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Concepts

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Standard units used for SI (Systems of Units), CGS

(cm-gm-sec units) and BE (British English Units)

Standard Prefixes Used to

Denote Multiples of Ten

Examples,

Centimeter = 0.01 m

Kilometer = 1000 m

GigaHertz = 1 x 10^9 Hz

The Conversion of Units

EXAMPLE

Express the speed limit of 65 miles/hour in terms of

meters/second.

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis is used to check mathematical

relations for the consistency of their dimensions.

Applying dimensional analysis to x = vt .

on the right, so this relation is dimensionally correct.

Trigonometry

Scalars and Vectors

A scalar quantity is one that can be described with a

single number (including any units) giving its size or

magnitude. Some other common scalars are

temperature (e.g., 20 C) and mass (e.g., 85 kg).

A quantity that deals inherently with both magnitude

and direction is called a vector quantity. Examples

are displacement and velocity.

Vector Addition and Subtraction

If two vectors are

colinear,

add the individual

magnitudes to get the

magnitude of the total

The vector addition is still

given according to

Components of a Vector

A displacement vector r

has a magnitude of r =

175 m and points at an

angle of 50.0 relative to

the x axis. Find the x and

y components of this

vector.

Kinematics in One Dimension

Displacement

The displacement is a vector that points from an

objects initial position to its final position and has a

magnitude that equals the shortest distance between

the two positions.

SI Unit of Displacement: meter (m)

Speed and Velocity

Both have SI Unit of

Average Velocity:

meter per second

(m/s)

Speed is scalar

quantity.

Velocity is vector

quantity.

Acceleration

squared (m/s2)

Equations of Kinematics for Constant

Acceleration

Equation 1:

v = vo + at

Equation 2:

x = vot + at2

Equation 2:

v2 = vo2 + 2ax

the displacement, a is the acceleration, and t is the

time.

EXAMPLE

A jet is taking off from the deck of an aircraft carrier.

Starting from rest, the jet is catapulted with a constant

acceleration 31 m/s2 of along a straight line and

reaches a velocity of 62 m/s. Find the displacement of

the jet.

EXAMPLE

A runner accelerates to a velocity of 4.15 m/s due west

in 1.50 s. His average acceleration is 0.640 m/s2, also

directed due west. What was his velocity when he

began accelerating?

EXAMPLE

A locomotive is accelerating at 1.6 m/s2. It passes

through a 20.0-m-wide crossing in a time of 2.4 s. After

the locomotive leaves the crossing, how much time is

required until its speed reaches 32 m/s?

Freely Falling Bodies

The acceleration of a freely falling body is called the

acceleration due to gravity, and its magnitude

(without any algebraic sign) is denoted by the symbol

g.

The acceleration due to gravity is directed downward,

toward the center of the earth. Near the earths surface,

g is approximately

Equations of Free-falling Bodies

Equation 1:

v = vo + at

Equation 2:

y = vot + gt2

Equation 2:

v2 = vo2 + 2gy

is pointing downward.

Example - A Falling Stone

A stone is dropped

from rest from the

top of a tall

building. After 3.00

s of free-fall, what

is the displacement

y of the stone?

Example

A football game customarily

begins with a coin toss to

determine who kicks off. The

referee tosses the coin up

with an initial speed of 5.00

m/s. In the absence of air

resistance, how high does the

coin go above its point of

release?

Kinematics in two Dimensions

Projectile Motion

x variables: x, vx, ax, vox, t

1. ax = 0 m/s2

2. vx = vox = constant

Y variables: y, v y, ay, voy, t

1. ay = g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2

2. v y is not constant

Example

A placekicker kicks a football at an angle of = 40o

above the horizontal axis. The initial speed of the ball

is vo = 22m/s. Ignore air resistance and find the

maximum height H that the ball attains.

Example

An Olympic long jumper leaves the ground at an angle

of 23 and travels through the air for a horizontal

distance of 8.7 m before landing. What is the takeoff

speed of the jumper?

Example

A hot-air balloon is rising straight up with a speed of

3.0 m/s. A ballast bag is released from rest relative to

the balloon when it is 9.5 m above the ground. How

much time elapses before the ballast bag hits the

ground?

Forces and Newton's Laws of

Motion

Newtons First Law of Motion

An object continues in a state of rest or in a state of

motion at a constant speed along a straight line, unless

compelled to change that state by a net force.

at rest or in motion at a constant speed along a straight

line. The mass of an object is a quantitative measure of

inertia.

SI Unit of Inertia and Mass: kilogram (kg)

An Inertial Reference Frame

An inertial reference frame is one in which Newtons

law of inertia is valid.

so it moves with a constant velocity. All of Newtons

laws of motion are valid in inertial reference frames,

and when we apply these laws, we will be assuming

such a reference frame. In particular, the earth itself is

a good approximation of an inertial reference frame.

Newtons Second Law of Motion

When a net external force F acts on an object of

mass m, the acceleration a that results is directly

proportional to the net force and has a magnitude that

is inversely proportional to the mass. The direction of

the acceleration is the same as the direction of the net

force.

