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TABLE OF CONTENTS

2
CHAPTER 1

Data, Information, Knowledge & Processing

4 Hardware & Software


CHAPTER 2

9
CHAPTER 3

Monitoring & Control

9
CHAPTER 4

E-safety and Health & Safety

11
CHAPTER 5

The Digital Divide

11
CHAPTER 6

Using Networks

14
CHAPTER 7

Expert Systems

14
CHAPTER 8

Spreadsheets

15
CHAPTER 9

Database & File Concepts

16
CHAPTER 10

Sound & Video Editing


CIE AS-LEVEL INOFRMATION TECHNOLOGY//9626
Information can be viewed offline since no live data is
1. DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND required.
PROCESSING More likely to be accurate since information will be
validated before information.
1.1 Data, Information and Knowledge Dynamic information source: Information is
Data: A collection(string) of text, numbers, symbols, automatically updated when source data changes.
images or sound in raw or unorganized form that has no Information most likely to be up to date.
meaning on its own. An internet/network connection to source data is
Information: Data that has been processed and given required.
context and meaning and can be understood on its own. Data may be less accurate since it is produced very
Knowledge: The acquisition by a person or medium of quickly so may contain errors.
information such as facts, or
of information which requires understanding such as 1.3 Quality of information
how to solve problems. Accuracy: Data must be accurate.
Knowledge base: the amount of information a person or Relevance: Information must be relevant to its purpose.
medium knows that often expands over time with the Age: Information must be up to date.
addition of new information. Level of detail: Good quality information required the
right amount of information.
1.2 Sources of Data Completeness: All information required should be
Static data: data that does not normally change and present.
remains constant.
Dynamic data: data that changes automatically without 1.4 Coding, encoding and encrypting data
user intervention. Coding: representing data by assigning a code to it for
Direct data source: Data collected first-hand for a classification or identification.
specific purpose. Advantages of coding data:
Collected data will be relevant to purpose. Data can be presented in small space
Original source is verified. Less storage space is required
May take a long time to collect and taking large samples Speed of input increases
of data is difficult. Data can be processed faster
Data will be up to date. Validation becomes easier
Data collected can be presented in required format. Increases confidentiality
Data is more likely to be unbiased. Increases consistency
Indirect data source: data collected from a secondary Disadvantages of coding data:
source; originally collected for a different purpose. Limited number of codes
Required data may not exist or Additional and irrelevant Interpretation may be difficult
data may exist which requires sorting. Similarity may lead to errors (O and 0)
Original source is not verified. Efficiency decreases if user does not know the code
Data is immediately available and large samples for Some information may get lost during coding
statistical analysis more likely to be available. Encoding: Storing data in a specific format
Data may not be up to date. Text can be encoded with numbers that is then
Data is likely to be biased due to unverified source. represented by a binary number.
Extraction may be difficult if in different format. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
Static information source: Sources where information Interchange) is a common method for encoding text.
does not change on a regular basis. Images are encoded as bitmaps through various
Information can go out of date quickly. parameters (such as width/height, bit count,

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compression type, horizontal/vertical resolution and Digital video (DV) is a lossless compression method.
raster data.) Advantages of encoding data include reduced file size
Images are often encoded into file types such as: and enabling different formats to be used.
o JPEG/JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Disadvantages of encoding data include the variety of
o GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) encoding methods which results in a large variety of file
o PNG (Portable Network Graphics) types meaning more codecs need to be installed and
o SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) compatibility issues.
Sound is encoded by storing the sample rate, bit depth Encryption: the scrambling of data so it cannot be
and bit rate. understood without a decryption key so that it is
When sound is recorded, it is converted from analogue unreadable if intercepted. Encryption is a type of
to digital format, which is broken down into thousands encoding.
of samples per second. Cipher: A secret way of writing/code. It is a special type
The Sample rate or frequency, is the number of audio of algorithm which defines a set of rules to follow to
samples per second. Measure in Hertz (Hz) encrypt a message.
The bit depth is the number of bits (1s and 0s) used for Caesar Cipher: A.k.a shift cipher because it selects
each sound clip. replacement letters by shifting along the alphabet.
The bit rate is the number of bits processed every Symmetric encryption: requires both the sender and
second. receiver to possess the secret encryption and decryption
bit rate= sample rate x bit depth x number of channels key(s). Requires the secret key to bent to the recipient.
bit rate is measured in kilobits per second (kbps) Asymmetric encryption: A.k.a public-key cryptography.
Uncompressed encoding uses WAV (Waveform Audio Includes a public key which is available to anyone
File Format) sending data, and a private key that is known only to the
There are two types of compression: recipient. The key is the algorithm required to encrypt
lossy compression: reduces files size by reducing bit rate, and decrypt the data.
causing some loss in quality Secure Sockets Layer(SSL) is the security method used
lossless compression: reduces the file size without losing for secure websites; Transport Layer Security(TLS) has
any quality but can only reduce the file size to about 50% superseded SSL but they are both referred to as SSL.
Video encoding requires storage of both Images and Asymmetric encryption is used for SSL, and once SSL has
sound. established an authenticated session, the client and
Images are stored as frames with standard quality video server will create symmetric keys for faster secure
normally having 24 frames per second(fps) while High communication.
definition (HD) uses 50-60fps on average. Disk encryption is used in hard disks and other storage
fps is directly proportional to quality and storage space media such as backup tapes and Universal Serial
required. Bus(USB) flash memory. It encrypts every single bit of
HD video will have an image size of 1920px wide and data stored on a disk, and data is usually accessed
1080px high. Image size is also proportional to storage through a password or using a registered fingerprint.
space. HTTPS - Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is the
The bit rate for videos combines both the audio and encryption standard used for secure web pages and uses
frames that need to be processed every second. SSL or TLS to encrypt/decrypt pages and information
Higher frame rate requires higher bit rate. sent and received by web users.
Lossy Compression of video usually involves reducing: When a browser requests a secure page, it will check the
o resolution digital certificate to ensure that it is trusted, valid and
o image size that the certificate is related to the sire which it
o bit rate originates. The browser then uses a public key to encrypt
MP4 is a common lossy compression format, which is a a new symmetric key that is sent to the web server. The
codec made by MPEG (Moving Pictures Expert Group). browser and web server can then communicate using a

