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Introduction and Mathematical

Concepts
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
 Standard units used for SI (Systems of Units), CGS
(cm-gm-sec units) and BE (British English Units)
Standard Prefixes Used to
Denote Multiples of Ten
 Examples,
 Centimeter = 0.01 m
 Kilometer = 1000 m
 GigaHertz = 1 x 10^9 Hz
The Conversion of Units
 EXAMPLE
 Express the speed limit of 65 miles/hour in terms of
meters/second.
Dimensional Analysis
 Dimensional analysis is used to check mathematical
relations for the consistency of their dimensions.
 Applying dimensional analysis to x = vt .

 The dimension on the left of the equals sign matches that


on the right, so this relation is dimensionally correct.
Trigonometry
Scalars and Vectors
 A scalar quantity is one that can be described with a
single number (including any units) giving its size or
magnitude. Some other common scalars are
temperature (e.g., 20 C) and mass (e.g., 85 kg).
 A quantity that deals inherently with both magnitude
and direction is called a vector quantity. Examples
are displacement and velocity.
Vector Addition and Subtraction
 If two vectors are
colinear,
add the individual
magnitudes to get the
magnitude of the total
 The vector addition is still
given according to
Components of a Vector
 A displacement vector r
has a magnitude of r =
175 m and points at an
angle of 50.0 relative to
the x axis. Find the x and
y components of this
vector.
Kinematics in One Dimension
Displacement
 The displacement is a vector that points from an
objects initial position to its final position and has a
magnitude that equals the shortest distance between
the two positions.
 SI Unit of Displacement: meter (m)
Speed and Velocity
 Both have SI Unit of
Average Velocity:
meter per second
(m/s)
 Speed is scalar
quantity.
 Velocity is vector
quantity.
Acceleration

 SI Unit of Average Acceleration: meter per second


squared (m/s2)
Equations of Kinematics for Constant
Acceleration
 Equation 1:
v = vo + at
 Equation 2:
x = vot + at2
 Equation 2:
v2 = vo2 + 2ax

Where vo is the initial velocity, v is the final velocity, x is


the displacement, a is the acceleration, and t is the
time.
EXAMPLE
 A jet is taking off from the deck of an aircraft carrier.
Starting from rest, the jet is catapulted with a constant
acceleration 31 m/s2 of along a straight line and
reaches a velocity of 62 m/s. Find the displacement of
the jet.
EXAMPLE
 A runner accelerates to a velocity of 4.15 m/s due west
in 1.50 s. His average acceleration is 0.640 m/s2, also
directed due west. What was his velocity when he
began accelerating?
EXAMPLE
 A locomotive is accelerating at 1.6 m/s2. It passes
through a 20.0-m-wide crossing in a time of 2.4 s. After
the locomotive leaves the crossing, how much time is
required until its speed reaches 32 m/s?
Freely Falling Bodies
 The acceleration of a freely falling body is called the
acceleration due to gravity, and its magnitude
(without any algebraic sign) is denoted by the symbol
g.
 The acceleration due to gravity is directed downward,
toward the center of the earth. Near the earths surface,
g is approximately
Equations of Free-falling Bodies
 Equation 1:
v = vo + at
 Equation 2:
y = vot + gt2
 Equation 2:
v2 = vo2 + 2gy

Note: Usually g is denoted as negative since its direction


is pointing downward.
Example - A Falling Stone
 A stone is dropped
from rest from the
top of a tall
building. After 3.00
s of free-fall, what
is the displacement
y of the stone?
Example
 A football game customarily
begins with a coin toss to
determine who kicks off. The
referee tosses the coin up
with an initial speed of 5.00
m/s. In the absence of air
resistance, how high does the
coin go above its point of
release?
Kinematics in two Dimensions
Projectile Motion
 x variables: x, vx, ax, vox, t
1. ax = 0 m/s2
2. vx = vox = constant
 Y variables: y, v y, ay, voy, t
1. ay = g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2
2. v y is not constant
Example
 A placekicker kicks a football at an angle of = 40o
above the horizontal axis. The initial speed of the ball
is vo = 22m/s. Ignore air resistance and find the
maximum height H that the ball attains.
Example
 An Olympic long jumper leaves the ground at an angle
of 23 and travels through the air for a horizontal
distance of 8.7 m before landing. What is the takeoff
speed of the jumper?
Example
 A hot-air balloon is rising straight up with a speed of
3.0 m/s. A ballast bag is released from rest relative to
the balloon when it is 9.5 m above the ground. How
much time elapses before the ballast bag hits the
ground?
Forces and Newton's Laws of
Motion
Newtons First Law of Motion
 An object continues in a state of rest or in a state of
motion at a constant speed along a straight line, unless
compelled to change that state by a net force.

