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ME Alicia Ornelas Vargas

Mechatronics Engineering
IMEC 101, 102 IER
English IX Manual
101N

Learning Objective

The students will interchange information


through different type of messages, expressing
opinions regarding the professional
environment..

Units:

I.Discourse

II. Argumentation

Learning Objective Unit 1

The students will interchange information


based on the messages they have received
or sentences that are based on facts, actions
or events.

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Contents Unit 1 Direct and indirect speech

Activity 1

Watch the following videos on Reported Speech, after that write a summary of it as a
mental map, table, etc.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HBEw6cY17g

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkLBulYSGoM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGU4PdiwkBQ

a) Mental Map

b) Chart

c) Summary

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Activity 2

Read the following information about Reported Speech, after that, in groups of three
students, summarize the rules, and be ready to present the way you understood.

REPORTED SPEECH

DIRECT AND INDIRECT (OR REPORTED) SPEECH.

INTRODUCTION

There are two ways of relating what a person has said: direct and indirect.
In direct speech we repeat the original speakers exact words:
He said, I have lost my umbrella.
Remarks thus repeated are placed between inverted commas, and a comma is placed
immediately before the remark. Direct speech is found in conversations in books, in
plays and in quotations. In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or a
speech, without necessarily using the speakers exact words:

He said (that) he had lost his umbrella.


There is no comma after say in indirect speech. That can usually be omitted after say
and tell + object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object,
point out, protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported
verbally, though direct speech is sometimes here to give a more dramatic effect.

When we turn direct speech into indirect, some changes are usually necessary.

PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES: CHANGES NECESSARY

A. First and second person pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change to the
third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words. (I = he, she; me=
him, her; my = his, her; mine = his, hers; we = they...)

She said, hes my son. She said that he was her son.
Im ill, she said. She said that she was ill.

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B. THIS / THESE
This used in time expressions usually becomes that. She said, Shes coming this
week. She said that she was coming that week. This and that used as adjectives
usually change to the.

He said, I bought this pearl/these pearls for my mother.

He said that he had bought the pearl/the pearls for his mother.

This, these used as pronouns can become it, they/them.

He came back with two knives and said, I found these beside the kings bed.
He said he had found them beside the kings bed.

He said, We will discuss this tomorrow. He said that they would discuss it (the
matter) the next day.

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE IN INDIRECT SPEECH

A. Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH


today that day
yesterday the day before
the day before yesterday two days before
tomorrow the next day/the following day
the day after tomorrow in two days time
next week/year etc. the following week/year etc.
last week/year etc. the previous week/year etc.
a year etc. ago a year before/the previous year

Examples:

I saw her the day before yesterday, he said. He said hed seen her two days
before.
Ill do it tomorrow, he promised. He promised that he would do it the next day.
She said, My father died a year ago. She said that her father had died a year
before/the previous year.

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B. But if the speech is made and reported on the same day these time changes are not
necessary:
At breakfast this morning he said, Ill be very busy today. At breakfast this
morning he said that he would be very busy today.

C. Here can become there but only when it is clear what place is meant:
At the station he said, Ill be here again tomorrow. He said that hed be there
again the next day.

Usually here has to be replaced by some phrase:


She said, You can sit here, Tom. She told Tom that he could sit beside her.

STATEMENTS IN INDIRECT SPEECH: TENSE CHANGES NECESSARY

A. Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense: He says that ... This
is usual when we are:

a. reporting a conversation that is still going on


b. reading a letter and reporting what it says
c. reading instructions and reporting them
d. reporting a statement that someone makes very often, e.g. Tom says that hell never
get married.

When the introductory verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense we can
report the direct speech without any change of tense:

PAUL (phoning from the station): Im trying to get a taxi.


ANN (to Mary, who is standing beside her): Paul says he is trying to get a taxi.

B. But indirect speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense. Verbs in the
direct speech have then to be changed into a corresponding past tense. The changes
are shown in the following table.

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DIRECT SPEECH / INDIRECT SPEECH

Simple Present
I never eat meat, he explained.

Simple Past
= He explained (that) he never ate meat.

Present Continuous
Im waiting for Ann, he said.

Past Continuous
= He said (that) he was waiting for Ann.

Present Perfect
I have found a flat, he said.

Past Perfect
= He said (that) he had found a flat.

Present Perfect Continuous


He said, Ive been waiting for ages.

Past Perfect Continuous


= He said (that) he had been waiting for ages.

Simple Past
I took it home with me, she said.

Past Perfect
= She said (that) he had taken it home with her.

Future
He said, I will/shall be in Paris on Monday.

Conditional
= He said (that) he would be in Paris on Monday.

Continuous
I will/shall be using the car myself on the 24h, she said.

Conditional Continuous
= She said (that) shed been using the car herself on the 24th.

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Conditional
I said, I would like to see it.

Conditional
= I said (that) I would like to see it.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Reported Speech

All those changes represent the distancing effect of the reported speech. Common
sense, together with the time aspect from the speakers point of view, are more
important than the rules when making the usual changes.
Exercise 1

These people are saying these things. Report them, using says that.

