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Bulletin

4-16

(2015)

Ship Heating, Ventilation &

Air Conditioning

Design Calculations

The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

99 Canal Center Plaza, Ste 310, Alexandria, VA 22314

www.sname.org

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

ii

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING DESIGN

CALCULATIONS

Prepared by

Raja Awwad

Senior Principal Mechanical Engineer

HVAC Section Head

Gibbs & Cox, Inc.

Kevin Prince

Assistant Vice President, Engineering

Gibbs & Cox, Inc.

And

Marine Engineer Marine Engineer Marine Engineer

Gibbs & Cox, Inc. Gibbs & Cox, Inc. Gibbs & Cox, Inc.

December 2015

Published by

The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

99 Canal Center Plaza, Alexandria, Virginia 22314

Copyright 2015 by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

with rights reserved.

iii

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

This Bulletin was prepared under direction from the Ships Machinery Committee

for

TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH PROGRAM

Mr. Robert S. Behr Mr. Bahadir Inozu

Mr. John W. Boylston Mr. Charles A. Narwicz

Mr. William G. Bullock Mr. Mark F. Nittel

Mr. Hannon Marshal Burford Mr. Michael G. Parsons

Mr. Allen Chin Mr. Kevin Prince

Mr. Joseph H. Comer Mr. Michael J. Roa

Mr. W. Mark Cummings Mr. David R. Rodger

Mr. John J. Dumbleton Mr. Alan L. Rowen

Mr. Jose Femenia Mr. Peter George Schaedel

Mr. Earl W. Fenstermacher Mr. John Thomas Schroppe

Mr. Robert M. Freeman Mr. William J. Sembler

Mr. Rob Geis Mr. Tony Teo

Mr. Joseph D. Hamilton Mr. Richard P. Thorsen

Mr. Richard W. Harkins Mr. Ivan Zgaljic

Mr. John F. Hennings

iv

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

It is understood and agreed that nothing expressed herein is intended or shall be construed to give any

person, firm, or corporation any right, remedy, or claim against SNAME or any of its officers or members.

v

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Preface

The revised Technical and Research Bulletin No. 4-16 has been prepared to standardize heating, ventilation, and air

conditioning calculations for merchant and naval ship designs. The revised Bulletin introduced calculations unique

to naval ships but can be applied to merchant ships. There is a new section dedicated to the HVAC conversion

factor and a section on humidity control. The Bulletin has a new section on ships air balance, demonstrated with

examples in the cooling and heating seasons that air balance goes beyond supplying and exhausting the same

volume of air. All sample forms were revised and included in the last section. Two examples were included to

demonstrate the difference between a push through and a pull through air conditioning systems with

demonstrative psychrometric charts. There is no implication of warranty by The Society of Naval Architects and

Marine Engineers that use of this guideline will ensure successful performance of vessels and/or machinery

including compliance with contract specifications, Regulatory bodies or classification societies.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Mr. Richard Delpizzo of American Bureau of Shipping for presenting the

authors with the opportunity to revise T&R Bulletin 4-16.

The principal author, Raja Awwad, was fortunate to have a group of talented engineers at Gibbs

& Cox, Inc. to assist in this endeavor: Nicholas Deluca, Mark Gates and Michelle Gahagan.

I am equally grateful for the SNAME T&R Steering Committee Chair, Mr. Rick Ashcroft,

SNAME T&R Coordinator, Mr. Alex Landsburg and Mr. Anthony Maples Owner and Founder

of Maples Environment Services, LLC for their review and insightful comments.

Thanks to Mr. Kevin Prince for his support and valuable contribution.

Last but not least, I extend my appreciation to: Jessica Baker, Senior Mechanical Engineer,

Preconstruction Manager, Southland Industries and Patricia McGinn, Engineering Group

Assistant Manager Machinery Department, Gibbs & Cox, Inc. for their review and comments.

vi

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table of Contents

PREFACE .................................................................................................................................... VI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................................... VI

DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................. 3

SYMBOLS ..................................................................................................................................... 3

1.0 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 4

1.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 4

1.2 PECULIARITIES OF MARINE HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING DESIGN

4

1.3 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................ 4

2.0 DESIGN CONDITIONS ....................................................................................................... 4

2.1 AIR CONDITIONED SPACES ............................................................................................... 5

2.1.1 Air Conditioning Design Temperatures .............................................................................................5

2.1.2 Heating Design Temperatures ............................................................................................................5

2.1.3 Minimum Outdoor Air (Replenishment) Requirements ..................................................................5

2.1.3.1 Occupancy ................................................................................................................................. 5

2.1.3.2 Infiltration .................................................................................................................................. 5

2.2 NON-AIR CONDITIONED SPACES ...................................................................................... 5

2.3 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM DESIGN PRACTICE ............................................................. 8

2.3.1 Supply Air.............................................................................................................................................8

2.3.2 Relative Humidity ................................................................................................................................8

2.4 AIR AND WATER VAPOR ................................................................................................... 8

3.0 ROOM LOAD COMPONENTS AND CALCULATIONS............................................... 8

3.1 TRANSMISSION LOAD ........................................................................................................ 9

3.1.1Transmission Heat Gain (Loss) ..........................................................................................................9

3.1.2Sample Calculations Transmission Only ...................................................................................... 12

3.2 SOLAR + TRANSMISSION LOAD ...................................................................................... 16

3.2.1 Solar + Transmission Heat Gain ...................................................................................................... 16

3.2.2 Sample Calculations Transmission Only ...................................................................................... 17

3.3 LIGHTING LOAD .............................................................................................................. 19

3.3.1 Lighting Heat Gain ............................................................................................................................ 20

3.3.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 20

3.4 EQUIPMENT LOAD ........................................................................................................... 21

3.4.1 Equipment Heat Gain ........................................................................................................................ 21

3.4.2 Direct Return from Electronics / Electrical Equipment ................................................................. 23

3.4.3 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 23

3.5 PERSONNEL LOAD ........................................................................................................... 24

3.5.1 Personnel Heat Gain .......................................................................................................................... 25

3.5.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 25

3.6 HVAC CONVERSION FACTOR ........................................................................................ 26

3.7 INFILTRATION LOAD ....................................................................................................... 27

3.7.1 Infiltration Heat Gain (Loss) ............................................................................................................ 27

3.7.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 28

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

3.8.1 Constant Summer Reheat Applications ........................................................................................... 29

3.8.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 30

3.9 VENTILATION LOAD........................................................................................................ 30

3.9.1 Allowable Temperature Rise Calculations ...................................................................................... 30

3.9.1.1 Transmission Load ....................................................................................................................31

3.9.1.2 Solar Load ................................................................................................................................31

3.9.1.3 Lighting Load............................................................................................................................31

3.9.1.4 Equipment Load ........................................................................................................................31

3.9.2 Rate of Air Change ............................................................................................................................ 31

3.9.3 Precooling ........................................................................................................................................... 31

3.9.4 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 32

4.0 SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND CALCULATIONS....................................................... 33

4.1 ROOM LOAD .................................................................................................................... 34

4.2 FAN LOAD ........................................................................................................................ 34

4.2.1Fan Motor Heat Gain ........................................................................................................................ 34

4.2.2Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 34

4.3 SUPPLY DUCT LOAD........................................................................................................ 35

4.3.1 Supply Duct Heat Gain...................................................................................................................... 35

4.3.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 35

4.4 RETURN PATH LOAD ....................................................................................................... 36

4.4.1 Return Path Heat Gain...................................................................................................................... 36

4.4.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 36

4.5 OUTDOOR AIR LOAD ...................................................................................................... 36

4.5.1 Occupancy Calculations .................................................................................................................... 37

4.5.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 37

5.0 SHIPS AIR BALANCE ...................................................................................................... 37

6.0 HVAC CALCULATION BOOKLET ................................................................................ 38

6.1 COMPARTMENT EQUIPMENT LIST ................................................................................. 38

6.1.1 Sample Forms..................................................................................................................................... 38

6.2 HEATING AND COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS ............................................................ 39

6.2.1 Sample Forms..................................................................................................................................... 39

6.3 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART ............................................................................................... 40

6.4 COOLING ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................ 40

6.5 HEATING ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................ 40

6.6 SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 40

6.7 EXHAUST SYSTEM ANALYSIS .......................................................................................... 40

BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 52

APPENDIX A HVAC CASE STUDY ..................................................................................... 53

2

DEFINITIONS

Air conditioning: The process of treating air to control temperature and relative humidity.