 Inertia is the natural tendency of an object to remain


at rest or in motion at a constant speed along a straight
line. The mass of an object is a quantitative measure of
inertia.
 SI Unit of Inertia and Mass: kilogram (kg)
An Inertial Reference Frame
 An inertial reference frame is one in which Newtons
law of inertia is valid.

 The acceleration of an inertial reference frame is zero,


so it moves with a constant velocity. All of Newtons
laws of motion are valid in inertial reference frames,
and when we apply these laws, we will be assuming
such a reference frame. In particular, the earth itself is
a good approximation of an inertial reference frame.
Newtons Second Law of Motion
 When a net external force F acts on an object of
mass m, the acceleration a that results is directly
proportional to the net force and has a magnitude that
is inversely proportional to the mass. The direction of
the acceleration is the same as the direction of the net
force.

 SI Unit of Force: kgm/s2 = newton (N)


Units for Mass, Acceleration, and
Force
Example
 Two people are pushing a stalled car. The mass of the car is
1850 kg. One person applies a force of 275 N to the car,
while the other applies a force of 395 N. Both forces act in
the same direction. A third force of 560 N also acts on the
car, but in a direction opposite to that in which the people
are pushing. This force arises because of friction and the
extent to which the pavement opposes the motion of the
tires. Find the acceleration of the car.
Newtons Third Law of Motion
 Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body,
the second body exerts an oppositely directed force of
equal magnitude on the first body.

 The third law is often called the actionreaction law,


because it is sometimes quoted as follows: For every
action (force) there is an equal, but opposite, reaction.
Example
 Suppose that the mass of
the spacecraft is mS = 11
000 kg and that the mass
of the astronaut is
mA = 92 kg. In addition,
assume that the astronaut
exerts a force of on the
spacecraft. Find the
accelerations of the
spacecraft and the
astronaut.
Newtons Law of Universal
Gravitation
 Every particle in the universe exerts an attractive force on
every other particle. A particle is a piece of matter, small
enough in size to be regarded as a mathematical point. For
two particles that have masses m1 and m2 and are separated
by a distance r, the force that each exerts on the other is
directed along the line joining the particles and has a
magnitude given by

 G = universal gravitational constant


Example
 What is the magnitude of the gravitational force that
acts on each particle in Figure 4-10, assuming m1 = 12
kg (approximately the mass of a bicycle), m2 = 25 kg,
and r = 1.2 m?
Definition of Weight
 The weight of an object on or above the earth is the
gravitational force that the earth exerts on the object.
The weight always acts downward, toward the center of
the earth. On or above another astronomical body, the
weight is the gravitational force exerted on the object
by that body.
 SI Unit of Weight: newton (N)
 Using W for the magnitude of the weight,* m for
the mass of the object, and ME for the mass of the
earth,

 Where ME = mass of the earth, r = radius of the earth, G


= universal gravitational constant, and m = mass of an
object above the earth
 NOTE: W = mg
and g = GME/r2
Normal Force
 The normal force FN is one component of the force that
a surface exerts on an object with which it is in
contactnamely, the component that is perpendicular
to the surface.
Frictional Forces (Friction)
 When the object moves or attempts to move along the
surface, a component of the force that is parallel to the
surface is called the frictional force, or simply
friction.
The Tension Force
 Forces which are often applied by means of cables or
ropes that are used to pull an object.
Equilibrium
 An object is in equilibrium when it has zero
acceleration.
 In other words, the forces acting on an object in
equilibrium must balance. Thus, in two dimensions,
the equilibrium condition is expressed by two
equations:
Example
 An automobile engine has
a weight W, whose
magnitude is W = 3150 N.
This engine is being
positioned above an engine
compartment. To position
the engine, a worker is
using a rope. Find the
tension T1 in the
supporting cable and the
tension T2 in the
positioning rope.
Dynamics of Uniform Circular
Motion
Uniform Circular Motion
 Uniform circular motion is the motion of an object
traveling at a constant (uniform) speed on a circular
path.