1. Paul: Atlanta is a wonderful city. ____Paul says that Atlanta is a wonderful city_______

2. Ruth: I go jogging every morning. ____Ruth says that I go jogging every morning__

3. Anna: Jenny isnt studying for her exams. _Anna says that Jenny isnt studying for her exams_

4. Andrew: I used to be very fat. __Andrew says that I used to be very fat_

5.- Jim: I cant swim. __Jim says that I cant swim___

2. People made these statements. Report them, using said.

1. Mary works in a bank, Jane said. _Jane said that Mary works in a bank_

2. Im staying with some friends, _Jim said that he was staying with some friends _

3. Ive never been to Russia, Mike said. __Mike said that he had_never_been to Russia_

4. Tom cant use a computer, Ella said. _Ella said that tom couldt use a computer_

5. Everybody must try to do their best, Jill said. _Jim said that everybody must try to do their best_

6. Jane may move to a new flat, Rachel said. _Racher said that Jabe might move to a new flat_

7. Ill stay at home on Sunday, Bill said. _Bill said that hell stay at home on Sunday_

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3. Report what the guests said at a wedding last Sunday.

1. Miss Moore: Theyll make a lovely couple. _Miss Moore said that they would make a lovely
couple

2. Mr Smith: Theyre going to live in Brighton. _Mr Smith said that they were going to live in Brighton

3. Mrs Jones: The bride and the groom are very nice young people. __

Mrs Jones said that the bride and the groom were very nice young people___

4. Mr Roberts: The bride is wearing a beautiful wedding dress.

__Mr Roberts said that the bride was wearing a beautiful wedding dress_____

5. Mr Clarke: The couples parents look happy. _

_Mr Clarke said that the couples parents looked happy___

6. Miss Mayall: The brides father has bought them a big flat.

__Miss Mayall said that brides father had bought them a big flat_

4. Change the following statements into the reported speech.

1. I have something to show you, I said to her.

_____I said to her that I had something to show her________

2. Im going away tomorrow, he said.

______He said that he was going away the next day _______

3. Ive been in London for a month but I havent had time to visit the Tower, said
Rupert.

____Ruper said that he had been in London for a month but he hadnt had time to visit
the Tower__

4. Ill come with you as soon as Im ready, she replied.

_____She replied that she would come with you as soon as she was ready__________

5. We have a lift but very often it doesnt work, they said.

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_______They said that they had a lift but very often didnt work______

6. I must go to the dentist tomorrow, he said.

______He said that he had to go to the dentist tomorrow________

7. I found an old Roman coin in the garden yesterday and I am going to take it to the
museum this afternoon, he said.

_____He said that he had found an old Roman coin in the garden the day before and he
was going to take it to the museum that afternoon_____

5. Write these sentences in indirect speech.

1. Im very tired, she said. ________She said that she was very tired____________

2. Ill see them soon, he said. ______He said that he would see them soon__________

3. Im going to the cinema, she said. ___She said that she was going to the cinema____

4. I see the children quite often, he said. __He said that he saw the children quite
often___

5. Im having a bath, she said. _______She said that she was having a bath________

6. Ive already met their parents, she said. ____She said that she had already met their
parents___

7. I stayed in a hotel for a few weeks, she said. __She said that she had stayed in a
hotel for a few weeks______

8. I must go home to make dinner, he said. ___He said that he had to go home to make
dinner___

9. I havent been waiting long, she said. __She said that she hadnt been waiting
long__

10. Im listening to the radio, he said. ___He said that he was listening to the radio___

11. Ill tell them the news on Saturday, she said. ___She said that she would tell them
the news on Saturday____

12. I like swimming, dancing and playing tennis, he said. _____He said that he liked
swimming, dancing and playing tennis _______

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13. I can drive, she said. ______She said she could drive_________

14. I walked home after the party, he said. _____He said that he had walked home
after party_____

15. Im going to be sick, she said. ______She said that she was going to be sick______

16. I must go out to post a letter, he said. _____He said that he had to go out to post a
letter______

17. I spoke to Jane last week, she said. ____She said that she had spoken to Jane last
week ____

18. Im trying to listen to the music, he said. _____He said that he was trying to listen
to the music______

19. Ill phone the office from the airport, she said. _____She said that she would phone
the office from the airport_____

20. I cant speak any foreign languages, he said. _____He said that he couldnt speak
any foreign languages______

6. Write these sentences in indirect speech, changing words where necessary.

1. Ill see you tomorrow, she said.

She said that she would see me the next day_______

2. I saw her today, he said.

He said that he had seen her that day ___________

3. I dont like this film, she said.

She said that she didnt like that film

4. She said, We went swimming today.

She said that they had gone swimming that day_____

5. I met her about three months ago, he said.

He said that he had met her about three month ago___________

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6. Ill see Mary on Sunday, she said.

She said she would seen Mary on Sunday

7. Pete and Sue are getting married tomorrow, she said.

She said that Pete and Sue were getting married the next day

8. Stephens bringing some records to the party tomorrow, she said.

She said that Stephen was bringing some records to the party the next day

9. I really like this furniture, she said.

She said that she really liked that furniture

10. My parents are arriving tomorrow, she said.

She said that her parents were arriving the next day

11. We visited her this morning they said.

They said that they had visited her that morning

12. Well see her next summer they said.

They said that they day would see her the next summer

13. They were here three months ago, he said.

He said that they had been there months ago

14. Im meeting them at four oclock today, he said.

He said he was meeting them at four oclock that day

15. I can see you tomorrow, she said.

She said that she could see you the next day

B. QUESTIONS IN INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct question: He said, Where is she going?


Indirect question: He asked where she was going.