Ventilation: The supply and exhaust of outside air by fans for the purpose of maintaining temperatures, and

removing offensive odors and contaminants from spaces.

Outdoor air: Weather air supplied to the ship by ventilation fans to ventilated spaces, as replenishment to air

conditioning systems, or as infiltration into the ship.

Direct return: Dedicated return or exhaust terminal located within six inches of the discharge ventilation opening of

equipment with an internal ventilation blower.

Pull-through system: An air conditioning system where the fan is located downstream of the cooling coil.

Push-through system: An air conditioning system where the fan is located upstream of the cooling coil.

Constant summer reheat: Sensible heat added for the purpose of controlling relative humidity in spaces with high

latent (moisture) loads.

Pressurized space: An air conditioned space where, by design, the amount of replenishment air exceeds the amount

of exhaust.

Sensible heat factor: Is the ratio of room total sensible heat load to the room total load.

SYMBOLS

A area of deck or room boundary [ft2] ql latent heat [Btu/hr]

B.F. ballast factor qs sensible heat [Btu/hr]

cp,a specific heat of dry air [Btu/lb/F] ql,d equipment latent heat dissipation [Btu/hr]

cp,w specific heat of water vapor [Btu/lb/F] qs,d equipment sensible heat dissipation [Btu/hr]

CSR constant summer reheat ql,p personnel latent heat dissipation [Btu/hr/person]

F HVAC conversion factor [Btu-lb-min/hr/ft2/F] qs,p personnel sensible heat dissipation [Btu/hr/person]

F.W. fluorescent bulb wattage [W] SHF sensible heat factor

Gsf glass solar factor [Btu/hr/ft2] T temperature difference [F]

ho enthalpy of outdoor air [Btu/lb of dry air] Te solar effective temperature difference [F]

hr enthalpy of room air [Btu/lb of dry air] Tf temperature rise due to fan motor heat [F]

H.F. hood factor To temperature of outdoor air [F]

I.W. incandescent bulb wattage [W] Tp design temperature of precooled supply air [F]

L.C. load constant [Btu/hr/ft2] Tr temperature rise [F]

LAT coil leaving air temperature [F] Ts space design air temperature [F]

Of minimum outdoor air rate [CFM/person] U overall coefficient of heat transfer [Btu/hr/ft2/F]

P number of room occupants [persons] U.F. equipment use factor

Q air flow quantity [CFM] V room volume [ft3]

QCC air flow through the precooling coil [CFM] v specific volume [ft3/lb]

q total heat [Btu/hr] W humidity ratio [lb of water vapor/lb of dry air]

qf fan motor heat [Btu/hr] motor motor efficiency

3

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

The primary functions of marine heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are to provide comfort

and healthy conditions for the crew and passengers, to maintain satisfactory operation of equipment, prevent build

up of offensive odors and dangerous gases, and prevent spoilage of supplies by controlling ambient conditions.

This is accomplished by establishing the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements for each space and

then preparing a set of "load" calculations and analyses to determine the sizes of HVAC equipment that meet all

established requirements.

Conditioning Design

Basic design considerations are similar for land-based and marine HVAC installations; however, there are a number

of factors uncommon to land-based installations which must be considered when designing a marine HVAC system.

A marine HVAC installation:

Is designed to operate over a wide range of weather conditions and can be subjected to extreme changes in

weather conditions (temperature, humidity and solar) within a short period of time.

Is designed to function in a corrosive seawater environment.

Is relatively compact due to space limitation on ships.

Is more susceptible to noise problems because the enclosed areas are relatively small, close to equipment and

machinery spaces, and the ships structure affords very little inherent sound dampening.

Must be very rugged because ship operating schedules severely limit the time available for maintenance by

specialized land-based personnel.

1.3 Scope

This bulletin contains guidance to assist in designing a marine HVAC installation for a merchant ship. Detailed

room and system design criteria are provided for all spaces of a typical merchant ship, with the exception of the

engine room (machinery space) and cargo spaces, which, due to the complexity of equipment, heat liberation, and

commodity ventilation requirements, are not within the scope of this bulletin. The instructions include the detailed

calculations required to determine both room and system loads. Typical HVAC calculations and forms are included

to clarify the application of the data contained herein.

A ship's HVAC requirements are dependent on specific data which must be gathered before the necessary

calculations can be made. This data includes:

Outside air design dry bulb (DB) and wet bulb (WB) temperatures for the cooling season.

Outside air design dry bulb temperature for the heating season.

Room design dry bulb temperatures in the cooling and heating seasons.

Room design relative humidity (RH) for the cooling season.

Design seawater temperature for both the cooling and heating seasons.

Ships general arrangement drawing.

Boundary constructions for each space.

Lights in each space.

Equipment in each space.

Occupancy in each space.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Type of cooling system.

Type of heating system.

Type of ventilation system.

Most of the above design data is listed in, or can be determined from, information contained in the ship's

construction specifications, general arrangement plans, joiner arrangement plans, structural plans, lighting

arrangement plans, and equipment lists; however, where the specifications and plans are silent on design data,

recommended values in this section should be used until the data becomes available.

Normally, all staterooms, cabins, lounges, recreation rooms, mess rooms, dining rooms, offices, slop chests, radio

and radar transmission rooms, electronic rooms, Gyro rooms, steering gear rooms, chart rooms, hospitals,

wheelhouses and passages within A/C areas shall be cooled during the cooling season and heated during the heating

season. Stairwells within the air conditioned envelope shall be indirectly conditioned by return air, wherever

possible.

Outside Air Wet Bulb 82F

Inside Air Dry Bulb 78F

Inside Air Wet Bulb 66.5F (corresponds to 55% RH)

Seawater 85F

Inside Air Dry Bulb 70F

Medical Spaces Dry Bulb 75F

Seawater 28F

The minimum outdoor air to be supplied to an air conditioning system shall be determined by room occupancy.

2.1.3.1 Occupancy

Minimum outdoor air based on room occupancy shall be 12 CFM/person for high occupancy spaces (e.g.,

recreation rooms, dining rooms and mess rooms) and 15 CFM/person for low occupancy air conditioned

spaces (e.g., staterooms and offices).

These rates shall only be increased to achieve air balance within each subdivision, but shall not exceed 50

CFM/person.

2.1.3.2 Infiltration

For spaces such as the Wheelhouse (Pilot House) with doors that open directly to the weather, minimum

outdoor air rate of change shall be 60 minutes, but shall not exceed 50 CFM/person.

