f u r th e r a n c e o f cam pesino i n t e r e s t s , i t a l s o f u l f i l l e d a b r o a d e r fu n c

t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e v o lu tio n a r y s o c ie t y a s a w h o le. Campesino

s y n d ic a te s w ith t h e i r m i l i t i a s , w ere one o f a number o f c i v i l i a n

o r g a n iz a tio n s e s t a b l i s h e d o r s a n c tio n e d by th e MNR to d e fe n d th e Revo

l u t i o n i n tim e o f c r i s i s . B ecause o f c o n s id e r a tio n s o f s i z e and i s o

l a t i o n , th e cam pesino s y n d ic a te m i l i t i a s o f f e r e d th e p o t e n t i a l o f

g r e a te s t u t i l i t y in th i s re s p e c t. Armed p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s m ig h t b e

u sed to ad v an tag e i n b re a k in g m in e rs s t r i k e s , i n t im i d a ti n g m id d le - c la s s

u r b a n it e s w ish in g to d e v ia te from r e v o lu tio n a r y g o a l s , o r p r e s e n tin g a

c o u n te r - p o is e to th e r e g u l a r m i l i t a r y . ^ O f f i c i a l r h e t o r i c p r e s e n te d

th e cam pesino m i l i t i a a s : "cam pesino m i l i t i a s w i l l alw ays m u s te r in

o r d e r t o d efen d t h e i r con qu ered r i g h t s and w i l l o f f e r t h e i r b lo o d and

t h e i r l i v e s in o r d e r to d efen d th e norm al march o f th e N a tio n a l Revo

lu tio n ." ^

The m i l i t i a ' s e x p re s s e d f u n c tio n w ere d e fe n s e and p r o t e c t i o n

o f th e cam pesino p o p u la tio n a g a i n s t th e r e a c tio n a r y f o r c e s o f "gamo-

n a lis m o ," and th e d e fe n s e o f r u r a l p r o p e r ty and m ain ten an ce o f o rd e r


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and t r a n q u i l i t y . Toward t h i s end m i l i t i a s w ere ch arg ed w ith d u ti e s

o f p a t r o l l i n g th e r u r a l s e c t o r , a l e r t i n g o th e r m i l i t i a s i n tim e o f

c r i s i s , and g e n e r a lly m a in ta in in g th e m selv es i n a s t a t e o f p re p a re d

ness. O f f e n s iv e ly , a code o f g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n was is s u e d to th e

s i n d i c a t o s o u tl in in g m ethods to b e employed i n c o rd o n in g o f f , a t t a c k -
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in g , and c o n t r o l l i n g u rb a n a r e a s ( b a s ti o n s o f c o n s e r v a tis m ) .

M i l i t i a fo rm a tio n fo llo w e d s y n d i c a l i z a t i o n and r a p i d l y s p re a d

th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try . On th e a l t i p l a n o , one y e a r a f t e r th e MNR

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100

i n s u r r e c t i o n b e g a n , th e R egim ent P ed ro Domingo M u r illo o f P u c a ra n i

b o a s te d 1 5 ,0 0 0 m ilitia m e n p e a s a n t s , e x -co m b atan ts o f th e Chaco W ar,

and r e s e r v i s t s ; H u a r in a 's A ndres de S a n ta Cruz R egim ent was 18,0 0 0

s tr o n g ; an d , a t o t a l o f 1 1 0 ,0 0 0 p e a s a n t m ilitia m e n w ere r e p o r te d ly

o rg a n iz e d i n s i x t e e n r e g i m e n t s . ^ I n th e d ep artm en t o f Cochabamba,

th e A g ra ria n Army o f th e V a lle y l i s t e d 8,000 m ilitia m e n , th e m a jo r ity

o f whom w ere su p p o se d ly arm ed, an u n u s u a l s t a t e o f p re p a re d n e s s a t t h i s


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e a r l y s ta g e o f th e R e v o lu tio n . I n th e v i c i n i t y o f U cu ren a, th e d i r i -
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g e n te A g a p ito V a ll e jo s commanded a m i l i t i a o f 1 ,0 0 0 men. N uflo C havez,

a s C h ie f o f th e Armed F o rc e s o f th e Campesino Army, h ead e d th e e s t a b -

l i s t m e n t w hich was f o r m a lly lin k e d v i a th e COB w ith th e v a r io u s o th e r


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m i l i t i a s ( e . g . , m in e r s , w o rk e rs , y o u th , women).

P o l i t i c s w ith i n th e s i n d i c a t o s n a t u r a l l y fo llo w e d t h e i r form a

tio n . T h ere was u n d o u b te d ly c o n s id e r a b le c o m p e titio n w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l

o r g a n iz a ti o n s , b u t r i v a l r y o f a more s t r i d e n t and marked f a s h io n a r o s e

w ith in r e g io n a l s y n d ic a l f e d e r a t i o n s w here id e o lo g ic a l a s w e ll a s

p e r s o n a l is s u e s w ere in v o lv e d . G e n e ra lly s y n d ic a l p o l i t i c s to o k one

o f two form s d u rin g t h i s p e r io d : d i r i g e n t e s w ere "denounced" by t h e i r

fo llo w e r s o r r i v a l s f o r " a g i t a t i o n " ; o r th ey w ere a c c u se d o f i l l e g a l l y

c o l l e c t i n g ram as o r c u o t a s . O c c a s io n a lly a t h i r d i s s u e , o f an id e o

l o g i c a l n a t u r e , w ould be in v o lv e d . J o s i R o jas and O c ta v io M ontenegro

w ere denounced by a number o f p e a s a n ts from U curena f o r com m unistic

a c t i v i t i e s i n a d d i t i o n to s u b v e r s iv e a c t i v i t y . ^ B ecause o f r a d i c a l

a g i t a t i o n , R o ja s , C a rlo s M ontano, E m ilio Chacon, M odesto S e ja s , and

D ario M ontano w ere te m p o r a r ily j a i l e d by o r d e r o f th e M in is te r o f P e a s

a n t A f f a i r s and p r o h i b i t e d from e n t e r in g th e c o u n tr y s id e . R o ja s and

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M ontenegro a l s o w ere a c c u se d o f p la n n in g an in v a s io n o f th e c i t y o f

Cochabamba a f t e r w h ip p in g s e v e r a l p a t r o n e s . ^ T h e ir p e a s a n t fo llo w e rs

w ere s a i d to have l i s t e n e d " a s f o o ls to th e t y p i c a l w ords o f communism.

A g ita tio n and communism w ere o f te n lin k e d by r e p o r t e r s d u rin g

th e R e v o lu tio n th e word "com m unist" h a v in g l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p

to id e o lo g y b u t r a t h e r to m i lit a n c y . The m ore r a d i c a l d i r i g e n t e s ,

J o s R o ja s , E m ilio Chacdn, C a rlo s M ontano, e t c . , w ere o f te n accu sed o f

"com m unist" a c t i v i t i e s w h ich , when ex am in ed , u s u a ll y r e l a t e d to r e a l

o r a l le g e d r a d i c a l a c t io n a g a i n s t th e o li g a r c h y . J o s i R o ja s c e r t a i n l y

d id n o t e n jo y th e o f f i c i a l s u p p o rt o f th e MNR a t t h i s tim e , a s was

d e m o n stra te d by h i s d i f f i c u l t y w ith th e r e v o lu t io n a r y governm ent and

th e fa v o re d p o s i t i o n a c c o rd e d , b y c o n t r a s t , t o S in fo ro s o R iv a s. R iv as

u rg e d m o d e ra tio n , p a tie n c e and c o n tin u e d h a r d w ork by th e p e a s a n tr y ;

R o ja s u rg e d d i r e c t and c o n tin u e d a c t i o n a g a i n s t man and p r o p e r ty in

th e r u r a l s e c t o r . I n l a t e r y e a r s R o ja s o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t would v a c i l

l a t e , i n rough m easure a c c o rd in g to th e d e g re e o f a g i t a t i o n employed

by th e d i r i g e n t e .

I d e o l o g i c a l l y , th e POR ( P a r tid o O brero R e v o lu c io n a rio ) p r e

s e n te d th e g r e a t e s t t h r e a t t o MNR s y n d ic a l l e a d e r s h i p . P o r i s t a s com

p r i s e d a m inor b u t i n f l u e n t i a l p o r ti o n o f th e le a d e r s h ip w ith in th e
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r e g io n a l Cochabamba Campesino F e d e r a tio n . The POR b e lie v e d t h a t

" th e w o rk er-cam p esin o m i l i t i a s [w hich] w ere o rg a n iz e d a s an armed


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in s tr u m e n t o f th e r e v o lu tio n a r y m a sses" h ad b een p e r v e r t e d . In

G u illerm o L o r a s, e s ti m a t io n , th e MNR " h a s d is o r g a n iz e d and disarm ed


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p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s , r e p la c in g them w ith m e r c e n a r ie s ." H ence, th e POR
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urged t h a t m i l i t i a s be w r e s te d from M o v im ie n tis ta c o n t r o l . P o ris ta

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d e le g a te s to th e F e d e r a tio n m e e tin g th u s a tte m p te d a g o lp e (coup)

a g a i n s t S in fo ro s o R iv a s ' le a d e r s h ip on th e g rounds o f e x c e s s iv e accom

m odation w ith la n d lo r d s t o g e th e r w ith a number o f more vague a c c u s a -


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tio n s . A ls o , i n T o to ra a cam pesino a t t a c k on la n d lo r d s was a t t r i b u t e d

to e x tr e m is t a g i t a t o r s and t h e A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te Ana Rancho o f C liz a


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claim e d th e a c tio n was fom ented by P o r i s t a s and com m unists. The

s i n d i c a t o announced t h a t a s C a th o lic s i t s members r e p u d ia te d a c t i v i t i e s

o f th e c o m m u n is ts .^

S t a l i n i s t a c t i v i t i e s w ere p u b l i c l y r e v e a le d when E l P a ls r e

p r i n t e d a copy o f a m a n if e s to b e in g c i r c u l a t e d i n th e Cochabamba r e g io n .

The l e a f l e t s k e tc h e d p e a s a n t o p p r e s s io n , m a s s a c re s , and s la v e r y s u f

f e r e d a t th e hands o f th e o lig a r c h y and a tta c k e d th e c o u n t r y 's p o lic e

and j u d i c i a l sy stem s a s b u t t o o l s o f o l i g a r c h i c a l r u l e . O rg a n iz a tio n

o f s y n d ic a te s was u rg e d :

Comrade S t a l i n , lo y a l f r i e n d o f a l l th e o p p re s s e d p e o p le s
t h a t f i g h t f o r t h e i r l i b e r t y , i l lu m i n a te s o u r ro a d . In ou r
f i g h t we h av e t o m arch u n ite d w ith o u r w o rk er com rades o f
th e m ines and o f th e c i t y , we have to o r g a n iz e s y n d ic a te s ,
f e d e r a t i o n s , and c o n f e d e r a tio n s o f cam p esin o s, we h av e to
f i g h t alw ays u n i t e d , we s h o u ld n o t a c t s e p a r a t e l y . Our
o n ly f o r c e i s th e o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . . Long l i v e th e U n ity o f
Workegg o f th e C ity and i n th e c o u n try f o r a P o p u la r Govern
m ent.

I l l e g a l c o l l e c t i o n o f ram as o s t e n s i b l y t o h e lp f in a n c e syn

d i c a l o r g a n iz a tio n c o n s t i t u t e d p e rh a p s th e most common problem r e l a t e d

to th e s i n d i c a t o . A n to n io P o c o a c a , i n th e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts

o f La Paz and O ru ro , g a in e d c o n s id e r a b le a t t e n t i o n i n th e B o liv ia n

p r e s s b ec a u se o f h i s f a c i l i t y i n c o l l e c t i n g ram as a l le g e d l y d e s tin e d

f o r s y n d ic a l o r g a n iz a ti o n . In J a n u a r y , 1952, P o co aca was accu sed o f

c o l l e c t i n g ramas n e a r V i l l a Remedios w ith th e p ro m ise t h a t th e p e a s a n ts

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
103

w ould r e c e iv e la n d th ro u g h t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n ; h e a l s o u rg e d cam pesinos

to b o y c o tt w ork i n o r d e r to f o r c e th e r e v o lu t io n a r y governm ent to


86
sp eed up e x p r o p r ia tio n . In a d d i tio n t o c o l l e c t i o n o f ram a s, o f f i c i a l

governm ent f o l i o s g iv e n g r a t i s by th e M in is tr y o f Campesino A f f a i r s

w ere b e in g s o ld f o r 1 .5 0 B s. a p ie c e i n th e a r e a o f P u n acan i and P a l -

capampa (Cochabamba D e p a rtm e n t); and " t i c k e t s o f ro a d t a x , " d e c la r e d

i l l e g a l by th e D ecree o f D ecem ber, 1951, w ere a l s o s o ld i n th e d e p a r t -

m e n-t. 87

The s i t u a t i o n i n th e Cochabamba r e g io n prom pted th e MNR de

p a rtm e n ta l a d m in is tr a tio n to te le g r a p h s u b p r e f e c t s in A iq u il e , T o to ra ,

In d e p e n d e n c ia , A rque, C a p in o ta , T a p a c a rx , Q u i l l a c o l l o , T a r a ta , C li z a ,

P u n a ta , M izque, S acab a, and A r a n i, in fo rm in g them o f th e i l l e g a l i t y


88
o f c u o ta s . On th e a l t i p l a n o th e d i r i g e n t e Gabino Apaza is s u e d a

c i r c u l a r to r u r a l o r g a n iz a tio n s i n s t r u c t i n g them t h a t e v e ry p e rso n

c la im in g to b e a d i r i g e n t e sh o u ld b e a b le to p ro d u ce docum ents to t h a t
89
e f f e c t a u th o riz e d by th e M in is te r o f Cam pesino A f f a i r s .

The p r e v io u s ly c i t e d (C h ap ter F o u r) a t t a c k by p e a s a n ts on th e

town o f T a r a ta p ro v id e s an exam ple o f th e o r g a n iz a ti o n a l s t a t e o f th e

p e a s a n t m i l i t i a a t t h i s tim e . The a t t a c k on th e p o p u la c e o f T a r a ta

was a p p a r e n tly sp a rk e d by rum or o f a p la n n e d c o u n te r - r e v o lu tio n a r y

u p r is in g by F a la n g is ta s w hich w ould h av e i t s e p i c e n te r in th e e n v iro n s

o f Cochabamba. The MNR d e p a rtm e n ta l governm ent was aw are o f th e p l o t

and d is c u s s e d i t s p o t e n t i a l i t y w ith l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , in c lu d in g p e a s a n t

d irig e n te s . H earin g o f th e p l o t , M iguel V e iza g a d e c id e d to m o b iliz e

th e l a r g e m i l i t i a lo c a te d a t U cu ren a. At t h i s tim e , J o s e R o ja s , S in -

fo ro s o R iv a s , and a number o f l o c a l d i r i g e n t e s w ere n o t i n th e v i c i n i t y ,

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
104

b u t w ere p e rfo rm in g d u t i e s o u ts id e th e d e p a rtm e n t. I t s m ain l e a d e r

s h ip a b s e n t, th e s i n d i c a t o la c k e d d i r e c t i o n , and h e a r in g from one Jo sS

E sco b ar t h a t arms w ere to be had i n V ila V ila , th e m i l i t i a s e t o u t i n


90
t h a t d i r e c t i o n , somehow a r r i v i n g a t T a r a ta . From e a r l y m orning to

m id -d ay , tr u c k lo a d s o f p e a s a n ts stream ed i n t o th e town w here f i g h t i n g

e ru p te d when to w n sp eo p le r e s i s t e d p e a s a n ts s e a r c h in g t h e i r h o u ses f o r

arm s. M iguel V e iz a g a , u n a b le to c o n t r o l th e s i t u a t i o n , was fo rc e d

to seek o u t th e d i r i g e n t e A g ap ito V a ll e jo s , who managed to b r in g a

r a p id ly w o rse n in g s i t u a t i o n to an en d . The i n c i d e n t was s e r io u s ;


91
h o u ses w ere sack ed and l i v e s o f p e a s a n ts and to w n sp eo p le l o s t .

T h is in c id e n t i l l u s t r a t e s th e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a t e o f th e s i n

d ic a to d u rin g t h i s p e r io d . O bvious p ro b lem s w ith r e s p e c t to le a d e r

s h ip , p r e p a r e d n e s s , and d i s c i p l i n e w ere e v id e n t. The re s p o n s e to a

rumored c o u n te r - r e v o lu tio n a r y coup was d i s o r d e r l y , d is o r g a n iz e d , and

u n c o o rd in a te d . F o rm id ab le i n manpower, th e m i l i t i a b a d ly la c k e d th e

arms and m u n itio n n e c e s s a ry f o r e f f e c t i v e m o b i liz a tio n i n d e fe n se o f

th e R e v o lu tio n . T h is would n o t be th e o n ly exam ple o f th e i n e f f e c

ti v e n e s s o f th e s i n d i c a t o m i l i t i a i n m a in ta in in g th e MNR regim e a g a i n s t

an i n t e r n a l t h r e a t a s e v e n ts in November, 1964, w ould d e m o n stra te .

Summary: D ir ig e n te and S i n d i c a t o ,
A p r il 9 , 1952-A ugust 2 , 1953

The N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n p ro d u ced a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t changes

i n r u r a l B o liv ia n s o c i e t y . P r i o r to th e R e v o lu tio n , th e th r e e m ost im

p o r ta n t l o c a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s w ere th e w h ite h acen d ad o , h i s m e stiz o

mayordomo ( o v e r s e e r ) , and th e p e a s a n t headman ( e . g . , j i l a k a t a , a l c a l d e ) .

D uring th e R e v o lu tio n , th e hacendado and mayordomo w ere d iv e s te d o f

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
105

a u t h o r i t y , and p e a s a n t l e a d e r s , o r d i r i g e n t e s , assum ed p o s i t i o n s o f

lo c a l c o n tro l. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , how ever, t r a d i t i o n a l v a lu e s f o r s e l e c

t i o n o f headm en, w hich w ere p r e v io u s ly d ep en d en t upon s u c c e s s f u l com

p l e t i o n o f th e s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s sy ste m , w ere no lo n g e r r e q u i s i t e s f o r

r e v o lu t io n a r y le a d e r s h i p .

I n s te a d , r e v o lu tio n a r y c o n d itio n s n e c e s s i t a t e d an a b i l i t y to

com m unicate e f f e c t i v e l y in S p an ish and f a c i l i t y i n m aneuvering w ith in

th e MNR b u re a u c ra c y . The com petent v i l l a g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h e r e f o r e ,

em erged as an in d i v id u a l p o s s e s s in g p e r s o n a l t r a i t s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t

from h i s p r e - r e v o l u tio n a r y c o u n t e r p a r t. In p la c e o f th e a g e , w e a lth

and p r e s t i g e w hich marked th e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e ,

th e r e v o lu tio n a r y d i r i g e n t e was more o f te n p o a s s e s s e d o f y o u th , shrew d

n e s s and a d eg ree o f o p p o rtu n ism . P o l i t i c a l f a v o r s la n d , r o a d s ,

community developm ent p r o j e c t s w ere th e rew ard s o f com m unities t h a t

chose t h e i r d i r i g e n t e s w e ll .

D uring th e 1952-1953 p e r io d , d i r i g e n t e s who g a in e d th e s a n c tio n

o f th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement w ere p r im a r ily m o d e ra te men su ch as

A n to n io Mamani A lv a re z and G abinc Apaza o f th e a l t i p l a n o and S in fo ro s o

R iv a s o f th e Cochabamba V a lle y who u rg ed p a t i e n c e , n o n - v io le n c e , and

c o n tin u a tio n o f t r a d i t i o n a l la b o r p r a c t i c e s u n t i l th e i n i t i a t i o n o f

a g r a r i a n re fo rm . I n th e y e a r s 1952-1953, one may d is c e r n b e g in n in g s

o f c o m p e titio n and r i v a l r y among d i r i g e n t e s f o r p o s i t i o n s o f s y n d ic a l

le a d e r s h ip on th e l o c a l , r e g io n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , a ten d en cy w hich

w ould in c r e a s e i n fre q u e n c y and i n t e n s i t y d u rin g l a t e r p e r io d s o f th e

R e v o lu tio n .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
106

The p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s e rv e d a num ber o f f u n c ti o n s . I t p ro

v id e d th e o rg a n iz e d f o r c e to e x p e l th e la n d lo r d s and s h i f t th e b a s i s

o f r u r a l power from o lig a r c h y to p e a s a n t r y . I t a l s o f u n c tio n e d a s an

o rg a n f o r p o l i t i c a l p a tro n a g e and t h u s , MNR c o n t r o l o v e r l o c a l a f

fa irs . F i n a l l y , i n th e e v e n t o f a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n , th e s y n d ic a te

was e x p e c te d to m o b iliz e i t s m i l i t i a i n d e fe n s e o f th e R e v o lu tio n ,

a f u n c ti o n u lt im a te ly t o p ro v e a d is a p p o in tm e n t to th e r e v o lu tio n a r y

g o v ern m en t.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
107

N otes

H arry T sch o p lk , J r . d is c u s s e s th e j i l a k a t a i n "The A ym ara,"


H andbook o f th e S outh A m erican I n d ia n s , v . 2 , p . 540; f o r th e a l c a l d e ,
s e e B e rn a rd M ishkin, "The C ontem porary Q u ech u a," Handbook o f th e S outh
A m erican I n d ia n s , v . 2, p . 43 3 .
2
The Aymara sy stem i s d e s c r ib e d by W illia m E. C a r t e r , Aymara
Com m unities and th e B o liv ia n A g ra ria n Reform ( G a in e s v il le : U n iv e r s ity
o f F l o r i d a M onographs, n o . 2 4 ) , p . 4 0 . F o r a more d e t a i l e d tr e a tm e n t
o f th e c a rg o sy stem , s e e F ran k C an cian , Econom ics and P r e s t i g e i n a
Maya Community: The R e lig io u s Cargo System jr. Z in a c a n ta n ( S ta n f o r d :
S ta n f o r d U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ).
3
I n te r v ie w w ith P ercy A ik en , U n ite d N a tio n s A g r i c u l t u r a l A d v is o r,
La P az, J a n u a ry 15, 1968. W illiam C a r te r b e l i e v e s th e change to be
nom inal among th e Aymara o f th e a l t i p l a n o (La Paz D e p a rtm e n t). T h is
v ie w p o in t i s d ev elo p ed in W illiam C a r t e r , Aymara C om m unities, p p . 5 7 -6 4 .
F or th e Quechua th e r e i s , to my know ledge, no s i m i l a r s tu d y a v a i l a b l e .
4
L y fo rd P. Edwards d is c u s s e s th e in f l u e n c e o f t r a v e l upon
r e v o l u t i o n i s t s i n h is N a tu ra l H is to r y o f R e v o lu tio n (C h icag o : U n iv e r
s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 2 7 ), p p . 2 3 -2 7 . T h is tr e a tm e n t, w h ile d i r e c t e d
p r i m a r i l y a t r e v o l u t i o n i s t s o f th e " G re a t T r a d i t i o n , " h as some a p p l i c a
b i l i t y f o r r e v o l u t i o n i s t s o f th e " L i t t l e T r a d i t i o n . "

^E1 D ia r io , A p r il 29, 1952, p . 5.

^E1 D ia r io , J u n e 26, 1952, p . 7.

^E1 D ia r io , Ju n e 26, 1952, p . 7; an d E l P a i s , Ju n e 2 7 , 1952,


p. 4.
O
E l D ia r io , A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 7.
9
E l D ia r io , A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 7.

^ E 1 D ia r io , December 6 , 1952, p . 5 .

**E1 D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 13, 1953, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 15, 1953, p . 7 : F e b ru a ry 22, 1953, p . 6 .

*^E1 D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 15, 1953, p . 4 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , M arch 18, 1953, p . 5.

^~*E1 D ia r io , M arch 8 , 1953, p . 5.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
108

E l D ia r io , May 22, 1953, p . 5 ; Ju n e 1 0 , 1952, p . 5 ; an d ,


f o r th e one exam ple o f Mamani A lv a re z a l l e g e d l y r e s o r t i n g to v io le n c e ,
s e e E l D ia r io , A p r il 11, 1953, p . 7.

^ E 1 D ia r io , March 30, 1953, p . 8 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , March 30, 1953, p . 8 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , A p r il 11, 1953, p . 7; A p r il 11, 1953, p . 7.


20
T h is p o s i t i o n i s p r e s e n te d i n R ic h a rd P a tc h , " B o liv ia : U .S.
A s s is ta n c e in a R e v o lu tio n a ry S e t t i n g , " i n R ic h a rd N. Adams, e t a l . ,
S o c ia l Change in L a tin A m erica Today (New York: Random House, 1961),
p . 128; and a l s o in A n ib el Q u ijano O bregon, "C ontem porary P e a sa n t Move
m e n ts ," i n Seymour M a rtin L ip s e t and A ldo S o l a r i , e d s . , E l i t e s in
L a tin A m erica (New York and London: O xford U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 19 6 7 ),
p . 318.

2 *E1 D ia r io , J u ly 27, 1953, p . 4 .

2 2 E1 D ia r io , J u ly 27, 1953, p . 4 .

2 ^E1 P a i s , O cto b er 17, 1953, p . 4 ; O cto b er 1 9 , 1952, p . 5.

2 ^E1 P a i s , O cto b er 19, 1952, p . 5.


25
E l D ia r io , November 30, 1952, p . 13; and a l s o E l D ia r io ,
A p r il 1 , 1953, p . 5.
26
See, f o r exam ple: El D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 12, 1953, p . 5;
J a n u a ry 15, 1953, p . 5; E l P a i s , J a n u a ry 27, 1953, p . 4 .

2 2 E1 P a i s , December 23, 1953, p . 4 .

2 ^E1 P a is , December 23, 1952, p . 4 .


29
R iv a s sp eech i s sum m arized i n El D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 19, 1953,
p. 4.
30
El D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 19, 1953, p . 4 .
31
E l D ia r io , A ugust 3 , 1953, p . 6 .
32
E l D ia r io , A ugust 3, 1953, p . 6 .

El P a i s , J a n u a ry 27, 1953, p . 4 .
34 ,
El P a i s , J a n u a ry 27, 1953, p . 4 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
109

A F

E l P a i s , J a n u a ry 27, 1953, p . 4 .

^ E 1 P a i s , J a n u a ry 27, 1953, p . 4 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , F e b ru a ry 14, 1953, p . 5; F e b ru a ry 15, 1953, p . 5.


38 /
E l P ax s, J a n u a ry 2 7 , 1953, p . 4 .
39
F or m i l i t i a o r g a n iz a ti o n , s e e Cap. O scar Daza B a rre n e c h e a ,
S is te m a tiz a c io n Armada de l a R ev o lu cio n N acio n al (unknow n).
40
A c o n s e r v a tiv e a p p ro ac h t o th e m i l i t i a sy stem i s p r e s e n te d in
W illiam S. S to k e s , "The 'R e v o lu c io n N a c io n a l 1 and th e MNR in B o li v ia ,"
In te r-A m e ric a n Economic A f f a i r s , X II (S p rin g , 1 9 5 9 ), p . 37.
41
T h is developm ent i n i t s m ost g ra p h ic form o c c u rre d i n th e
MNR-PMNRA s tr u g g le o f 1959-1960 i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y r e g io n .
42 /
A gustxn B a r c e l l i S . , Medio S ig lo de Luchas S in d ic a le s Revo-
lu c io n a r ia s en B o li v ia , p . 319.
43 '
For V a n g u a rd ia -s y n d ic a l a c t i v i t i e s s e e : E l P a i s , December 7,
1952, p . 4 ; and E l P a is , J a n u a ry 6 , 1953, p . 5 , f o r V a n g u a r d ia -d ir ig e n te
c o o p e ra tio n in th e P ro v in c e o f Ayopaya. F or m in er a c t i v i t y i n t h i s
d i r e c t i o n , s e e El P a i s , J a n u a ry 28, 1953, p . 5 .
44
El P a is , November 6 , 1952, p . 2.

^~*E1 P a i s , November 6 , 1952, p . 2.

^ E 1 D ia r io , March 3 , 1952, p . 5 .

^ E l P a is , May 3, 1952, p . 5.

^ E1 P a i s , J a n u a ry 27, 1953, p . 5.

^ E 1 P a i s , May 3 , 1952, p . 5.

"^A gustxn B a r c e l l i S ., Medio S ig lo de Luchas S in d ic a le s Revo-


lu c io n a r ia s en B o li v ia , p p . 319-320; J o s e F lo r e s Moncayo, D erecho
A g ra rio B o liv ia n o , p . 42 8 .

^ T h e p e a s a n t p o s i t i o n w ith in th e COB may b e seen i n th e P ro -


grama Id e a lo g ic o y E s ta tu to s de l a C e n tra l O b rera B o liv ia n a (La Paz:
? , 1 9 5 4 ), p p . 4 2 -4 3 .

^ E 1 P ax s, November 21, 1952, p . 5.


C O

El P ax s, December 9, 1952, p . 4 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
110

54 j
E l P a i s , December 7 , 1952, p . 5 .

55 e i P a x s, December 7 , 1952, p . 4 .

56 e i P a x s, November 16, 1952, p . 4 .

57 e i P ax s, November 16, 1952, p . 4 .

58 e i P ax s, November 16, 1952, p . 4 .


CQ /
G lim pses o f th e s e developm ents a r e p ro v id e d f o r P o to sx in
E l D i a r i o , December 14, 1952, p . 13; f o r O ruro in E l D ia r io , Septem ber 3,
1952, p . 5 and E l D i a r i o , M arch 19, 1953, p . 5 ; f o r S u c re , El D i a r i o ,
J a n u a ry 1 8 , 1953, p . 15; an d f o r La Paz i n E l D ia r io , December 23, 1952,
p . 5.

8 ^E1 P a i s , J a n u a ry 2 8 , 1953, p . 5.

^ E 1 D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 6 , 1953, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , O cto b er 28, 1952, p . 3.

88E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 4 , 1953, p . 5; F e b ru a ry 25, 1953, p . 5.

^*E1 D i a r i o , November 30, 1952, p . 13.

^ D w ig h t B. H eath , "Land Reform in B o li v ia ," p . 8 .

88E1 D i a r i o , December 7, 1952, p . 4 ; E l P a r s , December 7,


1952, p . 5.

87The m i l i t a r y w h ich r e v o lt e d a g a i n s t th e MNR regim e in November,


1964, was d i f f e r e n t i n th e o r y , i f n o t in p r a c t i c e , from th e p r e
r e v o lu t io n a r y e s ta b lis h m e n t w hich was refo rm e d d u rin g th e e a r l y y e a rs
o f th e r e v o l u t i o n . E x te n s iv e co v era g e o f t h i s r e fo rm a tio n o f th e m i l i
t a r y may be found in E l D i a r i o , J u ly 25, 1953, p p . 4 - 6 .

88 Cap. O scar B a rre n e c h e a , S is te m a tiz a c io n Armada de l a R evolu


c io n N acio n a l (unknow n), p . 60. See a l s o La F ra g u a , A p r il 18, 1954,
p. 4.
69 f t
Daza B a rre n e c h e a , S is te m a tiz a c io n Armada de l a R ev o lu cio n
N a c io n a l, p . 5 9 . ' The o f f i c i a l MNR p o s i t i o n tow ard p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s
i s p r e s e n te d i n A r t i c l e 132 o f th e A g ra ria n Reform D ecree. W a lte r d e l
C a s t i l l o Avedano, C o m p ilac i 6 n L eg al de l a Reforma A g ra ria en B o liv ia
(La P az: E d i t o r i a l F e n ix , 1 9 5 5 ), p . 83; a l s o J o s e F lo re s Moncayo,
D erecho A g ra rio B o liv ia n o , p p . 4 2 7-428.

7% a z a B a rre n e c h e a , S is te m a tiz a c io n Armada de l a R ev o lu cio n


N a c io n a l, p p . 6 2 -6 3 .

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Ill

7 ^E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 9 , 1953, p . 7 .

7^E1 D i a r i o , May 2 2 , 1953, p . 5 .

73E1 D i a r i o , May 2 2 , 1953, p . 6 .

74 E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 , 1953, p . 7 ; J u n e 18, 1953, p . 5; and


E l P a i s , Ja n u a ry 2 5 , 1953, p . 4 .

75 E1 P a x s , J a n u a ry 3 1 , 1953, p . 4 .

7 ^E1 P aifs, J a n u a ry 3 1 , 1953, p . 4 .

77 E1 P a i s , J a n u a ry 2 1 , 1953, p . 4 .
7ft
E l P a is , J a n u a ry 2 1 , 1953, p . 5 .

7^ G u illerm o L o ra , " S in d ic a to s y R e v o lu c io n ," Masas (1 9 6 0 ),


pp. 30 -3 1 .
80
L o ra , " S in d ic a to s y R e v o lu c io n ," p . 31.
81
L o ra , " S in d ic a to s y R e v o lu c io n ," p . 31.
82
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 8 , 1953, p . 5.
QO
E l D i a r i o , A p r il 2 3 , 1953, p . 7.

3 ^E1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 3 , 1953, p . 7.
85
The p a p e r , "Hoz y e l M a r t i l l o , " was r e - p r i n t e d in E l P a i s ,
A ugust 2 , 1952, p . 5.
86
E l D i a r i o , December 21, 1952, p . 7; J a n u a ry 4 , 1953, p . 4 ;
F eb ru a ry 1, 1953, p . 7; a n d , F e b ru a ry 2 , 1953, p . 5.
87
F o r i l l e g a l m a n ip u la tio n o f ram as s e e : E l D i a r i o , O cto b er 15,
1952, p . 4 ; December 20, 1952, p . 5 ; F e b ru a ry 1 , 1953, p . 5; f o r th e
vending o f f o l l e t o s s e e E l D i a r i o , December 19, 1952, p . 5; c o l l e c t i o n
o f " ro a d ta x " i s r e p o r te d i n E l P a i s , J u l y 2 , 1952, p . 4 .
88
E l P a x s , J a n u a ry 2 0 , 1953, p . 5 .
QQ
E l D i a r i o , O c to b e r 15, 1952, p . 4 .
90
E l D i a r i o , J u l y 9 , 1953, p . 6 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , J u ly 9 , 1953, p . 6 .

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112

V I. AGRARIAN REFORM IN A REVOLUTIONARY CONTEXT

The D ecree

A f te r s i x t e e n m onths o f r e v o l u t i o n , th e MNR announced i t s

A g ra ria n Reform D ecree on A ugust 2 , 1953. P r e s id e n t Paz E s te n s s o ro

p r e s e n te d th e D ecree on "The Day o f th e In d ia n " b e f o r e a c o n g re g a tio n

o f p e a s a n ts and g o v ern m e n tal d i g n i t a r i e s assem b led a t U curena. Both

th e d a te and p la c e w ere c o n s id e re d to g iv e th e g r e a t e s t im p act to

t h i s r e v o lu tio n a r y m e a su re . The a c t u a l D e c re e , a le n g th y docum ent,

combined a g e n e r a l s ta te m e n t ( c o n s id e ra n d o ) w ith 177 s p e c i f i c d e c la

ra tio n s ( a r tic u lo s ) . ^

The D ecree f i r s t s k e tc h e d B o liv ia n a g r i c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y from

I n c a ic tim es th ro u g h th e S p a n ish C onquest an d in t o th e R e p u b lic a n and

N a tio n a l p e r io d s . S i g n i f i c a n t in t h i s p r e lim in a r y d is c u s s io n was th e

s ta te m e n t:

T h at by th e a r c h a ic sy stem s em ployed i n t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n
and th e forms o f s e r v i t u d e o f t h e i r w ork, r u r a l p r o p e r ty
has n o t acc o m p lish e d i t s s o c i a l f u n c tio n and h as b een con
v e r te d , r a t h e r , i n t o an o b s ta c l e to th e p r o g r e s s o f th e
c o u n try .^ [ i t a l i c s m in e .]