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A. When we turn direct questions into indirect speech, the following changes are
necessary:
a. tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of time and place change as in
statements.
b. the interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form.
c. the question mark is omitted in indirect questions.
B. If the introductory verb is say, it must be changed to a verb of inquiry, e.g. ask, wonder,
want to know etc.
He said, Where is the station? He asked where the station was.
C. Ask can be followed by the person addressed (indirect object):
He asked, What have you got in your bag? He asked (me) what I had got in my
bag. But wonder and want to know cannot take an indirect object, so if we wish to
report a question where the person addressed is mentioned, we must use ask.
He said, Mary, when is the next train? He asked Mary when the next train was.

D. If the direct question begins with a question word (when, where, who, how, why etc.)
the question word is repeated in the indirect question:
He said, Why didnt you put on the brake? He asked (her) why she hadnt put on
the brake.
She said, What do you want? She asked (them) what they wanted.

E. If there is no question word, if or whether must be used:


Is anyone there? he asked He asked if/whether anyone was there.

EXERCISES

QUESTIONS

7. . Report the police-officers questions to the shop owner.

1. Whats your name? the police officers asked what I my name was

2. Did you see the robbers? the police officers asked if I had seen the robbers

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3. What were they wearing? the police officers asked what they had been wearing

4. How do you think they got in? the police officers asked how I think they had gotten
in

5. What did they take? the police officers asked what they had taken

6.Has this ever happened before? the police officers asked if that had ever happened
before

8. Write these sentences as reported questions using the words given.

1. Whats your name?, he asked. (wanted to know)

he wanted to know what my name is

2. Do you like Marlon Brandon?, she asked.

she asked if I liked Marlon Brandon

3. How old are you?, she said. (asked)

she asked how old I am

4. When does the train leave?, I asked.

I asked when the train left

5. Are you enjoying yourself?, he asked.

he asked if I was enjoying myself

6. How are you?, he said. (asked)

he asked

7. Does your father work here?, she asked.

she asked if my father worked there

8. Do you live near your father?, he asked.

he asked if I lived near my father


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9. Who did you see at the meeting?, my mother asked.

my mother asked who I seen at the meeting

10. Why did you take my wallet?, he asked.

he asked why I had taken his wallet

11 How did you get to school?, she asked.

she asked how I had gotten to school

12. Are you a foreigner?, she asked.

she asked if I am a foreigner

13. Where do you live?, the boy asked.

the boy asked where I lived

14. Have you met Danny before?, he asked.

he asked if I had met Danny before

15. Are you hungry?, he asked.

he asked I am hungry

16 Why wasnt Judy at the party?, she asked.

she asked why judy hadnt been at the party

17. Why didnt you telephone?, my father asked.

my father asked why I hadnt telephone him

18. Did you borrow my dictionary?, he asked.

he asked if I had borrow his dictionary

19. Why are you so late?, the teacher asked.

the teacher asked why I was so late

20. Have you finished your exams?, she asked.

she asked if I had finished my exams

21. Did you invite Judy and Mitch?, he asked.

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he asked if I had invited Judy and mitch

22. Does your brother live in London?, she asked.

she asked if my brother lives in London

23. Why didnt the police report the crime?, the judge asked.

the judge asked why the police hadnt reported the crime

24. Do you know who broke the window?, he asked.

he asked if I knew who had broken the windows

COMMANDS, REQUESTS, ADVICE IN INDIRECT SPEECH


Direct command: He said, Lie down, Tom.
Indirect command: He told Tom to lie down.
Indirect commands, requests, advice are usually expressed by a verb of
command/request/advice + object
+ infinitive.
A. The following verbs can be used: advise, ask, beg, command, order, remind, tell, warn
etc.
He said, Get your coat, Tom! He told Tom to get his coat.

B. Negative commands, requests etc. are usually reported by not + infinitive:


Dont swim out too far, boys, I said I warned/told the boys not to swim out too
far.
C. YES AND NO IN INDIRECT SPEECH
Yes and no are expressed in indirect speech by subject + appropriate auxiliary verb.
He said, Can you swim? and I said No He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I
couldnt.
He said, Will you have time to do it? and I said Yes He asked if I would have
time to do it and I said that I would.

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D. REPORTED SPEECH: OTHER POINTS
A. MUST: after a past reporting verb, must does not usually change:
He said, It must be pretty late, I really must go. He said that it must be pretty late
and he really must go. Had to is also possible in reported speech, but this is really the
past of have to, not must.
He said, I have to go. I have an appointment in half an hour He said that he had to
go because he had an appointment in half an hour.

D.1. MODAL VERBS: Past modal verbs (could, might, ought to, should, used to, etc. ) do
not normally change in reported speech.
He said, I might come. He said that he might come.
He said, I would help him if I could. He said that he would help him if he could.
He said, You neednt wait. He said that I neednt wait.

E. SAY AND TELL AS INTRODUCTORY VERBS

A. Say and tell with direct speech.

1. Say can introduce a statement or follow it.

Tom said, Ive just heard the news. or Ive just heard the news, Tom said.

Inversion of say and noun subject is possible when say follows the statement.

Ive just heard the news, said Tom.

say + to + person addressed is possible, but this phrase must follow the direct
statement; it cannot introduce it.