Units for Mass, Acceleration, and

Force

Example

Two people are pushing a stalled car. The mass of the car is

1850 kg. One person applies a force of 275 N to the car,

while the other applies a force of 395 N. Both forces act in

the same direction. A third force of 560 N also acts on the

car, but in a direction opposite to that in which the people

are pushing. This force arises because of friction and the

extent to which the pavement opposes the motion of the

tires. Find the acceleration of the car.

Newtons Third Law of Motion

Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body,

the second body exerts an oppositely directed force of

equal magnitude on the first body.

because it is sometimes quoted as follows: For every

action (force) there is an equal, but opposite, reaction.

Example

Suppose that the mass of

the spacecraft is mS = 11

000 kg and that the mass

of the astronaut is

mA = 92 kg. In addition,

assume that the astronaut

exerts a force of on the

spacecraft. Find the

accelerations of the

spacecraft and the

astronaut.

Newtons Law of Universal

Gravitation

Every particle in the universe exerts an attractive force on

every other particle. A particle is a piece of matter, small

enough in size to be regarded as a mathematical point. For

two particles that have masses m1 and m2 and are separated

by a distance r, the force that each exerts on the other is

directed along the line joining the particles and has a

magnitude given by

Example

What is the magnitude of the gravitational force that

acts on each particle in Figure 4-10, assuming m1 = 12

kg (approximately the mass of a bicycle), m2 = 25 kg,

and r = 1.2 m?

Definition of Weight

The weight of an object on or above the earth is the

gravitational force that the earth exerts on the object.

The weight always acts downward, toward the center of

the earth. On or above another astronomical body, the

weight is the gravitational force exerted on the object

by that body.

SI Unit of Weight: newton (N)

Using W for the magnitude of the weight,* m for

the mass of the object, and ME for the mass of the

earth,

= universal gravitational constant, and m = mass of an

object above the earth

NOTE: W = mg

and g = GME/r2

Normal Force

The normal force FN is one component of the force that

a surface exerts on an object with which it is in

contactnamely, the component that is perpendicular

to the surface.

Frictional Forces (Friction)

When the object moves or attempts to move along the

surface, a component of the force that is parallel to the

surface is called the frictional force, or simply

friction.

The Tension Force

Forces which are often applied by means of cables or

ropes that are used to pull an object.

Equilibrium

An object is in equilibrium when it has zero

acceleration.

In other words, the forces acting on an object in

equilibrium must balance. Thus, in two dimensions,

the equilibrium condition is expressed by two

equations:

Example

An automobile engine has

a weight W, whose

magnitude is W = 3150 N.

This engine is being

positioned above an engine

compartment. To position

the engine, a worker is

using a rope. Find the

tension T1 in the

supporting cable and the

tension T2 in the

positioning rope.

Dynamics of Uniform Circular

Motion

Uniform Circular Motion

Uniform circular motion is the motion of an object

traveling at a constant (uniform) speed on a circular

path.

(Circumference = 2r) divided by the time T:

Example

The wheel of a car has a radius of r = 0.29 m and is

being rotated at 830 revolutions per minute (rpm) on a

tire-balancing machine. Determine the speed (in m/s)

at which the outer edge of the wheel is moving.

Centripetal Acceleration

Magnitude: The centripetal acceleration of an object

moving with a speed v on a circular path of radius r has

a magnitude ac given by

points toward the center of the circle and continually

changes direction as the object moves.

Example

The bobsled track at the

1994 Olympics in

Lillehammer, Norway,

contained turns with radii

of 33 m and 24 m. Find the

centripetal acceleration at

each turn for a speed of 34

m/s, a speed that was

achieved in the two-man

event. Express the answers

as multiples of g.

Centripetal Force

Magnitude: The centripetal force is the name given to

the net force required to keep an object of mass m,

moving at a speed v, on a circular path of radius r, and

it has a magnitude of

the center of the circle and continually changes

direction as the object moves.

Example

The model airplane has a mass of 0.90 kg and moves at

a constant speed on a circle that is parallel to the

ground. The path of the airplane and its guideline lie

in the same horizontal plane, because the weight of

the plane is balanced by the lift generated by its wings.

Find the tension T in the guideline (length = 17 m) for

speeds of 19 and 38 m/s.

Banked Curves

and : FNcos = mg. Dividing this

equation into the previous one shows

that

Example

The Daytona 500 is the major event of the NASCAR

(National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) season. It

is held at the Daytona International Speedway in Daytona,

Florida. The turns in this oval track have a maximum radius

(at the top) of r = 316 m and are banked steeply, with =

31o. Suppose these maximum-radius turns were frictionless.

At what speed would the cars have to travel around them?

Satellites in Circular Orbits

The speed v of the satellite

gives

orbit around the earth, the

gravitational force provides

the centripetal force.

Example

Determine the speed of the Hubble Space Telescope

orbiting at a height of 598 km above the earths

surface.

WORK

The work done on an object by a constant force F is

the displacement, and is the angle between the force and the

displacement.