Thus, th e MNR b a s e d r u r a l p r o p e r ty r i g h t s upon th e p re m ise

t h a t su ch p r o p e r ty l e g a l l y e x i s t e d o n ly th ro u g h f u l f i l l m e n t o f a

" s o c i a l f u n c tio n ." And A r t i c l e I I o f th e A g ra ria n Reform D ecree de

c l a r e d t h a t th e S t a t e " r e c o g n iz e s and g u a r a n te e s p r i v a t e r u r a l p r o p e r ty
3
when t h i s acc o m p lish e s a u s e f u l f u n c tio n f o r th e n a t i o n ." F u r th e r ,

th e D ecree fo llo w e d S p a n is h le g a l p r a c t i c e i n p la c in g " th e s o i l , s u b s o i l,

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113

and w a te r s o f th e t e r r i t o r y o f th e R e p u b lic " w ith i n c o n t r o l o f th e


4
S ta te . These two p re m is e s , t h a t r u r a l p r o p e r ty was dependent upon

f u l f i l l m e n t o f a s o c i a l f u n c tio n and t h a t u l t i m a t e l y a l l s o i l r i g h t s

w ere S t a t e p r o p e r ty , p ro v id e d l e g a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r th e e x p ro p ri

a t i o n o f r u r a l p r o p e r ty w hich f o llo w e d .

The A g ra ria n Reform D ecree was a l e g a l in s tru m e n t d esig n ed by

th e r e v o lu tio n a r y governm ent to " e le v a te th e a c t u a l p ro d u c tiv e le v e l s

o f th e c o u n try , to tr a n s f o r m th e f e u d a l sy ste m o f te n a n c y and e x p lo i

t a t i o n o f th e la n d , im posing a j u s t r e d i s t r i b u t i o n among th o s e t h a t

w ork i t , and to in c o r p o r a te th e in d ig e n o u s p o p u la tio n i n n a t io n a l

l i f e . " * Toward t h i s e n d , A g ra ria n R eform was to r e d i s t r i b u t e la n d among

th o s e w o rk in g i t ; " r e tu r n in g to th e in d ig e n o u s com m unities th e la n d s

w hich w ere u s u rp e d , m o d ern izin g t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n " ; " l i b e r a t i n g cam

p e s in o w o rk ers from t h e i r c o n d itio n o f s e r f s , p r o s c r ib in g . . . g ra

t u i t o u s p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s " ; " s t im u l a ti n g g r e a t e r p r o d u c ti v it y and com

m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s tr y . . . d e v e lo p in g a g r a r ia n co

o p e r a t i v e s , le n d in g te c h n ic a l a id and o p en in g c r e d i t p o s s i b i l i t i e s " ;

" c o n s e rv in g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s " ; "p ro m o tin g c u r r e n t s o f i n t e r n a l m ig ra

t i o n o f th e r u r a l p o p u la tio n , now e x c e s s iv e ly c o n c e n tra te d i n th e

in te r-A n d e a n [ r e g io n ] , w ith th e o b je c t o f o b ta in in g a r a t i o n a l human

d is trib u tio n ." ^ C le a r ly , th e MNR v i s i o n o f a g r a r i a n refo rm in v o lv e d

more th a n mere la n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The Reform D ecree e s ta b l is h e d a

l e g a l fram ework f o r a b ro ad program o f developm ent o f th e n a t i o n s

n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s human a s w e ll a s m a t e r i a l .

The D ecree c i t e d s t a t i s t i c s from th e A g ra ria n Census o f 1950

to i l l u s t r a t e th e l a t i f u n d i o p ro b lem , s t a t i n g t h a t 4.5% o f r u r a l p r o p e r ty

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114

ow ners h e ld 70% o f th e la n d i n " s e m i- f e u d a l" p a t t e r n s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n .

The D ecree a t t r i b u t e d th e d e p re s s e d c o n d itio n o f th e p e a s a n tr y d i r e c t l y

t o . i n e q u i t a b l e la n d h o ld in g p a t t e r n s , t o 80% i l l i t e r a c y among th e a d u l t

p o p u la tio n , and to contem pt f o r a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s , f o r th e v a lu e o f


g
n a t i o n a l f o l k l o r e , and f o r th e e t h n ic q u a l i t i e s o f th e n a t i v e w o rk e r.

R e d i s t r ib u ti o n o f la n d was to p ro c e e d a c c o rd in g to th e i n d i

v id u a l c irc u m s ta n c e s su rro u n d in g each c a s e . A r t i c l e 13 p ro v id e d a

rough y a r d s t i c k f o r g e n e r a l p o li c y : "The maximum amount o f p r i v a t e

p r o p e r ty i s d eterm in e d by -ta k in g i n t o a c c o u n t o n ly th e e x te n s io n
9
eco n o m ica lly c u l t i v a b l e . " S p e c i f i c a l l y , l i m i t s w ere p r e s c r ib e d f o r

la n d h o ld in g s i n ev e ry m a jo r g e o g ra p h ic a l r e g io n o f th e c o u n tr y . S ize

d i s t i n c t i o n s w ere r e l a t e d to th e f e r t i l i t y o f th e p a r t i c u l a r la n d s

u n d er c o n s id e r a tio n : f o r exam p le, i n th e w e ll- w a te r e d r e g io n im

m e d ia te ly b o rd e rin g th e n o r th e a s t e r n s h o re s o f Lake T i t i c a c a , th e maximum

amount o f la n d allo w ed a s m a ll p r o p e r ty ow ner was 10 h e c t a r e s ; i n th e

l e s s p r o d u c tiv e zone to th e s o u th , n e a r Lake Poopo, th e s m a ll owner

was a l l o t t e d 15 h e c t a r e s ; and i n th e a r i d r e g io n to th e s o u th o f Lake

Poopo, th e sm a ll owner w ould be g iv e n 35 h e c t a r e s . ^ In th e V a lle y s ,

a sm a ll owner o f i r r i g a t e d la n d s w ould b e a llo w e d s i x h e c t a r e s w h ile

h i s c o u n te r p a r t w ith u n i r r i g a t e d p r o p e r ty was g r a n te d tw e lv e h e c t a r e s . ^

The same c l a s s o f d i s t i n c t i o n s , b a s e d on s o i l p r o d u c t i v i t y , was em

p lo y e d i n d e te r m in a tio n o f th e v a r io u s o t h e r form s o f la n d te n u r e .

In sum, th e D ecree was a l e g a l d e v ic e fo rm u la te d by th e MNR

f o r th e p u rp o se o f p o l i t i c a l l y d e s tr o y in g th e so c io -e c o n o m ic b a se o f

th e o lig a r c h y w h ile a t th e same tim e c r e a t i n g a new b a s e , s i m i l a r in

p u rp o se b u t d i f f e r e n t i n form , f o r th e r e v o lu t io n a r y g o v ern m en t.

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115

E co n o m ically and s o c i a l l y , i f f u l l y im p lem en ted , a g r a r i a n re fo rm w ould

have a le v e lin g e f f e c t upon th e r u r a l p o p u la tio n . The e s s e n t i a l p o in t s

r e l a t i v e to r e d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e " s o c i a l f u n c ti o n " and " e x te n s io n eco

n o m ic a lly c u l t i v a b l e . " L a t if u n d io s , u n d er th e new g o v ern m en t, s e rv e d

a n e g a tiv e s o c i a l f u n c tio n and w ere n o t " e c o n o m ic a lly c u l t i v a b l e "

w ith o u t c a p tiv e p e a s a n t la b o r ; th e y w e re , t h e r e f o r e , t o b e e x p r o p r ia te d

and r e d i s t r i b u t e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te t o a g r a r

i a n refo rm was made e x p l i c i t i n A r t i c l e 132 o f th e A g ra ria n Reform De

c re e w hich s t a t e d :

The cam pesino s y n d ic a l o r g a n iz a ti o n i s re c o g n iz e d a s a


means o f d e fe n s e o f th e r i g h t s o f i t s members and o f th e
c o n s e rv a tio n o f th e s o c i a l c o n q u e s ts . The cam pesino
s y n d ic a te s w i l l in te r v e n e i n th e e x e c u tio n o f th e A g rar
ia n Reform . They may b e in d e p e n d e n t o f o r a s s o c i a t e them
s e lv e s w ith c e n t r a l o r g a n iz a ti o n s .

I t sh o u ld b e made c l e a r t h a t a g r a r i a n re fo rm i n B o liv ia was


13
n o t acco m p lish ed by d e c re e a lo n e . Im p le m e n ta tio n o f a g r a r i a n re fo rm

do es n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o llo w d e c re e a s w itn e s s th e r a s h o f s t e r i l e

" a g r a r ia n re fo rm d e c re e s " fo llo w in g th e A lli a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s s t i p u

l a t i o n w hich made a g r a r i a n re fo rm a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n

i n th e program . A g ra ria n re fo rm i n B o li v ia i s a c o n tin u in g p ro c e s s

l e g a l l y i n i t i a t e d by th e D ecree o f A ugust 2 , 1953, and fo llo w e d by

v a r io u s o th e r m easures d e s ig n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f th e

b ro a d v is io n o f a u n if i e d and m o d ern ized n a t i o n s t a t e . On A ugust 2 7 ,

1953, an A g ra ria n Reform N a tio n a l S e rv ic e was p ro c la im e d , p ro v id in g

f o r a g r a r ia n ju d g e s , r u r a l j u n t a s and r u r a l in s p e c t o r s to s u p e r v is e

th e new program . A h o s t o f o th e r d e c re e s fo llo w e d a s th e MNR r e

sponded p r a g m a tic a lly to th e in n u m erab le d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d a s th e

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116

refo rm program d e v e l o p e d .^

Im p lem en tat io n

I t was r e v e a le d by an o f f i c i a l o f th e N a tio n a l A g ra ria n Reform

C o u n cil i n A ugust 1955 t h a t a t t h a t tim e a g r a r i a n re fo rm h ad a f f e c t e d

th e fo llo w in g l a t i f u n d i o s : La Paz D ep artm en t, 3 ,5 9 3 o f a t o t a l o f

6 ,9 7 8 , o r 51.49%; C h u q u isaca D ep artm en t, 3 ,7 5 7 o f 7 ,6 3 4 , o r 49.21%;

Cochabamba D ep artm en t, 4 ,9 7 6 o f 3 1 ,9 9 6 , o r 15.55%; O ruro D ep artm en t,

938 o f 1 ,2 3 9 , o r 75.71% ; P o to s l D ep artm en t, 3 ,9 3 4 o f 1 6 ,3 3 5 , o r

24.08%; T a r i j a D ep artm en t, 2 ,8 6 1 o f 8 ,6 7 4 , o r 32.98%; S a n ta Cruz De

p a rtm e n t, 3 ,364 o f 9 ,4 6 2 , o r 35.55%; B eni D ep artm en t, 829 o f 2 ,6 8 5 , o r

3 0 .8 8 % .^ T hus, o f a t o t a l o f 85 ,0 0 3 l a t i f u n d i o s , 2 4 ,2 5 2 (28.53%)

had b een e x p r o p r ia te d by th e r e v o lu t io n a r y governm ent i n i t s f i r s t two

y e a rs o f a g ra ria n r e f o r m .^ N u flo C havez, i n an in te r v ie w on J u ly 26,

1954, s t a t e d t h a t i n i t s f i r s t y e a r th e A g ra ria n Reform program would

have e x p r o p r ia te d 1 ,0 0 0 r u r a l p r o p e r t i e s . ^

I f b o th th e d a t a f o r 1955 and th e s ta te m e n t o f th e M in is te r o f

P e a s a n t A f f a i r s a r e c o r r e c t , im p le m e n ta tio n o f a g r a r i a n re fo rm p ro ceed ed

slo w ly i n i t s f i r s t y e a r b u t a c c e le r a te d trem en d o u sly (2,425% ) i n th e

fo llo w in g y e a r , 1955. T h is s tu n n in g r a t e o f in c r e a s e i s q u e s tio n a b le

g iv e n th e c o n tin u e d d i f f i c u l t y e x p e rie n c e d b y many cam pesinos a tte m p t

in g to o b ta in la n d th ro u g h th e r e v o lu t io n a r y b u r e a u c ra c y . I f v a lid ,

th e s e f i g u r e s s tr o n g ly s u g g e s t a trem endous a c c e l e r a t i o n i n th e e f

f i c i e n c y o f th e e x p r o p r i a t i v e m ach in ery ( r u r a l ju d g e s , j u n t a s and in

s p e c to r s ) em ployed by th e N a tio n a l A g ra ria n Reform C o u n c il.

One o f th e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e x p r o p r ia tio n and im p le

m e n ta tio n r e s u l t e d from th e c o u n t r y 's la c k o f t r a i n e d t e c h n i c i a n s .

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117

R apid and e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n was o b s tr u c t e d by a d e a r th o f la w y e rs , s u r

v e y o r s , ju d g e s and i n s p e c t o r s n eed ed t o f u l f i l l th e v a r i o u s f u n c tio n s


18
r e q u ir e d f o r im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e re fo rm . In A ugust 1954, th e g o v ern

ment d e c re e d t h a t th e n a t i o n 's armed f o r c e s w ould be u t i l i z e d f o r th e


19
p u rp o se o f e x p r o p r ia tin g and a p p o r tio n in g la n d . The o l i g a r c h y 's

l e g a l r e s o u r c e s a l s o impeded r a p id e x p r o p r i a t i o n ; in an a r t i c l e en

t i t l e d "D e fen d ers o f F e u d a lis m ," th e Cochabamba p r e s s p u b lis h e d th e

names o f n in e la w y e rs engaged i n d e fe n d in g " l a t i f u n d i s t s t h a t p o s s e s s

c o n s id e r a b le e x te n s io n s o f la n d , on w h ich , b e f o r e th e A g ra ria n Reform


20
D e c re e , e x i s t e d a f e u d a l ty p e o f e x p l o i t a t i o n o f p e a s a n t s .

The p rim a ry im pedim ents to e f f e c t i v e a g r a r i a n re fo rm a s o u t

l i n e d i n F e b ru a ry 1955 by r ieso A y ala M ercado, P r e s id e n t o f th e

N a tio n a l A g ra ria n Reform C o u n c il, r e s u l t e d from manpower s h o r ta g e s .

In th e e n t i r e R e p u b lic , th e A g r a r ia n Reform C o u n cil em ployed o n ly 87


21
a g r a r i a n ju d g e s and 189 r u r a l j u n t a s . The r u r a l j u n t a 's ta s k was

th e a c c u m u la tio n o f d a ta r e l e v a n t to th e p r o p e r ty i n q u e s tio n ; th e

a g r a r i a n ju d g e th e n a c te d upon th e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n te d by th e r u r a l

ju n ta . The p ro b lem h e r e r e s t e d i n a " c r e d i b i l i t y gap" a s cam pesinos

and la n d lo r d s knew t h a t th e m a jo r ity o f P r e s id e n t s o f R u ra l J u n ta s

d id n o t j u s t l y f u l f i l l t h e i r w ork, b e c a u se o f i n c a p a b i l i t y , le n ie n c y
22
o r im m o ra lity . The r u r a l j u n t a was b e s ie g e d from above and below

a s th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te w ish ed t o s u b o r d in a te i t to i t s own i n t e r e s t ,

and th e l o c a l c a c iq u e o r l a t i f u n d i s t s t i l l so u g h t to m a in ta in h i s
23
p riv ile g e s . Added to th e t e c h n i c a l p ro b lem s was one o f volume o f

l e g a l c o rre sp o n d e n c e w hich s e v e r e l y s t r a i n e d th e b u r e a u c r a tic a p p a ra

tu s o f th e M in is tr y . The G e n e ra l D ir e c t o r o f th e M in is tr y o f Campesino

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
118

A f f a i r s ' o f f i c e o f A g ra ria n J u s t i c e and L e g i s l a t i o n , D r. J o s e Jim enez

Vega, r e p o r te d i n May 1954 t h a t th e o f f i c e r e c e iv e d d a i ly 2 ,000 p ie c e s


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o f m a il r e l a t i n g to A g ra ria n R eform . "The fun d am en tal aim o f A g ra r

ia n R eform ," o b se rv e d E rn e s to A yala M ercado, teas " to a c c e l e r a t e to th e


25
maximum th e p r o c e s s o f . . . d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e s t i t u t i o n o f la n d s ."

I n a d d i tio n to r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f la n d on an in d iv id u a l b a s i s ,

r u r a l p r o p e r ty was a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d to communal In d ia n s whose la n d s

had s t e a d i l y d e c re a s e d th ro u g h o u t th e p o st-C o n q u e s t p e r io d due to

encroachm ents o f l a t i f u n d i o s . A ls o , i n an a tte m p t to s tim u la t e more

a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c tio n th ro u g h i n t r o d u c ti o n o f new te c h n iq u e s , a g r i

c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a tiv e s w ere e n co u ra g ed . In May 1954 th e M in is tr y o f

P e a sa n t A f f a i r s n o te d t h a t 134 a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a tiv e s w hich w ere to

employ s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l te c h n iq u e s had been e s ta b l is h e d on th e


26
a ltip la n o . The p e a s a n ts , c la im e d th e M in is tr y , had shown c o n s id e r

a b le i n t e r e s t i n th e o r g a n iz a ti o n o f c o o p e r a tiv e s tow ard th e end o f


t
im proving p ro d u c tio n th ro u g h u t i l i z a t i o n o f modern a g r i c u l t u r a l m e th o d s.'

P r e s id e n t Paz E s te n s s o r o , on A ugust 2 , 1954, o b serv ed t h a t 176 new


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c o o p e r a tiv e s had been formed by th e M in is tr y o f Campesino A f f a i r s .

The r u r a l o lig a r c h y u sed what means w ere s t i l l a t i t s d is p o s a l

l e g a l , o r g a n iz a ti o n a l and p h y s ic a l to r e t a r d th e p ro g re s s o f a g r a r i a n

refo rm . S c a rc e ly one month a f t e r th e D ecree, th e R u ral S o c ie ty o f

O ruro, a la n d lo r d i n t e r e s t g ro u p , p e t i t i o n e d th e P r e s id e n t to h a l t ex

p r o p r i a t i o n o f l a t i f u n d i o s i n O ru ro . The R u ra l S o c ie ty claim e d t h a t

th e la n d s in q u e s tio n w ere b e in g m echanized and t h a t t h e i r e x p r o p r ia -


29
ti o n would be d e tr im e n ta l to th e n a t io n a l economy. A c tio n o f a more

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
119

v i o l e n t n a tu r e was a ls o u se d ; i n th e v i c i n i t y o f Apolo (La Paz D e p art

m ent) th e p r i n c i p a l la n d lo r d s "banded t o g e t h e r , h a r a s s in g th e l o c a l

a g r a r i a n ju d g e and f o r c i b l y th r e a t e n i n g p e a s a n t s . T h is te c h n iq u e , r e

s i s t e d by th e p e a s a n ts , le d to an a l t e r c a t i o n betw een th e g ro u p s,
30
r e s u l t i n g i n d e a th and i n j u r y among th e d i s p u t a n t s .

P e a s a n t R esponse -

I n view o f th e v io le n c e w hich r e n t th e c o u n try s id e in th e p r e -

A g ra ria n Reform p e r io d , th e q u e s tio n o f s u s t a in e d o r d im in is h e d v io le n c e

d u rin g th e p o st-R efo rm p e r io d m e r its a t t e n t i o n . W hile i t would seem

t h a t th e D ecree and th e la n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n w hich fo llo w e d would remove

th e u n d e rly in g cau se o f r u r a l v io l e n c e , th u s u s h e r in g in a p e r io d o f

l e s s tu m u ltu o u s r e l a t i o n s , th e e v id e n c e s u g g e s ts g r e a t e r co m p le x ity .

G e n e ra lly , th r e e developm ents a r e n o te w o rth y : o v e r th e sp an 1953-

1958, r u r a l v io le n c e o f a l l form s was m arked by a q u a n t i t a t i v e d e c re a s e

when compared to th e u p h e a v a l o f 1952-1953; a l s o , v i o l e n t i n t e r - c l a s s

d i s o r d e r s , e s p e c i a ll y o f th e la n d lo r d - p e a s a n t v a r i e t y , d im in ish e d in

number d u rin g t h i s p e r io d ; f i n a l l y , i n t r a - p e a s a n t r e l a t i o n s e x p e rie n c e d

a p r o l i f e r a t i o n i n k in d and number o f c o n f l i c t s a s w e ll a s in d eg ree

o f in te n s ity . T hus, i n g e n e r a l te rm s , t h i s p e r io d r e f l e c t s a d e c re a s e

i n r u r a l v io le n c e when com pared w ith th e i n i t i a l , p re - A g r a r ia n Reform

p h ase o f r e v o lu tio n .

The D ecree o f A g ra ria n Reform le v e le d a heavy l e g a l blow to th e

n a t i o n 's p r i n c i p a l l a t i f u n d i s t s . L a n d lo rd s had r e c o u r s e to su ch l e g a l

means a s w ere a v a i la b l e to h a l t o r im pede e x p r o p r ia tio n , b u t l i t i g a

t i o n p ro ceed ed slo w ly and th e n a t i o n 's u rb a n c e n t e r s o f f e r e d a more

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120

h o s p ita b le en v iro n m en t f o r r e s id e n c e d u rin g t h i s p r o c e s s . C o n s e q u e n tly ,

a l l b u t th e more r e s o l u t e r u r a l o l i g a r c h s m ig ra te d to th e c i t i e s d u rin g

th e p e r io d , rem oving th e m se lv e s from th e c o c k p it o f v io l e n c e ; a n armed

p e a s a n tr y was l e f t . B ecause i n t e r n a l m ig r a tio n s t a t i s t i c s a r e un

a v a i l a b l e (and p ro b a b ly n o n - e x i s t e n t ) , t h i s h y p o th e s is i s o f f e r e d a s

a s u b j e c t i v e e x p la n a tio n o f th e d im in u tio n o f p e a s a n t- p a tr o n a l t e r c a

tio n . I t a l s o s e r v e s th e r e l a t e d f u n c tio n o f s u g g e s tin g p o s s i b le

c a u s a tio n f o r th e i n c r e a s e i n i n t r a - p e a s a n t c la s h e s d u rin g th e p e r io d :

exodus o f th e o lig a r c h y from th e r u r a l s e c t o r c r e a te d a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l

vacuum w hich in n u m erab le p e a s a n t f a c t i o n s , p r im a r ily s y n d ic a t e s , a tte m p te d

to f i l l . R e v o lu tio n a ry i n s t a b i l i t y w ith i n t h i s power vacuum c r e a te d

th e p r e c o n d itio n s f o r in c r e a s e d v io le n c e among a h o s t o f armed and o r

g a n iz e d r e g io n a l p e a s a n t g ro u p s .

I n t e r - c l a s s V io le n c e

I n t e r - c l a s s v io l e n c e , i f d im in ish e d d u rin g th e y e a r s 1953 -1 9 58,

n e v e r t h e le s s c o n tin u e d , p r im a r ily i n th e form o f p e a s a n t a t t a c k s upon

h a c ie n d a s . I n Muiiecas P ro v in c e i n O cto b er 1953, th e house o f H acienda


31
" L u q u is a n i was b u rn ed by cam p esin o s. A lso i n Munecas n e a r l y two

y e a r s l a t e r , i n A p r il 1955, co lo n o s b u rn ed th e h o u se o f th e f i n c a
32
" L la c h is q u ia " a f t e r r e c e iv in g t h e i r s h a r e o f th e p o ta to h a r v e s t . The

zones I r u p a n a , Chulum ani and Huancane i n South Yungas w ere w racked by

a s e r i e s o f f i r e s s e t by p e a s a n t s , w h ich d e s tr o y e d g ro v e s o f f r u i t
33
t r e e s , c o f f e e p l a n t s and co ca p l a n t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n to d e s tr o y in g

l a t i f u n d i a p r o p e r ty , p e a s a n ts a l s o f o r c i b l y in v a d e d h a c ie n d a s , e x p e llin g

t h e i r o c c u p a n ts ; i n Ju n e 1954 th e "H acien d a B e le n ," lo c a te d i n La Paz

D epartm ent and o p e r a te d by th e In te r-A m e ric a n A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v ic e , w as'

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121

In v a d e d and o c c u p ie d by i t s p e a s a n ts who e x p e lle d th e s t a f f and t h e i r

fa m ilie s .^

D uring th e p e r io d A p r il 9 , 1952-A ugust 2 , 1953, i n t e r - c l a s s

r u r a l v io le n c e u s u a ll y to o k th e fo rm o f la n d lo r d s i n t i m i d a t i n g p e a s a n ts

o r p e a s a n ts a t ta c k i n g la n d l o r d s . B oth te c h n iq u e s p re s u p p o s e th e p r e s

en ce o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e two c l a s s e s , and th e B o liv ia n p r e s s

r e p e a te d ly p r e s e n te d th e names o f th o s e in d i v id u a l s in v o lv e d . The

A ugust 2 , 1953-December 3 1 , 1958 p e r io d how ever, r e f l e c t s th e ab sen ce

o f la n d lo r d s and th e r e s u l t a n t b u rn in g o f t h e i r p r o p e r ty by an a ro u se d

p e a s a n tr y .

A b ro a d d e f i n i t i o n o f " i n t e r - c l a s s " c o n f l i c t a llo w s in c lu s io n

o f i n c id e n ts among p e a s a n ts and m in e r s , and p e a s a n t - p o lic e o r p e a s a n t-

m i l i t a r y c l a s h e s , a l l o f w hich o c c u rre d d u rin g t h i s p e r io d . The p e a s a n t-

m in e r problem a r o s e o v e r a p r o p e r ty d is p u te betw een th e two g ro u p s in

th e v i c i n i t y o f V in to (O ruro D e p a rtm e n t). The cam pesinos claim e d

r i g h t s to la n d b o r d e r in g a m ine owned by th e B o liv ia n M in e ra l C orpora

t i o n , and upon le a v in g th e a r e a w ith t h e i r h a r v e s ts w ere m et by a group

o f m in e rs ; a f t e r a h e a te d a rg u m e n t, a f i g h t b ro k e o u t and a p e a s a n t was
35
s e v e r e ly wounded. In th e Cochabamba V a lle y , a t T a r a t a , cam pesinos

d e s i r i n g r e d u c tio n o f t a x upon c h ic h a f o r c e f u l l y e n te r e d th e tow n, a t

ta c k e d th e P o lic e S t a t i o n , and ab u sed th e c a r a b in e r o s s t a t i o n e d th e r e


36
w h ile se e k in g th e a g e n t i n c h a rg e o f c o l l e c t i o n o f c h ic h a t a x e s .

On th e a l t i p l a n o , s e r io u s d i f f e r e n c e s betw een an army o f f i c e r and a

p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e le d to an a l t e r c a t i o n betw een f o r c e s commanded by


37
th e two d i s p u t a n t s . T hese t h r e e exam ples f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e th e

developm ent o f th e p e a s a n tr y a s an im p o rta n t f o r c e . I n a c o u n try

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122

e s tim a te d a s 70 p e r c e n t r u r a l , an arm ed and i n c r e a s in g ly p o l i t i c i z e d

p e a s a n tr y c o n s t i t u t e d a t h r e a t b o th to e x i s t i n g c l a s s e s ( e . g . , m in e rs )

and to e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t y ( p o li c e and m i l i t a r y ) .

P e a sa n t-U rb a n H o s t i l i t y

A n o th er c o n t in u a ti o n from th e p r e v io u s p h a s e o f r u r a l r e v o l u t i o n

was a t t a c k upon u rb a n c e n t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y and

n o r th e r n P o to s i p r o v in c e s , b u t a l s o on th e a l t i p l a n o and even i n low

la n d a r e a s su ch a s T a r i j a . The B o liv ia n c i t y , a s w i l l l a t e r b e demon

s t r a t e d th ro u g h e l e c t i o n s t a t i s t i c s , r e p r e s e n te d a t r a d i t i o n a l c e n t e r

o f w h ite and m e s tiz o c o n t r o l o v e r a p r i m a r i l y I n d ia n and p e a s a n t c o u n try

s id e . In p r e - r e v o l u tio n a r y s o c i e t y , r u r a l v i s i t o r s w ere fo r b id d e n u s e

o f sid e w a lk s and even d e n ie d e n tr a n c e t o th e c e n t r a l a r e a s o f th e


38
c o u n t r y 's m a jo r c i t i e s . " J u s t i c e , " t a x a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r

c e n t u r ie s w ere d is p e n s e d from th e tw in o l i g a r c h i c a l e n c la v e s c i t y and

h a c ie n d a . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f o l i g a r c h i c a l pow er l e f t b o th a t th e m ercy

o f th e p e a s a n tr y .

On O cto b er 2 4 , 1953, cam pesinos i n th e v i c i n i t y o f th e p u eb lo

S a n tiv a n e z (Cochabamba D e p a rtm e n t), i n re s p o n s e t o th e m urder o f th e

a l c a l d e , in v a d e d th e town i n a f o r c e e s tim a te d a t 2 ,0 0 0 . The f o r c e

in tim id a te d to w n sp e o p le , c la im in g t h a t th e y w ere "R osqueros" and t h e r e -


39
f o r e to b e blam ed f o r th e d e e d . A d e p a r tm e n ta l com m ission, i n v e s t i

g a tin g t h i s m a t t e r , a p p o in te d a cam pesino to th e v a c a n t a l c a l d e p o s i

t i o n ; th u s , a c c o rd in g to E l D i a r i o , "m aking a m ockery o f th e d is g r a c e


40
and d e s p e r a tio n o f th e p o p u la tio n o f S a n tiv a n e z ." The n ew spaper

f u r t h e r e x p re s s e d i t s o p in io n , r e v e a lin g c o n s id e r a b le b i a s : "The e v e n t

i n S a n tiv a n e z h a s s e rv e d t o e n co u ra g e g r e a t l y th e b a r b a r i c and c r im in a l

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123

s p i r i t o f th e c a m p esin o ." D u rin g th e same week a s th e S a n tiv a n e z

i n c i d e n t , on th e a l t i p l a n o , cam pesinos su rro u n d ed th e c a p i t a l o f C anton

A c c h il la . Armed s o l d i e r s w ere d is p a tc h e d to th e b e s ie g e d c i t y to d i s -
42
p e rs e t h i s cam pesino f o r c e commanded by Manuel Mamani.

Campesino g ro u p s a tta c k e d a t l e a s t f o u r u rb an c e n t e r s , a l l on

th e a l t i p l a n o , d u rin g th e y e a r 1954. I n l a t e F e b ru a ry , 300 p e a s a n ts

from th e s y n d ic a te o f th e C h eja community e n c i r c le d th e c i t y o f S o ra ta


43
(La Paz D e p a rtm e n t). Armed w ith r i f l e s and l i g h t m achine g u n s, th e

p e a s a n ts p r e s s e d f o r th e r e l e a s e o f th e s y n d ic a t e s S e c r e ta r y G e n e ra l,

who was i n c a r c e r a t e d f o r a c r im in a l o f f e n s e a g a i n s t a n o th e r p e a s a n t.

The i n t e r c e s s i o n o f th e s u b - p r e f e c t o f S o r a ta s e rv e d to a b a te v io le n c e ,

and re in fo rc e m e n ts o f c a r a b in e r o s w ere re q u e s te d to g u a ra n te e th e

s e c u r i t y o f th e town i n th e e v e n t o f f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y . R e s id e n ts o f

C alcam arca, on th e ro a d b etw een La Paz and O ru ro , w ere fo rc e d to ta k e

re fu g e i n a ch u rch a s armed cam pesinos had s u rro u n d e d th e tow n. The

p e a s a n ts demanded a change i n a u t h o r i t i e s , a c c u s in g th e in cu m b en ts o f
44
e x ce ed in g t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . P e a s a n ts , i n a f o r c e o f 100, e n te r e d th e

p u eb lo o f I la b a v a ( L a r e c a ja P ro v in c e ) and f i r e d r i f l e s and m achine


45
guns f o r no a p p a re n t re a s o n g r e a t l y f r i g h t e n i n g th e p o p u la c e . The

f i n a l exam ple o f p e a s a n t- u r b a n h o s t i l i t y in 1954, and a l s o th e most

s e r i o u s , o c c u rre d i n A polo. T h ere i s a c o n f l i c t betw een th e o f f i c i a l

MNR s ta te m e n t w h ich p r e s e n ts a low e s tim a te f o r c a s u a l t i e s and th e p r e s s

r e p o r t w hich o f f e r s a h ig h e s ti m a t e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , a t l e a s t one man was

k i l l e d (o r p e rh a p s 25 i f th e p r e s s i s c o r r e c t ) a s p e a s a n ts in v a d ed th e

tow n. C a ra b in e ro s flow n from La Paz to q u e l l th e d is tu r b a n c e e n c o u n te re d

. s t i f f r e s i s t a n c e from th e p e a s a n ts b e f o r e th e s i t u a t i o n was b ro u g h t

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124

46
u n d er c o n t r o l . The o f f i c i a l MNR p r e s s d is p a t c h claim ed t h a t th e
47
in c id e n t h ad b een p rovoked by an in te m p e r a te la n d lo r d . A la te r re

l e a s e c i t e d "communist c u l p a b i l i t y " a s th e u n d e rly in g cau se o f th e

VI
problem . 48

A ch acach i, n o rth w e s t o f La Paz n e a r th e s h o re o f Lake T i t i c a c a ,

began e x p e rie n c in g d i f f i c u l t y w ith p e a s a n ts i n 1955. In F e b ru a ry ,

d u rin g C a m a v a l, gro u p s o f p e a s a n ts e n te r e d th e tow n, b u rn ed a h o u s e ,


49
w hipped some i n h a b i t a n t s , and t e r r i f i e d th e p o p u la tio n w ith g u n s h o ts .

L a te r i n th e y e a r , T o r i b i o ' S a la s em erged a s an im p o rta n t d i r i g e n t e i n

th e A chacachi a r e a . S a la s , a shoem aker by t r a d e , was an in d i v id u a l


50
o f v i o l e n t and a g g r e s s iv e tem p eram en t. I n l a t e December 1955, S a la s

e n fo rc e d an a r b i t r a r y p r i c e on th e s a l e o f p o ta to e s (1 5 ,0 0 0 B s. p e r

c a rg a ) by p e a s a n ts i n th e m a rk e ts o f A c h a c a c h i, in t im i d a ti n g th e tow ns

p e o p le w ith r i f l e s h o ts . C o n s id e rin g th e ram pant i n f l a t i o n w hich an

n u a lly in c re a s e d u n t i l th e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f 1957, t h i s move by S a la s

w ould have added c o n s id e r a b ly to h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s an im p o rta n t r e g io n a l

d irig e n te . A d d itio n a lly , th e in c r e a s e i n p r i c e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s a l e

o f produce would have g a in e d s u p p o rt from th e p e a s a n tr y , h a rd h i t by

s p i r a l i n g i n f l a t i o n , th u s en h an c in g S a l a s ' cam pesino base."* O th er

u r b a n - r e la te d i n c id e n ts i n t h i s y e a r w ere r e p o r te d a t T a a r i , a p e a s a n t

p u e b lo , w hich was a tta c k e d by cam pesinos from n e a rb y T i t i c a c h i . El

D ia r io v ag u ely a s s e r te d t h a t th e d is tu r b a n c e was c r e a te d by th e P r e s id e n t

o f th e A g ra ria n R u ra l J u n ta o f Munecas P ro v in c e who had c r e a te d an arc h y


52
betw een cam pesinos o f T a a r i and T i t i c a c h i . And i n th e Sud Yungas

cam pesinos th r e a te n e d , b u t d id n o t c a r r y o u t th e d e s t r u c t i o n o f th e
53
town o f H uancane.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
125

A p r il 1956 b ro u g h t two v i o l e n t p e a s a n t a t t a c k s upon p o p u la tio n

c e n te rs . Cam pesinos from th e v i c i n i t y o f I n c h v a s i in v a d ed C u lp in a

a f t e r f i r s t b lo c k in g th e main ro a d s to th e tow n. The p o p u la c e was

a t ta c k e d and f o u r to w n sp eo p le w ere d rag g ed o f f , b e h in d h o r s e s , t o th e

l o c a l Campesino F e d e r a tio n w h ere, s t r i p p e d n a k e d , th e y w ere s h o t to


54
d e a th . C a ra b in e ro s w ere s e n t to C u lp in a to r e s t o r e o r d e r . A lso i n

A p r i l 1956, A ncoraim es on th e n o r th e a s t s h o re o f Lake T i t i c a c a , was

su rro u n d e d and in v a d ed by a la r g e mass o f cam p esin o s ( e s tim a te d a t

1 0 ,0 0 0 ). E l D ia r io r e p o r te d t h a t th e p e a s a n ts lo o te d a c h u rch o f je w e ls

and t h a t b lo o d y f i g h t i n g b ro k e o u t betw een p e a s a n ts and to w n sp eo p le

a f t e r th e p e a s a n ts claim e d th e i n h a b i t a n t s h a d , i n f a c t , ta k e n th e

j e w e l s . T h e MNR r e p o r te d t h a t th e c a m p e sin o s, h e a r in g o f th e ro b b e r y ,

q u ic k ly m o b iliz e d , e n t e r in g A ncoraim es and s e a r c h in g th e h o u ses o f th o s e

to w n sp eo p le whom th e y s u s p e c t e d . ^ A lth o u g h in f o r m a tio n i s l i m i t e d , i t

i s v .lear t h a t th e a l t i p l a n o town o f Escoma was a tta c k e d i n O cto b er 1956

by h u n d red s o f cam pesinos from th e v i c i n i t y o f P u e rto A c o s ta , commanded

by th e d i r i g e n t e J u a n M e n c h a c a .^ The a t t a c k was r e p e l l e d by tow ns

p e o p le and p e a s a n ts from Escoma.