Im leaving at once, Tom said to me.

Inversion is not possible here.

2. Tell requires the person addressed.

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Tell me. He told us. Ill tell Tom.

Except with tell lies/stories/the truth/the time, when the person addressed need not
to be mentioned.

He told (me) lies. Ill tell (you) a story.

Tell used with direct speech must be placed after the direct statement:

Im leaving at once, Tom told me.

Inversion is not possible with tell.

B. Say and tell with indirect speech

Indirect statements are normally introduced by say, or tell + object. Say + to + object is
possible but less usual than tell + object.

He said hed just heard the news.

He told me that hed just heard the news.

Note also tell ... how/about:

He told us how he had crossed the mountains.

He told us about crossing the mountains.

He told us about his journeys.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

- A. J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University


Press, 1986

- R. Fernndez Carmona, English Grammar with exercises, Longman, 2000

- R. Murphy, English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press 1990

- M. Harrison, Grammar Spectrum 2, Oxford University Press, 1996

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- N. Coe, Grammar Spectrum 3, Oxford University Press, 1996

Exercises

9. Use the correct form of SAY and TELL in these sentences.

1. She ___told ____________________ me she didnt agree.

2. He ____said___________________ , Have we met before?

3. I ________told_______________ them I wasnt happy with their work.

4. She smiled and ________said_______________ to me, Im very pleased to meet you.

5. She ________told_______________ me a story about her parents.

6. He ________said_______________, Are you feeling OK?

7. I didnt hear. What did he ________said_______________?

8. Could you ______told_________________ me the time, please?

9. They __________told_____________ me they were going to a meeting.

10. I ______said_________________ the police my address.

11. I __________said_____________ I wanted to buy a magazine.

12. He ____said___________________ he wasnt interested in politics.

13. Could you _________told______________ me your name again?

14. Do you think he is ________teld_in______________ the truth?

15. Would you ____tell___________________ him to come early tomorrow?

16. If he ________says_______________ that again therell be trouble.

17. I __________told_____________ them it was dangerous to swim here.

18 Did you ________said_______________ anything to him about your problem at work?

19. _________told______________ me what happened.

20 I think he is _______tell________________ lies.

21. The policeman ______telling________________ the man was lying.

22. Philip _____said__________________ it would probably rain tomorrow.

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23. Susan _____said__________________, Lets go out for dinner tonight.

24. Jim _______told________________ me about the party last night.

25 Our teacher ______said_________________ he was pleased with our work.

26. Stop _____telling__________________ lies!

. Exercises

10. Complete the sentences in reported speech.

1. John said, "I love this town."


John said
2. "Do you like soccer ?" He asked me.
He asked me
3. "I can't drive a lorry," he said.
He said
4. "Be nice to your brother," he said.
He asked me
5. "Don't be nasty," he said.
He urged me
6. "Don't waste your money" she said.
She told the boys
7. "What have you decided to do?" she asked him.
She asked him
8. "I always wake up early," he said.
He said
9. "You should revise your lessons," he said.
He advised the students
10. "Where were you born?" he asked me.
He wanted to know

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11. Answer the exercise in the following link : (There are 20 sentences)
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/reported-speech-exercise-12.html

12. Change to reported speech

1. I live in New York


She said ________________________________________________________
2. He works in a bank
She told me _____________________________________________________
3. Julie doesnt like going out much
She said ________________________________________________________
4. I dont have a computer
She said ________________________________________________________
5. They never arrive on time
She said ________________________________________________________
6. We often meet friends in London at the weekend
He told me _____________________________________________________
7. David doesnt have any children
She said ________________________________________________________
8. I dont go to the gym very often
She said ________________________________________________________
9. Lucy owns three flats in the city
She said ________________________________________________________
10. I never get up early on Sundays
She said________________________________________________________

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What is a project?

According to the PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) 3rd edition, A


project is defined as a temporary endeavor with a beginning and an end and it must be used
to create a unique product, service or result. Further, it is progressively elaborated. What this
definition of a project means is that projects are those activities that cannot go on indefinitely
and must have a defined purpose.

A project is an activity to meet the creation of a unique product or service and thus
activities that are undertaken to accomplish routine activities cannot be considered
projects. For instance, if your project is less than three months old and has fewer than 20
people working on it, you may not be working in what is called a project according to the
definition of the term.

It has to be remembered that the term temporary does not apply to the result or service that
is generated by the project. The project may be finite but not the result. For instance, a project
to build a monument would be of fixed duration whereas(mientras) the result that is the
monument may be for an indefinite period in time.

A project is an activity to create something unique. Of course, many of the office buildings that
are built are similar in many respects but each individual facility is unique in its own way.

Finally, a project must be progressively elaborated. This means that the project progresses in
steps and continues by increments. This also means that the definition of the project is refined
at each step and ultimately the purpose of the progress is enunciated. This means that a
project is first defined initially and then as the project progresses, the definition is revisited
and more clarity is added to the scope of the project as well as the underlying assumptions
about the project.

What are the basic phases of a project and their purposes ?

The phases of a project make up the project life cycle. It is convenient for the project
managers to divide the project into phases for control and tracking purposes. Each milestone
at each stage is then elaborated and tracked for completion. The basic phases of a project are
dependent on the kind of project that is being carried out. For instance, a software project
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may have requirement, design, build, test, implementation phases whereas a project to build a
metro or a building may have different names for each phase.