 Speed v of any circular motion is the distance traveled


(Circumference = 2r) divided by the time T:
Example
 The wheel of a car has a radius of r = 0.29 m and is
being rotated at 830 revolutions per minute (rpm) on a
tire-balancing machine. Determine the speed (in m/s)
at which the outer edge of the wheel is moving.
Centripetal Acceleration
 Magnitude: The centripetal acceleration of an object
moving with a speed v on a circular path of radius r has
a magnitude ac given by

 Direction: The centripetal acceleration vector always


points toward the center of the circle and continually
changes direction as the object moves.
Example
 The bobsled track at the
1994 Olympics in
Lillehammer, Norway,
contained turns with radii
of 33 m and 24 m. Find the
centripetal acceleration at
each turn for a speed of 34
m/s, a speed that was
achieved in the two-man
event. Express the answers
as multiples of g.
Centripetal Force
 Magnitude: The centripetal force is the name given to
the net force required to keep an object of mass m,
moving at a speed v, on a circular path of radius r, and
it has a magnitude of

 Direction: The centripetal force always points toward


the center of the circle and continually changes
direction as the object moves.
Example
 The model airplane has a mass of 0.90 kg and moves at
a constant speed on a circle that is parallel to the
ground. The path of the airplane and its guideline lie
in the same horizontal plane, because the weight of
the plane is balanced by the lift generated by its wings.
Find the tension T in the guideline (length = 17 m) for
speeds of 19 and 38 m/s.
Banked Curves

 Based on the FBD: FNsin = mv2/r


and : FNcos = mg. Dividing this
equation into the previous one shows
that
Example
 The Daytona 500 is the major event of the NASCAR
(National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) season. It
is held at the Daytona International Speedway in Daytona,
Florida. The turns in this oval track have a maximum radius
(at the top) of r = 316 m and are banked steeply, with =
31o. Suppose these maximum-radius turns were frictionless.
At what speed would the cars have to travel around them?
Satellites in Circular Orbits
 The speed v of the satellite
gives

 For a satellite in circular


orbit around the earth, the
gravitational force provides
the centripetal force.
Example
 Determine the speed of the Hubble Space Telescope
orbiting at a height of 598 km above the earths
surface.
WORK
 The work done on an object by a constant force F is

 where F is the magnitude of the force, s is the magnitude of


the displacement, and is the angle between the force and the
displacement.
Example
 Find the work done by a 45.0-N force in pulling the
suitcase in Figure 6-2a at an angle = 50o for a distance
s = 75 m.
The WorkEnergy Theorem and
Kinetic Energy
 The kinetic energy KE of an object with mass m and
speed v is given by

 When a net external force does work W on an object,


the kinetic energy of the object changes from its initial
value of KE0 to a final value of KEf, the difference
between the two values being equal to the work:
Gravitational Potential Energy
 The gravitational potential energy PE is the energy
that an object of mass m has by virtue of its position
relative to the surface of the earth. That position is
measured by the height h of the object relative to an
arbitrary zero level:

 SI Unit of Gravitational Potential Energy: joule (J)


Conservative Force
 Version 1 A force is conservative when the work it does
on a moving object is independent of the path
between the objects initial and final positions.

Version 2 A force is conservative when it does no net
work on an object moving around a closed path,
starting and finishing at the same point.
The Conservation of Mechanical
Energy
 The total mechanical
energy (E = KE + PE) of
an object remains
constant as the object
moves, provided that the
net work done by
external
nonconservative forces is
zero, Wnc = 0 J.
Example
 A motorcyclist is trying to leap across the canyon by
driving horizontally off the cliff at a speed of 38.0 m /s.
Ignoring air resistance, find the speed with which the
cycle strikes the ground on the other side.