D u rin g th e y e a r 1957, th e fo c u s o f p e a s a n t- u r b a n h o s t i l i t y

s h i f t e d from th e a l t i p l a n o to th e Cochabamba V a lle y and n o r th e r n P o to s i

r e g io n s . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n b o th a r e a s w ere o c c a s io n e d by i n t r u s i o n o f

cam pesin o s from th e S in d ic a to d e l V a lle a t U cu ren a. C a u s a tio n f o r t e r

r i t o r i a l i n t r u s i o n s by cam pesinos from th e Cochabamba V a lle y c e n te r e d

p r i m a r i l y a t U cu ren a, p o s s ib ly r e s u l t i n g from ex trem e dem ographic p r e s

s u r e on l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
126

The r e g io n s o f g r e a t e s t p e a s a n t v io l e n c e th ro u g h o u t th e R ev o lu

t i o n w ere th e f i v e h ig h la n d d e p a rtm e n ts w h ich a l s o r e g i s t e r e d th e h ig h

e s t p o p u la tio n d e n s ity . In 1955, th e number o f i n h a b i t a n t s p e r s q u a re

k ilo m e te r f o r th e s e d e p a rtm e n ts w as: Cochabamba, 9 .8 ; La P a z , 7 .8 ;


58
C h u q u isaca, 6 .0 ; P o to sx , 5 .0 ; O ru ro , 4 .3 . Cochabamba an d La Paz

D ep artm en ts, w hich i t m ust be g r a n te d c o n ta in e d a h ig h p e r c e n ta g e o f

th e t o t a l n a t io n a l p o p u la tio n , w ere a l s o th e a r e a s o f g r e a t e s t p o p u la

t i o n d e n s ity and in c id e n c e o f r u r a l v io l e n c e . F u r th e r , i n th e p ro v in c e s

o f J o r d a n , Q u ill a c o ll o and P u n ata o f Cochabamba D ep artm en t, p o p u la tio n

d e n s it y i n 1955 was th e h ig h e s t in th e R e p u b lic : 66 i n h a b i t a n t s p e r

s q u a re k ilo m e te r ( J o r d a n ) ; 60 i n h a b i t a n t s p e r s q u a re k il o m e t e r ( Q u ill a -
59
c o l l o ) ; and 42 i n h a b ita n t s p e r s q u a re k il o m e t e r ( P u n a ta ) .

Demographic i n t e n s i t y was so g r e a t i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y

t h a t th e MNR q u ic k ly slow ed la n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n th e r e g io n . As

s t a t e d e a r l i e r , by A ugust 1955 o n ly 1 5 .5 5 p e r c e n t o f th e l a t i f u n d i o s

in Cochabamba D epartm ent had b een e x p r o p r ia te d th e lo w e s t t o t a l f o r

any d e p a rtm e n t. N e v e r th e le s s , A g ra ria n R eform f u r th e r e d m in ifu n d is m o ;


61
8,000 p e a s a n ts in th e V a lle y r e c e iv e d l e s s th a n 1 h e c t a r e e a c h . P eas

a n t s o f th e Cochabamba V a lle y , m ore r o o te d i n th e n a t i o n a l economy th a n

t h e i r kinsm en in o th e r r e g io n s , w ere th u s v u ln e r a b le to i n f l a t i o n d u rin g

t h i s p e r io d , w hich in c r e a s e d 800 p e r c e n t b etw een 1952 an d 1955 and

a n o th e r 800 p e r c e n t betw een 1955 and 1960. ~ Thus th e Cochabamba V al

le y a r e a was e s p e c i a l l y v u ln e r a b le to v io le n c e b e c a u s e o f dem ographic

and econom ic p r e c i p i t a n t s .

To th e s e f a c t o r s w ere added th e d e s i r e s o f p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e s who

m o b iliz e d th e p e a s a n tr y f o r p e r s o n a l enhancem ent an d th e i n t e r e s t o f

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127

s p l i n t e r f a c t i o n s o f th e MNR. The f i r s t o f th e s e p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s was

o p e r a tin g d u rin g t h i s 1953-1959 p e r io d b u t w ould r e a c h e x a g g e ra te d p ro

p o r t i o n s in th e w a rfa re o f th e y e a r s 1959 -1 9 6 0 ; p o l i t i c a l m a c h in a tio n s

w ould in v o lv e t h i s a r e a d u rin g th e same p e r io d w hich saw P a z e s t e n s s o r i s t a s

(MNR) and G u e v a ris ta s ( P a r tid o d e l M ovim iento N a c io n a lis ta R e v o lu c io n a rio

A u tg n tic o ) com peting f o r th e v o te o f o f th e p e a s a n tr y ( c o n t r o l l e d b y th e

d i r i g e n t e s ) i n th e n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n o f 1 960.

T e r r i t o r i a l A g g re ssio n

In l a t e A p r il and e a r l y May 1956, w e ll-a rm e d cam pesinos from

U curena f o r c i b l y e n te r e d C h u q u isaca D ep artm en t w here th e y s e iz e d and

o c c u p ie d r u r a l p r o p e r ty i n th e R io Chico zone o f Poroma and Copa-


63
v ilq u e . In t h i s f o r c e f u l a d v a n c e , th e p u e b lo s o f C am o stap al, P a s i -

pampa M elo n ar, Surim e, C huquichuqui and K akachaka w ere o v e r r u n , and i n

th e a r e a o f Yamparaes and P r e s t o , I n d i a n com m issions s e n t from Cochabamba

w ere r e p o r te d ly co m m ittin g a t r o c i t i e s w h ile i n s t r u c t i n g cam pesinos


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a g a i n s t la n d lo r d s . A d d iti o n a ll y , th e p e a s a n ts from U cureSa s e iz e d

la n d s i n th e Y o ta la , V i l l a V i c t o r i a and Carmen l a Cabana r e g io n .

T h is s e iz u r e o f la n d s o u ts id e o f Cochabamba D epartm ent may w e ll

have r e s u l t e d from ex trem e dem ographic p r e s s u r e s a c t in g upon p e a s a n ts

i n th e U curena a r e a , n o ta b le f o r i t s g r e a t i n t e n s i t y o f p o p u la tio n . A l

so s i g n i f i c a n t h e re i s th e c o n t r a s t betw een p e a s a n ts i n c o n tig u o u s r e g io n s

th e U curena m i l i t i a s w ere w e ll armed and o rg a n iz e d w h ile th e C h u q u isa-

canos la c k e d o r g a n iz a tio n . T h ree y e a r s a f t e r th e A g ra ria n Reform D e c re e ,

p e a s a n ts i n th e C huquisaca D epartm ent w ere u n p o l i t i c i z e d to su ch a d e g re e

t h a t i t was n e c e s s a ry to " i n s t r u c t " them a g a i n s t la n d lo r d s .

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128

P e a s a n t Armies

W idespread v io le n c e e ru p te d a lo n g th e zone b o r d e r in g th e D e p a rt

m ents o f Cochabamba and P o to s f i n A p r il 1957 a s r e s i d e n t s o f San P edro

de Buena V is t a , A c a s io , Arampampa and T o r a c a r f s u f f e r e d h o s t i l e p e a s a n t

in tru s io n s . ^ The p e a s a n t s , in a f o r c e e s tim a te d a t 3 0 ,0 0 0 , w ere le d

by one N a rc is o T o r r ic o , a f u g i t i v e from j u s t i c e i n C a ta v i (O ruro D e p a rt

m ent) . T o r r ic o f l e d t o n o r th e r n P o to s i, w here h e r e c r u i t e d cam pesinos

armed w ith m achine g u n s . ^ The p e a s a n t arm y, w ith i t s g e n e r a l b a r r a c k s

a t Choroma (C harcas P r o v in c e ) , t e r r i f i e d r e s i d e n t s o f A casio where

T o rric o i n s i s t e d upon d is c h a r g e o f a l l a u t h o r i t i e s ; th o s e who r e s i s t e d

r e p o r te d ly w ere ta k e n to th e b a r r a c k s a t Choroma and t o r t u r e d . ^

T o r ric o demanded d is c h a r g e o f c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s , c la im in g h e was a u th o r

iz e d to do so by th e MNR, and a ls o le v ie d ta x e s (k in d u n s p e c i f i e d )

The p e r i o d i c a l E l P u eb lo claim ed t h a t N a rc is o T o r r ic o had been a p p re

hended i n A casio and t h a t 20,000 o f h i s f o llo w e r s had sack ed th e town


68
a f t e r fre e in g th e i r le a d e r.

The Town o f T a r a ta , lo c a te d n e a r U cu ren a, was t e r r i f i e d in

A ugust and Septem ber 1957 by d i r i g e n t e s o f th e U curena s y n d ic a te . The

to w n sp eo p le r e p o r te d , i n a p u b li c s ta te m e n t to P r e s id e n t S i l e s , m al

tr e a tm e n t s u f f e r e d a t th e hands o f th e d i r i g e n t e Ramtfn C a s t i l l o o f

U c u r e n a .^ At t h i s tim e , l a t e A ugust 1957, cam pesinos u n d e r C a s t i l l o s


70
c h arg e a tta c k e d many homes, m a ssa c rin g t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s . L a t e r , in

e a r l y Septem ber 1957, when C a s t i l l o was j a i l e d p en d in g p r o s e c u tio n f o r

m urder o f a r e s i d e n t o f T a r a ta , a p p ro x im a te ly tw en ty o f h i s f o llo w e r s

armed w ith l i g h t m achine guns and u n d er c o v e r o f d a rk n e s s f o r c e f u l l y

in v ad ed th e town and f r e e d t h e i r d i r i g e n t e . ^

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12 9

The p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te a t Choroma c o n tin u e d i t s b e l l i g e r e n t

a c t i v i t y in 1958. In J a n u a ry , cam pesinos from Choroma w ere ac c u se d o f

r o b b e ry , w h ip p in g s, and c o l l e c t i o n o f la r g e sums o f money f o r t h e i r


72
p erso n al u se. L a t e r , i n Septem ber, la r g e numbers o f cam pesinos w ere

r e p o r te d ad v an cin g on th e town o f A iq u il e , whose r e s i d e n t s , f e a r i n g

t h a t th e town w ould be sa c k e d , f l e d t o th e r e f u g e o f a n earb y p l a i n ,


73
le a v in g th e town o ccu p ied by te n s o l d i e r s and f i f t e e n c a r a b in e r o s .

N o rth e rn P o to s i c o n tin u e d to undergo armed in c u r s io n o f a l i e n

cam pesino o r g a n iz a tio n s : in 1957, N a rc is o T o r r ic o c o n tin u e d o p e r a tio n s

w ith an o rg a n iz e d in v a s io n n e a r A c a c io , w here he abused p r o p e r ty , d e s -


74
tro y e d c ro p s and s t o l e li v e s t o c k . Such was T o rric o * s vengeance t h a t

h u n d red s o f p e rs o n s abandoned th e r e g io n s o f G en eral B ilb a o , C h arcas

and A lonso de Ib an ez p r o v in c e s . Those p e rs o n s u n a b le to e scap e th e

f u r y o f th e a t t a c k e r s p e r is h e d under th e i n v a s i o n . ^ L a te r, in e a rly

J a n u a ry 1958, N a rc is o T o rric o to g e th e r w ith Rosendo C a g u a s ir i, Deny

M oscoso, T e le s f o r o M edrano, R odolfo L a f u e n te , Eugenio V arg as, M anuel

B u itra g o and C r is to b a l V illa n u e v a w ere denounced i n a c a b ild o a b i e r t o a t

San P edro de Buena V is ta f o r d is c h a r g in g th e s u b - p r e f e c t , th e a l c a l d e ,

th e in t e n d e n t, ju d g e s , p r i e s t s and te a c h e r s and h e a r in g demands f o r

d i s s o l u t i o n o f m a rria g e , d iv is io n o f e s t a t e s , and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f la n d s .

The tow nspeople re q u e s te d g o v ern m en tal a id f o r th e im m ediate e x p u ls io n

from th e P ro v in c e o f C harcas o f th e "communist v a n d a l s . I n la te

J a n u a r y , N a rc is o T o rric o d ie d a f t e r a b a t t l e w ith a s m a ll MNR m i l i t a r y

fo rc e n e ar C u c h ir a .^

A more s i g n i f i c a n t developm ent d u rin g t h i s p e r io d , 1953-1958,

was th e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f in tra -c a m p e s in o s t r i f e a s p e a s a n t o r g a n iz a tio n s '

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130

o f a l l s i z e s c la s h e d i n t h e h ig h la n d r e g io n s : i n P o to s i a cam pesino

army from U curefia in v a d ed th e d e p a rtm e n t i n an a c t o f t e r r i t o r i a l ag

g r e s s io n . The p e r io d u n d erw en t a r a s h o f a s s a s s i n a t i o n s and e x e c u tio n s

a s s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s i n t e n s i f i e d . T h is p e r io d r e f l e c t s th e em ergence

o f th e p e a s a n tr y , e s p e c i a l l y i n th e Cochabamba a r e a , a s an armed and

o rg a n iz e d c l a s s and a q u a s i- in d e p e n d e n t p o l i t i c a l f o r c e .

N o rth e rn P o to s i was n o t t o b e a llo w e d r e s p i t e from v i o l e n t p e a s

an t a c tiv ity : i n A ugust 1958 a v i r t u a l p e a s a n t army from U cureSa m arched

i n t o th e d e p a rtm e n t. D r. C e sa r T a p ia , co m m issio n er o f th e C e n te r o f

A c tio n "C h arcas" o f Cochabamba, r e p o r te d th e

in tr o m is s io n o f f o r e ig n e le m e n ts t h a t a r e in v a d in g a n o th e r
j u r i s d i c t i o n [ P o to s i D e p a rtm e n t], co m m ittin g o u tr a g e s and
a l l ty p e s o f a c t s o f armed v a n d a lis m a s i n th e r e c e n t c a s e
o f T o r o to ro , i n w hich th e p o p u la tio n w as th e o b je c t o f s a c k
in g s , ab u ses . . . c u lm in a tin g i n th e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f two
f u n c t i o n a r i e s o f th e a g r a r i a n re fo rm s e r v i c e . 79

The P r e f e c t o f Cochabamba r e c e iv e d te le g ra m s from A c a c io , Yambate and

T o r a c a r l r e p o r ti n g th e p r o g r e s s o f an armed f o r c e s e t o u t from U curena

i n th e d i r e c t i o n o f San P ed ro de Buena V is t a w ith th e o b j e c t i v e o f


80
i s o l a t i n g and a t ta c k i n g th e p o p u la tio n .

P e a s a n ts f l e e i n g th e r e g io n o f San P ed ro de Buena V is ta r e p o r te d

th e in c u r s i o n o f 1 0 ,0 0 0 cam p esin o s from U curena a t ta c k i n g n o r th e r n


81
P o to s i. The town was a p p a r e n tly a t ta c k e d by cam pesino a rm ie s h ead ed
82
b y m i l i t i a s from U curena on A ugust 1 1 , 1958.

O th e r Forms o f I n tr a - P e a s a n t S t r i f e

A sid e from th e a fo re m e n tio n e d exam ples o f l a r g e s c a l e p e a s a n t

a c t i v i t y d u rin g th e p o s t- A g r a r ia n Reform p e r i o d , a n in c r e a s e i n m inor

i n t r a - p e a s a n t c o n f l i c t s s h o u ld b e n o te d . The y e a r s 1953-1958 w ere m arked

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 31

by c la s h e s betw een p e a s a n t g ro u p s o v e r q u e s tio n s o f le a d e r s h ip ( C li z a -

U cu ren a, A c h a c a c h i-W a ris a ta ); o v e r t e r r i t o r y (L a im e s-C a c a c h a c a s);

o v e r r e l i g i o n ( C a t h o l i c s - P r o t e s t a n t s ) ; o v e r c l a s s (ex-colonos-com m unal
83
I n d i a n s ) ; and o v e r i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y n d i c a t e p o l i t i c s .

Most im p o rta n t f o r th e c o u rs e o f l a t e r d ev elo p m en ts was th e

em ergence o f th e town o f A c h a c a c h i, c a p i t a l o f Omasuyos P ro v in c e (La

Paz D e p a rtm e n t), a s a m a jo r c e n t e r o f a l t i p l a n o s y n d ic a l a c t i v i t y . In

A ugust 1953, d i r i g e n t e s o f th e A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te o f M ereke A ch acach i

d e ta in e d members o f th e n e arb y A g ra ria n S y n d ic a te o f W a ris a ta whom th e y

acc u se d o f b e in g " R o s q u e ro s." Soon a f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t a p itc h e d

b a t t l e d e v e lo p e d , w hich to o k a t o l l o f s e v e r a l dead and num erous w o u n d e d /

Cam pesinos o f th e h a c ie n d a "Mercke A c h a c a c h i," s u p p o r te r s o f th e Acha

c a c h i d i r i g e n t e T o r ib io S a la s , w ere f o r c e d to f l e e th e h a c ie n d a when

a t ta c k e d by a p p ro x im a te ly 5 ,0 0 0 cam pesinos from th e W a ris a ta s y n d ic a t e .

V io le n c e i n th e v i c i n i t y o f A ch acach i was r i f e enough to prom pt a s t r i k e

by th e F i r s t o f May S y n d ic a l F e d e r a tio n o f C h a u ffe u rs who demanded


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g u a r a n te e s f o r t h e i r v e h i c le s a s w e ll a s th e l i v e s o f c o n d u c to rs .

A n o th er town w hich was to e x p e r ie n c e m arked v io le n c e i n l a t e r

y e a r s (1959-1960) was C l i z a , c a p i t a l o f t h e F i r s t S e c tio n o f J o rd a n P ro v -


>

in c e (Cochabamba D e p a rtm e n t). I n A p r il 1955 an i n c i d e n t among campe

s i n o s , r e s u l t i n g in b lo o d s h e d , o c c u rre d i n th e tow n. C a u s a tio n was a t -


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t r i b u t e d t o f r i c t i o n betw een l o c a l d i r i g e n t e s . And i n November 1957,

a s a h a r b in g e r o f f u r t h e r u n r e s t , to w n sp eo p le from C liz a and p e a s a n ts


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from U curena engaged i n armed b a t t l e . A lth o u g h q u ie s c e n c e r e tu r n e d

a f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t , rem a in in g h o s t i l i t y w ould le a d to w id e s c a le v io le n c e

and tr e n c h w a rfa re betw een C liz a and U curena d u rin g th e y e a r s 1959-1960.

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132

S y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s , n a s c e n t i n th e p r e - A g r a r ia n Reform p e r io d ,

now became more in t e n s e a s th e p e a s a n tr y em erged a s a more c o n s c io u s

c l a s s w ith th e s y n d ic a te a v e h i c le f o r f u r th e r a n c e o f c l a s s i n t e r e s t s .

W ith in in d i v id u a l s y n d ic a t e s , pow er s t r u g g l e s r e s u l t e d as d i r i g e n t e s
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so u g h t e x p a n sio n o r c o n s o li d a ti o n o f c o n t r o l . C o m p e titio n a t t h i s

l e v e l o f te n r e s u l t e d i n v io le n c e w ith im p o rta n t d i r i g e n t e s a s s a s s i n

a t e d o r t r i e d b e f o r e s i n d i c a t o members and e x e c u te d f o r re a s o n o f

" e x c e s s e s " ( e . g . , em bezzlem ent o r m isu se o f fu n d s) com m itted a g a i n s t


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th e o r g a n iz a tio n . S y n d ic a l a c t i o n was n o t , o f c o u r s e , alw ay s i n n e r -

d i r e c t e d as i l l u s t r a t e d by th e d e a th i n A ugust 1958 o f an a g r a r i a n
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ju d g e i n C harcas P ro v in c e a t th e hands o f d i r i g e n t e s o f Chormas.

A more r e s t r a i n e d ap p ro ach to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith g o v ern m e n tal fu n c

t i o n a r i e s was t h a t o f fo rm al " d e n u n c ia tio n ," u s u a ll y made p u b li c i n

th e n a t i o n s n ew spapers ( a f u n c tio n o f th e s y n d i c a t e 's S e c r e ta r y o f


91
P re s s and P ro p a g a n d a ). I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f r e g io n a l s y n d ic a te p o l i

t i c s r e s u l t e d i n d i v i s i o n s w ith i n th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te movement. In

l a t e December 1956, th e D e p a rtm e n ta l F e d e r a tio n o f Cam pesinos (La P az)

c r i t i c i z e d a " p s e u d o -N a tio n a l C o n fe d e ra tio n o f C o o p e ra tiv e s " f o r a c -


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t i v i t i e s c o n tr a r y to th e i n t e r e s t s o f th e cam p esin o s. The r i v a l sy n

d i c a t e o r g a n iz a tio n was a c c u se d o f c r e a t i n g d iv i s i o n s among th e p e a s

a n t r y , and cam pesinos w ere w arned a g a i n s t w h a te v e r in c u r s i o n th e c o o p e ra -


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t i v i s t s m ight t r y to make.

On th e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s a l s o m ir r o re d th e i n

c r e a s in g im p o rtan ce o f th e p e a s a n tr y a s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l b lo c .

R e g io n a l d i r i g e n t e s e x e r c is in g c o n t r o l o v e r in d i v i d u a l s i n d i c a t o s e s p e

c i a l l y m e rite d th e a t t e n t i o n o f th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement. The more

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133

p o w e rfu l o f th e s e d i r i g e n t e s commanding th e a l le g ia n c e o f s y n d ic a te s

made s t r a t e g i c a l l y e s s e n t i a l b e c a u se o f demography o r geography ( e . g . ,

Cochabamba V a lle y , Omasuyos P ro v in c e ) w ere to become known a s c a c iq u e s

(c h ie fs ). P o l i t i c s a t th e i n t e r - s y n d i c a t e o r n a t i o n a l l e v e l g e n e r a lly

in v o lv e d a tte m p ts by d i r i g e n t e s o r c a c iq u e s to in c r e a s e t h e i r o r i g i n a l

pow er b a s e . S y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s a t t h i s l e v e l w ere f u r t h e r c o m p lica ted

by a tte m p ts o f th e MNR to c o n t r o l th e b u rg eo n in g cam pesino movement. A

developm ent a t th e T h ird N a tio n a l C o n feren ce o f Campesino W orkers i l l u s

t r a t e s MNR c o n tr o l o v e r n a t i o n a l s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s . At th e C o n feren c e,

i n May 1957, th e Aymara d i r i g e n t e Zenon B a r r ie n to s Mamani was e x p e lle d


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f o r tr e a s o n to th e p e a s a n tr y . As B a r r ie n to s Mamani made c l e a r in a

p u b li c l e t t e r to V ice P r e s id e n t N uflo C havez, th e C o n feren c e, su p p o se d ly

c o n s is ti n g o f p e a s a n t d e l e g a te s , was i n r e a l i t y c o n t r o l le d by non

p e a s a n t MNR le a d e r s : "As i s s e e n , v o tin g f o r my e x p u ls io n 1 w ere n in e

la w y e r s , two b u sin essm en , one r a d io - te c h n ic ia n - m u n ic ip a l a l c a l d e , one

d i r i g e n t e o f th e m iddle c l a s s , one d i r i g e n t e o f th e f l o u r - d e a l e r s , and


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two p u b lic em p lo y ees." Of th e f iv e a c t u a l p e a s a n t le a d e r s a tte n d in g

th e C o n feren ce, B a r r ie n to s Mamani n o te d t h a t f o u r h ad v o te d a g a in s t

h i s e x p u ls io n ; th o s e members v o tin g f o r e x p u ls io n , s a id B a r r ie n to s Mamani,

" a r e th e b u r e a u c ra ts t h a t f e a r th e p e a s a n t r y . T h e d i r i g e n t e c r i t i

c iz e d th e c o r r u p tio n and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t p r e ju d ic e d th e A g ra ria n

R eform , add in g t h a t

th e pantomime o f my "ex p u lsio n " a ls o owes to my a c t i v e p a r


t i c i p a t i o n in th e . . . p o l i t i c a l o r g a n iz a tio n " R e v o lu tio n a ry
L e f t o f th e MNR" . . . and i s a consequence o f my a n ti- m a s o n ic ,
a n t i - r i g h t i s t , and a n t i - e x t r e m i s t p o s i t i o n ; w hich i s to say
a n ti-T ro ts k y ite . ^

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
134

The e x p u ls io n o f Zenon B a r r ie n to s Mamani i l lu m i n a te s MNR a tte m p ts

t o c o n t r o l sy n d ica l a c t i v i t i e s th ro u g h f o r c e f u l a c t i o n a t th e n a t i o n a l

le v e l. MNR m a n ip u la tio n o f s i n d i c a t o p o l i t i c s a l s o o c c u rre d a t th e

l o c a l and r e g io n a l l e v e l s . O f f i c i a l d is p le a s u r e w ith e r r i n g d i r i g e n t e s ,

d ependin g upon c irc u m s ta n c e s , c o u ld le a d to " d e n u n c ia tio n " o r "e x p u l

s io n " from th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement. F o r exam ple: th e C h ie f o f Com

mand o f th e MNR o f In g a v i P ro v in c e p u b li c ly denounced A n to n io Pocoaca

B o n a rriv e a s an enemy o f th e p e a s a n tr y , and w ith d rew o f f i c i a l s a n c tio n

from th e e r r a n t p e a s a n t by f o r b id d in g f u r t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n w ith th e MNR;

in th e n a t i o n a l Chamber o f D e p u tie s a m o tio n was made to remove th e

d i r i g e n t e S in fo ro s o R ivas from h i s p o s i t i o n on th e A g ra ria n Reform C o u n cil


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b e c a u se o f. s p e c u la tio n , g r a f t and o th e r t r a n s g r e s s i o n s .

P e a s a n t and C o u n te r-R e v o lu tio n

Tw ice d u rin g t h i s p e r io d , cam pesinos from th e U curena s y n d ic a te s

w ere used a g a i n s t F a la n g is ta c o u n t e r - r e v o lu ti o n s . I n th e f i r s t in s ta n c e ,

on November 10, 1953, an FSB r e v o l t b ro k e o u t in th e c i t i e s o f La P az,

Cochabamba and S an ta C ruz. F ig h tin g was m ost n o te w o rth y i n Cochabamba

w here armed cam pesinos from th e U curena m i l i t i a w ere u sed to b lo o d y


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e f f e c t i n q u e l lin g th e r e v o l t . L a t e r , on May 1 4 , 1958, F a la n g is ta s

a g a in r e v o l t e d , t h i s tim e o n ly a t S an ta C ru z. The i n s u r r e c t i o n was q u ic k

ly s t i f l e d , b u t n e v e r th e le s s army re g im e n ts as w e ll a s m i l i t i a s from

U curena w ere s e n t to th e c i t y ; a s w ith th e Cochabamba r e v o l t , th e campe-


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s in o s r e p o r te d ly perfo rm ed a v i o l e n t l y r e p r e s s i v e r o l e . P easan t

v io le n c e i n t h i s c o n te x t r e s u l t e d from num erous v a r i a b l e s , among w hich

h o s t i l i t y to u r b a n ite s and d i s t r u s t o f e l i t i s t F a la n g is ta s a r e n o te w o rth y .

I n e v e ry n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n th e FSB h a s drawn an e x tre m e ly h ig h p r o p o r tio n

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o f i t s v o te s from th e n a t i o n 's u rb an a r e a s ( e s p e c i a l l y La P a z , Cocha

bamba and S a n ta C ru z ), and th e p e a s a n ts f e a r o f l o s s o f la n d i s . e a s i l y

d i r e c t e d tow ard a d h e re n ts o f t h i s c o n s e r v a tiv e p a r t y .

E f f e c t o f A g ra ria n Reform and S o c ia l R e v o lu tio n


on A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c tio n

S t a t i s t i c s r e g a r d in g g r o s s volum e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p ro d u c tio n

betw een 1951 and 1955 r e v e a l a d e c l in e i n p r o d u c tio n d u rin g th e s e e a r l y

y e a r s o f r e v o lu t io n . I n 1951 th e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r o f th e economy

g ro s se d $US 7 8 .9 m i l l i o n , i n 19 5 2 , $US 7 5 .3 m i l l i o n , i n 1953, $US 70 .3

m i l l i o n , i n 1954, $US 6 7 .4 m i l l i o n and i n 19 5 5 , $US 7 1 .5 m i l l i o n .

In te rm s o f g ro s s volum e, p r o d u c tio n d e c lin e d s t e a d i l y u n t i l 1955 when

an in c r e a s e was r e g i s t e r e d . I t s h o u ld b e em p h asized t h a t th e s e f ig u r e s

o n ly r e f l e c t p ro d u c tio n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l goods m ark eted w ith in th e money

economy. W ith ram pant i n f l a t i o n , i t may b e s u g g e s te d t h a t th e p e a s a n tr y ,

many o f whom li v e d o u ts id e th e money economy, ch o se to in c r e a s e t h e i r

d i s p o s i t i o n tow ard b a r t e r o f g o o d s. W hile e v id e n c e to e i t h e r p ro v e

o r d is p ro v e t h i s h y p o th e s is i s u n a v a i la b l e , i t i s n e v e r t h e le s s n e c e s

s a r y to c a u tio n t h a t f i g u r e s d e m o n s tra tin g a d e c l in e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l

p ro d u c tio n d u rin g t h i s p e r io d (1951-1955) r e l a t e o n ly to th e m ark et

economy.

A number o f f a c t o r s com bined to im pede in c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l

p ro d u c tio n (m ark et) d u rin g t h i s p e r io d . T h is c h a p te r h a s fo c u se d upon

c o n tin u e d r u r a l v io le n c e i n th e p o s t- A g r a r ia n Reform y e a r s . A ll form s

o f v io le n c e d is c u s s e d h e r e p ro v ed p r e j u d i c i a l to e f f e c t i v e la n d te n u re

and ham pered a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c tio n . A g ra ria n R eform , p a r a d o x i c a ll y ,

a l s o c o n tr ib u te d to a d e c l in e i n p r o d u c tio n : l a r g e l a t i f u n d i o s d e s e r te d

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136

o r w racked by v io le n c e s u f f e r e d d e c l in e o f p r o d u c t i v i t y ; many p e a s a n ts

su sp en d ed a g r i c u l t u r a l la b o r w h ile a w a itin g a g r a r i a n re fo rm a s a means


102
to w ard f o r c in g im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e D e c re e . Lack o f n e c e s s a r y

t e c h n ic ia n s and t o o l s f o r e f f e c t i v e l y im p lem en tin g th e D ecree o b v ia te d

a sm ooth and e f f e c t i v e t r a n s i t i o n i n la n d te n u r e fo rm s , th u s f u r t h e r

c o n t r i b u ti n g to a d e c lin e i n p r o d u c tio n .

O th er f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to d e c lin e o f p r o d u c tio n a r e more im p res

s i o n i s t i c , b u t n e v e r t h e le s s s u g g e s tiv e . T hese d e te r m in a n ts r e l a t e to

th e v e ry p ro fo u n d e f f e c t s i n t r i n s i c i n th e A g ra ria n Reform D e c re e . The

MNR by t h i s f i a t l e g a l l y d e s tro y e d a s o c i a l sy ste m b a s e d upon e l i t e

suprem acy w hich had en d u red f o r f o u r h u n d red y e a r s . On A ugust 2 , 1953,

w ith one D e c re e , th e r e v o lu tio n a r y governm ent d e s tr o y e d t h i s sy ste m . The

e f f e c t o f t h i s r a d i c a l , a b ru p t tr a n s f o r m a tio n upon th e p e a s a n tr y sh o u ld

n o t b e u n d e re s tim a te d . The p e a s a n t re s p o n s e was m a n ifo ld : r u r a l v io

le n c e in c r e a s e d ; a n tip a th y f o r to w n sp eo p le was v e n te d ; p e a s a n ts c la s h e d

o v e r s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s . F r i c t i o n a r o s e a s d i f f e r e n t s u b - c la s s e s o f

p e a s a n ts ( e . g . , e x -c o lo n o s and communal I n d ia n s ) v ie d f o r la n d s made


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a v a i l a b l e u n d e r a g r a r i a n re fo rm .

A ls o , i n re s p o n s e to th e s t r e s s i n h e r e n t in th e s o c i a l t r a n s f o r

m a tio n , consum ption o f a l c o h o lic b e v e ra g e s by th e p e a s a n tr y in c r e a s e d .

I n a n o th e r p e r io d o f s o c i a l u p h eav a l and ex trem e s t r e s s , th e S p an ish Con

q u e s t , i t h a s b een shown t h a t a l c o h o lic consum ption s i m i l a r l y in c r e a s e d .

A g rarian - Reform a l s o in c r e a s e d u rb a n m ig r a tio n a s w e ll a s emi

g r a t i o n as th e p e a s a n tr y was f r e e d from i t s t r a d i t i o n a l dependency ( o f te n

f o r c e d ) upon th e h a c ie n d a . Twice i n 1956 th e MNR th r e a te n e d p e a s a n ts

" c a p tu re d " i n u rb an a r e a s w ith i n c a r c e r a t i o n o r f o r c e d r e t u r n to t h e i r

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f i e l d s . I n La Paz D epartm ent th e G e n e ra l D ir e c t o r o f Work o b serv ed :

I t i s a la rm in g th e number o f cam pesinos . . . t h a t abandon


t h e i r la n d s i n o r d e r to lo o k f o r new o c c u p a tio n s in th e c i t i e s .
The abandonment o f c u l t i v a t e d la n d s h a s o c c a sio n e d th e co n se
q u e n t d e c lin e i n a r t i c l e s o f co n su m p tio n i n th e m a rk e ts .

Cam pesinos i n O ruro D ep artm en t, fa c e d w ith a p o o r a g r i c u l t u r a l y i e l d


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i n 1957, e m ig ra te d to C h ile i n q u e s t o f b e t t e r c o n d i tio n s . D e c lin e

o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c tio n was a p ro b lem o f m a jo r s i g n i f i c a n c e th ro u g h

o u t t h i s p e r io d , and MNR le a d e r s c o n t i n u a l l y u rg ed th e p e a s a n tr y to work


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h a r d e r i n o r d e r to combat t h i s t r e n d .

An O verview : 1953-1958

T h is c h a p te r h a s s k e tc h e d a number o f dev elo p m en ts t r a n s p i r

in g d u rin g th e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f th e A g ra ria n Reform Program . In

g e n e r a l th e s e dev elo p m en ts s u g g e s t th e f o llo w in g : f i r s t , n e i t h e r th e

D ecree n o r i t s c o n tin u in g im p le m e n ta tio n s e rv e d to dampen r u r a l v io

le n c e d u rin g th e s e y e a r s ; se c o n d , th e MNR ap p e a re d r e l a t i v e l y h e l p le s s

i n m a in ta in in g o r d e r in th e r u r a l c o u n tr y s id e ; t h i r d , p e a s a n t s y n d i

c a t e s fo llo w e d t h e i r own i n d i v id u a l d i c t a t e s q u i t e in d e p e n d e n tly o f

n a t i o n a l r e v o lu tio n a r y d i r e c t i o n ; f o u r t h , s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s i n t e n s i f i e d

a p p r e c ia b ly on b o th th e i n t r a - and i n t e r - s y n d i c a t e l e v e l s , and th e MNR

governm ent s tr o v e to c o n t r o l th e d r i f t o f s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s a t b o th

l e v e l s ; f i f t h , t h i s p e r io d ev id e n c e d a c o n s id e r a b le d e c lin e i n a g r i c u l

t u r a l p r o d u c tio n m a rk e ted w ith in th e money economy a s th e p e a s a n tr y ,

f r e e d by D ecree from t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f c o n t r o l , r e a c te d to th e

s t r e s s in h e r e n t in th e r e v o lu t io n a r y tr a n s f o r m a tio n by v io l e n c e , a lc o

h o lis m , u rb an m ig r a tio n and e m ig r a tio n .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
138

N o tes

^ W alter d e l C a s t i l l o A vendano, C om pilacitm L eg a l de l a Reforma


A g ra r ia en B o liv ia (La P az: E d i t o r i a l F n ix , 1 9 5 5 ).
2
C a s t i l l o Avendano, C om p ilacio n L e g a l, p . 4 3 .
O
C a s t i l l o Avendano, Com pilaciO n L e g a l, p. 48.