Thus, the naming of the phases of a project depends on the kind of deliverables that is
sought(que es requerido) at each phase. For the purpose of definition, the phases may be
divided into initial charter, scope statement, plan, baseline, progress, acceptance, approval
and handover. This classification is according to the PMBOK. Thus, the phases of a project are
closely correlated with that of the project cycle.

The purpose of each phase of the project is a set of deliverables that are agreed upon before
the project starts. For instance, in a software project, the requirement phase needs to generate
the requirement documents, the design phase the design document etc. The build phase in a
project delivers the completed code whereas the test phase is about the completed testing for
the deliverables.

Each phase of the project is associated with a certain milestone and the set of deliverables that
each phase is expected to deliver is then tracked for compliance and closure. The Project Life
Cycle consists of the initiating, executing, controlling and closing processes of the framework
as described in the PMBOK. Each of these processes is necessary to ensure that the project
stays on track and is completed according to the specifications.

https://www.managementstudyguide.com/what-is-project-management.htm

Projects presentation guidelines

Talk Organization

Your entire talk, and each section of your talk should be organized as:

1. High level introduction


2. Details
3. Summary

Your talk should be organized similar to the following (the number of slides is a
intended as rough guideline):

1. Title & Outline slides (2 slides)


be sure to include all group members names on the title slide.
You should have an outline slide that gives that audience a road map of your
talk.
2. Introduction and Motivation (4 slides)
Start out with a big picture of your work: what, why, how.
First motivate the problem you are solving (why is it interesting/important),
then go through a high-level description of the problem you are solving, a high-
level description of your solution, and a summary of the main results.
3. Details of Your Solution (6 slides)(hasta aqui primera unidad)
o Details of the problem you are solving
o Details of your solution

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o Some details of your project's implementation
You may not have enough time to describe in detail all of your
implementation. Instead, give a high-level overview of the complete
implementation, and then pick one or two parts to discuss in more
detail.
o Use at least one picture to explain your solution and/or implementation
o Avoid using source code to describe parts of your implementation.

If you have more details then can be discussed in 45 minutes, then present all
parts of your project at a high-level and pick the one or two most interesting
parts of your project to talk about in detail.

4. Experimental Results demonstrating/proving your solution (2-4 slides)


o Explain the tests you performed (and why), and explain how you
gathered the data
o Present your key results
Choose quality over quantity; the audience will not be impressed with
all the test that you ran, instead s/he wants to be convinced that your
results show something interesting and that your experiments validate
your conclusions.
o Discuss your results.
Explain/interpret your results (possibly compare your results to related
work). Explain why your results fit (or don't fit) what you expected. Do
not just present data and leave it up to the audience to infer what the
data show and why it is interesting.

When presenting tables or graphs a good guideline is to first give a high-


level description of what the graph shows (e.g. "this graph shows that
algorithm A outperform algorithm B when the degree of parallelism is
greater than 4"), then discuss the graph ("the X axis is... the Y axis is ...,
the red curve is ..., the blue curve ..."), then summarize what the graph
shows and why the results make sense ("thus you can see that as the A
performs better than B as the number of nodes increase above 4. this
result makes sense because B's time is dominated by communication
costs when distributed over 4 or more nodes as is shown in the next
graph...")
5. Conclusions & Future Directions for your work (2-3 slides)
o Conclude with the main ideas and results of your work.
o Discuss lessons learned and future directions for your work
What lessons did you learn from your project? What was difficult? What
do you wish you could have done (or done differently)? How could your
project be extended...what's next? Are there any interesting problems or
questions that resulted from your work?
6. Back-up Slides
You may want to prepare a few back-up slides that describe parts of your

23
project that you do not plan to talk about in your presentation or that contain
additional experimental measures that you do not plan to discuss. These can be
used to help you answer any questions that you may get about these parts of
your project.

https://www.cs.swarthmore.edu/~newhall/cs97/s00/OralReport.html

Some tips for preparing your paper presentation

First, organize your talk:

1. Read the entire paper at least 3 times.


You need to be able to explain the details in the paper (even the ugly tricky
notation)
You need to be able to provide a critical analysis of the paper
Check out references in the related work section of the paper. (this will help
you put the paper in context of a larger body of work and will help you critique
the paper's results/contributions)
Look at Paper Reading Advice for more details.
2. Find the important ideas A paper has many details but only one or two main
ideas; structure your talk around these main ideas.
3. Create a Talk Outline
Your talk should be organized in a top-down manner.
You should have the following main sections in your talk:
o Introduction, The Big Picture: what, why, how, and why we should care
(motivation). Be sure to include:
a statement of the problem being solved (what)
motivation and putting the work in context (why and why should
we care)
a high-level view of the author's solution (how)
o Details of solution
o Results demonstrating/proving their solution
o Critic of Work (possibly compare to related work)
o Conclusions & Future Directions for this work

The talk should be organized as the important ideas first, the details second,
conclusions last. Each section of your talk should be organized in a similar
manor: high-level important points first, details second, summarize high-level

24
points last. If the paper is well written, you can use the paper's organization as
a guide.