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symmetric encryption key, which is much faster than 2. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
asymmetric encryption.
Email encryption uses asymmetric encryption. 2.1 Hardware
Encrypting an email will also encrypt any attachments. Hardware: A physical component of a computer system.
Encryption only scrambles the data so that if it is found, Device: a hardware component of a computer system
it cannot be understood. It does not stop the data from consisting of electronic components.
being intercepted, stolen or lost. Output Devices: a device used to communicate data or
information from a computer system.
1.5 Checking the accuracy of data Input Device: a device that allows data to be entered to
Validation: the process of checking data to make sure it a computer system.
matches acceptable rules. Storage Device: a device used to store data on a storage
Proof reading: checking information manually. medium.
Presence check: used to ensure that data is Storage medium: a medium on which data is stored.
entered(present).
Central Processing Unit (CPU): the CPU carries out the
Limit check: ensures that data is within a defined range.
calculations, executes instructions and processes data.
contains one boundary, either the highest possible value
The CPU consists of an ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit) and
or the lowest possible value.
the CU (Control Unit).
Range check: ensures that data is within a defined
Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU): Performs Calculations and
range. contains two boundaries, the lower boundary and
logical operations.
the upper boundary.
Control Unit: The CU runs the fetch-execute cycle which
Type check: ensures that data must be of a defined data
fetches instructions from memory and executes them.
type.
Motherboard: Printed circuit board (PCB) that connects
Length check: ensures data is of a defined length or
within a range of lengths. the main components of a computer.
Format check: ensures data matches a defined format. RAM (Random Access Memory): Memory used to store
Lookup check: rests to see if data exists in a list. Similar currently active programs and volatile data.
to referential integrity. ROM (Read-Only Memory): The memory that, once
Consistency check: compares data in one field with data written to cannot be removed and can only be read
in another field that already exists within a record, to (involatile). ROMs usually store the BI/OS of a system.
check their consistency. Graphics Card: A.k.a Video card/graphics adapter. A PCB
Verification: the process of checking whether data that controls the output to a display screen.
entered into the system matches the original source. Sound Card: an expandable component that enables the
Visual checking: Visually checking the data if it matches use of audio components in a computer.
the original source, by reading and comparing, usually by HDD (Hard Disk Drive): Most common form of
the user. secondary storage for a computer due to its relatively
Double data entry: Data is input into the system twice low cost per MB (megabyte). Data stored on an HDD is
and checked for consistency by comparing. non-volatile. The drive includes a read-write head which
By using both validation and verification, the chances of sits at the end of an access arm and magnetizes sectors
entering incorrect data are reduced. on the disk (platter). Moving parts increase chance of
failure
o Cheapest cost per MB
o Requires constant supply of electricity when the disk is
spinning.
o Speed of access depend on SATA connection used.
HDDs be Internally connected to the computer using a
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) or
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable.
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SSD (Solid State Drive): Contains no moving parts and o Used for: Letters, bulk printing, general office and
data is stored onto flash memory(non-volatile). Non- home printing
magnetic and largely unsusceptible to damage. Inkjet printer: Cartridges full of ink in four different
o More expensive per MB than a hard disk colours: black, cyan, magenta, yellow(CMYK) are used to
o Does not require constant source of power as only squirt ink onto the paper to form the required printout.
needed when in use. o Speeds of 15-20 ppm in monochrome but colour
o More than 20% faster access speed than HDD. speeds are slower.
Cloud computing: refers to anything where computer o Cheapest of all printer types available.
services are hosted over the internet and not in the o Inkjet cartridges vary in price but compatible version
same physical location as the computer being used. Data can be bought for cheaper than manufacturer versions.
stored on banks of servers are accessed remotely. o Good quality but ink can show through thin paper and
o Costs are usually a subscription charge that varies smudges can occur.
depending on supplier. o Used for: Photographs, charts, small maps, general
o Running sots are included within the subscription office and home printing.
charge Dot matrix printer: A type of impact printer, which uses
o Speed depends on broadband bandwidth of user and a set of pins being driven onto a ribbon, which then
that offered by supplier. transfers its ink to the paper.
Pen drive: nickname for a thumb sized USB flash drive o Very slow compared to other printers.
that stores data on flash memory and includes an o Used to be very cheap but now expensive because
integrated USB interface. Portability means that they they are not mass produced.
may get damaged and need replacing. o Very low running costs as the ink ribbon lasts a long
o Designed for portability so cost per MB varies on size. time.
o Power only when in use. o Quality is usually poor.
o Speed depends on whether the drive uses a USB.20 or o Used for: Invoices or receipts requiring duplicate or
USB 3.0 port. USB 3.0 is faster. triplicate paper such as ATMs.
Monitor: Output device. Connected to the computer Plotter: Used to create vector drawings on large sheets
using a graphics card port. of paper by moving the paper backwards and forwards
Keyboard: consists of a number of buttons, which are and drawing using pens. Today, plotters are mainly Inkjet
used to input text or to control parts of an interface. Its printers designed to be used with large sheets of paper,
main limitation is the number of keys available. (A2, A1 and A0).
Mouse: A pointing device, which allows objects to be o Time per page to print is slow due to large area.
selected and manipulated on the screen. The mouse o Most expensive type of printer.
controls a pointer which is displayed on the screen. o Same running costs as an Inkjet printer.
Printer: A printer produces a hard copy(printout) from a o Same running costs as an inkjet printer. If pens are
computer usually onto paper. used, Quality of line drawings are high.
Laser printer: Laser printers negatively charges a o Used for: Architectural drawings, large maps, canvas
cylindrical drum which then attracts electrically charged prints and signs.
toner (powdered ink). The toner is then heated so that it CMYK: refers to the format of four inks used in color
melts onto the paper. printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black).
o Fastest of all printers ranging from 50-200ppm (pages Light-emitting diode (LED) plotters are used for faster
per minute) black and white printouts.
o Typically, twice the cost of a similar featured inkjet Speaker: used to provide sound output from a
printer computer. These can be as simple as a pair of stereo
o Toner cartridges are expensive but last longer and speakers to full surround sound.
have less cost per page. Camera: used to capture still or moving images (movies).
o Highest quality of all printers