 The mass m of the rider and cycle can be eliminated algebraically from
this equation, since m appears as a factor in every term.
Power
 Average power P is the average rate at which work W is
done, and it is obtained by dividing W by the time t
required to perform the work:

 SI Unit of Power: joule /s = Watt (W)


The Principle of Conservation of
Energy
 Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can
only be converted from one form to another.

 It means whenever energy is transformed from one


form to another, it is found that no energy is gained or
lost in the process; the total of all the energies before
the process is equal to the total of the energies after
the process.
Impulse and Momentum
Impulse
 The impulse J of a force is the product of the average
force F and the time interval t during which the force
acts:

 SI Unit of Impulse: newton second (Ns)


 Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same direction
as the average force.
Momentum
 The linear momentum p of an object is the product of
the objects mass m and velocity :

 SI Unit of Linear Momentum: kilogram


meter/second (kgm/s)
 Linear momentum is a vector quantity that points in
the same direction as the velocity.
ImpulseMomentum Theorem
 When a net force acts on an object, the impulse of this
force is equal to the change in momentum of the
object:
Example
 During a storm, rain comes straight down with a velocity of
vo = - 15 m/s and hits the roof of a car perpendicularly. The
mass of rain per second that strikes the car roof is
0.060 kg/s. Assuming that the rain comes to rest upon
striking the car (vf = 0 m/s), find the average force exerted
by the rain on the roof.
Conservation of Linear Momentum
 The total linear momentum of an isolated system
remains constant (is conserved). An isolated system is
one for which the vector sum of the average external
forces acting on the system is zero.

 Total final momentum = total initial momentum


Collisions in One Dimension
 Collisions are often classified according to whether the
total kinetic energy changes during the collision:
 Elastic collisionOne in which the total kinetic
energy of the system after the collision is equal to the
total kinetic energy before the collision.
 Inelastic collisionOne in which the total kinetic
energy of the system is not the same before and after the
collision; if the objects stick together after colliding, the
collision is said to be completely inelastic.
Example
 There is an elastic head-on collision
between two balls. One ball has a
mass of m1 = 0.250 kg and an initial
velocity of +5.00 m/s. The other has a
mass of m2 = 0.8 kg and is initially at
rest. No external forces act on the
balls. What are the velocities of the
balls after the collision?
Example
 A ballistic pendulum can be used to measure the speed
of a projectile, such as a bullet. The ballistic pendulum
consists of a stationary 2.50-kg block of wood suspended
by a wire of negligible mass. A 0.0100-kg bullet is fired
into the block, and the block (with the bullet in it)
swings to a maximum height of 0.650 m above the initial
position (see part b of the drawing). Find the speed with
which the bullet is fired, assuming that air resistance is
negligible.
 ANS. 896 m/s
Example - A Collision in Two
Dimensions
 Use momentum conservation to determine the
magnitude and direction of the final velocity of ball 1
after the collision. ANS. 0.64 m/s, 11o
Rotational Kinematics
Angular Displacement
 When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, the angular
displacement is the angle swept out by a line passing
through any point on the body and intersecting the axis of
rotation perpendicularly. By convention, the angular
displacement is positive if it is counterclockwise and negative
if it is clockwise.

 SI Unit of Angular Displacement: radian (rad)*


 Where
Average Angular Velocity
 SI Unit of Angular Velocity: radian per second
(rad/s)
Average Angular Acceleration
 SI Unit of Average Angular Acceleration: radian per
second squared (rad/s2)
The Equations of Rotational
Kinematics
Example
 The blades of an electric blender are
whirling with an angular velocity of
+375 rad/s while the puree button
is pushed in. When the blend
button is pressed, the blades
accelerate and reach a greater
angular velocity after the blades have
rotated through an angular
displacement of +44.0 rad. The
angular acceleration has a constant
value of +1740 rad/s2. Find the final
angular velocity of the blades.
Tangential Speed and Acceleration
 Tangential Speed

 Tangential Acceleration
Centripetal Acceleration
Example
 An automobile, starting
from rest, has a linear
acceleration to the right
whose magnitude is 0.800
m/s2. During the next 20.0
s, the tires roll without
slipping. The radius of each
wheel is 0.330 m. At the end
of this time, what is the
angle through which each
wheel has rotated?