Next, Design your slides

1. Slide Organization Your slides should be organized like an outline--a few


main points, with sub points under each one.
Your slides are a guide for your talk not a word-for-word copy of your talk. List
specific points that you want to talk about as sub-topics of each main topic. If
there are particular details that you want to discuss, outline them on the slide
and keep written notes for you to refer to in your talk rather than writing all
the details on the slide.
2. Summarize Main Points You should have a summary slide of the main ideas
at the end.
If applicable, Include a list of open questions from the paper
3. It is okay to waste space Add just enough prose prose to present the main
points and highlight the main parts of each point. Use phrases rather than
complete sentences and use large fonts. You can use acronyms and
abbreviations sparingly, however you should say the complete name when you
talk about about them. For example, if you abbreviate processes to procs on a
slide, say "processes" when you talk about the point not "procs". Similarly, if
your create an acronym for your super fast multi-cast implementation SFMC
and refer to the old slow multi-cast implementation as OSMC, then say "our
super fast multi-cast" and "the old slow multi-cast" rather than "SFMC" and
"OSMC". The exception is for well-known acronyms such as PVM, MPI, API,
JVM, etc.
4. A picture is worth a thousand words Use figures and graphs to explain
implementation and results. It is very hard to describe a system
implementation without having a picture of the components of the system. I
once attended a talk about Intel's I64 architecture where the speaker tried to
discuss the details of the layout of the chip and the interactions between the
components without having any figures. It made for a very bad talk and a very
hostile audience.
5. Number of Slides As a general rule, it should take 2-3 minutes to talk through
the material on one slide, so for a 45 minute talk you should have about 20
slides.

If there is too much material in a paper to present completely in 45 minutes,


then pick one part (the most interesting/important part) that you will discuss
in detail, and present the other parts at a higher level. You can create back-up
slides for specific details that you don't plan to talk about, but may get
questions about.

Next, preparing your presentation

1. Provide a talk road-map Tell audience where you are going with your talk.

25
o Give audience a road-map of your talk at the beginning by using outline
slides
Immediately after the title slide, put up an outline slide and tell the
audience the main organization of your talk. Another alternative is to
first have a few slides motivating the paper's general topic, then put up
an outline slide giving the audience a road-map of your talk.
o It should be clear when you start a new high-level part of your talk
Use good transitions from one slide to the next, and from one main topic
to the next..."We just talked about the implementation of foo now we
will look at how well foo performs for synthetic and real workloads.
You may want to use the outline slide at other points in your talk to
provide a visual transition between parts.
2. Repeat Your Point There is a rule that says you have to tell your audience
something three times before the really hear it:
1. Tell them what you are going to say.
2. Say it.
3. Summarize what you said.

This is particularly important for figures and graphs. For example:

4. This graph show how the A algorithm performs better than the B and C
algorithms as the number of nodes increase
5. The X axis is number of nodes, the Y axis is execution time in seconds
The red curve shows the execution time of A as the number of nodes
increases The blue curve shows ...
6. Thus you can see that as the number of nodes increases above N, the A
algorithm performs better. This is because of increased message traffic
in algorithms B and C as shown on the next slide...
7. Explain concepts in your own words It is certainly okay to lift key
phrases from the paper to use in your talk. However, you should also try
to summarize the main ideas of the paper in your own words.
8. Talk to the Audience Don't read your slide off the screen, nor directly
off the projector. It is okay to stop for a second and refer to your notes if
you need to.
9. Practice Give a practice run-through of your talk. Stand in a room for 1
hour and talk through all your slides (out loud). This should be a timed
dress rehearsal (don't stop and fix slides as you go). Members of your
reading group should provide a practice audience for you.
10. Nervousness: How to fight back
A well organized, practiced talk will almost always go well. If you
draw a blank, then looking at your slides will help you get back
on track.
Taking a deep breath will clam you down. One trick is to try to
remember to take a deep breath between each slide.
Slow down. Take a few seconds to think about a question that is
being asked before you answer it. It is okay to pause for a few

26
seconds between points and between slides; a second or two of
silence between points is noticeable only to you, but if you are
talking a mile a minute everyone will notice.
Bring notes. if you are afraid that you will forget a point or will
forget your elegant transition between slides 11 and 12, write
these down on a piece of paper and bring it with you. However,
you don't want to have a verbatim copy of your talk, instead
write down key phrases that you want to remember to say.
Give at least one practice talk to an audience.
Be prepared to answer questions. You don't have to know the
answer to every question, however you should be prepared to
answer questions and able to answer most questions about the
paper. Before you give the talk, think about what questions you
are likely to get, and how you would answer them. You may want
to have back-up slides ready for answering certain questions.
It is okay to say "I don't know" or better yet "gee, I hadn't
thought about that, but one possible approach would be to..." or
to refer to your notes to answer questions.
11. Talk to me...this is not optional
You should meet with me the Tuesday before your talk with your talk
outline in hand, and the Thursday or Friday before your talk with your
talk slides.

https://www.cs.swarthmore.edu/~newhall/cs97/s00/PresentationAdvice.html

I.2. Nominalizacin
Reconocer las funciones de los componentes gramaticales: verbos, sustantivos y
adjetivos.
Reconocer las terminaciones "-ing" para la nominalizacin de verbos.
Distinguir el uso de la terminacin "-ed" e "-ing" en adjetivos.

What is a participle?
A participle is a word formed from a verb that can function as part of a verb phrase.

For example:-

has been

Or independently as an adjective.