Example

Find the work done by a 45.0-N force in pulling the

suitcase in Figure 6-2a at an angle = 50o for a distance

s = 75 m.

The WorkEnergy Theorem and

Kinetic Energy

The kinetic energy KE of an object with mass m and

speed v is given by

the kinetic energy of the object changes from its initial

value of KE0 to a final value of KEf, the difference

between the two values being equal to the work:

Gravitational Potential Energy

The gravitational potential energy PE is the energy

that an object of mass m has by virtue of its position

relative to the surface of the earth. That position is

measured by the height h of the object relative to an

arbitrary zero level:

Conservative Force

Version 1 A force is conservative when the work it does

on a moving object is independent of the path

between the objects initial and final positions.

Version 2 A force is conservative when it does no net

work on an object moving around a closed path,

starting and finishing at the same point.

The Conservation of Mechanical

Energy

The total mechanical

energy (E = KE + PE) of

an object remains

constant as the object

moves, provided that the

net work done by

external

nonconservative forces is

zero, Wnc = 0 J.

Example

A motorcyclist is trying to leap across the canyon by

driving horizontally off the cliff at a speed of 38.0 m /s.

Ignoring air resistance, find the speed with which the

cycle strikes the ground on the other side.

The mass m of the rider and cycle can be eliminated algebraically from

this equation, since m appears as a factor in every term.

Power

Average power P is the average rate at which work W is

done, and it is obtained by dividing W by the time t

required to perform the work:

The Principle of Conservation of

Energy

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can

only be converted from one form to another.

form to another, it is found that no energy is gained or

lost in the process; the total of all the energies before

the process is equal to the total of the energies after

the process.

Impulse and Momentum

Impulse

The impulse J of a force is the product of the average

force F and the time interval t during which the force

acts:

Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same direction

as the average force.

Momentum

The linear momentum p of an object is the product of

the objects mass m and velocity :

meter/second (kgm/s)

Linear momentum is a vector quantity that points in

the same direction as the velocity.

ImpulseMomentum Theorem

When a net force acts on an object, the impulse of this

force is equal to the change in momentum of the

object:

Example

During a storm, rain comes straight down with a velocity of

vo = - 15 m/s and hits the roof of a car perpendicularly. The

mass of rain per second that strikes the car roof is

0.060 kg/s. Assuming that the rain comes to rest upon

striking the car (vf = 0 m/s), find the average force exerted

by the rain on the roof.

Conservation of Linear Momentum

The total linear momentum of an isolated system

remains constant (is conserved). An isolated system is

one for which the vector sum of the average external

forces acting on the system is zero.

Collisions in One Dimension

Collisions are often classified according to whether the

total kinetic energy changes during the collision:

Elastic collisionOne in which the total kinetic

energy of the system after the collision is equal to the

total kinetic energy before the collision.

Inelastic collisionOne in which the total kinetic

energy of the system is not the same before and after the

collision; if the objects stick together after colliding, the

collision is said to be completely inelastic.

Example

There is an elastic head-on collision

between two balls. One ball has a

mass of m1 = 0.250 kg and an initial

velocity of +5.00 m/s. The other has a

mass of m2 = 0.8 kg and is initially at

rest. No external forces act on the

balls. What are the velocities of the

balls after the collision?

Example

A ballistic pendulum can be used to measure the speed

of a projectile, such as a bullet. The ballistic pendulum

consists of a stationary 2.50-kg block of wood suspended

by a wire of negligible mass. A 0.0100-kg bullet is fired

into the block, and the block (with the bullet in it)

swings to a maximum height of 0.650 m above the initial

position (see part b of the drawing). Find the speed with

which the bullet is fired, assuming that air resistance is

negligible.

ANS. 896 m/s

Example - A Collision in Two

Dimensions

Use momentum conservation to determine the

magnitude and direction of the final velocity of ball 1

after the collision. ANS. 0.64 m/s, 11o

Rotational Kinematics

Angular Displacement

When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, the angular

displacement is the angle swept out by a line passing

through any point on the body and intersecting the axis of

rotation perpendicularly. By convention, the angular

displacement is positive if it is counterclockwise and negative

if it is clockwise.

Where

Average Angular Velocity

SI Unit of Angular Velocity: radian per second

(rad/s)

Average Angular Acceleration

SI Unit of Average Angular Acceleration: radian per

second squared (rad/s2)

The Equations of Rotational

Kinematics

Example

The blades of an electric blender are

whirling with an angular velocity of

+375 rad/s while the puree button

is pushed in. When the blend

button is pressed, the blades

accelerate and reach a greater

angular velocity after the blades have

rotated through an angular

displacement of +44.0 rad. The

angular acceleration has a constant

value of +1740 rad/s2. Find the final

angular velocity of the blades.

Tangential Speed and Acceleration

Tangential Speed

Tangential Acceleration

Centripetal Acceleration

Example

An automobile, starting

from rest, has a linear

acceleration to the right

whose magnitude is 0.800

m/s2. During the next 20.0

s, the tires roll without

slipping. The radius of each

wheel is 0.330 m. At the end

of this time, what is the

angle through which each

wheel has rotated?