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A digital still camera is optimized for capturing still o Operating system is the software that operates the
images but can also capture movies. computer hardware.
A digital video camera is optimized for capturing movies o Programs that are used to maintain a computer
but can also capture still images. system are known as utility system.
Webcam: a camera connected to the computer for the Operating systems manage hardware by:
purpose of capturing still or moving images while using a o allocating memory to software
computer. Usually not as high quality as dedicated digital o sending data and instructions to output devices.
camera or digital video camera. o responding to input devices such as when a key is
Scanner: A scanner is used to capture two dimensional pressed.
(2D) documents in the form of an image. Similar to a o opening and closing files on storage devices.
digital camera but are specifically designed to take close- o giving each running task a fair share of processor time
up images of 2D documents. o sending error/status messages to apps or users.
Optical character reader (OCR): a device that enables o Dealing with user logons and security.
characters on a document to be identified and Device drivers: software that comes with external
understood by the computer as letters, numbers, hardware components and sends customized
characters and words. instructions to those specific components.
Optical character reader is not really a device in itself, Application software: Programs intended for
but is a scanner combined with software that performs productivity or to carry out a task for the user.
optical character recognition (also OCR). Word processors: primary function to process words and
Optical mark reader (OMR): detects the marks that are word processing software features include:
made on a multiple-choice document such as a multiple o Tables
choice answer paper for an examination. o Headers and footers
Magnetic ink character reader (MICR): magnetic ink is o Footnotes and endnotes
used to print numbers at the bottom of checks and the o Sections
numbers are printed using the MICR E-13B or CMC-7 o Formatting text
font. o Styles
Barcode reader: used to detect the width of lines and o Spellchecker
gaps that form a barcode using a laser and a photodiode. o Bullets and automatic numbering
Blu-ray disc: an optical storage medium the same shape o Automatic contents page
and size as a compact disc (CD) and digital versatile disc o Tracking changes
(DVD) and also stores more data than both. o Frames for images
Memory card: flash memory on a small card typically o Text alignment
used in digital cameras, digital video cameras and o Test wrap
phones. Most common formats include Secure Digital o Indentation and tabs
(SD) and microSD. Spreadsheet software: mainly used for performing
calculations and modelling like handling financial and
2.2 System, application and user interface statistical information.
software o Contain cells which form the intersection of rows and
Software: Programs, which give instructions to the columns.
computer. o Work on the basis of input-process-output whereby
User interface: communication between the user and formulas allow output to change depending on input.
the computer system. Database management software (DBMS): used for
System software: Programs that are designed to viewing and editing data within a database. A DBMS
maintain or operate a computer system are known as features:
system software. o Data entry screens/input forms
o Filters and queries