^ C a s t i l l o A vendano, C om pilaciO n L e g a l, p . 48.

^ C a s t i l l o Avendano, C o m pilacion L e g a l, p p . 4 5 -4 6 .

^ C a s t i l l o Avendano, C o m p ilacio n L e g a l, p p . 4 6 -4 7 .

^ C a s t i l l o Avendano, C om pilaciO n L e g a l, p . 4 3 .
g
C a s t i l l o Avendano, C o m p ilacio n L e g a l, p . 4 3 .

C a s t i l l o Avendano, C om pilaciP n L e g a l, p . 51.

^ C a s t i l l o Avendano, Com pilaciO n L e g a l, p . 51.

^ C a s t i l l o Avendano, Com pilaciO n L e g a l, p . 52.


12
C a s t i l l o Avendano, Com pilaciO n L e g a l, p . 83.
13
R o b e rt A le x a n d e r, The B o liv ia n N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n , C h ap ter F o u r,
"The In d ia n G ets th e L a n d ," p p . 5 7 -7 9 , s u g g e s ts t h a t D ecree and im p le
m e n ta tio n w ere one and th e sam e, e . g . , "The N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n gave th e
la n d b ack to th e I n d i a n s ," p . 5 7 .

^ C a s t i l l o Avendano, C o m p ilacio n L e g a l, p p . 129-136.

15 E1 D i a r i o , A ugust 3 , 1955, p . 8 . F or th e D epartm ent o f Pando


o n ly 437 l a t i f u n d i o s w ere r e p o r te d .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , A ugust 3 , 1955, p . 8 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , J u ly 2 6 , 1954, p . 4 .

~^ E 1 D i a r i o , F e b ru ary 1 1 , 1955, p . 8 ; a l s o , s e e C o rn e liu s H.


Zondag, The B o liv ia n Economy. 1952-1965: The R e v o lu tio n and i t s A f te r -
m ath (New York: F r e d e r ic k A. P r a e g e r , P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 6 ), p . 146.

^ E1 D i a r i o , A ugust 1 3 , 1954, p . 4 ; F eb ru a ry 1 1 , 1955, p . 8 .


90
R ep o rted i n E l D i a r i o , Ju n e 1 1 , 1955, p . 8 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , F e b ru ary 1 1 , 1 955, p . 8 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
139

^ E 1 D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 1 1 , 1955, p . 8 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 11, 1955, p . 8 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , May 2 6 , 1954, p . 7 .
25
E l D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 11, 1955, p . 8 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , May 10, 1954, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , May 10, 1954, p . 5 ; Ju n e 2 3 , 1954, p . 5 .


28
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 6 , 1954, p . 6 .
29
E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 10, 1953, p . 5 .
30
E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 2 9 , 1954, p . 7 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , O cto b er 2 3 , 1953, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , A p r il 3 , 1955, p . 7 .

^ E 1 D ia r io , O cto b er 5 , 1953, p . 5 .
34
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 7 , 1954, p . 7 .

^ E1 D i a r i o , J u ly 19, 1955, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , Ju n e 2 3 , 1955, p . 7.

^ E 1 D i a r i o , March 2 , 1956, p . 5 .
38
F a u sto R e in a g a , T i e r r a y L ib e r ta d (La P a z : E d ic io n e s "Rumbo
S i n d i c a l ," 1 9 5 3 ), p . 2 2 .

~^ E 1 D i a r i o , O cto b er 24, 1953, p . 5 .


40
E l D i a r i o , O cto b er 2 4 , 1953, p . 5 .
41
E l D ia r io , O cto b er 2 4 , 1953, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , O cto b er 2 2 , 1953, p . 5 .
43
E l D ia r io , F eb ru ary 26, 1954, p . 7 .
44
E l D ia r io , A p r il 2 0 , 1954, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , May 2 7 , 1954, p . 5 .

^ E1 D ia r io , Septem ber 2 8 , 1954, p . 7 ; Septem ber 2 9 , 1954, p . 7 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
140

47
E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 2 9 , 1954, p . 5 .
48
E l D i a r i o . O c to b er 1 , 1954, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o . F e b ru a ry 2 5 , 1955, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , December 2 7 , 1955, p . 4 .

^ A lth o u g h , o f c o u r s e , t h i s m easure would q u ic k ly p ro v e o b s o le te


as in f la tio n p ro g re sse d .

5 2 E1 D i a r i o . A p r il 1 3 , 1955, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 1 0 , 1955, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , A p r il 1 8 , 1956, p . 5 .

~*^E1 D i a r i o . A p r il 2 8 , 1956, p . 5 .

~*^E1 D i a r i o . A p r il 2 8 , 1956, p . 5 .

^ E1 D i a r i o , O c to b er 2 4 , 1956, p . 6 .
58
N acio n es U n id a s, A n a l i s i s y P ro y e c c io n e s d e l D e s a r r o llo E co-
nom ico, IV, p . 252.
59
N acio n es U n id a s, A n a ls is y P r o y e c c io n e s . IV , p . 252.
60
E l D i a r i o . Septem ber 8 , 1954, p . 5 .

^ D a v id G. G reen e, " R e v o lu tio n and th e R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Reform


i n B o l i v i a ," In te r-A m e ric a n Economic A f f a i r s . XXIX (W in te r, 1 9 6 5 ), p . 9 .
62
Zondag, The B o liv ia n Economy, p . 5 6 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , May 6 , 1956, p . 5 .
64
E l D ia rio , May 6 , 1 956, p . 5.

^ E 1 D ia rio , A p r il 2 8 , 1957, p . 5 .

^ E 1 D ia rio . A p r il 2 8 , 1957, p . 5 .

*^ E 1 D i a r i o , A p r il 2 8 , 1957, p . 5 .
68
C ite d i n E l D i a r i o , A p r il 2 8 , 1957, p . 5 .
69
E l D i a r i o . A ugust 2 9 , 1957, p . 5 .
70
E l D i a r i o . A ugust 2 9 , 1957, p . 5 .

2 ^E1 D i a r i o . S eptem ber 2 , 1957, p . 5 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 41

72
E l D i a r i o . J a n u a ry 5 , 1958, p . 6 .
73
E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 1 0 , 1958, p . 7 ; a l s o , O cto b er 7 , 1958, p . 4 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , May 2 5 , 1957, p . 7.

^ E1 D i a r i o . May 2 5 , 1957, p . 7.
76
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 5 , 1958, p. 4.

^ E 1 D ia r io , J a n u a ry 5 , 1958, p . 4.
78
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 3 0 , 1958, p . 4 ; F e b ru a ry 1 1 , 1958, p . 4 .
79
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 1 0 , 1958, p . 7; f o r o th e r a c t i v i t y s e e E l
D i a r i o , A ugust 5 , 1 9 58, p . 6 .
80
El D i a r i o , A ugust 1 0 , 1958, p . 7.

^E1 D i a r i o , A ugust 1 1 , 1958, p . 5 .


82
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 1 2 , 1958, p . 7 .
83
F or t e r r i t o r i a l c la s h e s s e e E l D i a r i o , Ja n u a ry 2 2 , 1956, p . 3;
fo r r e l i g i o n s e e E l D i a r i o , May 3 , 1957, p . 7; f o r c l a s s a n im o s ity s e e
E l D i a r i o , Ju n e 1 1 , 1955, p . 8 and A p r il 2 4 , 1958, p . 6 . S t r i f e betw een
e x -c o lo n o s and communal In d ia n s re a c h e d su ch p r o p o r tio n s t h a t S u flo Chavez
was fo rc e d to t h r e a t e n " d r a s t i c s a n c tio n s " a g a i n s t commune In d ia n s found
g u i l t y o f "any a c t o f v io le n c e a g a i n s t cam pesino w o r k e r s ," E l D i a r i o ,
Septem ber 1 0 , 1953, p . 6 .
84
El D i a r i o , A ugust 1 8 , 1953, p . 5 .

^E1 D i a r i o , A ugust 2 0 , 1953, p . 7.


86
E l D i a r i o , A p r il 1 9 , 1955, p . 8 .
87
E l D i a r i o , O cto b er 7 , 1957, p . 2 .
88
S ee, f o r ex am p le, E l D i a r i o , March 14, 1957, p . 9; A p r il 17,
1958, p . 4 .
89
F o r s y n d ic a l a s s a s s i n a t i o n s s e e : E l D i a r i o , May 2 5 , 1954, p . 5;
J a n u a ry 17, 1955, p . 5 ; Ju n e 6 , 1 9 55, p . 5 ; May 2 2 , 1956, p . 5 ; May 25,
1956, p . 3 . F o r- s y n d ic a l e x e c u tio n s s e e : E l D i a r i o , M arch 29, 1956, p . 5
A p r il 4 , 1956, p . 4 .
90
E l D i a r i o , A ugust 3 , 1958, p . 4 .

^ E 1 D i a r i o , May 1 3 , 1957, p . 4 .
92
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 3 , 1957, p . 4 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
142

93
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 3 , 1957, p . 4 .

9 ^E1 D i a r i o , May 1 8 , 1957, p . 6 .

9 ^E1 D i a r i o , May 1 8 , 1957, p . 6 .

96 E1 D i a r i o , May 1 8 , 1957, p . 6 .

9 ^E1 D i a r i o , May 1 8 , 1957, p . 6 .


98
E l D i a r i o , November 2 8 , 1953, p . 5 ; Septem ber 2 9 , 1956, p . 4 .
99
E l D i a r i o , November 1 2 , 1953, p . 7 .

^ ^ E l D i a r i o , May 2 3 , 1958, p . 4 ; May 2 7 , 1958, p . 4 ; and f o r con


tin u e d m o b iliz a tio n o f th e U curena m i l i t i a s s e e E l D i a r i o , O cto b er 14,
1958, p . 4.

^ ^ N a c io n e s U n id a s, A n a l i s i s y P r o y e c c io n e s , p . 251.
102
E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 15, 1 953, p . 5 ; Septem ber 2 0 , 1953, p . 6 ;
Septem ber 16, 1956, p . 5; December 1 1 , 1956, p . 7 .
103
E l D i a r i o , Ju n e 1 1 , 1955, p . 8 ; A p r il 2 4 , 1958, p . 6 ; Septem
b e r 16, 1956, p . 5 .
104
C h a rle s G ib so n , The A z te c s Under S p an ish R u le ; A H is to r y o f th e
In d ia n s o f th e V a lle y o f M exico, 1519-1810 ( S ta n fo rd : S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s ity
P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ), d is c u s s e s in c r e a s e d p u lq u e consum ption in th e wake o f th e
S p an ish C o n q u est, p . 7, 15 0 . I n fo rm a tio n re g a r d in g c h ic h a consum ption
by th e B o liv ia n p e a s a n tr y d u rin g th e 1953-1958 p e r io d o f R e v o lu tio n i s
p ro v id e d i n E l D i a r i o , December 1 8 , 1954, p . 5; Ja n u a ry 1 4 , 1955, p . 7;
Ja n u a ry 2 5 , 1955, p . 6 ; Septem ber 1 1 , 1956, ? . 7 .

^ 9 ~*E1 D i a r i o , December 6 , 1956, p . 5 .

^ * E1 D i a r i o , December 1 1 , 1 956, p . 7 .

~^^E1 D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 22, 1 9 57, p . 7 . Both o f th e s e phenomena,


i n c i d e n t a l l y , c a s t some doubt upon t r a d i t i o n a l a n th r o p o lo g ic a l assump
ti o n s re g a r d in g th e " m y s tic a l" t i e o f th e p e a s a n t to h i s la n d .
108
The MNR governm ent f e a r e d a d e c l in e in a g r i c u l t u r a l p ro d u c tio n
e a r l y i n th e R e v o lu tio n and r e p e a te d ly a p p e a le d f o r s t a b i l i t y and con
tin u e d la b o r as i l l u s t r a t e d i n E l D i a r i o , O cto b er 1 3 , 1952, p . 4 ; Novem
b e r 5 , 1952, p . 7 ; November 2 0 , 1952, p . 5 ; December 1 4 , 1952, p . 13;
December 2 1 , 1952, p . 7; and March 2 7 , 1953, p . 5 . F or s i m i l a r a p p e a ls
i n th e p o s t- A g r a r ia n Reform p e r io d s e e E l D i a r i o , F eb ru a ry 11, 1955,
p . 8 ; A p r il 3 , 1956, p . 3 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
143

V II. CACIQUISMO EMERGENT, 1959-1960

The p re c e d in g th r e e c h a p te r s h ave tr a c e d p e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n

i n th e R e v o lu tio n from e a r l y la n d s e i z u r e s and s y n d ic a l iz a tio n th ro u g h

o rg a n iz e d a c t io n i n s u p p o rt o f c l a s s i n t e r e s t s , i n t e n s i f i e d s in d ic a to

p o l i t i c s , and re s p o n s e s to a g r a r i a n re fo rm . Between 1952 and 1958, a

h o s t o f p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e s o f l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and d e p a rtm e n ta l s t a t u r e

emerged who in v a ry in g d e g re e g a in e d th e a t t e n t i o n o f th e MNR r u li n g

c l iq u e . S in g u la r ly im p o rta n t i n th e h i s t o r y o f th e r o l e o f th e p e a s a n t

i n th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n was th e em erg en ce, d u rin g th e y e a r s 1959-

1960, o f th e p e a s a n t c a c iq u e . W hereas d u rin g e a r l i e r y e a rs in d iv id u a l

s y n d ic a te le a d e r s commanded a t t e n t i o n w ith in th e more im m ediate a r e a o f

t h e i r s in d ic a to b a s e , two d i r i g e n t e s J o s e R o ja s o f U curena and M iguel

V eizaga o f C liz a emerged i n 1959 w ith such power and f o r c e t h a t t h e i r

i n t e r e s t s co u ld n o t e a s i l y b e d e n ie d by th e w h ite and m e stiz o re v o lu

tio n a r y e l i t e . T hus, by 1959, B o liv ia n s would b e g in r e f e r r i n g to R o jas

and V e iz a g a , b e c a u se o f th e e x t e n t o f t h e i r power and i t s e f f e c t s upon

th e d r i f t o f th e R e v o lu tio n , a s c a c iq u e s . T o r ib io S a la s , o f th e a l t i

p la n o town o f A ch acac h i, and Zen 6 n B a r r ie n to s Mamani o f O ruro a ls o were

to become known a s Aymara c a c iq u e s . In good p a r t , th e h i s t o r y o f f u tu r e

MNR-peasant r e l a t i o n s w ould b e c o n ce rn ed w ith th e a tte m p ts o f th e Revo

lu t io n a r y M ovem ent's n a t i o n a l le a d e r s to c o n t r o l th e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e s e

c a c iq u e s and t h e i r armed f o llo w e r s .

What o c c u rre d i n th e r u r a l s e c t o r d u rin g 1959-1960 was a change

i n th e p a t t e r n s o f v io le n c e , h e r e t o f o r e d i v e r s i f i e d i n k in d and i n t e n s i t y ,

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
144

w ith a r e s u l t i n g p o l a r i t y betw een a number o f r i v a l s i n d i c a t o s lo c a te d

i n key dem ographic a r e a s and com peting f o r th e p r e s t i g e and s a n c tio n

o f th e n a t i o n 's p r i n c i p a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . P e r s o n a l r i v a l r y and a n i

m o sity b etw een c a c iq u e d i s p u t a n t s , a lth o u g h o f im p o rta n c e a s a c a u s a l

f a c t o r h e r e , h a s b een overem p h asized by p r e v io u s w r i t e r s t r e a t i n g th e s e

y e a r s .^ In d e e d , w hat prom pted th e m ost s i g n i f i c a n t sch ism betw een s i n d i

c a to s was th e n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n o f 1960 d u r in g w hich th e p e a s a n tr y was

a s s id u o u s ly c o u rte d by th e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s co m p etin g f o r o f f i c e .

N a tio n a l p o l i t i c s co u ld h a r d ly a v o id an e n f r a n c h iz e d p e a s a n try

in a c o u n try v a r io u s l y e s tim a te d a t b etw een 70 and 85 p e r c e n t r u r a l ,

and w h ile d i r i g e n t e s c o n t r o l le d th e v o te s o f many s i n d i c a t o members,

a v e ry few c a c iq u e s h e ld th e key to a s u b s t a n t i a l p e a s a n t e l e c t o r a t e

by v i r t u e o f hegemony o v e r a r e a s o f h ig h d em o g rap h ic c o n c e n tr a tio n .

S in d ic a to le a d e r s in th e Cochabamba V a lle y , e s p e c i a l l y th e P ro v in c e s o f

Q u i l l a c o l l o , J o rd a n and P u n a ta , and Omasuyos P ro v in c e i n th e D epartm ent

o f La P a z , th e r e f o r e assumed in c r e a s e d s t a t u r e by v i r t u e o f th e s iz e

of t h e i r f o llo w in g s . C o m p e titio n f o r c o n t r o l o f p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s

w ith in th e s e a r e a s lik e w is e r e f l e c t e d t h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e th ro u g h in te n s e

r i v a l r y among p e a s a n t c a c iq u e s v y in g f o r p o s i t i o n s o f c o n t r o l . In n e a r ly

a l l c o n f l i c t s o f t h i s n a t u r e , r e s o l u t i o n was s o u g h t th ro u g h th e means

o f armed f o r c e .

The p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te m i l i t i a th u s came to th e f o r e a s an i n s t r u

ment f o r th e f u r th e r a n c e o f s y n d ic a te p o l i t i c s , an a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t

end th a n t h a t o r i g i n a l l y co n ce iv ed by th e MNP. F o rm id a b le as a d e t e r

r e n t to c o u n te r r e v o lu tio n a r y t h r e a t s , th e p e a s a n t m i l i t i a w ould, d u rin g

th e 1959-1960 y e a r s , p r e s e n t a c o n s id e r a b le o b s t a c l e to n a t io n a l

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14 5

c o n s o lid a tio n o f th e r e v o lu tio n a r y movement. In t h i s c o n t e x t, i t c o u ld

be arg u ed t h a t th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a t e , w ith i t s r e l i a n c e upon th e m i l i t i a

f o r r e s o l u t i o n o f i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t , r e p r e s e n te d a c o u n te r - r e v o lu tio n a r y

f o r c e b e c a u se o f th e i n s t a b i l i t y and d i s r u p t i o n w ro u g h t upon th e n a tio n

by s y n d ic a te s t r i f e .

The n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n o f 1956 was v i r t u a l l y a " n o - c o n te s t"

w ith to k e n o p p o s itio n to MNR r u l e f a i n t l y c h a lle n g e d by a few weak and

cowed t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s ( e . g . , FSB, PURS, P C ). As e x p e c te d , th e

R e v o lu tio n a ry Movements c a n d i d a te s , H ernan S i l e s f o r th e p re s id e n c y

and Suflo. Chavez f o r th e v ic e p r e s id e n c y , won h a n d i ly . The e l e c t i o n

r e f l e c t e d th e n a t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e : th e c i t i e s v o te d h e a v i ly f o r
2
th e F a la n g e , and th e campo ( c o u n tr y s id e ) v o te d f o r th e MNR. The 1956

e l e c t i o n w ith i t s co m b in atio n o f r ig h t- w in g MNR P r e s id e n t S i l e s and

l e f t - w i n g V ice P r e s id e n t ChSvez seemed b r i e f l y to u n if y th e R e v o lu tio n a ry

Movement. ^

C onsensus p o l i t i c s w ere n o t lo n g i n th e o f f i n g , ho w ev er, and

e v e n ts q u ic k ly r e v e a le d deep c le a v a g e s w ith i n th e MNR. The S i l e s ad m in is

t r a t i o n e x p e rie n c e d im m easurable d i f f i c u l t y in i t s a tte m p ts to im plem ent

th e S t a b i l i z a t i o n P la n drawn up by U n ite d S t a t e s e c o n o m ists f o r th e

p u rp o se o f stemming th e c o u n tr y s i n f l a t i o n . The a u s t e r i t y n e c e s s i

t a t e d by s t a b i l i z a t i o n m eant a slowdown i n im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e re v o

l u t i o n a r y program , th u s c a t a ly z in g th e r i f t b etw een l e f t and r i g h t

w ings w ith in th e movement. The a tte m p te d r e s i g n a t i o n o f V ice P r e s id e n t

ifu flo C havez, th e r e t u r n o f V ic to r Paz E s te n s s o r o a s a c a n d id a te f o r th e

p re s id e n c y in th e 1960 e l e c t i o n , and th e c h o ic e o f l e f t i s t J u a n L ech in

Oquendo f o r th e v ic e p r e s id e n c y w ere th e m ajo r p o l i t i c a l dev elo p m en ts o f

t h i s p e r io d .

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146

The 1960 cam paign, q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from th e e a r l i e r e l e c t i o n ,

was c o n te s te d from w ith in by d i s s i d e n t r ig h t- w in g M o v im ie n tis ta s . Wal

t e r G uevara A rze, o n e -tim e F o re ig n M in is te r (1952-1956) and fo e o f l e f t

i s t Ju a n L e c h in , was p e r s o n a ll y a f f r o n t e d by th e MNR c h o ic e o f L ech in

f o r th e v ic e - p r e s id e n c y . D is a p p o in te d a t f a i l i n g to s e c u re e i t h e r th e

p r e s i d e n t i a l o r th e v i c e p r e s i d e n t i a l n o m in a tio n , G uevara Arze formed a

new p a r t y , th e M ovimiento N a c i o n a l i s t a R e v o lu c io n a rio A u te n tic a (MNRA),

w hich managed to e n l i s t some s u p p o r t among th e p e a s a n tr y o f th e Cocha

bamba and a l t i p l a n o r e g io n s . Much o f s u b se q u e n t p e a s a n t a c t i v i t y in

th e R e v o lu tio n r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l q u a r r e l s stem ming from th e i n t e r e s t s

o f sp lin ter-M N R p a r t i e s i n e n l i s t i n g r u r a l s u p p o rt f o r t h e i r c a u s e s .

The B ack d ro p ; 1959

D u rin g th e y e a r 1959, i t i s p o s s i b l e to d is c e r n th e o u t l i n e s

o f a number o f developm ents w hich w ere t o assum e m a jo r p r o p o r tio n s in

th e l a t e r s ta g e s o f th e R e v o lu tio n . M ost im p o rta n t o f th e s e was th e

s u r f a c in g o f o v e r t h o s t i l i t y among p e a s a n ts o f C liz a and U curena.

T h re e f a c t o r s ap p ea r to h ave cau sed c o n f l i c t among p e a s a n ts i n th e

C liz a -U c u re n a a r e a ( c a . 20 km. s o u th e a s t o f C ochabam ba). Of b a s ic im

p o r ta n c e was an u n d e rly in g s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n : C lic e n o s w ere g e n e r a lly

p iq u e r o s , s m a ll s e lf-e m p lo y e d p e a s a n t fa rm e rs w ith a t r a d i t i o n o f in d e

p e n d e n t l i v e l i h o o d , w h ile U cu ren o s, u n t i l th e R e v o lu tio n , h ad worked

a s p e g u la ie r o s ( lo c a l te rm f o r l a t i f u n d i a p e o n , i . e . , co lo n o ) on h a c ie n d a s .

T hese s o c i a l d if f e r e n c e s w ith in th e p e a s a n tr y in a r e l a t i v e l y circum

s c r ib e d a r e a c r e a te d th e n e c e s s a r y p r e - c o n d i tio n s upon w hich h o s t i l i t y

w ould s u b s e q u e n tly b e fan n ed by s y n d ic a te l e a d e r s f o r p e r s o n a l e n d s.

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147

J o s e R o ja s G uevara, s in c e th e 1 9 3 0 's an im p o rta n t cam pesino le a d e r

in th e U curena a r e a and one o f th e e a r l y o r g a n iz e r s o f th e s y n d ic a te o f

.Ana R ancho, h a d , by 1959, r i s e n to a le a d e r s h ip p o s i t i o n among th e U curena

p e a s a n tr y . Jo s R o ja s ' l i f e was a h i s t o r y o f i n d e f a t i g a b l e a g i t a t i o n f o r -

th e cam pesino c a u s e . R o ja s fo u g h t i n th e Chaco War, was c a p tu re d by th e

enemy and s e rv e d t h i r t y m onths i n a P arag u ay a n p r is o n e r - o f - w a r camp. Re

le a s e d , he r e tu r n e d to th e h a c ie n d a o f Ana Rancho w here h e and a number

o f o th e r p e a s a n t E x -C o m b atien tes (Chaco War v e t e r a n s ) o rg a n iz e d th e

s y n d ic a te o f Ana Rancho. B r i e f l y s u c c e s s f u l i n o b ta in in g la n d , th e

s y n d ic a te soon was d is r u p te d by h a c e n d a d o s, th e p e a s a n t r e n t e r s f o r c i b l y

d riv e n from t h e i r la n d , and R o jas and o th e r le a d e r s j a i l e d a t Chimorg in

th e Y ungas.^ L a te r d e p o rte d to A rg e n tin a w here he worked e ig h te e n months

in th e n o r th e r n m ines and f i e l d s , R o ja s r e tu r n e d to U curena and resumed

h i s s y n d ic a l a c t i v i t i e s . A f te r th e R e v o lu tio n , he was an im p o rta n t

f ig u r e i n th e R e g io n a l Campesino S y n d ic a te o f th e V a lle y , com prised o f

th e l o c a l s i n d i c a t o s o f U cu ren a, Kekoma, Rumi Rumi, P u n a ta , A risaldo,


6
P i l i Coccha and Ana Rancho.

As p r e v io u s ly d is c u s s e d , S in f o r o s o R iv as o f Q u ill a c o ll o i n th e

Cochabamba V a lle y en jo y ed th e e a r l y s u p p o rt o f th e MNR due to h i s moder

a te p o s itio n . J o s e R o ja s ' im p o rta n c e w ith i n th e Cochabamba p e a s a n t move

m ent, ho w ev er, in c r e a s e d d u rin g th e e a r l y p h a se o f th e R e v o lu tio n to

such an e x t e n t t h a t th e MNR, i n r e c o g n i tio n o f h i s pow er, a p p o in te d him

M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a ir s i n 1959. He s e rv e d b r i e f l y i n t h i s p o s i t i o n

(M arch-November, 1 9 5 9 ). H is s t y l e h e ro d e i n a c h a u ffe u re d lim o u sin e

and spoke o n ly Quechua cau sed a good d e a l o f c r i t i c i s m . F o llo w in g h is

d is m is s a l from o f f i c e by P r e s id e n t S i l e s , R o ja s r e tu r n e d to P u n a ta where

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148

h e a g a in assumed d i r e c t i o n o f th e U cu refia-P u n ata s y n d ic a te s .^

A w aitin g R o ja s ' r e t u r n was a n o th e r c a c iq u e , M iguel V eiza g a,

whose s y n d ic a te a t n e ig h b o rin g C liz a c o n s t i t u t e d a t h r e a t to th e U curena-

P u n a ta o r g a n iz a tio n . By t h i s tim e c o n s id e r a b le p e r s o n a l a n im o sity had

d ev elo p ed betw een th e s e two c a c iq u e s , r i v a l s f o r th e le a d e r s h ip o f th e

V a ll e y 's p e a s a n tr y . V e iz a g a , a n i n t e l l i g e n t and dynamic i n d i v id u a l ,

h a d , by 1959, b u i l t a s u b s t a n t i a l s y n d ic a te o r g a n iz a ti o n .

A g a in st t h i s b ackground was s ta g e d th e n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n cam

p a ig n o f 1960, w ith d i s s i d e n t W &lter G uevara A rze se e k in g p e a s a n t s u p p o rt.

G uevara A r z e 's A u te n tic o movement, g e n e r a lly c r i t i c a l o f th e MNR's

management o f th e R e v o lu tio n , a p p e a le d to th o s e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s w ith in

th e Movement whose a m b itio n s h ad b een s t i f l e d by MNR " b u r e a u c r a tiz a -


g
tio n ." A g ra ria n re fo rm , to th e MNRA, had l e g a l l y li q u i d a t e d sem i

fe u d a lis m in th e c o u n tr y s id e , o n ly to r e p la c e i t w ith a new s y n d ic a l


9 y
fe u d a lis m . T hus, " th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n ," a rg u e s th e A u te n tic o s ,

" w i ll b e tr a y i t s h i s t o r i c d e s tin y and t r u n c a t e i t s in f lu e n c e i f i t does

n o t move th e g r e a t p e a s a n t mass to w e s te r n c i v i l i z a t i o n , u t i l i z i n g f o r

t h i s , A g ra ria n Reform o n ly as a f i r s t s t e p . " ^ The MNRA's c r i t i c i s m o f

th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement s e x c e s s iv e b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and grow ing

i n e r t i a i n th e A g ra ria n Reform Program drew th e s u p p o rt o f two p rom inent

p e a s a n t le a d e r s : th e Aymara c a c iq u e Zenon B a r r ie n to s Mamani, and M iguel

V eizag a o f C li z a . Zenon B a r r ie n to s Mamani would assume a c e n t r a l r o le

in MNRA p e a s a n t p o l i t i c s d u rin g 1960 and s h o r t l y a f t e r ; M iguel V e iz a g a 's

ascen d e n cy , b o th a s an A u te n tic o and a s a p r o ta g o n i s t i n v i o l e n t c o n f l i c t

w ith J o s R ojas f o r c o n t r o l o f th e C liz a -U c u re n a p e a s a n t m a sses, would

soon b e e v id e n t.

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
149

C li z a and U curena; F i r s t C o n f r o n ta tio n s

O v ert h o s t i l i t y betw een th e R o ja s-V e iz a g a f a c t i o n s e r u p te d on

O ctober 2 9 , 1959, when an armed c la s h betw een p a r t i s a n s o f th e two

c a c iq u e s le d to fo u r days o f n e a r - c o n tin u o u s s k ir m is h in g . S u r p r is in g ly ,

o n ly two d e a th s r e s u l t e d from th e com bat w hich began when p e a s a n t sup

p o r t e r s o f J o s e R o jas a tte m p te d to avenge "dam aging a f f r o n t s " s u f f e r e d

by th e p e a s a n t D eputy, W alter R e v u e lta , by a t t a c k i n g th e town o f C l i z a . ^

The governm ent q u ic k ly resp o n d ed by d is p a t c h in g b o th a m i l i t a r y f o r c e

to c o n tr o l th e s i t u a t i o n and a com m ission to s tu d y th e p ro b lem , in

hopes o f o b v ia tin g f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s .

P e a s a n ts u n d er R o ja s c o n t r o l , n e v e r t h e l e s s , n e x t e n fo rc e d a com

m e rc ia l b lo c a d e o f C li z a , s i t e o f th e a r e a 's w eekly f a i r s . B eg in n in g in

l a t e November and c o n tin u in g i n t o Decem ber, p e a s a n ts t r a v e l i n g to C liz a

to s e l l t h e i r p ro d u ce w ere f o r c i b l y d e ta in e d i n P u n a ta by th e l o c a l

m i l i t i a , lo y a l to R o ja s . I n a d d i tio n to t h i s m e asu re , by w hich p e a s a n ts

from A ra n i, V acas, San B e n ito , and o th e r s u rro u n d in g a r e a s w ere tu rn e d

away from th e f a i r , cam pesinos from U curena o b s tr u c te d r a i l r o a d s e r v ic e


12
betw een C liz a and A ra n i by p la c in g b o u ld e rs on th e t r a c k s .

C ochabam binos, a f f e c t e d by th e te m p o rary s u s p e n s io n o f r a i l r o a d

s e r v ic e i n v a r io u s s e c t o r s o f th e V a lle y due to p e a s a n t a t t a c k s on th e

r a i l r o a d , w ere f u r t h e r d i s t r e s s e d by a more im m inent t h r e a t ; s i n d i c a t o s i n

th e T i r a n i a r e a , on November 2 4 , 1959, th r e a te n e d to c u t o f f th e c i t y s

w a te r su p p ly a s a d e m o n s tra tio n a g a i n s t th e slowdown i n im p le m e n ta tio n


13
o f th e A g ra ria n Reform P rogram . T h is t h r e a t to Cochabamba, a s would

b e th e ca se w ith f u tu r e p e a s a n t t h r e a t s to th e c i t y , w ent u n f u l f i l l e d .

More ominous f o r r e s i d e n t s o f n e ig h b o rin g C liz a was th e c o n tin u in g s y n d ic a l

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150

a c t i v i t y d i r e c t e d by J o s e R o ja s an d h i s l i e u t e n a n t s a t U curena. In

l a t e November 1959, i t was r e p o r te d t h a t th e G en eral B arrac k s o f U curena

was engaged in t r a i n i n g o f cam pesino m ilitia m e n from tb e D epartm ents o f

PotoslT, S u cre and T a r i j a . ^ C li z a , i n re s p o n s e , claim ed to be armed and

re a d y to r e p e l any a g g r e s s i o n . ^ Government tro o p s w ere s t a t i o n e d in

th e C liz a -U c u re n a zone a s a d e t e r r e n t to f u r t h e r h o s t i l i t i e s betw een

th e f a c t i o n s .

D uring e a r l y December 1959, th e U curena s i n d i c a t o , se e k in g more

manpower, d is p a tc h e d f i f t y m ilitia m e n to n e arb y T ira q u e to f o r c e m o b iliz a

t i o n o f th e l o c a l s i n d i c a t o . A ls o , th e a l c a l d e and s u b p r e f e c t o f P u n a ta ,

u n d er J o s e * R o ja s ' c o n t r o l , p r o h ib i te d cam pesinos in th e v i c i n i t y from

a t te n d in g th e C liz a f a i r w hich was s t i l l u n d er fo rc e d b o y c o tt by th e

U curena c a c iq u e . By th e m id d le o f th e month a " f r o n t i e r " had been formed

betw een C liz a and U curena, th e two b e in g s e p a r a te d by a l i t t l e o v e r th r e e

k ilo m e te r s o f t e r r a i n . The f r o n t i e r , manned by s in d ic a to members lo y a l

to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c a c iq u e , fo llo w e d th e c o u rs e o f th e Rfo Retama w hich

d iv id e d th e two a r e a s .

An o f f i c i a l com m ission, headed by D r. C a rle s M orales G u ille n ,

M in is te r o f G overnm ent, and G en eral A lfre d o P acheco, r e c e n tly - a p p o in te d

M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s upon th e d is c h a r g e o f J o s e "Rojas from t h a t

c a p a c it y , was d is p a tc h e d to th e r e g io n i n m id-Decem ber. The com m issioners

f i r s t v i s i t e d P u n ata w here J o s e R o ja s , W a lte r R e v u e lta and S alv ad o r

Vasquez w ere q u e s tio n e d a b o u t th e c a u se s o f th e C liza-U cu ren a problem .

R o jas c la im e d t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t y stemmed from f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to th e

in c o r p o r a tio n o f th e p e a s a n t i n t o th e l i f e o f th e n a t i o n . ^

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15 1

O th e r p e a s a n t l e a d e r s , f o llo w e r s o f R o ja s , acc u se d W a lte r Gue

v a r a A rze o f pro m o tin g tu r m o il in th e r e g i o n . ^ S a lv a d o r Vasquez a l s o

a c c u se d G uevara A rze o f b e in g th e " i n t e l l e c t u a l a u th o r " o f th e i n c i d e n t s


18
o f th e V a lle y . W alter R e v u e lta a t t r i b u t e d th e C liz a -U c u re n a p ro b lem
19
t o th e a c t i v i t i e s o f communist a g i t a t o r s from C li z a . C am pesinos,

q u e s tio n e d by th e Commission, resp o n d ed t h a t th e v io le n c e was due t o

p o l i t i c a l re a so n s: " th e y a r e g u e v a r i s t a s and we a r e p a z e s t e n s s o r i s t a s .