Spaces which are not air conditioned shall be heated and/or ventilated in accordance with the requirements of Table

2-1. Non-air conditioned spaces not mentioned in the table shall be treated the same as similar spaces listed. In all

cases, the allowable temperature rise must provide room ambient temperatures within the temperature ratings of

electrical equipment installed in the room. The design temperature rises in Table 2-1 are based on outside air and

seawater design temperatures noted in Section 2.1.1. These temperature rises shall be adjusted if different outside

air and seawater temperatures are used.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table 2-1: Ventilation & Heating Recommendations for Non-Air Conditioned Spaces

Ventilation Heating

Temperature Max. Air Change, Temperature,

Type Space Rise, Tr (F) R/C (minutes) Ts (F)

Air Cond. Equip. and Fan Rooms 15 - 40

Baggage 15 15 60

Battery Room - 4 40

Bonded Stores 15 10 40

Bosns Stores - 20 -

Butcher Shop 10 4 40

Canvas Room - 6 40

Carpenter Shop 10 6 60

CO2 Room 15 6 -

Deck Toilet - 6 60

Dry Stores - 15 -

Engrs. Stores 20 30 -

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Ventilation Heating

Temperature Max. Air Change, Temperature,

Type Space Rise, Tr (F) R/C (minutes) Ts (F)

Garbage Room 10 1 -

Hawser Room - 20 -

Laundries Service ** 10 4 70

Machine Shop 15 6 60

Pantries Service 10 4 -

Pump Room 15 3 40

Shaft Alley - 10 -

Stores Ships Dry Daily Galley

10 4 50

& Bulk Food

Stores Stewards & Misc. 10 6 -

Stevedores Toilets - 6 60

Winch M.G. 15 6 -

* The minimum exhaust air from a Galley shall be equal to the total airflow from all hoods in the Galley.

** The minimum exhaust air from a Laundry space shall be equal to the clothes dryers total blower airflow.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

The following criteria are considered to be good design practices. It is recognized that particular installations may

require the use of values other than those listed below. It is recommended, however, that when other values are used,

their use be considered on a case by case basis only. It is noted that example cases used throughout this bulletin are

based on outside air and seawater design temperatures noted in Section 2.1.

The maximum design temperature difference between the supply air at the room terminal and the room design

temperature shall be 30F.

Room supply air shall be based on the room sensible load, supply air dry bulb, and room design dry bulb

temperatures.

The design off-coil relative humidity of supply air shall not exceed 95%.

The system design relative humidity shall not exceed 55%.

Individual rooms within a system shall not exceed 55% RH.

The air and water vapor for air conditioning calculations shall be considered as having the following physical

properties:

Dry Air Specific Volume 13.34 ft3 per lb.

Water Vapor Specific Heat 0.45 Btu per lb. per oF

Heat of Vaporization 1055 Btu per lb.

Physical properties of air and water vapor for ventilation, infiltration, and preheating are discussed in Section 3.6 of

this bulletin.

CALCULATIONS

This section discusses the first phase in designing an HVAC system which is to establish the cooling, heating, and

ventilation load requirements for each individual room.

Table 3-1 lists room load components, the section which describes each component, and when each component is

considered.

Cooling Heating Ventilation

Component Section Calculations Calculations Calculations

Transmission 3.1 X X X

Solar 3.2 X - X

Lights 3.3 X X X

Equipment 3.4 X - X

Personnel 3.5 X - -

Infiltration 3.7 - X -

Ventilation 3.9 - - X

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Production schedules may require that HVAC load calculations be made concurrent with or prior to the completion

of design development and the selections of equipment and lighting facilities. This requires the HVAC engineer to

make assumptions (e. g., boundary constructions, lighting requirements, and equipment sizes). Calculations based

on such assumptions must be considered as estimates and must be revised when the actual conditions and

requirements have been established to ensure the installed HVAC system is designed to meet actual conditions and

requirements.

Transmission load is the sensible heat flow through a boundary due to the temperature differential across the

boundary surfaces.

Transmission heat gain or loss for a boundary is calculated using the equation:

q = U A T (3-1)

Separate calculations must be made for each boundary or portion which has a different U or T value.

Where rooms have composite boundaries of steel and joiner work, the boundary areas shall be calculated using

dimensions which extend to the steel. Molded (steel to steel) dimensions shall be used in Equation 3-1.

Dimensions shall be rounded off to the nearest foot.

When a room design temperature is not specified, the temperatures listed in Table 3-2 shall be used or an

abbreviated heat balance calculation may be used to estimate the room temperature.

Values of U shall be taken from the current edition of Thermal Insulation Report, SNAME Technical and

Research Bulletin No. 4-7.

For cooling load calculations, the cooling effect of an adjacent space is not considered unless the lower

temperature is maintained by air conditioning or refrigeration equipment. For heating load calculations, the

heat gain through a boundary is deducted only if the higher temperature of the adjacent space is maintained by a

heating system.

Air Conditioning Equipment and Fan Rooms 110 40

Baggage 110 60

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Butcher Shop 105 40

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Galley and Galley Pantry 105 50

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Stores Stewards & Misc. 105 50

For cooling calculations, heat flow into a room is positive (load) and heat flow out of a room is negative (credit,

is deducted from the room cooling load). For heating calculations, heat flow out of a room is positive (load)

and heat flow into a room is negative (credit, is deducted from the room heating load).

CASE 1 Stateroom deck over: Type 10 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent to an

air conditioned cabin.

Cooling Calculation

T = 78 78 = 0F (Sec. 2.1.1)

No Heat Flow

q=0

Heating Calculation

T = 70 70 = 0F (Sec. 2.1.1)

No Heat Flow

q=0

CASE 2 Stateroom deck below: Type 55 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent to

engineers storeroom.

Cooling Calculation

A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 55)

q = 0.11 156 37 = 635 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Heating Calculation

A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 55)

q = 0.09 156 40 = 562 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 3 Stateroom forward bulkhead: Type 6 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8", adjacent to

laundry.

Cooling Calculation

A = 8' 13' = 104 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.313 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 6)

q = 0.313 104 27 = 879 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

No Heat Flow

q=0

CASE 4 Stateroom after bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8", adjacent to

stateroom toilet & shower (5') and hospital (7'-8").

Cooling Calculation

T&S A = 8' 5' = 40 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

T&S U = 0.376 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)

T&S q = 0.376 40 7 = 105 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Hospital T = 78 78 = 0F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)

Hospital No Heat Flow

Hospital q=0

Heating Calculation

T&S No Heat Flow

T&S q=0

Hospital T = 70 75 = -5F (Sec. 2.1.2)

Hospital A = 8' 8' = 64 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Hospital U = 0.354 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)

Hospital q = 0.354 64 -5 = -113 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 5 Stateroom inboard bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", adjacent to

passageway.

Cooling Calculation

A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.376 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)

q = 0.376 96 2 = 72 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Heating Calculation

A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.354 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)

q = 0.354 96 5 = 170 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 6 Stateroom outboard bulkhead: Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", glass

area 6 ft2, fully shaded by structural overhang.

Cooling Calculation

Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Type 63 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

Type 63 q = 0.10 90 17 = 153 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Glass T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)

Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)

Glass q = 1.13 6 17 = 115 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Type 63 U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

Type 63 q = 0.09 90 70 = 567 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Glass T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)

Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)

Glass q = 1.13 6 70 = 475 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 7 Laundry Room deck over: Type 57 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent to

air conditioned cabin.