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o Reports o Changing speed
o Graphs o Rotating footage.
o Security features o Using more than one video track
o Relationships to link related tables o PIP (picture in picture)
Graphics manipulation software: designed to o Transitions
manipulate graphics of either bitmap or vector format. o Adding extra sounds
Features include: Communications software: cover a range of tasks
o Drawing shapes including instant messaging, audio conferencing, video
o Changing canvas size conferencing and email.
o Resizing images Audio conferencing uses VOIP (Voice over internet
o Adding layers protocol)
o Adding text An Email client usually features:
o Selecting colour based on picking an existing colour o Address book of contacts
Features of Bitmap graphics manipulation software can o Send and receive emails
include: o Signatures
o Filling an area with a colour o Prioritization
o Moving part of the image o Delaying delivery of emails
o Resizing part of the image o Delivery and read receipts
o Erasing parts of an image o Adding attachments
Features of Vector graphics manipulation software can o Calendar integration
include: o encrypted messages
o Filling a shape with colour o multiple account support
o Changing features of the border of a shape such as o email specific rules
thickness and colour Web authoring software: use for creation and editing of
o Combining shapes together into a group websites. Features include:
o Moving a shape or groups of shapes o common navigation bar
o Resizing a shape or group of shapes o preview web pages
o Aligning objects o ability publish individual files or sites to a webserver.
Photo editing software: a specific type of graphics o Basic HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) features
manipulation software focused on editing photographs. o Metadata management
Features include: o Forms and form fields and their validation
o Cropping parts of the photo o Templates
o Changing colour balance o Interactive features
o Adjusting the brightness or contrast o WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) or HTML
o Red eye correction Code view or both
o Cloning parts of the photo Control software: Control software is used for
o Resizing the canvas controlling devices not part of the computer system.
o Effects and filters Measuring software: used to measure values from
o Softening (blurring) and sharpening sensors including but not limited to:
o Identifying common areas of an image o pressure
Recorded videos are known as raw video files (footage). o moisture
Video editing software: software focused on editing o temperature
videos. Features include: o wind speed
o Importing or capturing raw video o distance
o Clipping the beginning/end or sections of a video o pH (acid/alkaline) levels
o Adding titles and credits o lights

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o motors Mental model: a persons understanding of how
o sound something works which may differ from person to
o heating person.
Apps: another name for a program. A piece of software
that can run on a desktop computer/phone or over the 2.3 Utility Software
internet. Utility software: software that performs some sort of
Applets: a small program that is designed to carry out a maintenance on the computer system
specific task. Cannot be run on its own and must be Two main functions of an Anti-virus:
executed from within another piece of software. Often o Anti-virus monitor continually monitors the system for
known as add-ons or extensions. viruses and malware.
An interface is the boundary between two systems. o Check for viruses or malware that may already be on
User Interface (UI) is the boundary between the user and the system, this is known as scanning.
the computer system. Backup utilities create a second copy of data and
Command line interface (CLI): allows users to enter text programs that are in storage.
commands to which the computer system will respond Data compression: reduces the original size of files so
by producing results in text. they use up less storage space.
o use very little memory Disc defragmentation: defragments and reorganizes
o can carry out complex operations fragmented gaps of files left after usage on a drive so
o can be difficult to learn and use that each file is contiguous.
Graphical user interface (GUI): most common type of Formatting: the process of organizing the tracks on the
interface and includes Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers disc into sectors. When a used disc is formatted, all data
(abbreviated to WIMP) is erased.
o Uses more memory depending on complexity of the File-copying utilities allow users to have more control
GUI over which files are copied and how they are copied.
o Intuitive, so easy to learn Deleting utilities can overcome restrictions set by an
o Restrictive for technical users operating system and enable permanent deletion of
Dialogue interface: using spoken word to communicate files.
to a computer system.
o hands-free 2.4 Custom written software and off-the-
o ability to recognize and understand spoken word will shelf software
vary and can be limited. Custom-written: software that is written to meet the
o Require users to know what commands are requirements of a client.
understood by the interface. o Expensive because entire development cost is covered
Gesture-based interface: recognizes human motion, by client
which may include eyeball/lips tracking, identifying hand o Takes longer time to develop
signals or whole-body movement. o Requirements of the client can be met precisely
o Provides more mobility but may be hard to control o Developers will ensure compatibility with the clients
o Accuracy problems hardware, software and data
When designing UI, it is important to ensure that it is o Bugs are likely since it is not used widely
accessible and efficient for the user. Important things to o Client will have access support from the developer
consider include: company
o Colour Off-the-shelf: general purpose software available to a
o Layout large market.
o Font size o Development cost spread between all the customers
o Quantity of information who purchase it at a specific price, reducing overall
o Controls cost
o Immediately available
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o User requirements may not be precise/unnecessary Piezoresistance: a specific level of electrical charge that
features is linked to a specific level of resistance or pressure.
o May have compatibility issues Humidity: the amount of water in the atmosphere.
o Large number of users means lesser bugs due to Photoresistor: a light controlled resistor.
patches released after identification of bugs Motion sensors: detects movement.
o Wide range of support both from the developing Passive motion sensors read the energy in its
company and externally surrounding environment and detects changes caused by
movement. (Infrared sensor)
2.5 Compiler and interpreter Active motion sensors emit energy into the surrounding
Compiler: translates a program written in a high-level environment to detect any movement. (Microwave
programming language (HLL) into machine code. sensor)
o Translates code all at once in advance of execution
Pressure sensors: measure pressure, normally of a liquid
o Compiled code will only work on the operating system
or a gas. The measure is of pressure is based upon the
it has been compiled for
force it takes to stop a liquid or gas from expanding.
o Object code ready to be executed without delay
Most modern pressure sensors use a principle called
o Compiling takes a lot of time
Piezoresistance.
o Not for on-the-fly testing
Moisture and humidity Sensors: monitor and measure
Interpreter: also translate a program from HLL into
the humidity in the air. The percentage of moisture
machine code.
present in the air at a certain temperature is expressed
o Translates code one line at a time
as the level of humidity.
o Source code can be translated into object code for
Capacitive measurement: Moisture collects on a non-
more than one operating system
conducting film between two electrical conductors and
o Object code has to be generated, so additional time is
changes the level of voltage between the electrical
added to the execution time.
conductors and the measurement of the change in
o Only the required code needs to be interpreted
voltage is converted into a measurement of humidity.
o Efficient for on-the-fly testing
Temperature sensors: monitor and measure the
The file with the machine code is known as the
temperature of an environment by measuring the heat
executable file or the object file.
present in the surroundings.
The original HLL file is known as the source file.
Light sensors: monitor and measure light.
Linker: combine different object files within a program
Photoresistor: measures intensity of light by changing its
together to form a single executable file.
resistance when light is exposed.
Monitoring systems are continual and also removes
3. MONITORING AND CONTROL possibility of human error in measurements.
3.1 Sensors
Sensor: An input device that records data about the
4. E-SAFETY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY
surrounding physical environment.
4.1 E-safety
Input device: a device that allows data to be entered
Malicious code: code that is intended to harm the
into a computer system.
computer.
Microprocessor: an integrated circuit used in monitoring
Phishing: when an unauthorized person attempts to
and control technologies.
gather personal data masquerading as a trustworthy
Actuator: this is a type of motor that controls a
person or organization.
mechanism or system.
Pharming: when a person phishes a user by installing
Infrared: a wave of light emitted by an object that is
malicious code into a system or server that redirects the
invisible to the naked human eye.
user to a fraudulent, but legitimate looking, replica
Microwave: an electromagnetic wave of energy. website, without their consent.