27
For example:-

working woman
hot water bottle

There are three forms of participle: The present participle, the past participle and the perfect
participle.

!Note - We use past participles (-ed) to describe how we feel. We use present participles [-ing] to
describe what caused the feelings.

: http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/participletext.html#sthash.vbTNMyiv.dpuf

Punctuation Marks
Punctuation marks are symbols that are used to aid the clarity and
comprehension of written language. Some common punctuation marks
are the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point, apostrophe,
quotation mark and hyphen.

Punctuation
Symbol Definition Examples
Mark
An apostrophe is used as a substitute for a
missing letter or letters in a word (as in
I can't see the cat's
the contraction cannot = can't), to show
tail.
the possessive case (Jane's room), and in
Apostrophe ' the plural of letters, some numbers and
Dot your i's and
cross your t's.
abbreviations. Note: groups of years no
100's of years.
longer require an apostrophe (for
example, the 1950s or the 90s).
There are many
A colon is used before a list or quote. punctuation marks:
period, comma,
A colon is used to separate hours and colon, and others.
colon : minutes.
The time is 2:15.
A colon is used to separate elements of a
mathematical ratio. The ratio of girls to
boys is 3:2.
A comma is used to separate phrases or She bought milk,
Comma , items in a list. eggs, and bread.

28
The dash is also
known as an "em
dash" because it is
A dash is used to separate parts of a
Dash sentence.
the length of a
printed letter m
it is longer than a
hyphen.
An ellipsis (three dots) indicates that part
Ellipsis ... of the text has been intentionally been left 0, 2, 4, ... , 100
out.
exclamation An exclamation point is used to show
point
! excitement or emphasis.
It is cold!

A hyphen is used between parts of a


The sixteen-year-
compound word or name. It is also used to
Hyphen - split a word by syllables to fit on a line of
old girl is a full-time
student.
text.
Parentheses are curved lines used to
This sentence (like
separate explanations or qualifying
others on this page)
statements within a sentence (each one of
Parentheses () the curved lines is called a parenthesis).
contains a
parenthetical
The part in the parentheses is called a
remark.
parenthetical remark.
A period is used to note the end of a
Period . declarative sentence.
I see the house.

question A question mark is used at the end of a


mark
? question.
When are we going?

Quotation marks are used at the beginning


quotation and end of a phrase to show that it is
mark
" being written exactly as it was originally
She said, "Let's eat."
said or written.
A semicolon separates two independent
clauses in a compound sentence.
Semicolon ; A semicolon is also used to separate items
in a series (where commas are already in
use).

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/grammar/punctuation/

Punctuation marks exercise.

29
This exercise will test your understanding of all kinds of different punctuation marks,
particularly commas, colons, semi-colons and apostrophes.

Select the correctly punctuated sentence in these exercises

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/arts/exercises/grammar/grammar_tutorial/page_55.htm

http://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/workbooks/correspondence.html

( this link has information about different pieces of writing like letters, memos, etc.)

Unit II Argumentation

Definition:

The act or process of forming reasons and of drawing conclusions and applying them
to a case in discussion

Writer's WebToulmin Argumentation Model Exercise

The passage below is a short piece arguing in support of a US "junk food tax."
Read through the piece and look for the different parts of Toulmin's model.
Afterwards, answer the questions below the passage. Does the piece offer strong
evidence, backing, rebuttal and qualification to support its claim?
30
With the alarming rise in obesity rates among Americans in the past few
decades, numerous debates have arisen over how (or if) public policy should be
changed to help improve this trend. One promising strategy, already adopted by seven
states, has been to try and deter consumers from purchasing unhealthy foods through
a tax on soda or sugary drinks and junk food (Lohman, 2002). These taxes address the
issue that Americans today are consuming almost 20% more calories than they did in
the early 1980s, and those calories are coming from increasingly less-healthy sources,
mainly high-fat and high-sugar processed foods (USDA, 2002). Furthermore,
processed foods and drinks are increasingly more affordable than the fruits,
vegetables, and whole grains needed to sustain a healthy diet (Marsh, 2011).
Assuming that cost is a more pertinent factor of food choice than personal taste,
increasing the price of soda and junk food through taxes, while using that revenue to
subsidize unprocessed fruits and vegetables would entice consumers to choose
healthier products as they become more affordable than their unhealthy counterparts.

There is evidence to suggest that cost, more so than preference, influences


purchasing choices. A year after New York increased cigarette taxes from $1.25 to
$2.75, smoking rates dropped by 12% to a historic low (Harutyunyan, 2009).
Although some might argue that smoking is more of a lifestyle choice than eating, it is
rather the choice of what foods to eat which will hopefully be affected in the long run.
Additionally, this tax might hurt those in areas with little access to fresh produce and
whole grains, such as in low-income urban areas; therefore the junk food tax would
only work if healthy food choices are made not only affordable but easily available to
low-income consumers through the use of subsidies (Marsh, 2011). However, if
precautions are taken to ensure equal access to healthy food among all citizens, then
using the carrot of subsidized healthy food and nutrition education along with the
stick of a food tax, the typical American diet can-- and should-- be changed for the
better.