Cooling Calculation

A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.23 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 57)

q = 0.23 156 -27 = -969 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

No Heat Flow

q=0

CASE 8 Laundry Room deck below: Type 53 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent

to engineers storeroom.

Cooling Calculation

A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

q = 0.28 156 10 = 437 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.187 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 53)

q = 0.187 156 40 = 1167 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 9 Laundry Room forward bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8",

adjacent to clean linen room.

Cooling Calculation

No Heat Flow

q=0

Heating Calculation

A = 8' 13' = 104 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.354 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)

q = 0.354 104 10 = 368 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 10 Laundry Room after bulkhead: Type 6 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8", adjacent

to stateroom.

Cooling Calculation

A = 8' 13' = 104 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.313 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 6)

q = 0.313 104 -27 = -879 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

No Heat Flow

q=0

CASE 11 Laundry Room inboard bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6",

adjacent to passageway inside A/C space.

Cooling Calculation

A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.376 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)

q = 0.376 96 -27 = -975 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

T = 70 70 = 0F (Table 3-2)

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No Heat Flow

q=0

Solar + transmission load is the sensible heat flow through the room's weather boundaries which are exposed to the

sun. This load is in addition to the transmission load for the affected boundary or boundaries, but the total load

(solar + transmission) is calculated in one step.

Solar + transmission heat gain is calculated using a variation of Equation 3-1:

q = U A Te (3-2)

Where Te is the difference between the effective temperature from Table 3-3 and room design temperature.

The values of U shall be those for Solar Radiation in the current edition of Thermal Insulation Report,

Technical and Research Bulletin No. 4-7.

The solar + transmission heat gain for glass shall be calculated using the equation:

q = G sf A (3-3)

Where more than one boundary of a space is exposed to the sun, a separate heat gain calculation shall be

performed for each boundary or combination of boundaries and the greatest simultaneous gain shall be used for

determining the solar and transmission heat load.

The dimensions to be used when calculating the boundary area are delineated in Section 3.1.1, except that

vertical shaded areas shall not be included. Shaded areas shall be calculated with the sun at a 45o angle from the

horizon.

Glass solar factors and effective temperatures for single and multi-boundary calculations are listed in Table 3-3.

If a different outside design temperature is specified, the temperatures in Table 3-3 must be adjusted

accordingly, upward or downward.

Single Boundary Multi-Boundary

Glass Solar Factor Calculations Calculations

160 Btu/hr/ft2 120 Btu/hr/ft2

Single Boundary Multi-Boundary

Outdoor Air

Calculations Calculations

Dry Bulb

Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Vertical

Temperature

Surface Surface Surface Surface

90F 140 120 125 110

Effective

Temperatures 95F 145 125 130 115

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CASE 12 Stateroom outboard bulkhead: Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", glass

area 6 ft2, completely exposed to the sun. No other boundaries exposed to the sun.

Cooling Calculation

Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Type 63 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

Type 63 q = 0.11 90 47 = 465 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

Glass Gsf = 160 Btu/hr/ft2 (Table 3-3)

Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Glass q = 160 6 = 960 Btu/hr (Equation 3-3)

Heating Calculation

AND

Glass q = 475 Btu/hr

CASE 13 Same as CASE 12 except the bulkhead is partially shaded by 5' structural overhang.

Type 63 A = (5' 12') 6 ft2 = 54 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Type 63 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

Type 63 q = 0.10 54 17 = 92 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Glass T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)

Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)

Glass q = 1.13 6 17 = 115 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Type 63 A = 3'5" 12' = 3' 12' = 36 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Type 63 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

Type 63 q = 0.11 36 47 = 186 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

Heating Calculation

AND

Glass q = 475 Btu/hr

CASE 14 Stateroom outboard bulkhead and deck above both exposed to the sun. Outboard bulkhead (same

as CASE 12): Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", glass area 6 ft2. Deck above: Type 62

construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8".

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Cooling Calculation

When more than one boundary may be exposed to the sun, several calculations are required to determine

the maximum room load. In this case the combinations which must be considered are:

(b) Deck above weather and outboard bulkhead solar.

(c) Deck above solar and outboard bulkhead solar.

DECK

Type 62 A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Type 62 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)

Type 62 q = 0.11 156 67 = 1150 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

BULKHEAD

Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Type 63 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

Type 63 q = 0.10 90 17 = 153 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Glass T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)

Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)

Glass q = 1.13 6 17 = 115 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

DECK

Type 62 A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Type 62 U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)

Type 62 q = 0.09 156 17 = 239 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

AND

Glass q = 960 Btu/hr

14(c) Cooling Calculation deck above and outboard bulkhead solar (use effective temperatures for multi-

boundary calculations from Table 3-3).

DECK

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Type 62 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)

Type 62 q = 0.11 156 52 = 892 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

BULKHEAD

Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Type 63 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

Type 63 q = 0.11 90 37 = 366 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

Glass Gsf = 120 Btu/hr/ft2 (Table 3-3)

Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

Glass q = 120 6 = 720 Btu/hr (Equation 3-3)

Heating Calculation

DECK

Type 62 A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

Type 62 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)

Type 62 q = 0.10 156 70 = 1092 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

AND

Glass q = 475 Btu/hr

CASE 15 Laundry Room outboard bulkhead: Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6",

glass area 6 ft2, completely exposed to the sun.

Cooling Calculation

A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)

U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

q = 0.11 96 20 = 211 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

Heating Calculation

A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)

q = 0.09 96 70 = 605 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Lighting load is the sensible heat generated by the lights in a room. Lighting load shall be accounted for in all spaces

in the cooling season, and shall be deducted from the heating load in all spaces in the heating season except berthing

spaces, cabins, and staterooms.

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When the installed lighting is known, the heat gain shall be calculated for the normal room lighting mode

which, for these calculations, shall be considered to be all overhead and cornice lights controlled by wall

switches and work station lights; i.e., desk lights in office. The lighting load shall be calculated using the

equation:

q = ( I .W . + F .W .) B.F. 3.412 (3-4)

Where 3.412 is a conversion factor from Watts to Btu/hr. The ballast factor, B.F., shall be taken as 1.25.

When the installed lighting is not known, the lighting load shall be estimated using the equation:

q = A L.C. (3-5)

The deck area, A, used when calculating estimated lighting loads shall be based on the finished dimensions, if

known. Otherwise, use molded dimensions to calculate the deck area. See Table 3-4 for the appropriate value of

load constant, L.C.

All estimated lighting loads must be revised when the installed lighting load is known. This is particularly

important for mess rooms and other public spaces with large lighting loads.

Space Load Constant, L.C.

Passenger Staterooms 7

Captain & Chief Engineer Staterooms 7

Officer Staterooms 4

Crew Staterooms 4

Mess Rooms, Lounges & Public Spaces 9

Offices 7

Other Spaces 7

CASE 16 Officer Stateroom: Installed lights controlled by wall switch, three ceiling fixtures each with two

20W fluorescent bulbs. Finished dimensions, deck above: 11'-6" x 12'-2".

F.W. = 3 2 20 = 120 Watts (Sec. 3.3.1)

B.F. = 1.25 (Sec. 3.3.1)

q = 120 1.25 3.412 = 512 Btu/hr (Equation 3-4)

L.C. = 4 Btu/hr/ft2 (Table 3-4)

q = 144 4 = 576 Btu/hr (Equation 3-5)

CASE 18 Officer Laundry: Installed lights controlled by wall switch, four ceiling fixtures each with two

20W fluorescent bulbs. Finished dimensions, deck above: 11'-6" x 12'-2".