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Smishing: SMS Phishing, similar to phishing but carried 4.2 Health and safety
out using SMS text messaging rather than email. Repetitive strain injury (RSI): pain, numbness or
Vishing: Voice phishing. The act of using a telephone call weakness that occurs in the hands, arms, shoulders and
to try and scam a user into divulging personal data with neck.
the scammer usually pretending to be a legitimate o Caused by repetitive movements and actions. Can be
business calling the victim. triggered by poor posture.
Trojan Horse: a malicious computer program that o Good posture, avoiding doing the same action without
disguises itself as another application which will taking regular breaks and usage of wrist rests can help
delete/corrupt files when the application is run. prevent RSI.
Worms: a small computer program that uses computer Carpal tunnel syndrome: pain, numbness, tingling
networks and finds security holes to replicate itself sensation in the hands or fingers.
o Can exploit a security hole in a piece of software or o Caused by compression of a major nerve in the hand
operating system that passes over the carpal bones in the hand. Due to
o Often clogs up bandwidth when replicating and make repetitive and continual movements.
things run slowly o Similar preventive actions to RSI
Spyware: covers a broad range of malware refers to any Back ache and muscle spasms
technology used to gather data about a person without o caused by poor posture and from sitting in the same
their knowledge. position for long periods of time
o A key logger records key presses from a keyboard and o preventive measures include sitting on an adjustable
will allow the person who installed it to gather chair to correct position.
personal data about the person. Eye strain: causes sore, tired eyes or blurred vision.
Adware: Adware is short for advertising-supported- o Caused by looking at a monitor for long periods of
software and used to display adverts that are targeted at time.
the user. o Regularly looking away from the screen, sitting at the
Rootkit: A computer program that enables a person to correct distance, and usage of monitors with eye care
gain administrator access to a victims computer. protection settings can help reduce eye strain.
A bot is an application that is automated and used to Deep vein thrombosis: when blood clots occur, usually
carry out simple and repetitive tasks. Malicious bots in a users legs.
include: o Caused by sitting in a chair that puts pressure on the
o SPAM bots which bombard peoples email inboxes back of a users legs, behind the knees.
with spam emails. o Preventive measures include regularly standing and
o Chatter bots will pretend to be humans on sites such moving around when using a computer for long
as social networking and dating sites. periods of time.
o Zombie bots/Sleeper bots are used to create bot Fatigue: when a user feels very tired and lethargic. Often
networks and each bot will lay dormant on a computer alongside stress.
until an attack I launched, in which case the computer o Caused by overworking
will be connected with lots of other computers that o Taking regular breaks and working for shorter periods
have been compromised by zombie bots to launch a of time when working can reduce levels of stress and
large-scale attack on an organization. fatigue.
Ransomware: a type of malware that encrypts and Fire can occur when computers overheat or due to an
restricts a users access to their computer system and overloaded plug socket.
files. The ransomware usually demands a user to pay a o A computer should be used in a ventilated and fairly
ransom in order to regain access to their computer, and cool room.
usually imitates a law enforcement agency. o In case of fire occurring, a CO2 fire extinguisher should
be in any room that has a computer.