They a t ta c k e d us i n o u r h o u se s in th e e a r l y m orning o f O cto b er 29 and


20
we had to d e fen d o u r s e lv e s ." The U curena f a c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , a t t r i b u t e d

t h e c o n f l i c t t o , v a r io u s l y , th e a c t i v i t y o f th e MNRA, communist a g i t a

t i o n a n d , b r o a d ly , f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o th e p r o c e s s by w hich th e p e a s a n tr y

w as to b e in c o rp o r a te d i n t o n a t i o n a l l i f e .

M ig u el V eiza g a, a l s o q u e s tio n e d by th e Com m ission, a t t r i b u t e d

th e im p asse betw een h im s e lf and J o s e R o ja s n o t to th e p r e - e l e c t o r a l

p e r io d o r t o d if f e r e n c e s betw een Paz and Guevara-, b u t to th e d eep e n in g


21
o f th e R e v o lu tio n . V eizag a a l s o a c c u se d R o ja s o f e x p l o i t i n g th e cam-
22
pesm os.

By l a t e 1959 a number o f f a c t o r s s e rv e d to c r e a t e a v e ry s e r io u s

r i f t i n th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a l movement i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y r e g io n .

To th e b a s i c p r e - c o n d itio n s found i n th e s o c i a l d if f e r e n c e s among p e a s

a n t s o f th e two s e c to r s had b e e n added th e p e r s o n a l a m b itio n s o f th e

l e a d e r s J o s e R o jas and M iguel V e iz a g a . J o s i R o ja s ' s t a t u r e a s dom inant

c a c iq u e o f th e V a lle y was th r e a te n e d by th e a c c r e tio n o f power e n jo y e d

by a r i v a l , whose s y n d ic a l b a s e r e s t e d a s c a n t th r e e k ilo m e te r s fro m

th e U curena G e n e ra l B a rra c k s . A n o th er f a c t o r , r e l a t i n g to th e c o n d u c t

o f th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n w ith i t s ten d en cy tow ard e x c e s s iv e b u r e a u c ra -

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152

t i z a t i o n , m a n if e s te d i n th e p e a s a n t s e c t o r by o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t o f a few

im p o rta n t l e a d e r s , f u r t h e r c o m p lic a te d th e s i t u a t i o n . M ig u el V e iz a g a ,

a g g r e s s iv e and a m b itio u s , c h a fe d a t th e o f f i c i a l s a n c tio n a c c o rd e d

J o s 6 R o ja s . The A u t n tic o p o s i t i o n , c r i t i c a l o f th e N a tio n a l R evolu

t i o n s c o n c e n tr a tio n o f power i n th e h an d s o f a few l e a d e r s , p ro v id e d

a p o l i t i c a l fram ew ork from w hich V eizag a co u ld j u s t i f y h i s c a u s e . W ith

eac h c a c iq u e i n command o f c o n s id e r a b le f o r c e , and g iv e n th e r u r a l w i l l

to v io le n c e d u rin g th e s e R e v o lu tio n a ry y e a r s , m o b iliz a tio n o f t h e i r

r e s p e c t iv e m i l i t i a s was soon to come. The " a f f r o n t s , " k in d u n s p e c if i e d ,

a l le g e d l y s u f f e r e d by a R o jas p a r t i s a n p ro v id e d th e in c id e n t upon w hich

o v e r two y e a r s o f c o n f l i c t w ould f o llo w .

P e a s a n t A c t i v i t i e s O u tsid e th e Cochabamba R egion

Aymara C aciq u es

The Cochabamba V a lle y , b e c a u se o f th e v i o l e n t c o n f r o n ta tio n b e

tw een cam pesino f o r c e s u n d er th e commands o f J o s R ojas and M iguel V e iz a g a ,

looms l a r g e i n p e a s a n t h i s t o r y d u rin g t h i s p e r io d o f th e R e v o lu tio n .

N e v e r th e le s s , o th e r dev elo p m en ts o f co n seq u en ce lik e w is e t r a n s p i r e d d u r

in g t h i s p e r i o d , o u ts id e th e Cochabamba V a lle y r e g io n .

I n s t r u c t i v e o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een c a c iq u e s and th e n a t i o n a l

governm ent was th e m urder o f M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s , V ic e n te A lv a re z

P l a t a , on November 1 5 , 1959. A lv arez P l a t a h ad f o r some tim e b een e n -


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gaged i n b u il d in g p e a s a n t s u p p o rt among th e Aymara o f th e a l t i p l a n o .

T h is a c t i v i t y a ro u s e d th e i r e o f T o r ib io S a la s , c a c iq u e o f a number o f

s i n d i c a t o s i n th e v i c i n i t y o f A c h acac h i, who h ad d ev elo p ed a s u b s t a n t i a l

fo llo w in g among th e p e a s a n tr y o f p o p u lo u s Omasuyos P r o v in c e , i n th e De

p a rtm e n t o f L a P a z . The f i r s t o b v io u s s ig n o f cam pesino d is p le a s u r e

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
153

w ith V ic e n te A lv arez P l a t a ap p ea red i n th e f i r s t week o f J a n u a ry 1959,

when cam pesino d e le g a te s from s i x t e e n p ro v in c e s o f La Paz D epartm ent

p re s e n te d a p e t i t i o n a s k in g f o r th e r e s ig n a t io n o f th e M in is te r f o r
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tr e a s o n a g a i n s t th e p e a s a n t c l a s s . A week l a t e r a n o th e r " m a n ife s ta

t i o n " was lo d g ed a g a in s t A lv a re z P l a t a by th e F e d e r a tio n o f Campesino

W orkers o f S an ta Cruz D epartm ent w hich c r i t i c i z e d i n d e t a i l e d f a s h io n

th e M i n i s t e r 's f a i l u r e to a d d re s s h im s e lf to th e needs o f th e p e a s a n ts
25
o f th a t a re a . Yet a n o th e r p e t i t i o n was p r e s e n te d in F eb ru ary ch a rg in g

th e M in is te r o f Campesino A f f a ir s w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e an arch y


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c r e a te d among th e p e a s a n tr y o f th e d e p a rtm e n t.

D e s p ite p e a s a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , A lv arez P l a t a managed to h o ld

h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l , v i s i t i n g p e a s a n ts n e a r S o ra ta (La P a z , P ro v in c e

L a r e c a ja ) , he was a s s a s s i n a te d a t th e p u eb lo o f A ta h u a llp a n i by f o llo w e r s


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o f T o r ib io S a la s . S a la s claim ed in n o c e n c e , and a c t u a l l y proved t h a t

a t th e tim e o f th e a s s a s s i n a t i o n h e was in S o r a ta , b u t h i s im p lic a tio n

i n th e m urder was c l e a r . The a s s a s s i n s w ere l i e u t e n a n t s o f th e c a c iq u e ,

and i t was known t h a t S a la s r e s e n te d V ic e n te A lv a re z P l a t a 's a tte m p ts

to c u l l f a v o r among th e Omasuyos p e a s a n tr y . F or h i s c o m p lic ity in th e

m urder o f th e M in is te r , T o r ib io S a la s w as, a lo n g w ith f i f t e e n f o llo w e r s ,

summoned to ap p ea r b e f o r e c o u r t i n La P a z . L i t t l e o th e r a c t io n was ta k e n
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a lth o u g h S a la s was fo rm a lly e x p e lle d from th e MNR December 1 , 1959.

T h is to k en punishm ent r e f l e c t s S a la s ' power a t t h i s tim e a s w e ll

a s th e MNR's r e lu c ta n c e to push th e i s s u e . In l a t e December 1959,

T o rib io S a la s had a g a in resum ed s y n d ic a l a c t i v i t i e s , h o ld in g c la n d e s tin e

n ig h t.m e e tin g s a t A ch acach i. At t h i s tim e , i t was r e p o r te d t h a t th e

c a c iq u e o n ly c o n tr o lle d th e s i n d i c a t o s o f th e C e n tr a l B e le n , Merke

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154

A c h a c a c h i, Tacam ara and th e C e n tr a l C orpa C a l a c a l a , b u t t h a t p e a s a n ts

u n d er h i s d i r e c t i o n w ere h a r a s s in g cam p esin o s who h ad r e s i s t e d p a r t i c i -


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p a tio n i n th e A ta h u a llp a n i i n c i d e n t . The Campesino F e d e r a tio n o f

P o to s f , th e Campesino C e n tr a l o f A raca an d th e S u b -C e n tra l Las M ercedes

ask ed th e MNR governm ent f o r th e d e a th s e n te n c e f o r T o r ib io S a la s b e

cau se o f th e m urder o f A lv a re z P l a t a and th e c o n se q u e n t r i f t c r e a te d


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in th e cam pesino r a n k s . T hese s y n d ic a t e s , i t sh o u ld b e n o te d , a l l

w ere lo c a te d a t c o n s id e r a b le d is ta n c e from S a l a s ' Omasuyos b a s e .

A lso d u rin g 1959, Zen 6 n B a r r ie n to s Mamani was c o n s o lid a tin g

power among th e a l t i p l a n o Aymara in th e v i c i n i t y o f O ru ro . B a r r ie n to s

Mamani s u c c e s s f u lly d is p la c e d a number o f r i v a l s a t th e S p e c ia l D e p a rt

m e n ta l Campesino C ongress h e ld a t th e town o f Poopo (on th e s h o re o f

Lake Poopo, O ruro D epartm ent) w h ile m anaging to have h im s e lf r e - e l e c t e d

S e c r e ta r y G en eral o f th e r e g io n a l D e p a rtm e n ta l F e d e r a tio n o f Cam pesinos


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w hich encom passed e i g h t p r o v in c e s . To g u a r a n te e h i s p o s i t i o n f u r t h e r ,

s y n d ic a te m ilitia m e n , u n d er o r d e r from th e c a c iq u e , a s s a u lt e d and oc

cu p ied th e O ffic e o f Campesino A f f a i r s and th e l o c a l b ra n c h o f th e D e p a rt-


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m en tal F e d e r a tio n , fo llo w in g th e p e a s a n t c o n g re s s a t Poop6.

Zendn B a r r ie n to s Mamani, h i n t i n g o f f u r t h e r dev elo p m en ts w hich

would l a t e r have th e e f f e c t o f c o m p lic a tin g th e 1960 e l e c t i o n , d is c lo s e d

t e n t a t i v e s u p p o rt o f th e ca n d id a c y o f W a lte r G uevara A rze f o r th e p r e s i -


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dency. A utJ?ntico p o l i t i c s h a d , by m id -O c to b e r, 1 9 59, made v i s i b l e

g a in s on th e a l t i p l a n o a s w e ll a s i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y . As an im por

t a n t c a c iq u e , Zen 6 n B a r r ie n to s Mamani em erged i n l a t e 1959 th e p r i n c i

p a l spokesman f o r th e Aymara o f O ruro D e p a rtm e n t,w h ile T o r ib io S a la s ,

im p lic a te d i n th e m urder o f th e M in is te r o f Campesino A f f a i r s , V ic e n te

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155

A lv a re z P l a t a , a p p e a rs t o h av e s u f f e r e d a l o s s o f p r e s t i g e b o th among

h i s cam pesino c o n s t i t u e n t s and w ith i n th e MNR governm ent.

B a r r ie n to s Mamani was even rum ored to b e u n d er s e r io u s c o n s id e r

a t i o n f o r th e p o s i t i o n o f M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s a f t e r th e m urder
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o f V ic e n te A lv a re z P l a t a . P e rh a p s b e c a u se o f th e v io le n c e w hich

w racked th e Cochabamba V a lle y a t t h i s tim e , th e MNR a p p o in te d an army

o f f i c e r , G e n e ra l A lfre d o P ach ec o , to th e M in is tr y . B a r r ie n to s M am ani's

f o r c e f u l and a r b i t r a r y a c t io n a t th e D e p a rtm e n ta l P e a s a n t C ongress r e

p o r te d l y made h i s s e l e c t i o n im p ro b a b le , b u t h i s s e r io u s c o n s id e r a tio n

f o r th e p o s i t i o n by th e R e v o lu tio n a ry governm ent n e v e r th e le s s s u g g e s ts

th e c a c iq u e 's p o l i t i c a l ascen d en cy a t t h i s tim e .

C o n tin u ed R u ra l V io le n c e , 1959

A lth o u g h th e m ost w id e s p re a d and w e ll- o r g a n iz e d d is p la y o f p e a s

a n t v io le n c e to o k p la c e i n th e C liz a -U c u re n a c o n f r o n ta tio n in th e Cocha

bamba r e g io n , l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r dev elo p m en ts tr a n s p i r e d th ro u g h o u t th e

c o u n try s id e d u r in g 1959; n e a r A ch acach i two p e a s a n t groups c la sh e d v io

l e n t l y in d is p u te o v e r b o u n d a r ie s ; s i m i l a r l y n e a r U c a ra n i, P o to s l D e p a rt

m en t, se v e n cam pesinos w ere k i l l e d i n a bo u n d ary c o n f l i c t ; th e c a n t 6 n o f

Saya in L oayza P ro v in c e (La Paz D ep artm en t) was a tta c k e d on th r e e o cca

s io n s i n e a r l y O cto b er 1959, by p e a s a n ts c la im in g t h a t th e tow nspeople

w ere F a l a n g i s t a s ; and a D eputy to th e B o liv ia n C ongress was a s s a u lt e d


35
n e a r T iq u in a , on th e s h o re o f Lake T i t i c a c a , by a cam pesino b an d .

A b o u n d ary d is p u te b etw een two communal I n d ia n p o p u la tio n s , th e

Laim es and Ju cu m an is o f C hay an ta and B u s t i l l o s P ro v in c e s i n n o r th e r n

P o to s f D e p a rtm e n t, h ad re a c h e d s e r io u s p r o p o r tio n s by A ugust 1959.'

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156

A f t e r an i n i t i a l c l a s h , w id e s p re a d f i g h t i n g d e v elo p ed i n th e v i c i n i t y
36
o f th e C a ta v i and S ig lo XX m ines i n C h ay an ta P r o v in c e . Both gro u p s

w ere w e ll armed b e c a u se o f th e heavy w eapons t r a f f i c i n th e r e g io n , and


37
a p itc h e d b a t t l e i n m id-A ugust r e s u l t e d i n tw en ty dead and f i f t y wounded.

A lthough o n ly th e i n i t i a l s ta g e s o f th e L a in e -Ju c u m a n i d is p u te ap p ea red

i n 1959, r e l a t i o n s b etw een th e two g ro u p s w ere to b e c o n t in u a lly s t r a i n e d ,

o f te n r e s u l t i n g i n b lo o d sh e d d u rin g l a t e r y e a r s o f th e R e v o lu tio n .

A g ra ria n Reform , w ith i t s l o f t y p r i n c i p l e s o f la n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n and p e a s

a n t freed o m s, s u f f e r e d a good d e a l o f d i s p a r i t y betw een id e a and p r a c t i c e .

Boundary d is p u te s w ere one r e s u l t o f a p ro g ram w hich a ro u sed p e a s a n t

e x p e c ta tio n s and d e s i r e s f o r la n d b u t p ro c e e d e d s lo w ly w ith im plem enta

tio n .

P e a s a n t M i l i t i a U se, 1959

A lth o u g h m ost p e a s a n t m i l i t i a a c t i v i t y d u r in g 1959 was i n t r a

c l a s s i n n a t u r e , w ith w a r r in g c a c iq u e s and d i r i g e n t e s u t i l i z i n g t h i s

form o f f o r c e f o r advancem ent o f p e r s o n a l e n d s , p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s w ere

on two o c c a s io n s m o b iliz e d by th e MNR governm ent f o r d e fe n s e o f th e

R e v o lu tio n . The f i r s t o f th e s e o c c a s io n s was t h a t o f March 1959, when

th e m in e r s s y n d ic a te o f San J o s e w ent on s t r i k e f o r h ig h e r s a l a r i e s .

The S i l e s a d m in is tr a t io n p ro m p tly b la ck w a sh e d th e s t r i k e as communist

and c o n v e n ie n tly c a l l e d upon n e w ly -a p p o in te d M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s ,

Jo s R o ja s , f o r a s o l u t i o n . P ro m p tly , some 3 ,0 0 0 armed m ilitia m e n from

th e U curena s y n d ic a te w ere d is p a tc h e d i n a s p e c i a l t r a i n to O ruro w here


38
th e y w ere e f f e c t i v e l y used to i n t i m i d a t e th e m in e rs and b re a k th e s t r i k e .

A n o th er a tte m p te d c o u n t e r - r e v o lu ti o n by th e B o liv ia n F ala n g e

i n A p r il 1959 a f f o r d e d th e R e v o lu tio n a ry governm ent a n o th e r o p p o r tu n ity

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157

to c a l l upon p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s . The p rim a ry f o c i o f th e F a la n g is ta

r e v o l t w ere th e c i t i e s o f La Paz and Cochabamba w here m o b iliz e d cam

p e s in o m i l i t i a s p erfo rm ed li m it e d a c t i o n i n d e fe n s e o f th e reg im e. In

La P az, MNR u rb an m i l i t i a s h ad a lr e a d y su ccee d ed i n q u e l lin g th e r e v o l t


39
b e f o r e a few p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s re a c h e d th e c i t y . O th er m i l i t i a s w ere

q u ic k ly m o b iliz e d i n th e a l t i p l a n o and Yungas w here th e y s e iz e d c o n tr o l


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o f ro a d s . The governm ent, soon a f t e r h e a r in g o f p e a s a n t m o b iliz a

t i o n on th e a l t i p l a n o , te le g r a p h e d th e c a p i t a l s o f th e p r o v in c e s , i n

s t r u c t i n g them t h a t p e a s a n t o r g a n iz a tio n s rem ain a t t h e i r b a s e s , a w a it-


41
in g f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , th e y w ere n o t used i n con-
42
j u n c tio n w ith o th e r m i l i t i a s i n La P a z . The l i m i t e d ev id en ce f o r

Cochabamba r e v e a ls o n ly t h a t m i l i t i a s a t U curena and Q u illa c o llo m o b il-


43
iz e d a p p ro x im a te ly 1 4 ,0 0 0 members i n d e fe n s e o f th e c i t y .

I n t h i s c o u n te r - r e v o lu tio n a r y a tte m p t, a s was th e ca se w ith th e

two e a r l i e r FSB r e v o l t s o f 1953 and 1958, p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s pro v ed slow

i n m o b iliz in g and o n ly re a c h e d th e u rb an c e n t e r s o f r e v o l t a f t e r th e

s i t u a t i o n had b een c o n t r o l le d by th e army and u rb an m i l i t i a s . The MNR

governm ent seems t o have managed more e f f e c t i v e c o n tr o l o f cam pesino

m i l i t i a s by 1959 a s ev id e n c e d by th e te le g r a p h e d o r d e r s s e n t to th e

p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s i n La Paz D ep artm en t o r d e r in g m i l i t i a s to rem ain

i n t h e i r l o c a l s u n t i l o f f i c i a l n o t i c e to m arch. The 1959 r e v o l t a ls o

does n o t a p p e a r t o have b een fo llo w e d by r e p r e s s i v e a t r o c i t i e s u n d e r

ta k e n a g a i n s t u r b a n it e s by cam pesinos a s was th e ca se w ith e a r l i e r 1953

and 1958 r e v o l t s , th u s s u g g e s tin g t h a t p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s w ere b e t t e r o r

g a n iz e d and d i s c i p l i n e d by 1959.

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
1 58

C liz a and U curena: H o s t i l i t i e s Renewed, 1960

The i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t s betw een C li z a and U curena i n November 1959

s e t t l e d l i t t l e ; n e i t h e r c a c iq u e p o s s e s s e d s u f f i c i e n t power to b e s t h i s

r i v a l d u rin g th e e a r l y p h a se s o f s k ir m is h in g . C o n seq u en tly , each le a d e r

r e s o r te d to su ch means o f diplom acy as w ere a v a i l a b l e . By March 1 9 ,

1959, th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s o f U cu ren a, S acaba and Q u illa c o llo had

s ig n e d an i n t e r - s y n d i c a l p a c t f o r th e d e fe n s e o f th e governm ent w ith


44
th e m in e r s ' s y n d ic a te s o f C o lq u i r i, Jap o and M oro co cala. M iguel

V ieza g a, i n e a r l y Ja n u a ry 1960, form ed a p a c t w ith p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s

a t Q u ill a c o ll o , Ayopaya and Arque to th e end t h a t an a t t a c k a g a in s t one


45
would be c o n s id e re d an a t t a c k a g a i n s t a l l . A ls o , V e iz a g a 's s in d i c a t o s

had a g ree d to a m u tu al d e fe n s e p a c t w ith th e m in e r s ' s y n d ic a te a t Hua-


46
n u n i. By Ja n u a ry 1960, th e s i t u a t i o n in th e Cochabamba V a lle y was
47
b e in g r e f e r r e d to a s a " c o ld w a r ." Both R o ja s and V eizaga w e re , n e v e r

t h e l e s s , p r e p a r in g f o r th e c o n tin g e n c y o f f u r t h e r h o s t i l i t i e s : sup

p o r te r s o f th e c a c iq u e s w ere r e p o r te d i n th e m in in g c e n te r s o f O ruro

and n o r th e r n P o t o s l , p r o c u r in g th e arms and m u n itio n s n e c e s s a ry f o r

f u r t h e r c o m b a t.^

M iguel V e iz a g a , in an in te r v ie w d u rin g t h i s p e r io d , s t a t e d t h a t ,

"We a r e f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t th e b ad d i r i g e n t e s , a g a i n s t th e s y n d ic a l
49
c a u d i llo s and a g a i n s t th e m a ssa c re s t h a t th e y p e r p e t r a t e . " The f i g h t ,
50
V eizaga c la im e d , was f o r th e e v e n tu a l c r e a t i o n o f a s y n d ic a l dem ocracy.

The cac iq u e a ls o claim ed te n p ro v in c e s a f f i l i a t e d w ith h i s le a d e r s h ip :

T a r a ta , M izque, A iq u ile , A n sa ld o , Q u i l l a c o l l o , A rque, In d e p e n d e n c ia

and p a r t s o f P u n a ta , A ra n i and S a c a b a .^ V eizag a and h i s a l l i e s w ere

p re p a re d , i n th e e v e n t o f a n o th e r c la s h w ith th e p a r t i s a n s o f J o s R o ja s ,

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159

" to d efen d o u r s e lv e s and to s o l v e , i n one s tr o k e o f arm s, w h atev e r


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c o n f l i c t . . . th e U curenos w i l l w ish to a t te m p t ." P ro te s ta tio n s of

in n o c en ce n o tw ith s ta n d in g , M iguel V eiza g a to g e th e r w ith J o s e R o jas and

tw e n ty -f iv e o th e r p e a s a n t le a d e r s i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y w ere i n d i c te d


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f o r th e v io le n c e o f O ctober-N ovem ber 1959.

The c lim a te o f h o s t i l i t y w hich h ad p erv ad e d th e Cochabamba V al

le y th ro u g h o u t e a r l y 1960 f i n a l l y e r u p te d on J a n u a ry 25-26 i n t o li m it e d

m i l i t a r y a c t io n betw een th e o p p o sin g f o r c e s . M o b iliz a tio n o f s y n d ic a te

m i l i t i a s lo y a l to M iguel V eizag a was o c c a sio n e d by an in c id e n t a t th e

Tinnin g c e n te r o f Huanuni w here a m in er d i r i g e n t e , a l l i e d w ith V eiza g a,

was hanged by R ojas p a r t i s a n s . V e iz a g a , i n ac c o rd a n c e w ith th e C li z a -

Huanuni p a c t , m o b iliz e d th e m i l i t i a f o r c e s a t h i s d i s p o s a l . D u rin g th e

n i g h t o f J a n u a ry 2 5 , V eizag a* s m i l i t i a s had su ccee d ed i n o ccupying th e

tow ns o f T a r a ta and T o la ta a s w e ll a s g a in in g c o n t r o l o f th e A n g o stu ra


54
dam, key to th e r e g io n s w a te r s u p p ly . At t h i s p o i n t , R o ja s sup

p o r t e r s claim ed t h a t V e iz a g a 's a c t i o n was p r e p a r a to r y to an in v a s io n o f

U curena and P u n a ta w h ile V eizag a l o y a l i s t s s t a t e d t h a t th e m i l i t i a s had

m e re ly ta k e n p r e v e n tiv e a c t i o n , i t b e in g rum ored t h a t R o ja s was p la n

n in g an a t t a c k upon th e c i t y o f C o ch ab am b a.^ I n th e m orning o f th e

2 8 th , th e d i r i g e n t e J o rg e Campos o f Q u i l l a c o l l o , an MNRA l e a d e r , was

f o r c i b l y d e ta in e d a t th e U curena s y n d i c a t e 's s u b - c e n te r o f M allco Rancho,


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f u r t h e r e x a c e rb a tin g an a lr e a d y e x p lo s iv e s i t u a t i o n .

In hopes o f f o r e s t a l l i n g a v i r t u a l c i v i l w ar among th e p e a s a n tr y

o f th e Cochabamba r e g io n , an MNR com m ission was d is p a tc h e d to th e a r e a

on Ja n u a ry 2 7 . A few h o u rs l a t e r , on s e p a r a t e a i r p l a n e s , V ic to r Paz

E s te n s s o ro and W alter G uevara A rze l e f t La Paz f o r Cochabamba. From

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
160

Cochabamba e ac h c a n d id a te p ro c e e d e d t o th e zone c o n t r o l l e d by h i s r e

s p e c tiv e p e a s a n t s u p p o r te r s , Paz E s te n s s o r o to P u n a ta and Ucurefia and

G uevara A rze to C l i z a . ^ -The MNR com m ission was s u c c e s s f u l i n g e t tin g

th e b e l l i g e r e n t s t o a g re e to a t r u c e , a lth o u g h R o ja s e x p re s s e d some

r e s e r v a t i o n , f e a r i n g t h a t V eiza g a w ould u s e th e tr u c e to ad v a n ta g e by
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rearm in g and n o t h o n o rin g th e te rm s o f p a c i f i c a t i o n .

An uneasy p e a c e , o c c a s i o n a ll y b ro k en by l i g h t s k ir m is h in g , was
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im posed on th e a r e a f o r th e n e x t f o u r m o n th s. P r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le

f o r th e m a in ten a n ce o f o r d e r w ere th e MNR r e g u l a r army u n i t s s ta t io n e d

i n th e V a lle y . In e a r l y March 1960 th e p r o v in c e s o f J o rd a n and P u n a ta

w ere d e c la r e d m i l i t a r y zo n es and p la c e d u n d e r MNR m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l .

A cco rd in g ly th e army e n fo rc e d a " d ry la w ," fo rb a d e cam pesinos u n d er

j u r i s d i c t i o n o f th e m i l i t a r y zone th e r i g h t to b e a r arm s, and re f u s e d

to p e rm it th e in g r e s s o f MNR o r MNRA p o l i t i c i a n s b e c a u se o f t h e i r
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d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s upon th e p e a s a n t r y .

W a lte r G uevara A rze b e lie v e d t h a t th e MNR d e c l a r a t i o n o f a

m i l i t a r y zone i n th e C liz a -U c u re n a a r e a , w ith i t s p r o h i b i t i o n a g a in s t

p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , was p a r t o f a g o v ern m e n tal scheme to deny v o te s to

th e MNRA. In a b r i e f s e r i e s o f p u b l i c announcem ents, th e A u te n tic o

c a n d id a te acc u se d th e S i l e s a d m in is tr a t io n o f s id in g w ith th e J o s e R o jas

b lo c a g a i n s t M iguel V eizag a* s A u te n tic o o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ G uevara Arze

c i t e d sev en in s ta n c e s i n w hich a b u se s p e r p e t r a t e d by cam pesinos lo y a l

to R o jas w ere ig n o re d by th e MNR governm ent and l o c a l m i l i t a r y f o r c e s


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a l le g e d l y i n th e zone to p r e v e n t v io l e n c e . The A u te n tic o le a d e r a ls o

n o te d t h a t C o ro n el Eduardo R iv as U galde s e r v e d th e "d o u b le f u n c tio n " o f

MNR D e p a rtm en tal C h ie f o f Command and Commander i n C h ie f o f th e Campesino

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
161

M i l i t i a s o f U cu ren a. F or th e s e r e a s o n s G uevara A rze claim ed t h a t th e

m i l i t a r y was b e in g u sed by th e MNR a s a " p o l i t i c a l in s tr u m e n t," a fu n c

t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t s e rv e d by th e army u n d e r th e Rosea i n th e p r e

r e v o lu t io n a r y p e r io d . "The p a z e s t e n s s o r i s t a s e c t o r . . . seems to be

h a s te n in g to u t i l i z e th e sy stem s o f th e o lig a r c h y i n such manner t h a t


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S enor U r r i o l a g o i t i a h im s e lf w ould n o t b e a b le to do i t b e t t e r . "

The end r e s u l t o f MNR d u p l i c i t y , s t a t e d G uevara A rze, was o p p re s s io n


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by th e army a g a i n s t th e p e o p le .

W a lte r G uevara A rz e s p r o t e s t a t i o n s r e g a r d in g MNR u t i l i z a t i o n

o f th e m i l i t a r y f o r p o l i t i c a l p u rp o s e s c o n ta in e d a good d e a l o f t r u t h .

I n c r e a s i n g ly th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement was to le a n upon th e m i l i t a r y

t o b re a k s t r i k e s by w o rk e rs , to c o n t r o l p o l i t i c a l e v e n ts in th e Cocha

bamba V a lle y i n t h i s p r e - e l e c t o r a l p e r i o d , and g e n e r a lly to p ro v id e

th e n e c e s s a r y d e t e r r e n t to m a in ta in an in c r e a s in g ly f r a c t i o n a t e d and

weakened movement from c o l l a p s e , from w ith in o r w ith o u t. L a te r e v e n ts

would d e m o n stra te th e i n e f f i c a c y o f r e v iv i n g th e h i s t o r i c p o l i t i c a l i n

t e r e s t o f th e B o liv ia n m i l i t a r y i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s .

The tr u c e betw een C liz a and U cu ren a, e n fo rc e d by th e arm ys

S ev en th D iv is io n , grew i n c r e a s in g ly u n te n a b le i n March and A p r i l , 1 9 6 0 . ^

On v a r io u s o c c a s io n s cam pesinos b lo c k e d r o a d s , a tta c k e d m i l i t a r y p o s t s ,

and b e s ie g e d to w n s. The l a t t e r i n c i d e n t , i n w hich m ilitia m e n lo y a l

to J o s R o jas su rro u n d ed th e town o f T a r a t a , prom pted th e r e v o lu tio n a r y


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governm ent to renew i t s m i l i t a r y zone a t P u n a ta and J o rd a n P ro v in c e s .

M i l i t a r y f o r c e s i n th e r e g io n w ere i n s u f f i c i e n t to f o r e s t a l l th e ex

panded c o n f l i c t w hich e r u p te d i n May. B oth f o r c e s , v i r t u a l a rm ie s by

now, h ad s h i f t e d t a c t i c s ; w h ereas i n p r e v io u s c o n f l i c t s b o th R o ja s and

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
V eizag a p a r t i s a n s had o p e r a te d i n m o d e ra te ly s iz e d b a n d s , now each f a c

t i o n h ad e n tre n c h e d i t s e l f in th e zone known a s " th e f r o n t i e r " a lo n g

o p p o s ite banks o f th e R io R etam a, b u t h ad augm ented t h i s s t a t i c l i n e o f

f ix e d f o r t i f i c a t i o n w ith s m a ll g u e r r i l l a b an d s w hich roamed th e c o u n try

s id e t e r r o r i z i n g p e a s a n ts a l ig n e d w ith one o r th e o t h e r c a c iq u e . T h is

co m b in atio n s e v e r e ly ta x e d th e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n th e r e g io n

w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t p e a s a n t b an d s w ere a b le t o o p e r a te w ith r e l a t i v e

im p u n ity .

On May 7 , 1960, women and c h i ld r e n m arched from C liz a to Cocha

bamba p r o t e s t i n g a r e c e n t t h r e a t made by J o s e R o jas to in v a d e and s a c k

C li z a . The g ro u p , c a r r y in g p la c a r d s r e a d i n g , f o r exam ple, "We ask

g u a ra n te e s i n o r d e r to l i v e , " and " C liz a a s k s L i b e r t y , " so u g h t th e

m e d ia tio n o f th e P a p a l N uncio and th e "good o f f i c e s " o f f o r e ig n d ip l o

m a tic r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n th e c i t y to a tte m p t a s e ttle m e n t betw een C liz a

and U cu ren a. ^ T h e ir e f f o r t s w ere to no a v a i l a s th e s i t u a t i o n con

tin u e d to w o rsen . By th e m id d le o f th e m onth, b o rro w in g te c h n iq u e s used

i n th e Chaco War, e n tre n c h m e n ts s t r e t c h e d f o r o v er 10 k ilo m e te r s on b o th

s id e s o f th e Rfo Retam a. B oth a rm ie s w ere w e ll eq u ip p ed w ith l i g h t and

heavy m achine g u n s, a u to m a tic r i f l e s , d y n a m ite , and i n th e c a s e o f

U cu ren a, m o r ta r s . The "no man s la n d " b etw een th e tr e n c h e s was w e ll

co v ered by m achine gun em p lacem en ts, and th o r o u g h f a r e was v i r t u a l l y im

p o s s ib le . V o lle y in g a c r o s s th e f r o n t i e r h ad r e s u l t e d in d e s tr u c t io n o f

la r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f l i v e s t o c k in th e a r e a , and m a r t i a l o b li g a ti o n f o r

m ale p e a s a n ts p re c lu d e d n e c e s s a r y a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r f i e l d s . The s i t u a

t i o n , e x tre m e ly c r i t i c a l , l e d one r e p o r t e r to co n clu d e t h a t sh o u ld one

s i d e a tte m p t to sto rm th e enemy s f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , i t would r e s u l t in

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
163

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b lo o d sh ed o f p r o p o r tio n s u n p re c e d e n te d in th e n a t i o n 's h i s t o r y . Over

8,000 cam pesinos w ere e s tim a te d m o b iliz e d in U curena, C liz a , P u n a ta ,

-T ara ta,-S a cab am b a, A n zald o , San P edro de Buena V is ta , and o th e r c e n te r s

in th e a r e a .
-

A gain f e a r in g a p o s s i b l e c i v i l w ar in th e r e g io n , th e MNR g o v ern

ment d is p a tc h e d a p a c i f i c a t i o n com m ission in hopes o f f o r e s t a l l i n g su ch

an e v e n t u a l i t y . The Comm ission, le d by G en eral A lfre d o Ovando, Mon-

s e n o r Armando G u tie rr e z G r a n ie r , and th e R e c to r o f th e U n iv e rs id a d Mayor

de San Simon, R aul M aldonado, v i s i t e d f i r s t P unata and th e n C liz a . At

P u n a ta , Jose" R o jas a c c u se d W a lte r G uevara A rze o f i n c i t i n g th e p e a s a n tr y ,

d i s t r i b u t i n g arms and m u n itio n s to h i s p a r t i s a n s and in te r v e n in g in

s y n d ic a l q u e s t i o n s . ^ R o ja s f u r t h e r c laim e d t h a t G u e v a ra 's i n t e n t i o n

was to d e s tr o y U curena i n o r d e r to g a in more v o te s in th e fo rth co m in g


71
e le c tio n . A t C liz a , th e Commission h e a rd th e d i r i g e n t e Ramon T o rric o

s t a t e t h a t th e R o ja s-V e iz a g a c o n f l i c t had i t s o r ig i n s in th e Campesino

C ongress o f Sacaba w here R o jas had opposed V e iz a g a 's b id f o r s y n d ic a l


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d i r e c t i o n o f th e V a lle y . V eizaga h im s e lf spoke o f th e MNR a s a

p a r t y founded w ith th e a s s i s t a n c e o f th e cam pesino in o r d e r to fo rg e

a new B o liv ia , and asked- f o r an A g ra ria n Reform " t h a t w i l l be c o n s tr u c -


73
t i o n and n o t d e s t r u c t i o n and d e a th ." He a l s o ac c u se d R ojas o f fom ent

in g s t r i f e in th e V a lle y .