F.W. = 4 2 20 = 160 Watts (Sec. 3.3.1)

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q = 160 1.25 3.412 = 682 Btu/hr (Equation 3-4)

Equipment load is the sensible and latent heat generated by equipment operating within a space.

For air conditioned spaces, both the sensible and latent components of the equipment load are included in the

cooling load calculations; however, for ventilated spaces, only the sensible component is included in the cooling

load calculations.

Spaces that typically have equipment load are galleys, pantries, laundries, radio and communication rooms,

wheelhouses, resistor houses, deck machinery compartments, and specialized spaces such as computer rooms or

engine control rooms. Equipment load will normally be included for lounges, mess rooms, offices, and officer

staterooms.

Equipment heat gain must be based on heat dissipation data for actual equipment installed. The best source of

heat dissipation data is the equipment manufacturer; however, quite often the equipment has not been selected

when the HVAC calculations are performed, in which case other sources of heat dissipation data must be used,

such as manufacturers' manuals for similar pieces of equipment or the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.

Table 3-5 herein provides heat dissipation data for typical marine equipment and may be used when more exact

information is not available for a specific design

Table 3-5: Recommended Heat Dissipation for Typical Marine Equipment (Btu/hr)

Clothes Dryer, Electric * 4400 -

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Meat Slicer, Electric 1120 580

* Vented to Atmosphere

All estimated equipment heat gains must be revised after the equipment has been selected and the actual heat

dissipation data is known. This is especially important for spaces with a high concentration of equipment or for

new or rapidly changing equipment such as computers.

When the heat dissipation data is known or estimated, the equipment heat gain shall be calculated using the

following equations:

q s = q s ,d U .F . H .F . (3-6)

AND

ql = ql ,d U .F . (3-7)

Where an exhaust hood is fitted over the equipment, use a Hood Factor, H.F., of 0.5. The latent load for such

equipment is considered as zero. Use H.F. = 1.0 in Equation 3-6 when an exhaust hood is not fitted over the

equipment. See Table 3-6 for recommended Use Factors, U.F.

For electric motors, the sensible heat gain may be calculated using one of the following equations:

bhp 2545 U .F .

qs = (3-8)

motor

OR

Where bhp is the motor brake horsepower and kWmotor is the rated kW of the motor. Motor efficiencies, motor,

are listed in Table 3-7.

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Space Use Factor

Cargo Gear Equipment Room 0.5

Computer Room 1.0

Engine Control Room 1.0

Fan Rooms 1.0

Galley 0.5

Gyro Equipment Room 0.5

Offices 0.3

Pantry 0.5

Radar Equipment Room 0.5

Radio Room 0.3

All Other Spaces 0.3

* To be used when exact information is not available.

Motor Size (hp) motor

1/8 or less 0.50

1/6 to 1/3 0.65

1/2 to 3/4 0.73

Larger than 3/4 to 2 0.82

Larger than 2 to 10 0.87

Larger than 10 0.91

* To be used when exact information is not available.

Direct return from electronics equipment and racks with internal ventilation blowers shall be considered on a

case by case basis. Direct return entails providing return ducting located within six (6) inches of the equipment

ventilation discharge opening. The benefit of providing direct return is a reduction in room load and in the

amount of air conditioning airflow to the space. The direct return ducting shall be sized for 125% of the

equipments internal blower rated airflow. For equipment located in an air conditioned space, 75% of the

equipments heat dissipation can be considered as cooling coil load and the remaining 25% as room load. It is

noted that direct return does not reduce the overall air conditioning system cooling load.

For equipment located in a ventilated space and provided with a dedicated exhaust terminal, 75% of the

equipment heat dissipation shall be considered to be captured by the exhaust terminal and discharged to the

weather. The remaining 25% of the equipment heat dissipation shall be considered as room load.

U.F. = 0.3 (Table 3-6)

H.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 3.4.1)

qs = 1300 0.3 1.0 = 390 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

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CASE 20 Laundry with electric clothes dryer, clothes washer, and iron.

Washer qs,d = 1300 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)

Iron qs,d = 3400 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)

All U.F. = 0.3 (Table 3-6)

All H.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 3.4.1)

Dryer qs = 4400 0.3 1.0 = 1320 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

Washer qs = 1300 0.3 1.0 = 390 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

Iron qs = 3400 0.3 1.0 = 1020 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

Total qs = 1320 + 390 + 1020 = 2730 Btu/hr

U.F. = 0.5 (Table 3-6)

H.F. = 0.5 (Sec. 3.4.1)

qs = 24700 0.5 0.5 = 6175 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

ql,d = 6900 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)

U.F. = 0.5 (Table 3-6)

H.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 3.4.1)

qs = 13500 0.5 1.0 = 6750 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

ql = 6900 0.5 = 3450 Btu/hr (Equation 3-7)

U.F. = 0.5 (Table 3-6)

H.F. = 0.5 (Sec. 3.4.1)

qs = 13500 0.5 0.5 = 3375 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

ql = 0 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.4.1)

U.F. = 1.0 (Table 3-6)

motor = 0.87 (Table 3-7)

5.0 2545 1.0

qs = = 14626 Btu/hr (Equation 3-8)

0.87

U.F. = 1.0 (Table 3-6)

qs = 5.0 3412 1.0 = 17060 Btu/hr (Equation 3-9)

Personnel load is the sensible and latent gain generated by a rooms occupants.

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Personnel heat gain is calculated using the equations:

qs = qs, p P (3-10)

AND

ql = q l , p P (3-11)

Personnel heat dissipation varies with room temperature and level of personnel activity. Recommended values

are shown in Table 3-8. For messing facilities, add 30 Btu/hr sensible and latent per person eating as an

allowance for heat dissipation from food.

Occupancy for staterooms shall be based on the number of sleeping accommodations. For offices, lounges,

messing facilities, work rooms and similar spaces, occupancy shall be 3/4 of the seating capacity, rounded off to

the nearest whole number.

Room D.B. Mess Attendants

(F) & Working Spaces All Others

Sensible Latent Sensible Latent

75 360 440 300 300

76 345 455 290 310

77 330 470 275 325

78 315 485 265 335

79 300 500 250 350

80 285 515 240 360

81 270 530 230 370

82 255 545 215 385

83 240 560 205 395

84 225 575 190 410

85 210 590 180 420

ql,p = 335 Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)

P = 1 person

qs = 265 1 = 265 Btu/hr (Equation 3-10)

ql = 335 1 = 335 Btu/hr (Equation 3-11)

CASE 27 Officer Mess Room four tables, each with four seats, and one mess attendant.

Diners ql,d = 335 + 30 = Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)

Messman qs,d = 315 Btu/hr (Table 3-8)

Messman ql,d = 485 Btu/hr (Table 3-8)

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Total qs = (295 12) + (315 1) = 3855 Btu/hr (Equation 3-10)

Total ql = (365 12) + (485 1) = 4865 Btu/hr (Equation 3-11)

ql,p = 335 Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)

P = 3/4 8 = 6 people (Sec. 3.5.1)

qs = 265 6 = 1590 Btu/hr (Equation 3-10)

ql = 335 6 = 2010 Btu/hr (Equation 3-11)

In general, sensible heat loads or gains can be calculated using the equation:

q s = F Q T (3-12)

Equation 3-12 can be utilized to calculate room loads, heating loads, preheat loads, infiltration loads, etc.