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o Plug sockets should not have too many devices o Security risks
plugged into them, especially devices that require a lot o High amount of traffic may cause a network to run
of power. slowly and cause delays.
Trailing wires, could cause a safety concern possibly o A whole network could fail if one element of the
making people trip. network fails.
o Make sure wires are secured in some way, such as by
cable management system. 6.1 Network types
Spilt drinks can cause shorts and food stuck between Local Area Network (LAN): a network that covers a small
keyboards can cause difficulties. geographical area
o Eating and drinking at a computer should be avoided o Data transfer speeds up to 1 Gb per second
where possible. o Fewer data transmission errors as data packet are sent
o Spill proof keyboards or covers should be used. over short distances
o Connection restricted to within a small location.
5. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE o Security is relatively high as it can be easier to
Demographic: a particular section of population implement over a small number of devices and
Broadband: a method of faster data transmission that connections.
can carry several channels at once. o Mostly owned by individuals or individual
Bandwidth: the amount of data that can be transmitted organizations.
at one time. Wide area Network (WAN): a network that covers a
The digital divide refers to the technology gap between large geographical area
different countries, demographic groups and economic o Data transfer rates often restricted to less than 200Mb
areas and is a technical, social and economic issue, per second.
which covers the difference in availability and use of o Data transmission errors increase as packets are sent
modern technology and can depend on many factors over longer distances
such as age, status and geographic location. o Connection expanded to a wider location.
Access to E-commerce, education, employment o Security comparatively low as security is difficult to
opportunities and entertainment experiences are all implement across a higher number of devices and
affected by the digital divide. connections.
A divide can occur between areas as small as two o Elements of the network often use communication
different houses to entire countries. infrastructure owned by others.
Server: a computer on a network which provides
6. USING NETWORKS resources that can be used by client devices.
Network: a set of computers and devices connected Client: a computer that is connected to a server.
together so they can communicate and share resources. Peer: a computer in a network that is not connected to a
Network architecture: the design of a network. server and does not control another computer.
Advantages: Network server features:
o Users can share their data o Storing a database of usernames and passwords to
o Users can access their data from different computers control user access
o File servers can be used to store data. o Data storage
o Application software can be used to store software in o Security
a central location. o Assigning levels of access that determine what
o Internet connections and other hardware peripherals resources a user may access
can be shared. o Monitoring network traffic
Disadvantages: o Hosting of shared applications
o Setting up a larger network can be expensive, o Managing an internet connection
especially with cabling. o Scheduling and running back-ups
o Email services
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o Printing jobs on network printers o The more computers there are on a peer-to-peer
o Domain name services network, the slower it will run.
A client-server network uses a dedicated computer to Tunneling protocol: a tunnel between two points on a
store data, manage resources and control user access. network that is governed by a set of rules
o Has at least one server and several clients. A VPN (Virtual private network) is a method of allowing a
o Dedicated computer controls whole network remote computer to connect securely to a private
o Centralized database of users, usernames and network using external resources.
passwords An intranet is a privately-owned network that uses
o Centralized data storage internet technologies for internal use within an
o Suited to large networks organization.
A peer-to-peer network has no central server to manage o Usually use client-server architecture with several
the network. Each computer shares its data and servers
resources with all the others and no computer has o VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) is an intranet.
control over another. o Used to increase efficiency because all information is
o Each computer is known as a peer. stored centrally and can be readily accessed.
o No centralized database o An extranet is an intranet that has been opened up to
o Relies on users remembering to back-up individual allow external user access. Usually through VPNs.
computers. The internet is a global network made up of
o Data is stored on individual computers. interconnected networks and individual computers. This
o Suited to small networks. global network allows user to access online facilities.
Advantages of client-server network Packet switching: data that is broken down into packets
o Centralized database provides login security is sent through different routes and reassembled by the
o User data kept more private recipient
o Levels of access can be applied to resources TCP/IP: a communication protocol used by the internet/
o Users do not have to worry about security as a Internet Service Provider (ISP): a company that provides
network manager handles the network access to the internet.
o Backups are centralized The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
o Several servers can be used for different function on Numbers (ICANN) regulates domain names and their
larger networks to maintain network efficiency. suffixes.
Disadvantages of client-server network The Internet Engineering Task Force (IEFT) devises and
o Expensive to set up and maintain administers internet standards, such as protocols that
o Failure of central server may make the whole network govern communication
fail The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) attempts to
o Requires specialist technical staff to maintain enforce agreement from organizations to adopt new
Advantages of peer-to-peer network standards
o Cheap to set up and maintain. Does not require Telecommunications companies own the infrastructure
expensive servers. that the internet uses for communication.
o Failure of an individual per only removes access to the The lack of authority on the internet means that
resources and data which that peer handles. The rest information on the internet is of mixed value and the
of the network remains unaffected. information may not be useful or correct. It can also be
o Does not require specialist technical staff to maintain. inaccurate, outdated or completely false. Some
Disadvantages of peer-to-peer network information is deliberately designed to mislead.
o No centralized database of users, and login credentials Advantages of the internet:
makes it harder to maintain security o Information
o Users have to worry about making backups as no o Global audience
centralized backup service exists. o Immediate transmission of information