References:

31
Harutyunyan, R. (June 6, 2009). Cigarette Tax Increase Lowered NY Smoking Rates.
EmaxHealth. Retrieved from http://www.emaxhealth.com/2/58/31581/cigarette-
tax-increase-lowered-ny-smoking-rates.html

Lohman, J. (2002). Taxes on junk food. Washington DC: Office of Legislative Research.
http://www.cga.ct.gov/2002/olrdata/fin/rpt/2002-r-1004.htm

Marsh, B. (July 23, 2011). Bad Food? Tax It, and Subsidize Vegetables. The New York
Times. Retrieved from
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/24/opinion/sunday/24bittman.html?pagewante
d=all

US Department of Agriculture (2002). Profiling food consumption in America. In


Agriculture Factbook: 2001-2002. Retrieved from
http://www.usda.gov/factbook/chapter2.htm

Questions

1) What is the author's claim in this piece?

Show Answer? The claim is stated in two places-- at the beginning of the piece, when
the author states that the tax is a 'promising' strategy against obesity, and re-stated at
the end when the author writes using the carrot of subsidized healthy food and
nutrition education along with the stick of a food tax, the typical American diet can,
and should, be changed for the better. These two statements condense the main point
which the author is trying to impart-- that a junk food tax has a good chance of being
successful and should be implemented.

2) Where does the author present evidence in this piece?

32
Show Answer? The main evidence to support her claim is given in the form of
statistics about food consumption in the US to highlight the need for a program
encouraging healthy food consumption. Specifically, she states Americans today are
consuming almost 20% more calories than they did in the early 1980s, and those
calories are coming from increasingly less-healthy sources, mainly high-fat and high-
sugar processed foods. Furthermore, processed foods and drinks are increasingly
more affordable than the fruits, vegetables, and whole grains needed to sustain a
healthy diet.

3) What is the warrant in this piece? Is it stated explicitly?

Because the author is arguing that a tax on unhealthy food would encourage healthy
food consumption, the warrant linking evidence of unhealthy eating to the use of a
food tax is that customers make purchasing decisions largely on the basis of cost. This
idea is explicitly stated when the author writes mentions that we might assume cost is
a more pertinent factor of food choice than personal taste.

4) Where does the author present backing for her warrant?

The author cites backing for the warrant through the effects of cigarette taxes on
smoking habits in New York. Specifically, she writes that a year after New York
increased cigarette taxes from $1.25 to $2.75, smoking rates dropped by 12% to a
historic low (Harutyunyan, 2009).

5) Does the author rebut possible counterarguments?

33
Yes, the author addresses two possible counterarguments by bringing them up, and
then refuting them. She notes that with regard to the legitimacy of comparing smoking
to eating habits, some might argue that smoking is more of a lifestyle choice than
eating, it is rather the choice of what foods to eat which will hopefully be affected in
the long run. She also notes the issue of food deserts by writing additionally, this tax
might hurt those in areas with little access to fresh produce and whole grains, such as
in low-income urban areas; therefore the junk food tax would only work if healthy
food choices are made not only affordable but easily available to low-income
consumers through the use of subsidies (Marsh, 2011).

6) How does the author qualify her claim?

The author adds qualification by addressing the issues brought up by lack of access to
healthy options in her re-statement of the claim. Specifically, the qualifier appears as
the statement "however, if precautions are taken to ensure equal access to healthy
food among all citizens, then..." . The claim is again stated as she continues with using
the carrot of subsidized healthy food and nutrition education along with the stick
of a food tax, the typical American diet can-- and should-- be changed for the better. .

7) How would you judge the quality of this argument? Do you think that the author
provided strong evidence which is supported by the warrant and backing? How well
did the author address possible counterarguments and qualify her claim?

This answer is dependent upon your own analysis of the argument. However, there
are many issues worth noting. The evidence provided does explain that there is a
trend in unhealthy eating, but does not give evidence for why this trend is harmful,
nor does it provide evidence for why this trend exists. The overall claim that a junk

34
food tax should be implemented would be stronger if evidence were given explaining
the consequences of allowing this unhealthy trend to continue; also, the warrant that
cost is a primary factor of food purchasing choices would be more valid if evidence
was provided outlining other factors in this type of decision-making. Additionally, the
rebuttal and qualifier addressing the lack of accessibility to healthy food in low-
income areas would be stronger if the author had suggested specific measures by
which the accessibility issue would be resolved.

M.E. Alicia Ornelas Vargas


Mechatronics / Renewable Engineering

Projects presentation Check list IMEC 101 N / 102 N

Students names :

1._______________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________
3._______________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________
5._______________________________________________________ 6.____________________________________________

Yes No Comments
1. Projects title
(names of the teams
members ( 1 slide )
2. Outline (road map of
the talk) (1 slide )
3. Introduction and
motivation (4 slides)
4/5 Details of your
solution (6 slides)
material, cost, process.
6. Experimental results,

35
demonstrating/proving
your solution (2-4
slides)
7. Conclusions & future
directions for your
work (2,3 slides(
8. Main ideas and
results of your work
(second units exam)
9. Discuss lessons
learned and future
directions for your
work . What lessons
did you learn from
your project? What was
difficult?
10. Back up slides*

*You may want to prepare a few back /up slides that describe parts of your project that you
do not plan to talk about in your presentation, or that contain additional experimental
measures that you do not plan to discuss. These can be used to help you answer any questions
that you may get about these parts of your project.

In the first presentation, you will be evaluated from points 1 to 5, each aspect goes by 12% =
60%

36