The Commission managed to g e t th e w a rrin g c a c iq u e s to a g re e to

a p a c t o f p a c i f i c a t i o n w hich c o n ta in e d th e fo llo w in g g u a r a n te e s :

freedom o f t r a f f i c on th e Cochabam ba-Santa Cruz highw ay; f r e e in g r e s s

o f m erch an ts to th e p r o v i n c i a l f a i r s ; p r o h ib i tio n o f p o l i t i c a l r e p r e

s e n t a t i v e s from th e b e l l i g e r e n t s e c t o r s ; r e s p e c t f o r th e a u t h o r i t y o f th e

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164

r e g u la r army i n th e a r e a ; p r o h i b i t i o n o f th e s a l e o f arm s and m u n itio n s


74
i n th e V a lle y and o f th e s a l e o f a l c o h o lic b e v e ra g e s b e f o r e 6 :0 0 P . M.

The a c c o rd , w hich a l s o c a l l e d f o r s u r r e n d e r o f weapons to th e r e g u la r

army and an exchange o f p r i s o n e r s , was s ig n e d by th e two c a c iq u e s and

th e ir d irig e n te s : Ram6n T o r r ic o , M acedonio P ^ r e z , M anuel P e d ra z o ,

B a s il io G rSgeda, J u l i a n ChSvez, S ix to S o to , I g n a c io G uevara and P r o ila n

E scd b ar f o r C liz a and C o n s ta n tin o I n t u r i a s , J o rg e S o l i s , Ferm ln D elga

d i l l o and G reg o rio Ldpez f o r U c u r e n a .^

As had b een th e c a s e w ith e a r l i e r a tte m p ts a t p a c i f i c a t i o n , t h i s

p act a ls o f a ile d . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t was a n e g a tiv e docum ent w hich so u g h t

s e ttle m e n t o f th e c o n tro v e rs y betw een R o ja s and V eiza g a th ro u g h a num

b e r o f p r o h ib i tio n s r a t h e r th a n s e e k in g a s o l u t i o n to th e u n d e rly in g

cau se o f th e c o n f l i c t . The two c a c iq u e s w ere in v o lv e d i n a power s t r u g

g le w hich tu rn e d upon th e q u e s tio n o f s y n d ic a l le a d e r s h ip o f th e V al

l e y 's p e a s a n tr y . Any r e s o l u t i o n o f th e p ro b lem o f o rg a n iz e d v io le n c e

in th e re g io n w hich d id n o t c o n s id e r t h i s r e a l i t y w ould n e c e s s a r i l y

fa il. On May 2 4 , 1960, i t was r e p o r te d t h a t " R o j i s t a s " and "V e iza-

g u is ta s " had a g a in opened h o s t i l i t i e s .

T h is l a t e s t c o n f l i c t i n i t i a t e d a new p h a se o f th e w a rfa re betw een

th e two g ro u p s. W hereas p re v io u s a c tio n h a d b een c o n fin e d to th e more

im m ediate a r e a su rro u n d in g C liz a and U curena and had in v o lv e d p r im a r ily

a s t a t i c c o n ce p t o f w a rfa re w ith e x te n s iv e e n tre n c h m e n t, w e ll-a rm e d and

equ ip p ed b a t t a l i o n s o f cam pesinos had su d d e n ly b u r s t o u t o f th e m i l i

t a r y zone and i n t o n o r th e r n P o to s i D ep artm en t. U n its o f betw een 60 and

200 p e a s a n ts w ere o p e r a tin g in a new r e g io n a lo n g th e C ochabam ba-P otosi

b o rd e r. U t i l i z i n g modern equipm entm achine g u n s, a u to m a tic weapons and

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165

e x p lo s iv e s th e p e a s a n t f o r c e s h ad e s t a b l i s h e d a n o th e r f r o n t i e r w ith

V e iz a g u is ta s i n c o n t r o l o f th e p u e b lo s o f Y am boata, T u n a sa n i and T a c jo n i

w h ile C horona, H u acah u atan a, and L aguna w ere d o m inated by R o j i s t a f o r c e s ^

By th e end o f May t h i s s i t u a t i o n had calm ed and th e m i l i t a r y had e x te n d e d ,

w ith w h a te v e r f o r c e s w ere a v a i l a b l e , i t s zone from th e P u n a ta -J o rd a n

a r e a t o th e n o r th P o to sx r e g io n . The e x te n s io n o f h o s t i l i t i e s betw een

c a c iq u e s o u ts id e t h e i r n a t iv e t e r r i t o r y r e p r e s e n t e d a b ro a d e n in g o f h i t h e r

to l o c a l i z e d w a r f a r e a s w e ll a s g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n s e iz i n g th e i n i t i a

tiv e .

F u r th e r d e m o n s tra tin g t h i s s h i f t i n te c h n iq u e s was th e opening

o f a new t h e a t r e o f o p e r a tio n s n e a r th e town o f V ila V ila a p p ro x im a te ly

s i x t y - f i v e k ilo m e te r s e a s t o f Cochabamba. I n th e v i c i n i t y o f V ila V ila ,

p a r t i s a n s o f th e two c a c iq u e s , i n b a t t a l i o n s o f up to f o u r hun d red

s o l d i e r s , engaged in a number o f p itc h e d b a t t l e s . And a t th e p u eb lo of

V ila V i l a , a common g ra v e was d is c o v e r e d c o n ta in in g th e b o d ie s o f sev en

te e n p e a s a n t s o l d i e r s . The V ila V ila i n c i d e n t a ro u s e d a good d e a l o f

n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and s p e c u la tio n a s to th e c irc u m s ta n c e s su rro u n d in g


77
th e d e a th s o f th e cam pesino m ilitia m e n . B oth R o ja s and V eizag a i n

d u lg ed i n m u tu al in c r i m i n a tio n s u n t i l a g o v e rn m e n ta l com m ission (which

V eizaga c a l l e d b ia s e d ) i d e n t i f i e d th e b o d ie s as R o j i s t a s , th u s s tr o n g ly
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im p lic a tin g V eizag a f o llo w e r s i n th e c rim e . W a lte r G uevara Arze

claim ed t h a t th e MNR was u s in g th e V ila V ila a f f a i r as a t r i c k to l i q u i -


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d a te V eiza g a.

M iguel V eizag a o f f e r e d to d u e l J o s e R o ja s , th e re b y s o lv in g th e
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d is p u te by d i r e c t e l im i n a tio n o f one o f th e c a u s e s . F o llo w in g h i s

o f f e r , V eizag a b o a s te d t h a t R o jas sh o u ld

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166

. . . ta k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t one C lic e n o i s enough f o r te n


R o ja s 1 men, b e c a u se o u r p e o p le f i g h t t o d e fe n d t h e i r hom es,
w iv es and c h i l d r e n , w h ile th e R o ja s p e o p le do n o t d efen d
th e m se lv e s from anyone and a r e moved by im p o s itio n and
f o r c e . 81

J o s e R o jas chose to ig n o r e h i s r i v a l ' s c h a lle n g e .

By J u ly th e s i t u a t i o n i n th e V a lle y had calm ed: th e n a t io n a l

e l e c t i o n s , h e ld i n e a r l y J u n e , h ad s e rv e d t o l e s s e n p o l i t i c a l r a n c o r and

i t s e x p r e s s io n i n v io l e n c e ; new d eta c h m e n ts o f r e g u l a r army tr o o p s had

b een s t a t i o n e d i n th e a r e a ; an d , m ost im p o r ta n t, M ig u el V eizag a renounced

membership i n th e A u tln t ic o p a r t y .

The MNR: A u t n tic o s and M o v im ie n tis ta s

In an open l e t t e r to P r e s i d e n t - e l e c t V ic to r Paz E s te n s s o r o ,

M iguel V eizag a announced t h a t , a lth o u g h he had d e l iv e r e d 5 ,0 0 0 v o te s


82
t o th e MNRA i n th e Ju n e 1960 e l e c t i o n , h e w ish ed t o r e t u r n to th e MNR.

The c a c iq u e a ls o s t a t e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n f u r t h e r i n g p a c i f i c a t i o n o f th e

V a lle y , o f f e r in g to c o o p e r a te i n f r e e e l e c t i o n s f o r th e D ir e c t iv e o f
83
th e Cochabamba P e a s a n t F e d e r a tio n . The P r e s i d e n t - e l e c t , i n r e p l y ,

e x p re s s e d h i s i n t e r e s t s i n a u n i f i e d p e a s a n tr y w hich would rem ain

lo y a l to th e p a r t y from w hich i t r e c e iv e d l i b e r t y and l a n d . ^ L a te r

i n th e m onth, a t C l i z a 1s "Second o f A u g u st" P e a s a n t C e n t r a l, th o s e d i r i -

g e n te s who had l e f t th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement ren o u n ced A u te n tic o a f

f i l i a t i o n and r e tu r n e d to th e MNR. T h u s, i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y r e g io n ,

th e A u te n tic o t h r u s t h ad f a i l e d by J u ly 1960.

The o u ts ta n d in g p e a s a n t A u te n tic o among th e Aymara o f th e a l t i

p la n o , Zendn B a r r ie n to s Mamani, lik e w is e ren o u n ced MNRA a f f i l i a t i o n to

r e e n t e r th e ra n k s o f th e o f f i c i a l R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement. B a r r ie n to s

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
16 7

Mamani had co n d u cted a v ig o ro u s and f o r c e f u l cam paign f o r th e MNRA

i n th e p r e - e l e c t i o n p e r io d . D u rin g a s e r i e s o f m e e tin g s o f th e N a tio n a l

C onferen ce o f Campesino A d h eren ts o f th e MNRA, B a r r ie n to s Mamani had

a tta c k e d th e " f a l s e d i r i g e n t e s " o f th e MNR, c r i t i c i z e d th e governm ent

f o r s e l e c t i o n o f n o n -p e a s a n t M in is te r s o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s , b u re a u

c r a t i z a t i o n o f th e R e v o lu tio n , and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p e a s a n t s y n d i

c a l o r g a n iz a tio n s w hich had f a i l e d to in f l u e n c e th e e x e c u tio n o f A g ra r-


85
ia n Reform . O th er MNRA d e le g a te s from th e D ep artm en ts o f Cochabamba,

La P a z , C h u q u isaca and O ruro v o ic e d s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m s . Twice th e MNRA

p e a s a n t m e e tin g s , p r e s id e d o v er by B a r r ie n to s Mamani and h e ld a t th e

M u n icip al L ib r a r y in La P a z , had w ith s to o d v i o l e n t p h y s ic a l a t ta c k s

by gangs o f MNR to u g h s . H is l o y a l t y t o th e MNRA p ro v e n d u rin g th e

d u re s s o f th e e a r l y cam paign p e r io d , B a r r ie n to s Mamani, a s had M iguel

V e iz a g a , chose to r e t u r n to th e MNR a f t e r th e e l e c t i o n . B oth A u ten -

t i c o s a p p e a r to h av e q u ic k ly r e a l i z e d t h a t f u r t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n w ith th e

MNRA, d e f e a te d in th e e l e c t i o n , would s e r v e no p o s i t i v e p u rp o s e . The

c a c iq u e s r e f l e c t e d a p ra g m a tic a p p ro ac h to n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , s e iz i n g

upon th e A u te n tic o cam paign when i t lo o k ed a s i f su ch a l le g ia n c e would

p o s s ib ly b e n e f i t th e m s e lv e s , b u t q u ic k ly ab an d o n in g th e p a r ty a f t e r

i t s d e f e a t i n th e Ju n e 1960 e l e c t i o n .

In a l e t t e r to W a lte r G uevara A rze a number o f le a d in g MNRA

p e a s a n t l e a d e r s , in c lu d in g Zenon B a r r ie n to s Mamani and M iguel V e iz a g a ,

renounced membership in th e p a r t y , s t r e s s i n g th e n e e d to u n if y th e p e a s

a n tr y :

The u n ity o f th e p e a s a n tr y w ith th e e x e c u tio n o f A g ra ria n


Reform and i t s i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n h av e t o b e p r o d u c ts o f th e
u n ite d and c o o r d in a te d a c t io n o f th e a g r i c u l t u r a l w o rk ers
th e m s e lv e s , f r e e o f th e monopoly o f p a r t y d i r e c t i v e s , f r e e
o f s e c ta ria n m o tt o s .

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 68

The p e a s a n t le a d e r s lam en ted th e r i f t i n th e p e a s a n tr y cau sed by th e

A u te n tic o cam paign w hich had le d to " h a tr e d and v io le n c e , g e n e r a tin g

c o r r u p tio n and im m o ra lity , and d ra g g in g th e c o u n try to chaos and a n -


87
a rc h y as i t s n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e ." W a lte r G uevara A rze, ask ed h i s

th o u g h ts on th e d e s e r ti o n o f th e p e a s a n t l e a d e r s , s t a t e d t h a t B a r r ie n

to s Mamani had s o ld th e cam pesino d i r i g e n t e s to th e MNR a s i f th e y


88
w ere c a t t l e . To t h i s c la im B a r r ie n to s Mamani r e p l i e d t h a t h e con

s id e r e d i t an e m o tio n a l r e s p o n s e , w h ile ad d in g t h a t th e p e a s a n tr y d e -
89
s i r e d g r e a t e r c o n s id e r a tio n by th e n a t i o n 's p o l i t i c i a n s . S in ce th e

R e v o lu tio n , p e a s a n ts had e x p e rie n c e d a new a w a re n e ss, n o te d B a r r ie n to s

Mamani: "We a r e n o t f o llo w e r s ; f o r us th e epoch i n w hich In d ia n s w ere

managed a s a sim p le appendage o f th e p o l i t i c a l a p p a ra tu s rem ain s b e -


..90
h in d . The e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n ta k e n by th e c a c iq u e , in l i g h t o f th e

o p p o r tu n i s t ic abandonm ent o f th e d e f e a te d MNRA p a r ty f o r th e triu m

p h a n t MNR, i s h ig h ly q u e s ti o n a b le . Both B a r r ie n to s Mamani and M iguel

V eizaga e x h ib ite d g r e a t h a s te i n e x p r e s s in g ad h ere n ce to th e v ic t o r i o u s

MNR, w hich was a g a in i n th e p o s i t i o n o f d is p e r s in g p o l i t i c a l fa v o rs

to lo y a l c a c iq u e s . V e iz a g a 's c la im t h a t he had d e liv e r e d 5 ,0 0 0 v o te s

to th e MNRA w as, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , v a l i d . A f f i l i a t i o n w ith th e MNR

o f f e r e d rew ards to th e e n t e r p r i s i n g d i r i g e n t e . Throughout th e re v o lu

tio n a r y p e r io d , p ro m in en t d i r i g e n t e s w ere o f te n acc u se d o f u t i l i z i n g


91
t h e i r p o s iti o n s f o r " i l l e g a l e n r ic h m e n t."

The E le c tio n o f 1960

W S lter G uevara A r z e 's A u tf o tic o cam paign o f f e r e d th e f i r s t r e a l

c h a lle n g e to MNR c o n t r o l o f th e R e v o lu tio n . In th e e l e c t i o n o f 1956,

th e MNR had overw helm ingly c a r r i e d th e r u r a l a r e a s w h ile g a in in g narrow

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169

v i c t o r i e s o v e r th e FSB i n th e m a jo r u rb a n c e n t e r s . But w ith th e p r e

po n d eran ce o f r u r a l v o t e r s , MNR d i r e c t i o n o f th e R e v o lu tio n s u f f e r e d

no r e a l t h r e a t . A g ra ria n Reform and u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e , b a s i s o f th e

MNR c la im to have g iv e n th e p e a s a n tr y " la n d and l i b e r t y , " d e p riv e d

t r a d i t i o n a l l e f t i s t p a r t i e s su ch a s th e POR, P IR , and PC o f s u b s t a n t i a l

p o l i t i c a l is s u e s w h ile MNR p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e s f u r t h e r augm ented th e MNR

v i c t o r y by d e l iv e r in g huge b lo c s o f v o te s to th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Move

m e n t's c a n d id a te s (H em ln S i l e s and fJu flo C h av ez). C o lo red b a l l o t s

f o r th e com peting p a r t i e s , to e a s e th e d i f f i c u l t y o f c h o ic e among a

l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e p e a s a n tr y , made s u p e r v is io n o f th e r u r a l v o te e a s i e r

f o r th e d i r i g e n t e s . In many a r e a s o n ly MNR b a l l o t s w ere d i s t r i b u t e d ,

and in o th e r s i l l e g a l p r a c t i c e s made f o r an e x c e s s o f v o te s c a s t o v er
93
th e number o f e l i g i b l e v o t e r s . A ll f a c t o r s c o n tr ib u te d to make f o r

an e asy MNR v ic to r y in 1956.

The 1960 e l e c t i o n , u n d o u b te d ly no more h o n e s t th a n th e e a r l i e r

c o n t e s t , d id p r e s e n t a t h r e a t , a l b e i t a m inor o n e , to MNR management

o f th e R e v o lu tio n . The combined o p p o s itio n o f FSB and MNRA p o lle d

22 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l v o t e . I n th e m a jo r c i t i e s th e c o n te s t was

e x tre m e ly c l o s e : i n S u c re , Cochabamba, O ruro and P o to s i th e combined

o p p o s itio n p a r t i e s g ain ed a m a jo r ity o f th e v o te s c a s t . Even in La P a z ,

s e a t o f MNR pow er, th e o p p o s itio n t a l l i e d 44,449 v o te s to th e MNR's


94
5 5 ,7 6 6 .

The e l e c t i o n was c l e a r l y won i n th e p ro v in c e s w here th e p e a s

a n tr y d e liv e r e d an overw helm ing number o f v o te s to th e R e v o lu tio n a ry

Movement. The A u te n tic o cam paign, n e v e r t h e l e s s , had an im p act on th e

p e a s a n t v o te . In O ruro D ep artm en t, s e a t o f B a r r ie n to s M am ani's pow er,

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170

th e MNRA. drew 9 ,8 1 4 v o te s to th e MNR's t o t a l o f 1 1 ,8 1 4 , and M iguel V ei

z a g a 's 5 ,0 0 0 v o te s from C liz a c o n s id e r a b ly augm ented th e A u te n tic o cam

p a ig n . In th e Cochebamba V a lle y , th e e l e c t i o n r e v e a le d th e in f l u e n c e o f

Jo s R o ja s ' hegemony o v er much o f th e r e g io n : A iq u il e , C h ilc h e , P u n a ta ,

T ira q u e , M achaca, V i l l a G ran d e, Ramadas, A r a n i, C o lp a c ia c o , P o c o a ta ,

V e n t i l l a , M o ro ch ata, V i l l a T u n a ri and Vacas g ave th e MNR e v e ry v o te c a s t ,

w h ile i n M izque and P o can a, f o r ex am p le, th e MNR l o s t e le v e n and tw e n ty -

sev en v o te s r e s p e c t i v e l y to th e MNRA w h ile p o l l i n g n e a r l y 4*400 v o te s


95
in . th e two a r e a s .

The r e s u l t s o f b o th th e 1956 and 1960 e l e c t i o n s d e m o n stra te

th e p i v o t a l r o l e p la y e d by th e p e a s a n tr y in p o l i t i c a l l y s u p p o r tin g th e

MNR r u l e . What em erges from th e two e l e c t i o n s i s a view o f B o liv ia

d u rin g th e s e R e v o lu tio n a ry y e a r s , composed o f a number o f u rb an c o u n te r

r e v o lu tio n a r y c e n t e r s s u rro u n d e d by a s e a o f p e a s a n t r e v o l u t i o n i s t s ,

w h eth er th e y be A u te n tic o s o r o rth o d o x M o v im ie n tis ta s . The p e a s a n tr y ,

b e n e f i c ia r y o f A g ra ria n Reform (w ith a l l i t s w e a k n e sse s, b u t n e v e r th e

l e s s , re fo rm ) and th e r i g h t to e n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , p ro v id e d a

p o p u li s t u n d e rp in n in g f o r th e R e v o lu tio n . The 1960 e l e c t i o n f u r t h e r

r e f l e c t e d c o n s id e r a b le d i s a f f e c t i o n w ith MNR management o f th e R evolu

tio n . The A u te n tic o sch ism was b u t th e f i r s t o b v io u s f i s s u r e i n th e

R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement. A lo n e , th e A u te n tic o c h a lle n g e t o MNR r u l e

was n o t s e r i o u s ; l a t e r dev elo p m en ts w ould f u r t h e r r e v e a l in c r e a s in g

fra g m e n ta tio n o f th e Movement, s u g g e s tin g t h a t i t s g r e a t e s t t h r e a t

was p o s ite d from w ith in and n o t from c o u n t e r - r e v o lu ti o n a r y f o r c e s from

w ith o u t.

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17 1

The P e a s a n tr y i n th e P o s t- E le c ti o n P e rio d

Cochabamba V a lle y

The im m ediate p o s t - e l e c t i o n p e r io d was m arked by a te m p o rary

c e s s a t i o n o f th e C liz a -U c u re n a c o n f l i c t . On A ugust 3 , th e S i l e s ad

m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n i t s l a s t c a b i n e t m e e tin g , ended th e m i l i t a r y zone w hich

had b een e n fo rc e d i n th e a r e a f o r f o u r m onths. M iguel V eizag a tr a v e le d

t o La P az to d is c u s s th e s i t u a t i o n i n th e V a lle y w ith V ic t o r Paz E s te n s -

s o ro fo llo w in g h i s in a u g u r a tio n a s P r e s i d e n t . V eizag a s t a t e d , a t t h i s

tim e , t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t y b etw een C liz a and U curena r e s u l t e d n o t from

p o l i t i c a l q u e s tio n s b u t r a t h e r was th e p ro d u c t o f b u ll y in g w ith in th e

s y n d ic a l movement u n d er R o ja s ' d i r e c t i o n . ^ The c a c iq u e claim e d t h a t

a g r i c u l t u r a l p ro d u c tio n had f a l l e n i n th e V a lle y a s a r e s u l t o f w ar

f a r e betw een th e two f a c t i o n s , and e x p re s s e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n p a c i f i c a

t i o n o f th e V a lle y . The Paz E s te n s s o r o governm ent e l e c t e d to sen d a

com m ission to th e C liz a -U c u re n a s i n d i c a t o s i n a n o th e r a tte m p t to f in d

a s o l u t i o n to th e im p asse b etw een th e two c a c iq u e s .

A p p a re n tly J o s e R o jas f e a r e d th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an accommoda

t i o n betw een h i s r i v a l and th e new MNR a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . On A ugust 29

he announced h i s i n t e n t i o n o f e f f e c t i n g a " t o t a l b lo c k a d e " o f th e c i t y

o f Cochabamba as a p r o t e s t o v e r th e f a i l u r e o f th e governm ent to b r in g

M iguel V eizag a to t r i a l f o r th e V ila V ila i n c i d e n t . R o ja s th r e a te n e d

to c u t o f f th e c i t y ' s w a te r , l i g h t s e r v i c e s and means o f com m unication

i n a d d i t i o n to o r d e r in g a f o u r-d a y g e n e r a l s t r i k e o f th e p e a s a n ts
97
under h is d ir e c tio n . N e x t, th e c a c iq u e te le g r a p h e d th e N a tio n a l Con

f e d e r a t i o n o f P e a s a n t W orkers i n La P a z , a s k in g th e o r g a n iz a ti o n to p r e s s

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172

th e MNR governm ent f o r a c t io n a g a i n s t V e iz a g a . The N a tio n a l C o n fed era

t i o n p ro m p tly p e t i t i o n e d th e M in is te r o f J u s t i c e to " c a s t i g a t e " V eizag a

and h i s fo llo w e rs f o r 'h c t s o f g e n o cid e com m itted i n V ila V ila a g a i n s t


98
more th a n a hundred p e a s a n t s ." R o ja s ' in f l u e n c e w ith th e N a tio n a l Con

f e d e r a t io n r e v e a ls an a u g m en tatio n o f h i s s t a t u r e a s a c a c iq u e fo llo w in g

th e w a rfa re w ith C li z a . O th er i n d i c a t i o n s o f h i s in c r e a s e d power among

th e p e a s a n tr y w ould soon be fo rth c o m in g .

The im m ediate r e s u l t o f R o ja s ' i n s i s t e n c e t h a t h i s r i v a l b e made

to a c c o u n t f o r th e V ila V ila d e a th s was renew ed combat b etw een th e syn

d i c a t e s o f C liz a and U curena. The Commander o f th e A rm y's S ev en th D iv i

s io n , s ta t io n e d i n th e v i c i n i t y o f th e two c e n t e r s , r e p o r te d a u to m a tic

r i f l e , m achine gun and m o rta r f i r e a lo n g th e C liz a -U c u re n a " f r o n t i e r "

in th e e a r l y m orning o f A ugust 30, and n o te d t h a t th e s i t u a t i o n was v e ry


99
g ra v e . T h is re su m p tio n o f h o s t i l i t i e s , to g e th e r w ith th e th r e a te n e d

b lo c k a d e o f Cochabamba by th e U curena m i l i t i a s , com bined to make m i l i

t a r y c o n t r o l o f th e V a lle y a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . R e g u la r army f o r c e s manned

p o s i t i o n s alo n g th e ro a d from U curena to Cochabamba and g u ard ed La

A n g o stu ra Dam to p re v e n t i t s s a b o ta g e by R o ja s f o r c e s . M e a n w h i l e

S a lv a d o r V squez, a R o j i s t a d i r i g e n t e , r e i t e r a t e d th e t h r e a t to Cocha

bamba: "We w i l l b lo c k th e r o a d s , th e r a i l r o a d l i n e s , and we s e e o u r

s e lv e s o b lig a te d to occupy C liz a i n o r d e r to ap p reh en d th e l e a d e r s o f

th e blo o d y a c t s [ V ila V i l a ] . " ^ ^ V lsq u ez b o a s te d t h a t upon command,


102
f o r t y p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s w ere re a d y to move.

F u r th e r i n d i c a t i o n o f J o s R o ja s ' p rom inence a t t h i s tim e may

be s e e n in th e s u p p o rt p le d g e d U curena by th e p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te o f

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173

" C h i r i r i a " i n n o r th P o to s f . The C h i r i r i a C e n t r a l , composed o f e ig h ty

s i n d i c a t o s and tw en ty s in d ic a to s u b c e n te r s , o f f e r e d J o s e R o ja s a i d

a g a i n s t C liz a . A g u stin A r a n c ib ia , S e c r e ta r y G en eral o f th e C h i r i r i a

C e n t r a l , m o b iliz e d th e s i x t y to s e v e n ty th o u sa n d cam pesinos u n d e r h i s

d i r e c t i o n to a id R o jas and "end once and f o r a l l th e p re p o n d e ra n c e o f

t r a i t o r o u s e le m e n ts su ch a s M iguel V eiza g a, d i r e c t l y g u i l t y o f th e
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d i v i s i o n o f th e Cochabamba c a m p e sin o s." R o ja s seems to hav e p u t

th e i n t e r im b etw een c la s h e s w ith C liz a t o good u s e . Soon a f t e r th e

d e c l a r a t i o n o f s u p p o rt from th e C h i r i r i a C e n t r a l, a number o f im p o rta n t

m in e r s ' s y n d ic a te s e x p re s s e d a l l i a n c e w ith U curena:

The m ining c e n te r s o f H uanuni [ p r e v io u s ly a l l i e d w ith C l i z a ] ,


C a ta v i, S ig lo I I and San J o s e have made known, by t e l e g r a p h ,
t h a t armed m i l i t i a s w i l l d r iv e th e enemy from C liz a i n c a s e
t h e p ro b lem does n o t hav e an o p p o rtu n e and f a v o r a b le s o lu
tio n V

M iguel V eizag a resp o n d ed by p le d g in g s u p p o r t to th e c i t y o f Cocha

bamba, u n d er t h r e a t o f b lo c k a d e by U curena. A d e fe n s e ag reem en t was

s ig n e d betw een s y n d ic a te s u n d e r V e iz a g a 's command and th e Cochabamba

D ep artm en tal W orkers C e n tr a l. The c a c iq u e a f f ir m e d t h a t C li z a was

"armed to th e t e e t h " and i n th e e v e n t t h a t

. . . th o s e o f U curena p e r s i s t in t h i s m ista k e n a c t i v i t y ,
th e y a r e g o in g to f in d what th e y a r e lo o k in g f o r : t h e i r
t o t a l l o s s o f p r e s t i g e , b e c a u se th e p o p u la c e i s a lr e a d y
g iv in g p e r f e c t a cc o u n t o f i t s e l f a g a i n s t th o s e who shun
th e p a c i f i c a t i o n o f th e V a lle y . The c e n t r a l s and su b
c e n t r a l s o f C liz a and T a r a ta a r e n o t g o in g to p e rm it t h e i r
b r o th e r w o rk ers o f th e c i t i e s to d ie o f h u n g e r.

M acedonio J u r e z , one o f V e iz a g a 's d i r i g e n t e s , o b se rv e d t h a t th e s i t u a

t i o n i n th e V a lle y was w orse th a n i n th e ep o ch o f th e R osea b e c a u se o f

" th e c a u d i l l o s t h a t s p re a d t e r r o r in th e V a lle y .

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174

M eanwhile i n Cochabamba, num erous o r g a n iz a tio n s such a s th e

Pro-Cochabam ba C om m ittee, C a th o lic A c tio n , th e R o ta ry and L io n s C lu b s,

Red C ro s s , L eg io n o f E x-C om batants, C a th o lic Women's C lub, L a w y e r's

C o lle g e , and th e D e p a rtm en tal Chamber o f M in ers had p e t i t i o n e d th e MNR

governm ent f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t th e im pending b lo c k a d e o f th e c i t y

by J o s e R o ja s ' a l l i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e L eg io n o f Ex-C om batants

v o lu n te e r e d 6 ,0 0 0 Chaco War v e te r a n s f o r th e d e fe n s e o f th e c i t y , b u t

i t was b e lie v e d t h a t a t l e a s t 5 ,0 0 0 a d d i t i o n a l r e g u la r army tr o u p s would


108
be need ed to s u c c e s s f u lly r e p u ls e th e e x p e c te d R o jas t h r u s t .

To th e r e l i e f o f Cochabam binos, S a lv a d o r V lsq u ez, U curena

d i r i g e n t e , announced on Septem ber 6 t h a t th e b lo c k a d e o f th e c i t y ,

p la n n e d to b e g in th e n e x t d ay , h ad b een c a n c e lle d by th e s i n d i c a t o s
109
u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f J o s e R o ja s . The Paz E s te n s s o ro a d m in is tr a

t i o n , im m ed iately fo llo w in g th e announcem ent o f s u s p e n sio n o f th e p r o

p o sed b lo c k a d e , i n i t i a t e d l e g a l a c t io n a g a i n s t M iguel V eizag a and n in e

o th e r cam pesino le a d e r s from b o th C liz a and U curena f o r t h e i r r o l e s in

th e V ila V ila in c i d e n t . One hundred c a r a b in e r o s w ere d is p a tc h e d to th e

V a lle y to apprehend th e d i r i g e n t e s V e i z a g a f l e d th e ap p ro ach o f

th e c a r a b in e r o s , who, C o ro n el R iv a s U galde c la im e d , would n e v e r be

a b le t o c a p tu r e th e c a c iq u e b e c a u se o f th e g r e a t p h y s ic a l e x t e n t o f

th e r e g io n and i t s d e n s ity o f p o p u la tio n .

The tim in g o f th e d e c is io n by U curena to r e s c in d i t s p ro p o sed

b lo c k a d e o f Cochabamba and th e i n i t i a t i o n o f l e g a l p ro c e d u re s a g a i n s t

M iguel V eizag a and th e n in e d i r i g e n t e s s u g g e s ts an agreem ent b etw een

th e MNR governm ent and J o s 6 R o ja s to r i d th e V a lle y o f V eiza g a. A p re s i

d e n t i a l com m ission had been in th e r e g io n p r i o r to th e announcem ent,

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175

by th e U curena s i n d i c a t o , o f i t s i n t e n t i o n s t o su sp en d th e th r e a te n e d

b lo c k a d e o f Cochabamba. I t a p p e a r s , on th e b a s i s o f s u b j e c t i v e e v i

d e n c e , t h a t th e two a c t s w ere n o t c o i n c i d e n t a l . What i s c l e a r i s th e

e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f J o s R o ja s ' s t r a t e g y o f b r in g in g trem endous p r e s s u r e

to b e a r upon th e R e v o lu tio n a ry governm ent i n o r d e r to f o r c e l e g a l a c t io n

a g a i n s t M iguel V eizag a f o r a lle g e d g u i l t i n th e V ila V ila i n c i d e n t .

R o jas managed th e a f f a i r w ith s k i l l and d e l i b e r a t i o n ; th e r e s u l t s w ere

w e ll w o rth th e e f f o r t . From t h i s p o i n t , M iguel V e iz a g a 's p r e s t i g e and

pow er w ould b e g in to d e c l i n e , le a v in g J o s R o ja s a g a in th e p re -e m in e n t

c a c iq u e in th e V a lle y .

The g o v e rn m e n t's one hun d red c a r a b in e r o s s e a rc h e d i n e f f e c t u a l l y

f o r V eiza g a i n th e Cochabamba r e g io n w h ile th e f u g i t i v e c a c iq u e r e le a s e d

a number o f p u b lic s ta te m e n ts to th e MNR, p r o t e s t i n g in n o c e n c e and

c la im in g t h a t th e V ila V ila a t r o c i t y was th e han d iw o rk o f U curena


112
fo rc e s. In S ep tem b er, V eizag a fo llo w e r s w ere a c c u se d o f c r im in a l

a c t s r e s u l t i n g from an a t t a c k upon th e S u b - P re f e c t and M ajor o f C a ra -


113
b in e r o s in T a r a ta . By November, th e c a c iq u e had r e tu r n e d to C liz a

to r e - d i r e c t p e r s o n a lly th e s y n d i c a t e 's a c t i v i t i e s and by m id-m onth,

s k irm is h in g betw een C liz a and U curena had b e e n renew ed.

A s e r io u s c la s h r e s u l t e d i n C liz a when f i f t y c a r a b in e r o s , s e n t

to ap p reh e n d V eizag a and h i s le a d in g d i r i g e n t e s , a t ta c k e d th e P e a s a n t

C e n tr a l and th e h o u ses o f th e d i r i g e n t e s C sar Rom2n and O c ta v io C edeno.

V e iz a g a 's f o llo w e r s su cceed ed i n r e p u ls in g th e c a r a b in e r o a t t a c k , b u t

th e n i n t e n s e f i g h t i n g e r u p te d on th e o u t s k i r t s o f C liz a a s U curena
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f o r c e s a tte m p te d to a s s a u l t th e tow n. In th e c o n fu s io n o f t h i s a t

ta c k , o v e r f i f t y l i v e s w ere l o s t b e f o r e a sem blance o f o r d e r was r e s t o r e d .

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176

F o llo w in g th e " B a t t l e o f C liz a " some th r e e h u n d red tr o o p s o f th e R e g i

m ent "Waldo B a l l i v i a n " w ere flo w n to th e a r e a from La Paz to f o r e s t a l l

f u r t h e r v io l e n c e , and th e B o liv ia n A ir F o rce b eg an f l y i n g r e c o n n a is s a n c e


115
m is s io n s o v e r th e r e g io n to o b s e rv e p e a s a n t tr o o p movements. A tta c k s

by p e a s a n ts upon an Army p a t r o l and an A ir F o rce b a s e n e a r Cochabamba,

to g e th e r w ith c o n tin u e d w a r f a r e i n th e C liz a -U c u re fia f r o n t i e r , prom pted

th e MNR governm ent to d e c l a r e a s t a t e o f s ie g e i n th e d e p a rtm e n t on

November 1 1 , 1 9 6 9 .^ ^

The s t a t e o f s ie g e com bined w ith an in c r e a s e d number o f g o v e rn

m ent tr o o p s made f o r a c e s s a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s betw een C liz a and Ucu-

reS a. H o p efu l o f f in d in g a p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o th e d i f f i c u l t i e s r a i s e d

by th e r i v a l c a c iq u e s , V ice P r e s id e n t Ju an L e c h ln fle w to th e r e g io n

to c o n f e r w ith th e l e a d e r s . P r e v io u s ly , M iguel V eizag a h ad s u g g e s te d

t h a t f o r p u rp o s e s o f s t a b i l i t y i n th e V a lle y , b o th he and J o s R o ja s

s h o u ld le a v e th e s y n d ic a l movement. C o n fe rrin g w ith th e V ic e -

P r e s i d e n t , th e c a c iq u e a g re e d to f r e e e l e c t i o n s i n a l l th e p e a s a n t cen

t e r s , an end to th e j u d i c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p e r s e c u t io n o f M iguel V eiza g a

and o th e r d i r i g e n t e s o f C l i z a , and s e l e c t i o n o f new l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s


, t . _ 118
by th e C lic e n o s .