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o Immediate availability of services o Macrocells cover larger areas
o International ecommerce 1G networks: first generation mobile networks that used
o Entertainment analogue signals.
o Free education o Largely limited to voice and text message
o Social networking communications
o Up-to-date news 2G networks: second generation mobile networks
o Reduced costs to businesses and organizations switched from analogue to digital improving signal
o Ability to receive Feedback quality.
o Big data o 2G networks were able to connect to each other
o New communication applications allowing a phone to use other networks
Disadvantages of the internet: 3G networks: third generation mobile networks
o False information increased data transmission speeds up to 2 mbps,
o Unsavory behavior allowing internet access, video transmission and online
o Hacking gaming.
o Viruses 4G networks: fourth generation networks are the
o Identity theft/phishing/pharming current generation.
o Unsuitable material o In theory allow data transmission speeds up to 1Gbps.
o Spamming Advantages of mobile networks
o Online addiction o Enable users to communicate with others and access
Hyperlink: a link that can be clicked to locate another the internet on the move
place in a document, or a different document entirely. o Cells allow for lower power radio transmitters to be
Web browser: a software application for retrieving and used, increasing energy and cost efficiency
presenting information on the world wide web. o Frequencies can be split up among neighboring cells
Internet describes the physical, global network of ad reused in distant cells, increasing the number of
computers. The internet does not actually contain any communications that can take place at the same time.
information and is just the physical infrastructure. o several, low power transmitters are used to cover a
The world wide web is an information system comprising wider area. And multiple transmitters mean a more
od documents, images, videos and sounds among other robust network.
files and uses the internet as its base. Disadvantages of mobile networks
Instant messaging (IM) is a form of communication that o Quality of reception can vary and can be poor towards
allows real-time text transmission over a network often the edge of a cell.
the internet. o Use of frequency must be carefully planned to avoid
Voice over Internet protocol (VOIP) technologies allow interference between cells
users to have voice communications, just like a
telephone. And costs less. 6.2 Video and web conferencing
Cell (mobile network): the geographical area covered by Basic requirements to set up video conferencing:
a radio transmitter o A desktop computer or laptop
A mobile network is a wireless WAN that uses radio to o A webcam
transmit and receive communications from portable o A microphone
devices such as smartphones. o Speakers
o Broken down into small areas called cells, where there o Network (and the internet)
is a radio base station at the heart of each cell. The o Video conferencing software
base stations connect to public telecommunications Video and web conferencing requires a reasonable data
services allowing access to the internet. transmission speed.
o Picocells cover an area of less than 200m Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): a networking
o Microcells cover an area up to 2km technology that allows data to be transmitted digitally
over analogue copper wire.
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o Transmission speeds of up to 64kbps per channel. knowledge base and user responses and is designed to
With two channels used in parallel up to 128kbps produce reasoning based on a set of rules.
Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): also known o The user interface: the way the user interacts with the
as broadband, most common type of connection to the expert system. Often GUI.
internet. A batch processing system is a system that processes
o Typical transmission speeds of around 100Mbps. batches of data at set time intervals. Data is collected
o ADSL download speeds ear far greater than upload from inputs and stored together in what is known as
speeds batches. These batches of data are stored until a set
Synchronous Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL): same data time when they will be processed and an output(s) are
transmission technology as ADSL. created.
o Download speeds and upload speeds are balanced An online processing system is a type of processing
Video conferencing software use various codecs to system that deals with data in transactions. A certain
compress the video to allow for faster transmission. amount of data is input as a transaction. This amount of
Teleworking: working from home using technologies to data is usually small. Once the data for the transaction is
keep in contact with an employer. collected it is processed and the next transaction can
occur.
7. EXPERT SYSTEMS AND OTHER TYPES OF Real-time processing systems process data as soon as it
PROCESSING has bene input. They are used when the immediacy of
Diagnosis: identifying a problem or illness by analysis of the data is vital.
the symptoms Master file: a collection of fields that store data which
Artificial intelligence: computer systems that perform are more permanent in nature.
tasks that normally require human intelligence. Transaction file: the data stored in a transaction file is
Chaining: combining together instructions used to update the master file, and is more temporary in
nature.
Transaction: a collection of data that is exchanged
Field: an individual item of data in a database, for
example a first name.
8. SPREADSHEETS
An expert system is a computerized system that Spreadsheets are used to manipulate numbers, perform
calculations, present summary data and make
attempts to reproduce the decision-making process of
an expert human being. They are designed to try and predictions.
replicate the judgement of a human that has expert Cell: a rectangle within a spreadsheet where data can be
knowledge in a certain field. By doing this they can be positioned.
used to replace or assist a human expert. Range: a set of one or more cells.
o Expert systems use a knowledge base and a set of Worksheet: a set of rows and columns.
rules to provide a diagnosis or a recommended course A workbook may contain a number of worksheets.
of action. Formula: a mathematical calculation using +, -, x or /
o Gathers data by asking the user questions about the Orientation: the direction of text, for example,
problem. horizontal or vertical.
Building an expert system is known as knowledge Alignment: positioning text so that it is in line, for
engineering and is composed of three main components: example on the left, right or center.