Depending on the application, the value of the HVAC conversion factor, F, varies. In general, it is defined by the

equation:

60 [c p ,a + (W c p ,w )]

F= (3-13)

v

In the past, regardless of season or application, a conversion factor of 1.08 was used in all heat load calculations.

This factor of 1.08 is an accepted value for marine air conditioning applications, but its use in ventilation, preheating

and infiltration calculations does not produce accurate results. To obtain accurate heat load calculations, Equation

3-13 must be evaluated with the proper air and water vapor properties for each application.

The specific heat of dry air, cp,a, and specific heat of water vapor, cp,w, vary with temperature and pressure.

However, this variation is small and will have negligible effect on the value of the F. As such, the specific heats of

dry air and water vapor noted in Section 2.4 (cp,a = 0.24 Btu/lb/F and cp,w = 0.45 Btu/lb/F, respectively) can be

assumed constant for all HVAC applications.

However, specific volume of air, v, and humidity ratio, W, vary widely under differing conditions. The HVAC

engineer shall use the appropriate values of v and W as follows:

For ventilation and infiltration calculations in the cooling season, the conversion factor shall be revised to

reflect v = 14.445 ft3 per lb. of air and W = 0.0208 lb. water per lb. dry air at 95/82F DB/WB. In this case,

Equation 3-13 yields F = 1.04. For outside air design temperatures other than 95/82F DB/WB, the HVAC

engineer shall be responsible for revising the factor to reflect the correct specific volume of air at the prescribed

outside air design temperatures.

For preheating calculations, the conversion factor shall be revised to reflect the specific volume and humidity

ratio of air at the preheat temperature. Typical preheat temperatures are between 42F (v = 12.66 ft3/lb. of air,

W = 0.0008 lb. water per lb. dry air) and 50F (v = 12.86 ft3/lb. of air, W = 0.0008 lb. water per lb. dry air), from

which the corresponding range of conversion factors, by Equation 3-13, is 1.14 F 1.12. Use of F = 1.14 is

conservative, and is recommended as a general guideline for calculating the preheat load.

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For infiltration at 0/0F DB/WB, v = 11.599 ft3 per lb. of air and W = 0.0008 lb. water per lb. dry air. In this

case, Equation 3-13 yields F = 1.24. If the outside air design conditions are other than 0/0F DB/WB, the

HVAC engineer shall revise the factor accordingly.

Table 3-9 indicates properties of air at various cooling season outside air conditions and indicates the corresponding

HVAC conversion factor. Table 3-10 indicates the same for different preheating temperatures and heater entering

conditions.

Table 3-9: HVAC Conversion Factors for Ventilation, Infiltration, and A/C Applications

Humidity

Outside Design Specific Ratio,W

Temperatures Volume, v Conversion (lb. water

(F DB/WB) (ft3/lb. of air) Factor, F vapor/lb. dry air) Application

105.0 / 87.5 14.790 1.02 0.0245 Ventilation

95.0 / 82.0 14.445 1.04 0.0208 Ventilation

90.0 / 81.0 14.318 1.05 0.0210 Ventilation

0/0 11.599 1.24 0.0008 Infiltration

10 / 10 11.861 1.22 0.0013 Infiltration

For A/C applications: F = 1.08

Table 3-10: Preheating HVAC Conversion Factors for Various Preheat Conditions

Preheat Design Humidity

Temperature Outside Design Specific Ratio,W

(F DB) Conditions Volume, v (lb. water Conversion

(F DB/F WB ) (ft3/lb. of air) vapor/lb. dry air) Factor, F

42 0/0 12.669 0.0008 1.14

50 10 / 10 12.871 0.0013 1.12

45 0/0 12.659 0.0008 1.14

50 10 / 10 12.853 0.0013 1.12

Infiltration is leakage of outdoor air into an air conditioned space. This leakage imposes both a sensible and a latent

heat load. Normally, infiltration is only considered for spaces which are not pressurized and have direct access to

the weather. It is recommended that an infiltration load only be applied to an unpressurized wheelhouse because it

is common practice to have wheelhouse doors open when navigating a ship near land. All other outside doors are

considered as closed. Special infiltration requirements should be detailed in the construction specifications.

The sensible heat component of infiltration is included in the cooling and heating loads. The latent heat component

is only included in the A/C cooling loads. The latent heat gain is not considered for heating, except when

humidification is required by the specifications.

Infiltration heat gains or losses are calculated using the following equations:

Total Heat

60 Q (ho hr )

q= (3-14)

v

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Sensible Heat

Cooling Season: q s = 1.04 Q T (3-15)

Latent Heat

Cooling Season: ql = q q s (3-16)

Where T is the difference between design outdoor dry bulb temperature and design room dry bulb temperature,

and the constants 1.04 and 1.24 are the appropriate HVAC conversion factors from Table 3-9.

For spaces that are not pressurized, the infiltration rate of change shall be 60 minutes for cooling calculations

and 10 minutes for heating calculations. The dimensions used in calculating the room volume are the finished

deck heights and horizontal dimensions inside joiner linings and bulkheads.

If the space is pressurized, the infiltration rate of change shall be 120 minutes for cooling calculations and 20

minutes for heating calculations.

CASE 29 Wheelhouse unpressurized, finished dimensions 8'-2" x 30'-4" x 20'-7". Cooling season: outside

air conditions 95F DB, 82F WB; inside air conditions 78F DB, 66.5F WB. Heating season: outside air

temperature 0F DB; inside air temperature 70F DB.

Cooling Calculations

Q = 5040 / 60 = 84 CFM (Sec. 3.7.1)

T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)

v = 14.445 ft3/lb. of air (Psychrometric Chart)

ho = 45.75 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)

ho = 31.11 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)

60 84 ( 45.75 31.11)

q= = 5108 Btu/hr (Equation 3-14)

14.445

qs = 1.04 84 17 = 1485 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15)

qs = 5108 1485 = 3623 Btu/hr (Equation 3-16)

Heating Calculations

T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)

qs = 1.24 504 70 = 43747 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15a)

CASE 30 Wheelhouse pressurized, finished dimensions 8'-2" x 30'-4" x 20'-7". Cooling season: outside air

conditions 95F DB, 82F WB; inside air conditions 78F DB, 66.5F WB. Heating season: outside air

temperature 0F DB; inside air temperature 70F DB.

Cooling Calculations

Q = 5040 / 120 = 42 CFM (Sec. 3.7.1)

T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)

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ho = 45.75 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)

ho = 31.11 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)

60 42 (45.75 31.11)

qs = = 2554 Btu/hr (Equation 3-14)

14.445

qs = 1.04 42 17 = 743 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15)

qs = 2554 743 = 1811 Btu/hr (Equation 3-16)

Heating Calculations

T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)

qs = 1.24 252 70 = 21874 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15a)

In air conditioned spaces with high latent heat loads, the relative humidity may exceed the maximum design value of

55%. A quick inspection of the sensible heat factor indicates where this may occur. Sensible heat factor can be

determined from the equation:

qs

SHF = (3-17)

q

In spaces served by pull-through air conditioning systems, humidity control is required where SHF 0.59.

Similarly, spaces served by push-through systems require humidity control where SHF 0.62. These values are

applicable only for a cooling coil LAT of 51.5/50.5F (DB/WB). For different LAT, the HVAC engineer shall

determine the applicable room sensible heat factor below which humidity control will be required.