A second p o l i t i c a l d e v ic e aim ed a t r e s t o r i n g p e a c e to th e r e g io n ,

th e F i f t h Cochabamba P e a s a n t C o n feren ce h e ld a t S a n tiv a n e z , so u g h t to

end th e im p asse betw een s i n d i c a t o s a l l i e d to th e h o s t i l e C liz a and

U curena c a c iq u e s by e l e c t i n g new d i r i g e n t e s . I f s u c c e s s f u l , su ch a c t io n

w ould remove th e w a rrin g p e r s o n a l i t i e s from o b v io u s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r

s o u rc e s o f v io l e n c e , th e s y n d ic a te m i l i t i a s . The p ro c e e d in g s o f th e

F i f t h C o n fe re n c e , a s w e ll a s i t s r e s u l t s , a r e clo u d ed by c o n f l i c t i n g

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177

e v id e n c e : a t b e s t , d i r i g e n t e s o f th e o p p o sin g f a c t i o n s a g re e d to f o r g e t

th e p a s t and work tow ard a new h a lc y o n s y n d ic a l f u t u r e ; a t w o r s t, and

t h i s seems more p ro b a b le i n view o f th e d e e p - s e a te d h o s t i l i t y d ev elo p ed

betw een f a c t i o n s , th e C lic e n o d e le g a te s and t h e i r s u p p o r te r s , b e l ie v in g


119
th e C o n feren ce to b e rig g e d i n f a v o r o f th e U curena g ro u p , w alked o u t.

R e p o rte d ly , each s y n d ic a te c e n t r a l was to be r e p r e s e n te d by th r e e d e le

g a t e s , and C liz a , w hich th u s was a c c r e d ite d n in e te e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a r -


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r iv e d a t th e C onference to f in d some f i v e h u n d red d e le g a te s from U curena.

M iguel V e iz a g a , who had n o t a tte n d e d th e C o n fe re n c e , met w ith M in is te r

o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s , R o b erto J o rd a n P an d o , and announced h i s i n t e n t i o n

o f r e t i r i n g from s y n d ic a l p o l i t i c s :

I have a lr e a d y s a id t h a t i f we hav e p e r s o n a l q u e s tio n s be


tw een d i r i g e n t e s , betw een su ch we o u g h t to s e t t l e th e m a tte r s ,
w ith o u t je o p a r d iz in g p e a s a n t u n ity and w ith o u t d e s tr o y in g th e
homes o f o u r b r o t h e r s . Now t h a t we a r e i n th e s ta g e o f g a in
in g p a c i f i c a t i o n and u n i t y , I w i l l s h o r t l y r e t u r n t o work in
my c h a c ra [ p l o t ] , w ith d raw in g from s y n d ic a l l i f e . ^ ^

S h o r tly a f t e r V eizag a* s s ta te m e n t, P r e s id e n t Paz E s te n s s o ro an

nounced p la n s f o r a m e etin g w ith d i r i g e n t e s from C liz a and U curena and


122
re v e a le d t h a t h e would demand p a c i f i c a t i o n a t any p r i c e .

T hus, by l a t e December, 1960, th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement had

managed to b r in g u nder c o n t r o l th e v i o l e n t i n t r a - s y n d i c a l c o n f l i c t w hich

had i n t e r m i t t e n t l y w racked th e Cochabamba V a lle y f o r o v e r a y e a r . T h is

w as, h ow ever, o n ly one r e g io n m arked by p e a s a n t c o n f l i c t d u rin g th e 1959-

1960 p e r io d .

N o rth P o to s i

A n o th er r e g io n w hich underw ent c o n s id e r a b le i n t r a - p e a s a n t con

f l i c t was n o r th e r n P o to s i w here Laim es and Jucum anis c o n tin u e d t o . u s e

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
178

v io le n c e a s a means tow ard r e s o lv in g d i f f e r e n c e s stem m ing from boundary

d is p u te s . The problem s betw een th e two communal g ro u p s , a c o n tin u a tio n

o f e a r l i e r d is p u te s , w ould c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r th e R e v o lu tio n a ry

governm ent th ro u g h o u t th e s e l a t e r y e a r s .

B oth g ro u p s w ere communal I n d ia n p e a s a n ts : th e Jucum anis occu

p ie d an a r e a in B u s t i l l o s P ro v in c e e s tim a te d by th e M in is tr y o f A g ri

c u l t u r e a s 70 p e r c e n t p l a i n s ; th e Laim es in h a b ite d a zone o f bro k en

to p o g ra p h y , e s tim a te d a t 80 p e r c e n t m o u n ta in o u s, w ith l e s s a g r i c u l t u r a l
123
p o t e n t i a l th a n t h a t o f th e Ju cu m an is. B o u n d aries betw een th e two com

munal p o p u la tio n s w ere n o t c l e a r l y d e lim ite d and th u s p ro v id e d a so u rce

of c o n flic t. A g ra ria n Reform had done l i t t l e to a s s u a g e i l l f e e l in g s

betw een th e communal g ro u p s ; in t e n s e t r a f f i c k i n g i n arms and m u n itio n s

p ro v id e d th e w h e re w ith a l f o r more v i o l e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s . The m a jo r ity


124
o f co m b atan ts w ere re p u te d t o b e w e ll armed w ith m odern w eapons.

By m id -Ja n u a ry th e two com m unities had s u f f e r e d o v e r 150 dead and 200

wounded a s a r e s u l t o f armed c la s h e s ; b e f o r e th e end o f th e month th e


125
t o l l h ad r i s e n to 256 d e a th s .

A f te r th e J a n u a ry b a t t l e s , q u ie s c e n c e te m p o r a r ily r e tu r n e d to

B u s t i l l o s P ro v in c e u n t i l A u g u st, when w id e sp re a d f i g h t i n g had begun

again .. Bands o f Laim es and Jucum anis roamed th e r e g io n s t e a l i n g l i v e -


126
s to c k and com m itting a t r o c i t i e s . In one a t t a c k , Laim es r e p o r te d ly
127
b u rn ed th r e e ran ch o s and f o u r h u n d red h o u ses b e lo n g in g to Ju cu m an is.

Bands o f Laimes and Ju c u m a n is, by l a t e A u g u st, had e x ten d ed t h e i r o p er

a t i o n s o u ts id e P o to s i D ep artm en t and i n t o th e n e ig h b o rin g D epartm ent o f

O ru ro . The n e x t e x p a n sio n o f th e c o n f l i c t o c c u rre d when a n o th e r communal

g ro u p , th e K akachacas, jo i n e d f o r c e s w ith th e Laim es a g a i n s t th e Ju c u -


. 128
m am s.

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
179

I n S eptem ber, th e M in is tr y o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s announced a p la n

o f p a c i f i c a t i o n w hich so u g h t to r e s o lv e th e fu n d am e n tal problem s u n d er

ly in g th e d is p u te : f i r s t , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e was p ro p o sed w ith empha

s i s on c o n s tr u c tio n o f r u r a l s c h o o ls , o r g a n iz a ti o n o f c o o p e r a tiv e s ,

i n s t r u c t i o n i n ag ro n o m ical te c h n iq u e s and c r e a t i o n o f e x p e rim e n ta l farm s

se c o n d , a t e c h n ic a l com m ission was d is p a tc h e d to th e r e g io n to co n d u ct

a to p o g r a p h ic a l s u rv e y and d e l im i t c l e a r b o u n d a rie s betw een th e commu

n i t i e s ; and t h i r d , th e M in is tr y p la n n e d to r e o r g a n iz e th e p e a s a n t sy n -
129
d i c a t e s w ith more m o d e ra te . l e a d e r s h i p . A com m ission com prised o f

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e m i n i s t r i e s o f G overnm ent, D e fe n s e , A g r ic u ltu r e

and P e a s a n t A f f a i r s was d is p a tc h e d to n o r th e r n P o to s f i n November 1960

to s tu d y th e s e f a c e t s o f p a c i f i c a t i o n . R e p o rte d a l t e r c a t i o n s betw een


130
th e p e a s a n t com m unities had c e a se d by November 1960.

The A ltip la n o

P e a sa n t a c t i v i t y on th e a l t i p l a n o d u rin g 1960 was g e n e r a lly

r e l a t e d to th r e e p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s : s i n d i c a t o pro b lem s en g en d ered

by T o rib io S a la s , th e Aymara c a c iq u e im p lic a te d i n th e a s s a s s i n a t i o n

o f M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a ir s V ic e n te A lv a re z P l a t a i n 1959; c o n f l i c t

betw een s y n d ic a te s a lig n e d w ith e i t h e r th e MNR o r MNRA p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s ;

and p e a s a n t c l a s h e s , p r im a r ily o v e r b o u n d ary d i s p u t e s , b u t a ls o in v o lv

in g s y n d ic a l p o l i t i c s , p e r s o n a l en m ity o r lo n g - s ta n d in g h o s t i l i t y b e

tw een f a c t i o n s .

S y n d ic a l a c t io n a g a i n s t T o r ib io S a l a s , f o llo w in g th e m urder o f

A lv a re z P l a t a , was i n i t i a t e d in m id -Ja n u a ry 1960 a t th e P r o v in c i a l Cen

t r a l o f Omasuyos w here b o th S a la s and h i s l i e u t e n a n t , P a u lin o Q u isp e,


131
w ere e x p e lle d from th e o r g a n iz a ti o n . Form al c e n s u re by th e C e n tr a l

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
180

d id n o t s e rv e to d e t e r T o r ib io S a la s from f u r t h e r v io le n c e : a month

l a t e r , on F e b ru a ry 3 , S a la s and h i s henchm an, P a u lin o Q u isp e, known

a s "E l H u ila Saco" (Aymara: b lo o d y s h i r t ) , m urdered one cam pesino


^ 132
and wounded two o th e r s n e a r B e le n . A g ain , a c c u s a tio n o f m urder d id

n o t t a r n i s h S a l a s r e p u t a t i o n among th e p e a s a n tr y , and i n A p r il th e

N a tio n a l F e d e r a tio n o f C am pesinos v o te d s u p p o rt o f th e c a c iq u e and h i s

l i e u t e n a n t , P a u lin o Q u isp e , a lth o u g h th e D ep a rtm e n ta l F e d e r a tio n o f

Cam pesinos o f La Paz o b je c te d to th e s u p p o rt ac c o rd e d S a la s by th e


133
N a tio n a l F e d e r a tio n .

On Ju n e 1 6 , 1960, T o r ib io S a la s announced th e fo rm a tio n o f a new

m i l i t i a , "The C o lo rad o s o f B o l i v i a ," num bering 3 ,0 0 0 men who w ould w ear

th e re d u n ifo rm u sed e a r l i e r by th e B o liv ia n r e g u l a r Army i n th e War


134
o f th e P a c i f i c (1 8 7 9 -1 8 8 1 ). The m i l i t i a , b a s e d n e a r A ch acach i, was

commanded by S a la s a s "maximum c h i e f " w h ile P a u lin o Q uispe s e rv e d as

" s u b - c h i e f ." In a d d i tio n to t h i s o b v io u s d is p la y o f pow er, th e c a c iq u e 's

fo llo w in g in th e D epartm ent a s a w hole was r e v e a le d i n th e A ugust m eet

in g o f th e Second P e a s a n t C o n g ress a t P u c a r a n i. T h ere i t was v o te d t h a t

th e C ongress "d e fe n d th e in n o c e n c e " o f T o r ib io S a la s an d , i f n e c e s s a r y ,


135
d e c l a r e a n a t i o n a l s t r i k e on h i s b e h a l f .

W ith r e s p e c t to n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , th e a l t i p l a n o a p p e a rs to

have av o id ed much o f th e i n t e r - s y n d i c a l c o n f l i c t r e s u l t i n g from th e MNR-

MNRA e l e c t i o n cam paign o f 1 9 59-1960. D uring Ju n e and J u l y , 1960, p e a s

a n t s i n Camacho P r o v in c e , La P az D ep artm en t, a lig n e d w ith th e two n a t io n a l

p a r t i e s , c la s h e d a number o f tim e s : cam pesinos from Escoma and C ara-

b u c o , a f f i l i a t e d w ith th e MNR, fo u g h t communal p e a s a n ts o f W i l l a i s a n t i a


136
who w ere MNRA s u p p o r te r s . A lth o u g h c o n f l i c t s d u rin g th e s e two months

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18 1

w ere marked by s u b s t a n t i a l v i o l e n c e , th e y d id n o t ap p ro ach th e in t e n

s i t y o f w a rfa re i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y . As a w h o le , th e MNR-MNRA

cam paign among th e Aymara p e a s a n tr y o f th e a l t i p l a n o was m arked by con

s i d e r a b l y l e s s r a n c o r th a n was th e c a s e w ith th e Quechua o f th e Cocha

bamba r e g io n , whose r i v a l c a c iq u e s prom pted c i v i l w ar o v e r i s s u e s r e l a t e d ,

i n p a r t , to th e n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n cam paign.

In sum, w h ile th e p e a s a n tr y o f th e a l t i p l a n o r e f l e c t e d th e MNR-

MNRA sch ism , d i v i s i o n s among th e p o p u la tio n o f t h i s r e g io n w ere o f a

m inor n a tu r e com pared to th e Cochabamba p ro b lem s o f 1959-1960. Quan

t i t a t i v e l y , th e y e a r s 1959-1960 e x p e rie n c e d le s s e n e d h o s t i l i t y betw een

th e Aymara o f th e a l t i p l a n o , a lth o u g h i n La P az D epartm ent an a t t a c k

by some 600 cam pesinos was s u f f e r e d by th e p u e b lo o f Yaco in Loayza

P ro v in c e , and armed c o n f l i c t s o v e r b o u n d a rie s w ere r e p o r te d i n th e P ro -


137
v in c e Los A ndes. O ruro D epartm ent lik e w is e e x p e rie n c e d boundary
138
d is p u te s .

The P e rio d 1959-1960: Some G e n e r a liz a tio n s

The y e a r s 1959-1960 s u g g e s t a number o f changes i n th e r e l a t i o n

s h ip o f th e p e a s a n tr y t o th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n . The em ergence o f th e

c a c iq u e , c o i n c id e n t a l w ith th e n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n cam paigns o f 1959-

1960, made f o r a new e r a i n cam pesino s y n d ic a l p o l i t i c s . P re v io u s

s i n d i c a t o p o l i t i c s had b e e n c o n ce rn ed w ith power s t r u g g le s among d i r i

g e n te s f o r re a s o n s l a r g e l y p e r s o n a l r a t h e r th a n i d e o l o g i c a l . D uring

th e e a r l i e r p h a se o f R e v o lu tio n (1 9 5 2 -1 9 5 8 ), th e MNR had, s u p p o rte d a

number o f p e a s a n t le a d e r s who i n t u r n m a in ta in e d lo jy al s y n d ic a l a l l e

g ia n c e to th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
182

The e l e c t i o n cam paign r e v e a le d n o te w o rth y d i s a f f e c t i o n among

p e a s a n t d i r i g e n t e s w ith MNR b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n o f th e R e v o lu tio n and

grow ing i n e r t i a i n th e A g ra ria n Reform program . The A u te n tic o c h a lle n g e

t o MNR a u t h o r i t y p ro v id e d an o p p o r tu n ity f o r advancement o f le a d e r s

c r i t i c a l o f th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement and d i s s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e i r

p o s i t i o n s w ith in th e Movement. The r e s u l t a n t c o n f l i c t betw een p e a s a n t

s y n d ic a l l e a d e r s , n o ta b ly t h a t betw een th e c a c iq u e s J o se R ojas and

M iguel V e iz a g a , f u r th e r e d th e te n d e n c y , o b s e rv a b le i n th e e a r l i e r

s ta g e s o f th e R e v o lu tio n , to p e r v e r t th e f u n c tio n o f th e s in d ic a to

m i l i t i a ; o r i g i n a l l y co n c e iv e d to g u ard th e f r u i t s o f a g r a r ia n re fo rm ,

th e m i l i t i a h a d , by 1959, become a p e r s o n a l army. The 1959-1960 y e a r s

a l s o r e f l e c t e d in c r e a s in g in te r c h a n g e betw een p e a s a n t s y n d ic a te s o f

th e Cochabamba r e g io n and m in in g s y n d ic a te s o f n o r th e r n P o to s i and

O ruro D e p a rtm e n ts. A n a s c e n t i n t e r s y n d i c a l v a r ie ty o f diplom acy w ith

a l l i a n c e s betw een v a r io u s p e a s a n t and m in e r s ' s y n d ic a te s i n d i c a te s in

c re a s e d in t e r c o u r s e betw een th e two g ro u p s p e a s a n ts and m in e rs .

F i n a l l y , th e c i v i l w ar betw een th e c a c iq u e s o f th e Cochabamba

V a lle y t r a g i c a l l y in c r e a s e d th e dependence o f th e R e v o lu tio n a ry govern

m ent upon th e r e g u l a r army and a i r f o r c e . U nable to cope w ith s u s ta in e d

v io le n c e th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try , e s p e c i a l l y in Cochabamba and P o to s i

D e p a rtm e n ts, th e MNR r e l i e d upon th e m i l i t a r y to r e s o lv e problem s o f

p o l i t i c s and p e r s o n a l i t y w ith in th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement. F a il u r e

t o a c h ie v e d e c i s i v e and l a s t i n g p o l i t i c a l s o lu tio n s to p e a s a n t q u a r r e l s

was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f th e s e a s w e ll a s o th e r y e a rs o f r e v o lu t io n . By

1960 th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement h ad e x p e rie n c e d co n tin u e d an arch y in th e

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
183

p e a s a n t s e c t o r , in c r e a s e d d i s a f f e c t i o n and s p l i n t e r i n g w ith in i t s

p o l i t i c a l a p p a r a tu s , and an i n c l i n a t i o n to w ard e x c e s s iv e r e l i a n c e

upon th e r e g u l a r m i l i t a r y to m a in ta in o r d e r i n th e c o u n tr y s id e . The

te n d e n c ie s w ould c o n tin u e d u rin g th e n e x t , and l a s t , p e r io d o f MNR

ru le : 1961-1964.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
184

N o tes

^ R ich ard W. P a tc h , " B o liv ia Today: An A ssessm ent N ine Y ears


A f te r th e R e v o lu tio n ," A m erican U n i v e r s i t i e s F ie l d S t a f f ; West C oast
South A m erica S e r i e s , V I I I , n o . 4 (March 1 7 , 1 9 6 1 ), p p . 1 3 -1 6 .
2
La N acio n , Ju n e 2 8 , 1956, p . 5 ; J u l y 7 , 1956, p . 5 .

3 P a tc h , " B o liv ia T o d a y ," p p . 9 -1 0 .


4
I n te r v ie w w ith R o b erto Gumucio, S t a f f Member, U n iv e r s ity o f
W isconsin Land T enure C e n te r , La P a z , B o l i v i a , J a n u a ry 1 7 , 1968;
R ich ard W. P a tc h , " B o liv ia : The S ev en th Y e a r ," A m erican U n i v e r s i t i e s
F ie ld S t a f f ; West C o ast South A m erica S e r i e s , V I, n o . 1 (F eb ru ary 3 ,
1 9 5 9 ), p . 11.

5La N acid n , A p r il 2 5 , 1 959, p . 4 .

**La N aci$ n , A p r il 2 5 , 1959, p . 4 .

7P .atch, " B o liv ia : The S ev en th Y e a r ," p p . 1 8 -1 9 .


g
P a r tid o d e l M ovim iento N a c i o n a l i s t a R e v o lu c io n a rio A u te n tic o ,
P.M .N.R.A. E x p o sic id n de M o tiv o s y D e c la r a c i$ n de P r in c i p io s (? : ? ,
19 6 0 ), p . 44.
g
P a r ti d o d e l MNRA, P.M .N .R .A . E x p o s ic io n , p . 6 6 .

^ P a r t i d o d e l MNRA, P . M.N. R.A. E x p o s ic io n , p . 106.

X1La P r e s e n c ia , November 4t, 1959, p . 5 ; E l D ia r io , November 1 ,


1959, p . 7? November 4 , 1959, p . 7 ; November 6 , 1959, p . 6 .

12 e i D ia r io , November 2 4 , 1959, p . 6 .

13 e i D ia r io , November 2 5 , 1959, p . 4 ; December 1 , 1959, p . 4 .

14e i D ia r io , November 2 5 , 1959, p . 6 .

15e i D ia r io , November 25, 1959, p . 6 .

16e i D ia r io , December 16, 1959, p . 7 ; La P r e s e n c ia , December 1 6 ,


1959, p . 4 .

17 e i D ia r io , December 1 6 , 1959, p . 7 : La P r e s e n c ia , December 1 6 ,


1959, p . 4 .
18
E l D ia r io , December 1 6 , 1 9 5 9 ,p . 7 ; La P r e s e n c ia , December 16,
1959, p . 4 .

W E1 D ia r io , December 1 6 , 1959, p . 7 ; La P r e s e n c ia , December 1 6 ,


1959, p . 4 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
185

20 e i D ia r io , December 1 6 , 1959, p . 7 ; La P r e s e n c ia , December 1 6,


1959, p . 4.

21e i D i a r i o , December 16, 1959, p . 7; La P r e s e n c ia , December 1 6 .


1959, p . 4.
22
E l D i a r i o , December 16 , 1959, p . 7 ; La P r e s e n c ia , December 1 6 ,
1959, p . 4 .

2 ^ P a tc h , " B o liv ia T o d ay ," p . 1 5 .


24
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 6 , 1 9 59, p . 4 .
25
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 1 4 , 1959, p . 5 .

2 ^E1 D i a r i o , F e b ru ary 8 , 1959, p . 4 .


27
E l D i a r i o , November 2 3 , 1 9 59, p . 5 ; November 2 4 , 1959, p . 7;
and a l s o La P r e s e n c ia , December 2 3 , 1959, p . 3 .
28
La P r e s e n c ia , December 2 2 , 1959, p . 4 ; E l D i a r i o , December 1 ,
1959, p . 7.
29
La P r e s e n c ia . December 2 5 , 1959, p . 5 ; E l D i a r i o , December 20,
1959, p . 7.
30
La P r e s e n c ia , December 2 3 , 1959, p . 3 .
31
La P r e s e n c ia . O cto b er 1 9 , 1959, p . 5 .
32
La P r e s e n c ia . O c to b e r 2 1 , 1959, p . 5 ; O cto b er 2 5 , 1959, p . 6 .
33
La P r e s e n c ia , O cto b er 1 9 , 1959, p . 5 .
34
E l D i a r i o . November 2 3 , 1959, p . 4 .
35
La P r e s e n c ia , Septem ber 9 , 1959, p . 5 ; O cto b er 8 , 1959, p . 5 ;
O ctob er 8 , 1959, p . 6 ; El D i a r i o , May 5 , 1 9 59, p . 4; November 1 5 , 1959,
p. 6.

^ E 1 D i a r i o . A ugust 2 1 , 1959, p . 4 .
37
La P r e s e n c ia , S eptem ber 1 , 1959, p . 6 .
38
Amado C a n e la s , M ito y R e a lid a d de l a Reforma A g r a r ia (La P az:
E d i t o r i a l "Los Amigos d e l L i b r o ," 1 9 6 6 ), p . 200; R ic h ard W. P a tc h ,
" B o liv ia : D e c is io n o r D e b a c le ," A m erican U n i v e r s i t i e s F ie l d S t a f f ; West
C oast S outh A m erica S e r i e s , V I, n o . 3 ( A p r il 1 8 , 1 9 5 9 ), p . 5 .
39
R ic h a rd W. P a tc h , "The B o liv ia n F a la n g e ," A m erican U n i v e r s i t i e s
F ie ld S t a f f ; West C o ast S outh A m erica S e r i e s , V I, no 4 (May 1 4 , 1 9 5 9 ),
p. 8 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
186

^ L a N aci 6 n , A p r il 2 0 , 1959, p . 3 .

^ L a N acid n , A p r il 2 0 , 1959, p . 3 .

^ L a N acio n , A p r il 2 0 , 1959, p . 3 .

^ L a N acio n , A p r il 2 0 , 1959, p . 5 .
44
E l D ia r io , March 19, 1957, p . 7 .
45
La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 7 , 1 960, p . 4 .
46
La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 2 7 , 1 9 6 0 , p . 5 .
47
E l Mundo f i r s t em ployed th e te rm : r e p r in te d in El D ia rio ,
J a n u a ry 8 , 1960.
48
La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 7 , 1 960, p . 4 .
49
La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 9 , 1960, p . 4 .

~*^La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 9 , 1960, p . 4 .

^ L a P r e s e n c i a , J a n u a ry 9 , 1 9 60, p . 4 .
52
La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 9 , 1 9 6 0 , p . 4 .
53
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 1 1 , 1 9 60, p . 4 .
54
The o c c u p a tio n o f T a r a ta and T o la ta i s somewhat q u e s tio n a b le
h e r e ; su p p o se d ly t h e i r p o p u la tio n s w ere lo y a l to V eizaga d u rin g t h i s
p e r io d .

^~*E1 D i a r i o . J a n u a ry 2 6 , 1 960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia . Ja n u a ry 27,


1960, p . 5 .

^ L a P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 2 7 , 1 9 60, p . 5 .

^ A n i n t e r e s t i n g and r e v e a lin g i n c i d e n t sh o u ld b e r e la te d i n con


n e c tio n w ith V ic to r Paz E s t e n s s o r o 's t r i p to th e V a lle y : th e "maximum
le a d e r " o f th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n , r e t u r n i n g from U curena, p a sse d by
La A n g o stu ra Dam w hich was c o n t r o l l e d by V e iz a g a 's m i l i t i a s . The ex
p r e s i d e n t 's au to m o b ile was r e p o r te d ly h a l t e d by th e m ilitia m e n , who
p ro cee d ed to r e l i e v e S enor Paz E s te n s s o r o and h i s com panions o f t h e i r
money and w a tc h e s . T h is i n c i d e n t s u g g e s ts t h a t th e a lle g e d v e n e r a tio n
o f "Don V ic to r " by th e p e a s a n tr y i s p e rh a p s o v erem p h asized .
58
E l D i a r i o , J a n u a ry 2 8 , 1 960, p . 7.
59
La P r e s e n c i a , J a n u a ry 3 0 , 1 960, p . 5 ; Ja n u a ry 30, 1960, p . 6 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
187

8^E1 D ia r io , March 8 , I9 6 0 , p . 6; March 8 , 1960, p . 4 .

^ E 1 D ia r io . March 6 , 1960, p . 6 ; M arch 8 , 1960, p p . 7 ,9 ; La


P r e s e n c ia . March 6 , 1960, p . 5 .
62
E l M a r i o . March 6 , 1960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia . March 6 , 1960,
p. 5.
63
E l D i a r i o . March 8 , 1960, p . 7 .
64
E l D i a r i o , March 8 , 1960, p . 7 .
65
The S ev en th D iv is io n h a s p la y e d an im p o rta n t r o l e i n r e c e n t
B o liv ia n h i s t o r y : th e D iv is io n was commanded f o r a tim e d u rin g t h i s
p e r io d by G en eral A lfredo.O vando C a n d ia , one o f th e c o - c o n s p ir a to r s
(a lo n g w ith A ir F o rce G en eral Rene B a r r ie n to s O rtufio) i n th e m i l i t a r y
coup o f November, 1964; th e S ev en th D iv is io n a l s o p la y e d a m ajo r r o le
i n th e c o u n te r - in s u r g e n c y o p e r a tio n a g a i n s t Che G u e v a ra 's g u e r r i l l a
f o r c e s i n 1967-1968.
66
La P r e s e n c ia . A p r il 1 4 , 1 960, p . 4 ; E l D i a r i o . March 27,
1960, p . 5 .

67 e i D i a r i o , May 1 0 , 1960, p . 4 ; La P r e s e n c ia . May 10, 1960,


p . 5.

68 e i D i a r i o , May 1 2 , 1960, p . 6 .

69 e i D ia r io , May 1 2 , 1960, p . 6 .

70e i D ia r io , May 14, 1960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia , May 16, 1960,


p . 4.

71e i D i a r i o , May 1 4 , 1960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia , May 1 6 , 1960,


p . 4.

72e i D i a r i o , May 14, 1960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia , May 1 6 , 1960,


p . 4.

73e i D i a r i o , May 14, 1960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia , May 1 6 , 1960,


p . 4.

74e i D ia r io , May 15, 1960, p . 7.

75e i D ia r io , May 15, 1960, p . 7 .

In fo rm a tio n r e p o r te d by c o r r e s p o n d e n ts f o r th e new spapers


E l Mundo and C r i t i c a : p u b lis h e d i n E l D i a r i o , May 2 5 , 1960, p . 6 .

See Benjam in I . C o r d e iro , T ra g e d ia en In d o am ^ rica (C ordoba,


A rg e n tin a : E d i t o r i a l Condor, 1 9 6 4 ), p p . 1 8 9 , 1 9 0 . A lso E l D ia rio ,
June 1 5 , 1960, p . 7 ; June 1 6, 1960, p . 7; J u n e 1 7 , 1960, p . 4 ; June 29,
1960, p p . 5 , 7 ; La P r e s e n c ia , Ju n e 2 0 , 1960, p . 5 ; Ju n e 22, 1960, p . 5 ;
Ju n e 2 9 , 1960, p . 4 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
188

78
La P r e se n c ia , June 21, 1960, p . 5; June 28, 1960, p . 5.

^ 9E l D ia r io , Ju n e 16, 1960, p . 7 .
80
El D ia r io , Ju n e 29, 1960, p . 5 .

*^E1 D ia r io , Ju n e 29, 1960, p . 5.


82
R ep o rted i n El D ia r io , J u ly 2 9 , 1960, p . 6 .

*^E 1 D ia r io , J u l y 29, 1960, p . 6 .


84
El D ia r io , J u ly 29, 1960, p . 6 .
85
El D ia r io , J a n u a ry 7, 1960, p . 6 ; Ja n u a ry 10, 1960, p . 7.
86
El D i a r i o , J u ly 26, 1960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia , J u ly 26, I960.
87
E l D i a r i o , J u ly 2 6 , 1960, p . 6 ; La P r e s e n c ia , J u ly 26, 1960,
p. 4.
88
El D ia r io , J u ly 2 6 , 1960, p . 7 .
89
La P r e s e n c ia , J u l y 27, 1960, p . 4 .
90
La P r e s e n c ia , J u l y 27, 1960, p . 4 .
91 /
F o llo w in g h is ap p o in tm en t a s M in is te r o f P e a sa n t A f f a i r s , J o s e
R ojas r e tu r n e d to th e Cochabamba V a lle y w ith a new Toyota je e p and moved
h is p la c e o f r e s id e n c e from U curena to th e m e s tiz o town o f P u n a ta . S in -
fo ro s o R ivas was im p lic a te d i n i l l e g a l d e a lin g s w ith government-owned
C0MIB0L (B o liv ia n M in e ra l C o rp o ra tio n ) i n a d d i tio n to e a r l i e r ch arg es
o f " i l l e g a l en rich m en t" d u rin g h is te rm a s S e c r e ta r y G eneral o f th e
Cochabamba D ep artm en tal P e a s a n t F e d e r a tio n .
92 /
See La N acio n , Ju n e 20, 1956, p . 5 f o r th e n a tio n a l r e s u l t s
and J u ly 7, 1956, p . 5 f o r th e d ep artm en t o f La P az.
93
Dwight B. H eath , "The Aymara In d ia n s and B o li v ia 's Revolu
t i o n s , " In te r-A m e ric a n Economic A f f a i r s , X V III (S p rin g , 1966), p . 36.

94La N acion, J u n e 6 , 1960, p . 5 .

95La N acion, Ju n e 6 , 1960, p . 5.


96
La P r e s e n c ia , A ugust 20, 1960, p . 4 ; E l D ia r io , A ugust 20,
1960, p . 7.
97t
La P r e s e n c ia , A ugust 30, 1960, p . 4 ; El D ia r io , A ugust 30,
1960, p . 4 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
189

98
E l D ia r io , A ugust 3 1 , 1 960, p . 5 ; La P r e s e n c ia , Septem ber 2 ,
1960, p . 5 .
99
La P r e s e n c ia , A ugust 3 1 , 1960, p . 5 ; E l D i a r i o , A ugust 31,
1960, p . 5 .

~^^La P r e s e n c ia , A ugust 3 1 , 1960, p . 5 ; E l D i a r i o , A u g u st*31,


1960, p . 5 .

^ ^La P r e s e n c ia , S eptem ber 1 , 1960, p . 5 ; E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 1 ,


1960, p . 5 .
102
La P r e s e n c ia , S eptem ber 1 , 1960, t>. 5 ; E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 1 ,
1960, p . 5 .
103
La P r e s e n c ia , S eptem ber 3 , 1960, p . 4 .
104
E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 3 , 1960, p . 5 .

^^ L a P r e s e n c ia , S eptem ber 4 , 1960, p . 5 .

^^ L a P r e s e n c ia , S eptem ber 4 , 1960, p . 5 .

^ \a P r e s e n c ia . S eptem ber 3 , 1960, o . 4 ; a l s o se e Septem ber 2 ,


1960, p . 5.
108
E l D i a r i o , S eptem ber 4 , 1960, p . 6 ; Septem ber 5 , 1960, p . 5 .
109
E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 6 , 1960, p . 5 .

~*~^ L a P r e s e n c ia , Septem ber 7 , 1960, p . 5 .

U 1X a . P r e s e n c ia , S eptem ber 2 2 , 1960, p . 5 ; E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 11,


1960, p . 7.
112
S ee, f o r ex am p le, E l D i a r i o , Septem ber 1 3 , 1960, p p . 6 , 9 ;
a l s o La P r e s e n c ia , Septem ber 1 3 , 1960, p . 4 .
113
La P r e s e n c i a , S eptem ber 9 , 1960, p . 5 .
114
E l D i a r i o , November 1 5 , 1960, p p . 7 , 9 ; La P r e s e n c ia , November
15, 1960, p . 4; s e e a l s o E l D i a r i o , November 16, 1960, p p . 6 , 9 ; La P r e -
s e n c ia , November 1 6 , 1960, p . 5 ; and E l D i a r i o , November 14, 1960, p . 5 ;
La P r e s e n c ia , November 1 4 , 1960, p . 5 .

~^~*E1 D i a r i o , November 1 5 , 1960, p . 7 ; La P r e s e n c ia , November 15,


1960, p . 4.

^ ^ E l D i a r i o , November 1 9 , 1960, p . 7; November 1 8 , 1960, p . 7.

^ ^ L a P r e s e n c ia , November 2 7 , 1960, p . 5 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
190

118
El D ia r io , November 3 0 , 1960, p . 7.

119
E l D i a r i o , December 1 8 , 1960, p . 7; December 19, 1960, p . 4 ;
December 22, 1960, p . 7; La P r e s e n c ia , December 18, 1960, p . 6 ; Decem
b e r 27, 1960, p . 5 . .
120
E l D i a r i o , December 1 8 , 1960, p . 7.
121
E l D i a r i o , December 2 2 , 1960, p . 7; La P r e s e n c ia , December 22,
1960, p . 5.
122
La P r e s e n c ia , December 2 7 , 1960, p . 5 .
123
In fo rm a tio n from th e M in is tr y o f A g r ic u lt u r e p r i n t e d i n La
P r e s e n c ia , December 8 , 1960, p . 5 .
124
La P r e s e n c ia , Ja n u a ry 3 0 , 1960, p . 4 .
125
La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 15, 1960, p . 4 ; Ja n u a ry 1, 1960, p . 4 .
126
La P r e s e n c ia , A ugust 2 4 , 1960, p . 5.
127
La P r e s e n c ia , A ugust 2 9 , 1960, p . 5.
128
La P r e s e n c ia , Septem ber 2 9 , 1960, p . 4 ; Septem ber 15, 1960, p . 5
and a l s o El D i a r i o , A ugust 14, 1960, p . 6 .
129
La P r e s e n c ia , Septem ber 15, 1960, p . 5; Septem ber 2 9 , 1960,
p. 4.
130
F o r a c o n s e r v a tiv e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s c o n f l i c t s e e Benjam in
I . C o rd e iro , T ra g e d ia en In d o am d rica, p p . 1 8 8 -1 8 9 . The l a s t r e p o r te d
v io le n c e a t t r i b u t e d to th e two g ro u p s was i n th e v i c i n i t y o f San Pedro
de Buena V is ta , P o t o s f D epartm ent: E l D i a r i o , O cto b er 18, 1960, p . 4 .
131
*La P r e s e n c ia , J a n u a ry 13, 1960, p . 5 .
132
E l D i a r i o , F e b ru ary 7 , 1960, p . 6 .
133
La P r e s e n c ia , A p r il 1 , 1960, p . 4 .
134
La P r e s e n c ia , Ju n e 1 6 , 1960, p . 4 .
135
La P r e s e n c ia , A ugust 2 1 , 1960, p . 5.
136
E l D i a r i o , Ju n e 30, 1960, p . 5; La P r e s e n c ia , Ju n e 30, 1960,
p . 5; J u ly 3, 1960, p . 5 .
137
La P r e s e n c ia , F e b ru a ry 1 , 1960, p . 4 ; A p r il 22, 1960, p . 5;
E l D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 6 , 1960, p . 6 .
138
La P r e s e n c ia , F e b ru a ry 1 , 1960, p . 4 ; A p r il 22, 1960, p . 5;
E l D i a r i o , F e b ru a ry 6 , 1960, p . 6 .