o The knowledge base: a database that allows the Function: a ready-made formula representing a complex
storage and retrieval of the knowledge provided by a calculation. Example =PRODUCT(D10:E10)
collection of experts and contains knowledge about the Validation: the process of checking data matches
specific area for which the expert system can be used. acceptable rules.
o The inference engine: the part of the expert system The four different types of test data include:
that makes judgement and reasoning using the o Valid (normal/acceptable data): Data that should pass
the validation rule.
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o Invalid (erroneous/unacceptable data): Data that o Simulation software and equipment can be very
should generate an error message. expensive
o Extreme valid: Data that will only just pass the o Requires training to use simulation software and
validation rule because it is on the boundary of equipment
acceptable data. o Complex models take a long time to develop
o Extreme invalid: Data that will only generate an error depending on how realistic the simulation is
message because it is on the boundary of unacceptable o It is near-impossible to simulate a perfect
data. representation of a real-world process.
A model is a computer representation of a real-world
process. A model is created through mathematical 9. DATABASE AND FILE CONCEPTS
analysis of the real-world process. Modelling software is Database: a structured method for storing data in sets of
used to create a model. Spreadsheets can be used to tables.
create computerized models, but there are also custom- Table: a set of similar data.
written solutions that are used to model specific Record: a common word for entity.
processes. Entity: a set of data about one thing.
Modelling software usually feature: Field: common word for attribute.
o the ability to change variables within the software Database management software: software used to
o asking what-if questions to see what the result of manage a database.
changing variables might be Relationship: the way which two entities in two different
o formulae and functions to carry out the mathematical tables are connected.
calculations that form the basis of the model. Primary Key: a field that contains a unique identifier for
o Automatic recalculation of formulae and functions a record.
o Rules that define how the model behaves Foreign key: a field in a table that refers to the primary
o Layers of abstraction so that different parts of the key in another table.
model can be viewed and analyzed separately. Normal form: the extent to which a database has been
Simulation: the use of a computerized model to predict normalized.
how a real-life system might behave. Index: a list of keys or keywords which identify a unique
o As with modelling, simulations can be used for record and can be used to search and sort records more
training, forecasting and construction. quickly.
Advantages include: Flat file: a database stored in a single file.
o Removes the need for creating expensive prototypes
Compound key: two or more fields that form the
o Changes to the model can be made rapidly and the
primary key.
effects can be seen just as quickly
Referential integrity: data in the foreign key of the table
o Alternative models and designs can be used
on the many side of a relationship must exist in the
simultaneously much easier to see how they react
primary key of the table on the one side of the
differently
relationship.
o Unusual situations can be tested without the need to
Query: a question used to retrieve data from a database.
wait for them in real life.
Parameter: data used within the criteria for query.
o No loss, wear and tear or damage to equipment when
Data types include:
tested or experimented with
o String (text)
o Dangerous situations can be simulated safety without
o Numeric
endangerment
o Boolean
o Effects of extended periods of time can be tested by
o Date/time
speeding up the simulation
Generic file formats enable data to be transferred
Disadvantages:
between software.
o A simulation is only as good as the model it is based
upon
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o They do not include any formatting and only include 10. SOUND AND VIDEO EDITING
essential data. Pixel: a very small square area of one colour that is
o .txt and .csv are generic file formats illuminated on a display screen. These are combined to
Indexed sequential(serial) access: data is accessed based create a bitmap image.
on the sequential order it is sorted in. Frame: a single still image in a video file
Direct file access: Data is stored in a random order based Rendering: combining the effects created in a video file
on a hashing algorithm that determines its storage to create an output video file
location and the same is used to locate it during access. Transition: The movement from one clip to the next
Data dictionary: a document/file that describes the Filters: an effect, often colour related, that can be
structure of the data held within the database, known as applied to a clip.
metadata. Track: a single audio section in a sound or video file.
Management information system (MIS): collects data Pitch: the highness or lowness of a tone.
from a database and present it in the form of reports
Aspect ratio: the ratio of width to the height if a screen.
and charts. These reports and charts can be produced
within the database system itself or they may be part of
an additional piece of software that is used to analyze
the data.
An MIS essential features:
o Data is collated from databases and other sources
o Data is interconnected from different sources
o Data is analyzed to provide the data that is required
o Summary reports and charts
When additional software is used to collate data from
more than one database, it is often referred to as an
Executive information system (EIS).
Data integrity: The level of accuracy and reliability of
data.
Data redundancy: Data that is unnecessary.
Normalization: Organizing data in a database to reduce
data redundancy and increase data integrity.
Unnormalized data: Data that is unnormalized may have
repeated entries and fields that are not atomic.
1NF: A database that is in 1NF will not have any
repeating fields and all the fields in the database will be
atomic.
2NF: A database in 2NF will have the characteristics of
1NF. In addition, fields that are related will be separated
into different tables, dependent on the primary key of
the table.
3NF: A database in 3NF will have the characteristics of
2NF. In addition, any fields that are not directly related
to each other are given further separation into tables
that only contain fields that are directly related.

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