One effective method of controlling humidity is to provide constant summer reheat. In air conditioned spaces where

psychrometric analysis indicates a space relative humidity higher than 55%, constant summer reheat shall be

provided so that the resultant relative humidity in these spaces is less than or equal to 55%. The amount of heat

required will depend on several factors:

Location of the fan with respect to the cooling coil (pull-through or push-through system).

Air conditioning fan motor heat (in pull-through systems only).

Space sensible heat factor.

The amount of constant summer reheat required for a particular space can be calculated using the following

equations:

(0.59 q ) q s (3-18)

1 0.59

OR

(0.62 q ) qs (3-19)

1 0.62

The amount of constant summer reheat calculated by the above two equation represents the minimum amount of

heat to achieve a RH of 55%. If a relative humidity below 55% is specified or desired for a particular space, a

greater SHF may be used accordingly.

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Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Constant summer reheat must be added to the space sensible and total heat loads when performing cooling analyses.

When performing heating analyses, the constant summer reheat shall be compared with the space heating load

required to maintain the space at the heating season design temperature, and the heater shall be sized for the

condition that results in the larger load.

CASE 31 Mess Room served by a pull-through A/C system, sensible heat load 14000 Btu/hr, total heat

load 28000 Btu/hr, cooling coil LAT: 51.5/50.5F (DB/WB), maximum relative humidity: 55%.

qs = 14000 Btu/hr (Given)

SHF = 14000 / 28000 = 0.5 (Equation 3-17)

Target SHF = 0.59 (Sec. 3.8.1)

CSR =

(0.59 28000) 14000 = 6146 Btu/hr (Equation 3-18)

1 0.59

Room heat loads including CSR:

q = 28000 + 6146 = 34146 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)

qs = 14000 + 6146 = 20146 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)

qs = 14000 Btu/hr (Given)

SHF = 14000 / 28000 = 0.5 (Equation 3-17)

Target SHF = 0.62 (Sec. 3.8.1)

CSR =

(0.62 28000) 14000 = 8842 Btu/hr (Equation 3-19)

1 0.62

Room heat loads including CSR:

q = 28000 + 8842 = 36842 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)

qs = 14000 + 6146 = 22842 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)

A ventilation system serves the dual purpose of removing both contaminants and heat generated within a space. Its

ability to control temperature is limited in that it can only maintain a room ambient temperature above that of the

outside air temperature. To maintain a space at ambient temperature below the outside air temperature, some form

of air conditioning must be employed to cool the supply air.

Allowable temperature rise, F

Rate of air change, R/C

Most spaces which have an allowable temperature rise also have a maximum rate of air change requirement. Where

both requirements are noted for a space, the supply air shall be based on the requirement that results in the larger

amount of airflow. For special cases concerning Galleys and Laundry rooms, see Table 2-1.

Ventilation air supply to any space shall not be less than 35 CFM. Recommended ventilation rates are listed in Table

2-1.

The ventilation air quantity for a room based on allowable temperature rise is calculated using the following

equation.

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qs

Q= (3-20)

1.04 (Tr T f )

Temperature rise due to fan motor heat must be included to calculate the required ventilation based on the

allowable temperature rise. If the fan motor heat is given in terms of total heat dissipated (Btu/hr), Tf can be

calculated and inserted into Equation 3-20. If the fan motor heat is not known, an estimated temperature rise of

3.0F shall be used. The ventilation air quantity must be revised when the fan motor heat becomes available.

Recommended allowable temperature rises are listed in Table 2-1. See Section 4.2 for determination of supply

fan temperature rise.

Ventilation transmission loads are calculated in the same manner as cooling transmission loads detailed in

Section 3.1.1. Note, however, that the room dry bulb temperature is higher than the outside dry bulb

temperature which means that ventilation transmission loads through weather boundaries are always heat

losses.

For sample calculation of ventilation transmission load, refer to Section 3.1.2 - CASES 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11.

Ventilation solar loads are calculated in the same manner as solar cooling loads detailed in Section 3.2.1.

For sample calculation of ventilation solar load, refer to Section 3.2.2 - CASE 15.

Ventilation lighting loads are calculated in the same manner as lighting cooling loads detailed in

Section 3.3.1.

For sample calculation of ventilation lighting load, refer to Section 3.3.2 - CASE 18.

Ventilation equipment loads are calculated in the same manner as equipment cooling loads

detailed in Section 3.4.1, except that only sensible heat gain is considered.

For sample calculation of ventilation equipment load, refer to Section 3.4.2 - CASES 20, 21, 24,

and 25.

Ventilation air requirements based on rate of air change are calculated using the equation:

V

Q= (3-21)

R/C

The dimensions used in calculating the room volume, V, are molded deck heights and dimensions for ventilated

spaces. Recommended rates of air change are listed in Table 2-1.

3.9.3 Precooling

Precooling of the ventilation air supply is an option that the HVAC Engineer can incorporate in the design.

While precooling increases demand from the air conditioning plant, several benefits can be realized. Precooling:

Reduces the amount of air required for ventilated spaces.

Reduces the sizes of the ventilation supply and exhaust fans.

Reduces the sizes of ducting of the ventilation systems.

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Improves environmental conditions in ventilated spaces.

Typically, a precooling coil is implemented with a coil bypass. As the two air streams mix downstream of the

coil, the desired supply air temperature is reached.

The amount of air required to flow through the precooling coil depends on the location of the fan relative to the

coil. Equations 3-22 and 3-23 are used to calculate the required airflow through the precooling coil.

Q (To + T f T p )

Pull-Through Systems: QCC = (3-22)

To LAT

OR

Q (To + T f T p )

Push-Through Systems: QCC = (3-23)

To + T f LAT

Where Q is the ventilation supply system total airflow and Tp is the desired mix temperature of precooled air

with outdoor air.

CASE 33 Laundry sensible heat load 1310 Btu/hr, room volume based on molded dimensions 1008 ft3,

supply fan temperature rise 2.8F.

Ventilation Calculation

When a space has two ventilation requirements, allowable temperature rise and rate of change, two calculations

must be performed. The larger air quantity, Q, is the one used.

Tf = 2.8F (Given)

Tr = 10F (Table 2-1)

1310

Q= = 175 CFM (Equation 3-20)

1.04 (10 2.8)

R/C = 4 minutes (Table 2-1)

Q = 1008 / 4 = 252 CFM (Equation 3-21)

R/C = 4 minutes (Table 2-1)

Q = 112 / 4 = 28 CFM (Equation 3-21)

Use minimum ventilation air quantity:

Q = 35 CFM (Sec. 3.9)

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CASE 35 Machinery Space precooled, cooling coil leaving air: 51.5/50.5F DB/WB, total airflow: 12400

CFM, required supply temperature: 90F. Fan located downstream of the cooling coil. Temperature rise due to

fan motor heat: 2.5F.

To = 95F (Sec. 2.1.1)

Tp = 90F (Given)

Tf =2.5F (Given)

LAT = 51.5F (Given)

12400 (95 + 2.5 90)

QCC = = 2138 CFM (Equation 3-22)

95 51.5

CASE 36 Same as CASE 35, except fan located upstream of the cooling coil.

To = 95F (Sec. 2.1.1)

Tp = 90F (Given)

Tf =2.5F (Given)

LAT = 51.5F (Given)

12400 (95 + 2.5 90)

QCC = = 2022 CFM (Equation 3-23)

95 + 2.5 51.5

CALCULATIONS

After the individual space cooling and heating load requirements have been established, the spaces are grouped

together to form one or more systems. Theoretically, the spaces served by a system should all have similar

characteristics such as:

Occupancy density (which establishes the sensible heat factor).