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
191

V III. PEASANT AND REVOLUTION, 1961-1964

D uring th e p e r io d 1 9 61-1964, a number o f p a t t e r n s o f p e a s a n t

v io le n c e d is c u s s e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p te r s p e r s i s t e d : i n th e Cochabamba

V a lle y , C liz a and U curena m a in ta in e d th e h o s t i l i t i e s w hich h ad marked

r e l a t i o n s betw een th e two s y n d ic a te o r g a n iz a tio n s d u rin g 1959-1960;

v io le n c e i n n o r th e r n P o to s i betw een th e Laim es and Jucum anis c o n tin u e d

s p o r a d i c a l l y ; and on th e a l t i p l a n o , e s p e c i a l l y i n Omasuyos P r o v in c e ,

in t e r - s y n d i c a t e s t r i f e w ould c o n tin u e u n a b a te d u n t i l th e l a t t e r y e a r s

o f th e R e v o lu tio n . A n o th er s i m i l a r i t y w ith e a r l i e r d e v e lo p m e n ts, oc

c a s io n e d by th e e l e c t i o n cam paign o f 1964, was c o n f l i c t among p e a s a n t

s e c t o r s a lig n e d w ith th e com peting p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . W hereas i n 1959-

1960 th e c o n f l i c t would be among L e c h in is ta s ( s u p p o r te r s o f I z q u ie r d a

p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d id a te J u a n L e c h ln ) , B a r r i e n t i s t a s ( s u p p o r te r s o f MNR

v ic e p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d id a te , G en eral Rene B a r r i e n t o s ) , and P a z e s te n s -

s o ris ta s .

T here w e re , d e s p it e su ch c o n s i s t e n c i e s , new d ev elo p m en ts in

p e a s a n t r e l a t i o n s d u rin g th e 1961-1964 p e r i o d , th e m ost im p o rta n t o f

w hich r e l a t e d to th e em ergence o f s i n d i c a t o le a d e r s who c h a lle n g e d th e

a u th o rity of e s ta b lis h e d d ir ig e n te s . B oth i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y ,

a t Q u i l l a c o l l o , and on th e a l t i p l a n o , a t A c h a c a c h i, e s t a b l i s h e d d i r i

g e n te s w ere o v erth ro w n by coups from w ith i n t h e i r s y n d i c a t e s . The

e l e c t i o n cam paign o f 1963-1964 i n la r g e p a r t o c c a sio n e d much o f th e

s y n d ic a te d i s r u p t i o n d u rin g th e s e y e a r s : S in fo ro s o R iv a s and T o r ib io

S a la s chose to s u p p o rt th e MNR I z q u ie r d a c a u s e , th u s a l ig n in g th e m se lv e s

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192

a g a i n s t e s ta b l is h e d MNR r u l e . T h is developm ent o f f e r e d r a r e o p p o r

t u n i t y to th e more a g g r e s s iv e and a m b itio u s o f men a s p i r i n g to sy n

d ic a te c o n tro l. P r e v io u s ly le a d e r s h ip p o s i t i o n s w ith i n th e s i n d i c a t o

had been s t a t i c , and th e i n i t i a t i v e o f w ould-be le a d e r s th u s th w a rte d .

Soon a f t e r i t became a p p a re n t t h a t R iv a s and S a la s had s h i f t e d a l l e

g ia n c e , o p p o r tu n i s t ic p e a s a n ts w ith i n t h e i r s y n d ic a te s began t o p l o t

a g a i n s t them . T h e ir e f f o r t s w ere made e a s i e r by c o n s id e r a b le MNR a id

and s u p p o r t.

U n d erly in g s i n d i c a t o p o l i t i c s and r u r a l c o n f l i c t d u rin g th e s e

y e a r s , a s o t h e r s , was th e c o n tin u in g p ro c e s s o f a g r a r i a n re fo rm . In

t h i r t e e n y e a r s o f u p h e a v a l, marked g a in s w ere made i n th e im provem ent

o f th e q u a l i t y o f p e a s a n t l i f e . But t h i s advance r e p r e s e n te d o n ly a

b e g in n in g i n an u n d e rta k in g w h ich , i f i t w ere to b e s u c c e s s f u l , would

in v o lv e d ecad es o f c o n c e rte d e f f o r t .

The Cochabamba V a lle y

S y n d ic a l r e l a t i o n s in th e Cochabamba V a lle y w ere marked by

d e c re a s e d tu rb u le n c e i n th e y e a r 1961. In J a n u a r y , e x e m p lify in g t h i s

te n d e n c y , th e w eekly f a i r s h e ld a t C liz a w ere ren ew ed . The com m ercial

f a i r s a t C liz a had been d is c o n tin u e d d u rin g th e p e a s a n t w a r f a r e o f 1959

1960; now cam pesinos from th e r e g io n w ere a g a in jo u r n e y in g to th e town

eac h Sunday to s e l l t h e i r p ro d u c e .

F u r th e r s u g g e s tin g a r e t u r n to norm alcy i n th e a r e a was an ap

p a r e n t change i n th e le a d e r s h ip o f th e C liz a s y n d ic a te ; th e d i r i g e n t e

J u l i a n ChUvez was e l e c t e d to i t s S e c r e ta r y G e n e ra ls h ip i n March 1962.

I t th u s ap p ea red th a t C liz a was r i d o f th e tr o u b lo u s le a d e r s h ip o f

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193

M iguel V eiza g a. In C havezs w ords: "We h av e d is p la c e d cac iq u ism o ;

now we w i l l work i n p eac e w ith th o s e o f U curena and have n orm al i n t e r

change-."^ Forthcom ing e v e n ts w ere to p ro v e J u l i a n C h a v e z 's optim ism

il l- f o u n d e d on two c o u n ts : f i r s t , M iguel V eizag a may have s u rre n d e re d

t i t u l a r le a d e r s h ip o f th e C liz a s y n d ic a te , b u t h i s c o n t r o l o v e r th e

o r g a n iz a tio n was to o d e e p ly ro o te d to be s e v e re d by a mere e l e c t i o n ;

se c o n d , "norm al in te rc h a n g e " betw een th e two p e a s a n t c e n te r s was n o t

e a s i l y ach iev ed a f t e r two y e a r s o f n e a r c i v i l w ar. The i n a b i l i t y o f

th e r e v o lu tio n a r y governm ent to f in d an e x p e d ie n t and m e an in g fu l s o lu

t i o n to th e c o n f l i c t betw een s y n d ic a te s i n th e V a lle y had o n ly se rv e d

to a llo w h a tr e d to become more d e e p -s e a te d a s v io le n c e c o n tin u e d .

R e la tio n s betw een C lic e n o s and U curenos w ere to d e g e n e ra te from th e

tre n c h w a rfa re and p itc h e d b a t t l e s o f 1959-1960 i n t o a s e r i e s o f r a i d s

and c o u n t e r - r a id s co n d u cted by p e a s a n ts s e e k in g re v e n g e . The MNR

m i l i t a r y was to p ro v e i t s e l f in c a p a b le o f e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s

s i t u a t i o n w h ile th e governm ent d e m o n stra te d f u r t h e r i n a b i l i t y to im

pose a s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l s o lu ti o n to th e pro b lem .

S p o rad ic fe u d in g betw een C liz a and U curena c o n tin u e d u n ab ated

d u rin g th e e a r l y m onths o f 1962; th e Paz E s te n s s o r o a d m in is tr a t io n ,

n e v e r t h e le s s , had w ith d r a w r e g u la r army tr o o p s from th e zone by J u ly 6

i n acc o rd an ce w ith i t s o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l t h a t th e V a lle y had been

p a c ifie d . The fo llo w in g day V ice P r e s id e n t Ju an L e c h in jo u rn e y e d to


2
th e a r e a to s e t t l e th e l a t e s t d is r u p ti o n betw een s y n d ic a t e s .

T h is l a t e s t p a c i f i c a t i o n m easure had f a i l e d by A ugust 4 , when

J o s R o ja s le d some 300 cam pesinos i n t o C liz a i n s e a r c h o f th e C lic e n o

d i r i g e n t e , J u l i a n Chavez. U nable t o f in d C havez, th e U curenos s e iz e d

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194

th e d i r i g e n t e Roman C a s i l l a , whom th e y m arched tow ard U curena; C a s i l l a


3
was found dead th e fo llo w in g day on th e ro a d to U cu ren a. In a f u r th e r

p iq u e o f a n g e r, Jo s R o ja s th r e a te n e d th e P r e f e c t o f th e c i t y of Cocha

bamba w ith an in v a s io n o f th e c i t y . The P r e f e c t r e v e a le d t h a t R c ja s

had th r e a te n e d to march on Cochabamba w ith h i s armed m i l i t i a s , occupy


4
th e c i t y and behead i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , b e g in n in g w ith th e a u t h o r i t i e s .

C le a r ly , p a c i f i c a t i o n had a g a in been a s u p e r f i c i a l m easure;

w hat was needed was an u n d e rta k in g w hich a d d re s s e d i t s e l f to th e is s u e s

u n d e rly in g th e s tr u g g le and r e o r d e r e d th e h ie r a r c h y o f th e w a rrin g s i n - x

d ic a to s . In Septem ber 1962, th e governm ent f i n a l l y p ro p o sed a s o l u t i o n ;

th e C liz a -U c u re n a p ro b lem , i t was s t a t e d , r e s u l t e d from th e le a d e r s h ip

o f th e c a c iq u e s R o jas and V eizag a and th e p e r s o n a l r a n c o r and l a t e n t

t h i r s t f o r vengeance o f th e d i r i g e n t e s . " ^ T h u s, i t was pro p o sed t h a t

b o th J o s i R ojas and M iguel V eizag a b e te m p o r a r ily d e p o rte d and new

le a d e r s be s e le c te d to assum e d i r e c t i o n o f th e s y n d ic a te s o f C liz a and

U curen a. On Septem ber 5 , 1960, d e l e g a te s from C liz a and U curena met

a t "Mosoj R ancho," s i t u a t e d ro u g h ly a lo n g th e f r o n t i e r d iv id in g th e

two z o n e s , and ag ree d to th e fo rm a tio n o f a new, u n i f i e d s in d ic a to w hich

was t o b e r e p r e s e n te d by sev en d i r i g e n t e s from C liz a and sev en from

U curen a. W ith t h i s m easure i t was hoped t h a t th e governm ent would be

a b le to r e p la c e th e o ld c a c iq u e s w ith new d i r i g e n t e s , who would co n -


6
s t i t u t e a g u a ra n te e f o r th e l o s t u n i t y and p eace in th e V a lle y .

The new j o i n t l y c o n t r o l le d s y n d ic a te was to s h a re governm ent o f th e

r e g io n w ith c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s , and th e r e g u l a r arm y, s t a t i o n e d i n th e

a r e a p e r i o d i c a l l y s in c e 1959, was to b e rem oved. T h is p la n , th e m ost

a m b itio u s to d a te , su ccee d ed i n m a in ta in in g p eace i n th e V a lle y f o r

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195

s l i g h t l y o v e r two m onths.

On November 1 2 , 1962, m i l i t i a f o r c e s u n d e r th e c o n t r o l o f th e

s y n d ic a te s o f C liz a and U curena a g a in r e tu r n e d to combat f o r re a s o n s

o f "gro u p d i f f e r e n c e s ." ^ I n t h i s a c t i o n , cam pesinos from th e a r e a o f

C h i l i j c h i , a lig n e d w ith th e U curena s y n d ic a t e , c la s h e d w ith p e a s a n ts

from n e a rb y Toco, lo y a l t o th e C li z a o r g a n iz a ti o n . F iv e d e a th s r e s u l t e d

from t h i s e n c o u n te r b e f o r e th e s i t u a t i o n calm ed and r e g u l a r army u n i t s


g
w ere s e n t i n to f o r e s t a l l any f u r t h e r h o s t i l i t i e s . The c o n f l i c t , as

m ost d u rin g t h i s p e r io d o f th e R e v o lu tio n , sp ran g from p e r s o n a l d i f

f e r e n c e s betw een d i r i g e n t e s : N a rc is o E sc 6b a r , d i r i g e n t e o f K ochi and

a C liz a p a r t i s a n , was m urdered a f t e r a q u a r r e l by a group o f Ucurefia

d i r i g e n t e s , in c lu d in g J o rg e S o l i s , S a lv a d o r Vasquez and C riso sto m o

I n t u r ^i a s . 9

The c la s h i n th e C h ilijc h i- T o c o a r e a was th e f i r s t m a n if e s ta

t i o n o f p e a s a n t d e s i r e s f o r rev en g e fo llo w in g th e m urder o f N a rc is o

E sc d b a r; renewed a c t io n alo n g th e R io Retama f r o n t i e r betw een C liz a

and U curena soon fo llo w e d . The MNR g o v ern m en t, a n t i c i p a t i n g an e s

c a l a t i o n o f p e a s a n t w a r f a r e , on November 2 1 , d e c la r e d th e Cochabamba

V a lle y a m i l i t a r y zone and d is p a tc h e d an army detach m en t to C liz a in

a d d i tio n to r e p la c in g th e a l c a l d e and s u b - p r e f e c t o f C li z a w ith an

army o f f i c i a l . ^ M i l i t a r y p re s e n c e d id n o t s e r v e to d e t e r f u r t h e r

c o n flic ts . On November 19, f i g h t i n g was a g a in r e p o r te d n e a r C h i l i j c h i

w here ro a d s w ere b lo c k a d e d , s e v e r in g com m unication to C l i z a . ^ F e a rfu l

o f a r e t u r n to la r g e s c a le f i g h t i n g , many cam pesino f a m i l i e s f l e d to

th e s a f e t y o f th e c i t y o f Cochabamba. The MNR g o v ern m en t, i n d i c a t i v e

o f a ten d en cy tow ard more r e s o l u t e a c t io n w ith r e s p e c t to p e a s a n t c o n f l i c t

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
196

i n th e V a lle y a f t e r t h i s l a t e s t r e t u r n to v i o l e n c e , o r d e r e d th e c a p tu r e

o f th o s e d i r i g e n t e s r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e c o n f l i c t . The S ev en th D iv is io n

so u g h t o u t and j a i l e d tw en ty o f th e le a d in g d i r i g e n t e s i n th e Cocha

bamba a r e a , in c lu d in g J o rg e S o l i s , S a lv a d o r VAsquez and German D e l-


12
g a d illo . The tw en ty d i r i g e n t e s , d e s p it e t h r e a t s o f re v e n g e by t h e i r

f o ll o w e r s , w ere in c a r c e r a t e d f o r n e a r l y a m onth.

At t h i s tim e , c e r t a i n econom ic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w ere r e v e a le d

w hich p a r t l y may have a f f e c t e d th e d i r e c t i o n o f s i n d i c a t o a c t i v i t y i n

th e V a lle y . D uring d e b a te i n th e n a t i o n a l Chamber o f D e p u tie s , i t was

s t a t e d t h a t u n d e rly in g th e p ro lo n g e d a g i t a t i o n i n th e V a lle y was an

econom ic ca u se as th e c a c iq u e s found i t p r o f i t a b l e t o le v y ta x e s upon


13
t h e i r s u p p o r te r s d u rin g th e c o n f l i c t s . A n o th er s o u rc e o f a g i t a t i o n

was c o m p e titio n betw een C liz a and U curena t o s e c u r e a s y m p a th e tic

a l c a ld e a t C liz a . The a l c a l d e , b e c a u se o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o l

l e c t i o n o f th e c h ic h a ta x , co u ld g u a ra n te e a s o u r c e o f rev en u e to th e
14
f a c t i o n he r e p r e s e n te d . J o rg e S o l f s , U curena d i r e g e n t e , was a ls o

a c c u se d o f t r a f f i c k i n g in i l l e g a l s a l e o f c o c a in e , f u r t h e r s u g g e s tin g

th e econom ic o p p o r tu n i tie s a v a i l a b l e to th e e n t e r p r i s i n g d i r i g e n t e . ^

The y e a r 1963 was one o f c o n tin u o u s m i l i t a r y a c t i o n by th e syn

d i c a t e s o f C liz a and U cu ren a. Im p o rta n t m i l i t a r y c o n f l i c t s betw een

th e two c e n t e r s o c c u rre d in J a n u a r y , A p r i l , J u n e , A u g u st and S eptem ber.

T h is p h a s e o f renew ed w a rfa re in th e re g io n was th e n fo llo w e d by some

te n m onths o f r e l a t i v e q u ie sc e n c e i n th e f o llo w in g y e a r b e f o r e a m i l i

t a r y coup i n November 1964 would end th e N a tio n a l R e v o lu tio n and u s h e r

i n a p e r io d o f m i l i t a r y r u l e .

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197

Tw ice, on Ja n u a ry 9 and 2 5 , s y n d ic a te m i l i t i a s u n le a sh e d f i e r c e

r i f l e and m achine gun f i r e i n th e v i c i n i t y o f C li z a . The f i r s t ex

change was prom pted by in e b r i a t e d p e a s a n t s ; th e s e c o n d , a se v e n -h o u r

b a t t l e a lo n g th e zone o f Mosoj R ancho, Ana Rancho and T oco, r e s u l t e d

from unknown c a u s e s . ^ More im p o rta n t f o r th e d i r e c t i o n o f e v e n ts in

th e V a lle y was th e m urder o f a w e a lth y p e a s a n t by M iguel V e iz a g a . The

p e a s a n t , I s id o r o Borda B la n co , was a r e l a t i v e l y p ro s p e ro u s d e a l e r in

l i v e s t o c k who had co n clu d ed a t r a n s a c t i o n w hich e v i d e n tly y ie ld e d a

c o n s id e r a b le p r o f i t . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , im m ed iately p r i o r to th e m urder

o f B orda B lan co , V eizaga had r e c e iv e d a la r g e sh ip m en t o f arms and

m u n itio n s . On th e evening o f J a n u a ry 2 8 , M iguel V eizag a and a number

o f f o llo w e r s s h o t t h e i r way i n t o Borda B la n c o 's h o u se and k i l l e d him .

The m o tiv e a lle g e d ly was ro b b e ry a s V eiza g a, i t was c la im e d , needed

money t o a c q u ir e a rm a m e n t.^ The governm ent d is p a tc h e d an army c o n t in

g e n t to apprehend th e c a c iq u e . In an open l e t t e r to th e new spaper

E l Mundo, V eizaga d en ied any p a r t i n th e m u rd er, c la im in g t h a t J o s


1 "" ' * 4

18
R o ja s was th e c u l p r i t .

J o s e R o ja s, fo llo w in g th e Borda B lanco m u rd er, a g a in demon

s t r a t e d h i s a b i l i t y to make th e m ost o f any o p p o r tu n ity to d e s tr o y a

riv a l. Soon a f t e r th e m u rd er, R o ja s jo u rn e y e d to La Paz to n e g a te

rum ors t h a t he would se e k n o m in a tio n f o r th e p r e s id e n c y i n th e 1964


19
e le c tio n . Accompanying R o jas to La Paz was th e widow o f I s id o r o

B orda B la n co , who in a p r e s s m e etin g t o l d r e p o r t e r s how M iguel V eizag a

and h i s henchmen had m urdered h e r h u sb an d . R o ja s c a p i t a l i z e d on th e

o p p o r tu n ity to t u r n governm ent and p u b lic o p in io n a g a i n s t h i s r i v a l ;

a g a in a s a f t e r th e V ila V ila i n c id e n t o f Septem ber i9 6 0 V eizag a was

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19 8

f o r c e d to f l e e i n t o th e f a s tn e s s o f th e Cochabamba V a lle y and to is s u e

p u b lic s ta te m e n ts o f in n o c e n c e c l e a r l y an unbecom ing p o s i t i o n f o r a

c a c iq u e . Jo s R o jas co n d u cted h i s r e p r e s s io n w ith c o n s id e r a b ly more

fin e s s e . Whenever m urders o r a t r o c i t i e s w ere com m itted by R o j i s t a s ,

th e c a c iq u e was n o ta b ly a b s e n t, le a v in g s u b o r d in a te s such a s J o rg e

S o lis and S alv ad o r Vasquez to f u l f i l l su ch t a s k s . R o ja s was th e n a b le

to a c t w ith g r e a t e r im p u n ity th a n V e iz a g a , w hose p e r s o n a l inv o lv em en t

i n a c t s o f s y n d ic a l v i l l a i n y se rv e d to t a r n i s h h i s r e p u t a t i o n .

An exam ple o f th e R o jas ap p ro ach i s p ro v id e d by th e e v e n ts o f

m id -F eb ru ary 1963 when two C lic e n o s , V ic e n te M eneses and A d rian Del

g a d i l l o , w ere t o r t u r e d and th e n m urdered by cam pesinos commanded by


20
J o rg e S o lis and S alv a d o r V asquez. V asq u ez, f o r h i s p a r t i n t h i s mur

d e r and a ls o f o r th e e a r l i e r a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f th e d i r i g e n t e , Ramon
21
C a s i l l a , was j a i l e d i n Cochabamba. F o r l a c k o f e v id e n c e , he was

l a t e r r e le a s e d f o r th e s e two m u rd ers, o n ly t o be r e - i n c a r c e r a t e d f o r
22
h i s p a r t i n th e m urder o f N a rc iso E sc o b a r. J o s e R o ja s , d u rin g t h i s

p e r io d , av o id ed im p lic a tio n i n handiw ork o f t h i s n a t u r e .

The w eekly Sunday f a i r s h e ld a t C l i z a , symbol o f a p a r t i a l r e

t u r n t o norm alcy in th e V a lle y , a l s o p ro v id e d a so u rc e f o r co n tin u e d

v io le n c e in th e a r e a . The m a jo r ity o f p e a s a n t c o n f l i c t s d u rin g th e

1962-1963 p e r io d w ere m o tiv a te d by re v e n g e ; th e C li z a f a i r s , where

g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f c h ic h a w ere d ru n k , gave o c c a s io n to f r i c t i o n b e

tw een C lic e n o s and U cu ren o s, and o f te n r e s u l t e d in b lo o d s h e d . A l

though th e Sunday f a i r s p ro v id e d th e p rim a ry o c c a s io n f o r c o n f l i c t ,

o th e r f e s t i v a l s w hich w ere accom panied by l i b e r a l c h ic h a consum ption

allo w ed f o r r e l e a s e o f l a t e n t h o s t i l i t i e s among cam pesinos from th e two

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199

s e c to rs . T hus, f o r ex am p le, th e d i r i g e n t e A le ja n d ro T o r r ic o was s h o t

t o death, d u rin g C a m a v a l i n e a r l y March 1963; s k ir m is h in g betw een

Cochabamba-Ucurena f a c t i o n s was r e p o r te d f o r th e Sunday o f M arch 19

and o f May 7 , 1963; th e d i r i g e n t e Nemesio T o r r ic o o f C liz a d ie d i n an


23
armed c la s h i n J u n e 1963 on th e n ig h t o f San J u a n . The governm ent

so u g h t to im pose g r e a t e r army c o n t r o l o v e r th e zone i n J u ly a f t e r a

stu d y o f th e p ro b lem e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t th e d is o r d e r s w ere g e n e r a lly


24
p ro d u ced when members o f th e r i v a l g ro u p s w ere i n e b r i a t e d .

The l a s t r e p o r te d in c id e n c e o f i n t e r - s y n d i c a t e w a rfa re betw een

C liz a and U curena d u rin g th e r e v o lu tio n a r y p e r io d o c c u rre d i n Septem ber

1963 when m i l i t i a u n i t s c la s h e d a lo n g th e R io Retama f r o n t i e r and n e a r

th e p u eb lo o f T oco. On Septem ber 4 , in te n s e s k irm is h in g e r u p te d alo n g

th e f r o n t i e r and c o n tin u e d i n t o th e e v e n in g o f th e fo llo w in g d ay ,

s p re a d in g tow ard th e d i r e c t i o n o f Toco and C h i l i j i c h i when V e iz a g u is ta s

a tte m p te d to occupy th e l a t t e r . Army u n i t s moved i n t o th e zone t o sup

p r e s s f u r t h e r f i g h t i n g and th e s i t u a t i o n was u n d er c o n t r o l by Septem -

b e r 9 . 25

The MNR governm ent a t t h i s tim e showed in c r e a s e d d e te r m in a tio n

in b r in g in g to an end in t e r n e c i n e r i v a l r y i n th e V a lle y . T h u s, on

S eptem ber 14, th e r e g io n was a g a in p la c e d u n d er m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l and

th e m o to riz e d b a t a l l i o n "Max T o led o " d is p a tc h e d from O ruro to th e


26 x
m i l i t a r y zo n e. M in is te r o f P e a s a n t A f f a i r s , C a rlo s Ponce S a n jin e s ,

c a l le d f o r disarm am ent o f cam pesinos s e r v in g in m i l i t i a s commanded by


27
th e c a c iq u e s . A t th e end o f th e m onth, t h i r t y - f i v e o f th e le a d in g

d i r i g e n t e s , in c lu d in g J o s R o ja s , J o r g e S o lis o f U curena and Ramon

T o rric o o f C li z a , w ere flow n by th e A ir F o rce to La Paz to c o n f e r w ith

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200

C oronel Eduardo R iv as U galde ( e x - M in is te r o f Government) and G en eral

Ren B a r r ie n to s O rtu n o . The group m et i n th e L e g i s l a t i v e P a la c e ,

w here G en eral B a r r ie n to s em phasized h i s i n t e r e s t i n f in d in g a l a s t i n g


28
s o l u t i o n to th e C liz a -U c u re n a im p a sse . J o s e R o jas and Ramon T o rric o

a g re e d t h a t th e m i l i t a r y zone w hich c o n s t i t u t e d a d e t e r r e n t to s y n d ic a l

v io le n c e sh o u ld be c o n tin u e d . The d i r i g e n t e s , a f t e r d r in k in g champagne

w ith G en eral B a r r ie n to s a t h i s home, p ro c la im e d t h e i r s u p p o rt o f B a r r ie n

to s and V ic to r Paz E s te n s s o ro i n th e fo rth c o m in g e l e c t i o n . A u n if i e d

p e a s a n tr y o f f e r e d , i n a d d i tio n to o r d e r i n th e c o u n tr y s id e , a s u b s ta n

t i a l b lo c o f v o te s f o r th e t r a d i t i o n a l MNR c a n d id a te s .

The MNR I z q u ie r d a and th e 1964 E le c tio n

The 1960 e l e c t i o n r e v e a le d c o n s id e r a b le p o l i t i c i z a t i o n among

th e p e a s a n tr y as w e ll a s n o ta b le v io le n c e betw een c o n f l i c t i n g P az-

e s t e n s s o r i s t a s and A u te n tic o s . D i s a f f e c t i o n w ith i n th e " G re a t T r a d i

ti o n " ( e . g . , Zenon B a r r ie n to s Mamani, M iguel V eizag a) had c r e a te d th e

1959-1960 MNR-MNRA sc h ism . S i m i la r l y , d i s a f f e c t i o n among le f t- w in g

M o v im ie n tista s prom pted a n o th e r d i v i s i o n w ith in th e N a tio n a l Revolu

ti o n a r y Movement i n th e e l e c t i o n cam paign o f 1963-1964. The A u t n tic o

cam paign r e s u l t e d from Paz E s te n s s o r o s d e c i s i o n a g a in to se e k c o n t r o l

o f th e R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement, a d e c is io n w hich th w a rte d r ig h t- w in g

W a lte r G uevara A rz e 's d e s i r e s f o r th e p r e s id e n c y . The b a s i c o u t l i n e s

o f th e 1964 e l e c t i o n w ere n o t a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t : Paz E s te n s s o ro

r e v e a le d t h a t he w ould se e k an u n p re c e d e n te d t h i r d te rm a s p r e s i d e n t ;
29
le f t - w i n g p r e s i d e n t i a l a s p i r a n t Ju an L ec h fn Oquendo was now a f f r o n t e d .

V ice P r e s id e n t L e c h fn , seem in g ly h e i r - a p p a r e n t , was f o r c e d , a s G uevara

A rze had b e e n , to s p l i t w ith th e MNR and to co n d u ct a cam paign o u ts id e

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201

t h e o rth o d o x R e v o lu tio n a ry Movement. The I z q u ie r d a sch ism r e s u l t e d from

t h i s d e c is io n .

I z q u ie r d a s u p p o rt among th e p e a s a n tr y was p r im a r ily c o n c e n tr a te d

i n two a r e a s : Q u ill a c o ll o i n th e Cochabamba V a lle y and A ch acach i on

th e a l t i p l a n o . The I z q u ie r d a w ing o f th e MNR had b een a c t i v e p r i o r to

th e im m ediate y e a rs o f th e 1964 cam paign. In 1959, f o r ex am p le, p e a s

a n ts a t Q u ill a c o ll o had c r i t i c i z e d g o v ern m en tal d is c r i m in a t io n betw een


30
r i g h t - and le f t - w i n g cam p esin o s. And i n l a t e November 1959, th e

I z q u ie r d a had m o b iliz e d i t s p e a s a n t m i l i t i a s on th e a l t i p l a n o i n re s p o n s e
31
t o an a lle g e d c o u n te r - r e v o lu tio n a r y p l o t .

I t was n o t u n t i l March 1963 t h a t e v e n ts le d to an open r i f t

betw een MNR and MNR I z q u ie r d a p e a s a n t s . The o c c a s io n was th e Second

N a tio n a l C ongress o f P e a s a n ts h e ld a t S a n ta Cruz d u rin g th e seco n d week

o f M arch. The C ongress e l e c t e d a s E x e c u tiv e S e c r e ta r y F e li p e F lo r e s

who r e p r e s e n te d th e o f f i c i a l MNR o r g a n iz a ti o n , th e U n ite d N a t i o n a l i s t i c

F r o n t. The I z q u ie r d a d e l e g a ti o n , le d b> T o r ib io S a la s , w alked o u t o f


32
th e m e e tin g , to l a t e r o r g a n iz e a second C o n g re ss. D iv is io n w ith in

th e p e a s a n tr y r e s u l t i n g from MNR-MNR I z q u ie r d a d if f e r e n c e s had w orsened

by May 1963. In a s e r i e s o f p r i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s , V ice P r e s id e n t L ec h in

and P r e s id e n t Paz E s te n s s o ro w ere u n a b le t o a g re e to term s w hich w ould

r e u n if y th e p e a s a n tr y . A b a s i c s o u rc e o f d isa g re e m e n t betw een f a c t i o n s

was th e MNR's d e s ir e t o le v y a ta x on th e p e a s a n t r y , a m easure v ig o r

o u s ly opposed by th e I z q u ie r d a .

A ltip la n o

MNR-MNR I z q u ie r d a c o n f l i c t s among th e p e a s a n tr y w ere m ost n o te

w o rth y on th e a l t i p l a n o w h are, i n Omasuyos P r o v in c e , La Paz D ep artm en t,

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202

th e a u t h o r i t y o f T o r ib io S a la s was c h a lle n g e d by th e d i r i g e n t e F e lip e

F lo re s . The r o o ts o f th e c o n f l i c t betw een S a la s and F lo r e s la y i n a

s t r u g g l e f o r c o n tr o l o f th e Aymara p e a s a n t s . A lso u n d e rly in g much o f

th e v io le n c e w hich m arred r e l a t i o n s among th e Aymara d u rin g th e e l e c

t i o n p e r io d was th e q u e s tio n o f th e p re -e m in e n c e o f th e town o f Acha-

c a c h i. T o r ib io S a la s , th e I z q u ie r d a d i r i g e n t e , b a se d h i s s y n d ic a te

o r g a n iz a ti o n a t A ch acac h i, and d u rin g t h i s p h a se o f th e R e v o lu tio n ,

t h a t tow n, b e c a u se o f S a l a s ' i n f l u e n c e , r e c e iv e d more th a n i t s s h a r e


33
o f p o l i t i c a l f a v o r s d is p e r s e d by th e R e v o lu tio n a ry governm ent.

S a l a s ' in f lu e n c e and th e p rim acy a c c o rd e d A ch acach i a ro u se d c o n s id e r

a b le re s e n tm e n t in n e ig h b o rin g v i l l a g e s , r e s u l t i n g i n w a rfa re betw een

A ch acach i and W a risa ta in 1964.

F e li p e F lo r e s , who w ould soon t u r n to more d i r e c t c o n f r o n ta

t i o n , f i r s t a tte m p te d to o v e rth ro w T o r ib io S a la s on A p r il 9 , 1963.

A t t h i s tim e , S a la s and h i s m ilitia m e n w ere i n La Paz c e l e b r a ti n g th e

"March o f th e R e v o lu tio n ," when i n f r o n t o f San F r a n c is c o C hurch, an

a l t e r c a t i o n b ro k e o u t betw een S a l a s ' I z q u i e r d i s t a s and a group o f armed


34
p easan t P a z e s te n s s o ris ta s . The a l t e r c a t i o n , o r i g i n a l l y betw een

a s m a ll group o f men, q u ic k ly e s c a l a t e d when th e P a z e s t e n s s o r i s t a

group b eg an s h o o tin g a t th e I z q u i e r d i s t a s . S a la s escap e d unharm ed,

b u t i t was r e v e a le d soon a f te r w a r d t h a t th e i n c i d e n t had been p la n n ed

by F e lip e F l o r e s , E lis e o G u tie r r e z o f W a ris a ta and a number o f o th e r


35
Aymara d i r i g e n t e s from La Paz D e p a rtm e n t.

S c a rc e ly a week a f t e r th e a t t a c k i n La P a z , p e a s a n ts u n d er

F lo re s * o r d e r s sack ed th e h o u ses o f S a la s and h i s l i e u t e n a n t , P a u lin o


36
Q u isp e , i n A ch acac h i. S a la s was a b s e n t from A ch acach i a t t h i s tim e

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
203

and escaped harm , b u t i n h i s a b se n c e t h e F lo r e s group named i t s le a d e r

E x e c u tiv e S e c r e ta r y o f th e P e a s a n t C e n tr a l o f A chacachi a s a r e p la c e -
37
ment f o r T o r ib io S a la s . The g o lp e a g a i n s t T o r ib io S a la s a p p e a rs to

have had th e s u p p o rt o f im p o rta n t h ig h - r a n k in g o f f i c e r s in th e B o liv ia n

A ir F o rc e . Im m ed iately p r i o r t o th e g o lp e , A ir F orce p la n e s flew o v er

th e A chacachi a r e a and dropped l e a f l e t s s u g g e s tin g t h a t T o rib io S a la s

was a communist and c a l l i n g f o r s u p p o rt o f F e lip e F lo r e s . F o llo w in g

th e g o lp e , armed m ilitia m e n lo y a l t o F e lip e F lo r e s c o n t r o l le d th e

A chacachi and H u arin a a r e a s , and S a l a s ' f o llo w e r s claim ed t h a t r e g u la r

tr o o p s from th e "Waldo B a l liv i a n " R egim ent h ad moved i n t o A ch acach i,


38
p la c in g th e zone u n d er m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l . The deposed c a c iq u e , i n a

p r e s s c o n fe re n c e a t La P a z , a s s e r t e d t h a t th e F lo r e s g o lp e had b een

backed by th e MNR governm ent and added t h a t he would d is c o n tin u e h i s


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s y n d ic a l a c t i v i t y i f n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to a v o id f u r t h e r c o n f l i c t .

A nother blow to S a l a s ' p r e s t i g e was d e l iv e r e d i n May 1963 a t th e F o u rth

N a tio n a l C ongress o f P e a s a n t W orkers o f B o liv ia when, a f t e r a V o te , th e

ca c iq u e was " ig n o m