Odor potential (to avoid transfer of objectionable odors via return air).

High equipment heat loads

Similar weather and solar exposure.

Most merchant ships, however, are too small to justify separate systems based on theoretical groupings. For

example, normally the only spaces which have high occupancy density are the mess rooms and lounges but the air

requirements for these spaces are usually too small to warrant a separate system. It is common practice, therefore, to

divide the spaces into two systems of approximately equal capacity and arranged to achieve an economical air

distribution. It is recommended that the wheelhouse be served with a separate system to minimize energy

requirements. It is also recommended that the wheelhouse be pressurized to minimize the space infiltration loads in

the cooling and heating seasons.

Table 4-1 lists system load components, the section which describes each component and when they are considered.

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Cooling Heating Ventilation

Component Section

Calculations Calculations Calculations

Room Load 4.1 X X X

Fan Load 4.2 X - -

Supply Duct 4.3 X - -

Return 4.4 X - -

Outdoor Air 4.5 X X -

Components of the room load are identified in Section 3.

Fan load is the sensible heat added to the air by the fan motor and is no different from sensible equipment loads

described in Section 3.4. It is expressed in terms of the air temperature rise across the fan or heat flow (Btu/hr). Fan

load shall be included for all air conditioning systems and for ventilation systems serving spaces whose required air

flows are based on allowable temperature rise.

When the horsepower of the fan motor to be used is known, the fan load is calculated in one of two ways,

depending on whether the fan motor is in or outside of the air stream.

When the fan motor is in the air stream, the fan load is calculated using Equation 3-8, with a use factor of 1.0.

When the fan motor is outside the air stream, the fan load is calculated using the equation:

Where the use factor shall be 1.0. For a fan motor outside the air stream, the difference between Equations 3-8

and 4-1 shall be applied as room equipment load.

To calculate the temperature rise due to fan motor heat, use Equation 4-2. The value of qs to be used shall be

selected from either Equation 3-8 or 4-1, depending on the location of the fan motor with regard to the

airstream. For selection of the applicable HVAC conversion factor, see Section 3.6.

qs

Tf = (4-2)

F Q

If the actual fan motor characteristics are not known, use Tf = 3.0F as an estimate, as noted in Section 3.9.1.

Temperature rise calculations shall be rounded off to the nearest tenth of a degree. All estimated fan loads must

be recalculated when fan motor has been selected.

CASE 37 Axial Fan (motor and fan in air stream) 5.0 HP motor, 5000 CFM A/C application.

motor = 0.87 (Table 3-7)

Q = 5000 CFM (Given)

F = 1.08 (Table 3-9)

U.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 4.2.1)

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qs = = 14626 Btu/hr (Equation 3-8)

0.87

14626

Tf = = 2.7F (Equation 4-2)

1.08 5000

CASE 38 Centrifugal Supply Fan (fan only in air stream) 15 HP motor, 8000 CFM Ventilation

application.

bhp = 15 HP (Given)

Q = 8000 CFM (Given)

F = 1.04 (Table 3-9)

U.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 4.2.1)

q s = 15 2545 1.0 = 38175 Btu/hr (Equation 4-1)

Heat for eqpt load (Sec. 4.2.1)

38175

Tf = = 4.6F (Equation 4-2)

1.04 8000

CASE 39 Axial Supply Fan (motor and fan in air stream) motor heat dissipation: 3880 Btu/hr, 1600 CFM

Ventilation application.

Q = 1600 CFM (Given)

F = 1.04 (Table 3-9)

3880

Tf = = 2.3F (Equation 4-2)

1.04 1600

CASE 40 Centrifugal Fan (motor and fan in air stream) motor characteristics unknown.

Sensible heat is added to or extracted from the air in a duct when the duct passes through spaces having higher or

lower dry bulb temperatures; however, this load is only considered when calculating cooling loads. This load is

expressed in terms of air temperature rise.

The supply duct load is estimated using the longest run of duct after the cooling coil. The temperature rise shall

be calculated using the equation:

Length 1.5F

Tr = (4-3)

100'

Where Length is the length of the longest supply duct run, in feet.

Temperature rise calculations shall be rounded off to the nearest tenth of a degree. When the length of the

supply duct is unknown, a temperature rise of 2.0F may be used as an estimate and later revised once the

supply duct length is known. Duct insulation shall be considered to minimize the supply duct heat gain.

CASE 41 A/C System longest run of supply duct after the cooling coil = 110 ft.

110 1.5

Tr = = 1.65F (Equation 4-3)

100

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Return path load is the sensible heat picked up by the recirculated air as it passes through passageways, stairwells,

and the return ducting. This load is also expressed in terms of air temperature rise.

For systems in which the passageways and stairwells are directly supplied with conditioned air, the return path

load is estimated using the longest run of return ducting. The temperature rise shall be calculated using the

equation:

Length 0.5F

Tr = (4-4)

100'

Where Length is taken as that of the longest return ducting, in feet.

For systems in which the passageways and stairwells are indirectly supplied with conditioned air, the return

path load may be assumed to be 5.0F to simplify calculations or may be determined by a two step process:

1. The heat gain in passageways and stairwells may be determined using a heat balance calculation or

assumed to be a 3.0F temperature rise.

2. The heat gain in the return ducts shall be calculated using Equation 4-4.

All temperature rises shall be rounded off to the nearest tenth of a degree.

CASE 42 A/C System, air conditioned passageways and stairwells longest run of return duct = 180 ft.

180 0.5

T = = 0.9F (Equation 4-4)

r 100

CASE 43 A/C System with indirect cooling of passageways and stairwells longest run of return duct = 80 ft.

Two methods are available for estimating the return path load:

80 0.5

Return T = = 0.4F (Equation 4-4)

r 100

Total Tr = 3.0 + 0.4 = 3.4F (Sec. 4.4.1)

The build-up of offensive odors in air conditioned spaces is controlled by exhausting conditioned "stale air" to the

weather. An equal quantity of outdoor air is introduced into the air supply system to keep the system in balance. The

outdoor air requirements are calculated separately for each air conditioned space; however, the outdoor air load is a

system load not a room load because the air is introduced into the A/C system air return and not directly into the

room.

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Outdoor air required for an air conditioning system shall be based on room occupancy and shall be increased only in

order to balance exhaust requirements within each subdivision, but shall not exceed 50 CFM per person.

Outdoor air requirements based on occupancy are calculated using the equation:

Q = Of P (4-5)

Room occupancy shall be determined in the same manner detailed in Section 3.5.1.

P = 4 people (Sec. 3.5.1)

Q = 15 4 = 60 CFM (Equation 4-5)

P = 1 person (Sec. 3.5.1)

Q = 15 1 = 15 CFM (Equation 4-5)

P = 3/4 8 = 6 people (Sec. 3.5.1)

Q = 15 6 = 90 CFM (Equation 4-5)

In its simplest form, ships air balance is taken as exhausting the same amount of air (in CFM) from the ship to the

weather as being supplied (in CFM) by the ventilation supply fans. Air is supplied and exhausted by fans. Fans,

however, are constant volume machines, and as such, provide the same volumetric flow regardless of air

temperature. To achieve true air balance, the exhaust fan(s) must exhaust the same mass of air as is provided by the

supply fan(s). The mass of air (lb. of air per minute) is calculated by dividing the fan volumetric flow (in CFM) by

the specific volume of air at the fan inlet condition, which can be obtained from a psychrometric chart.

For example: a supply fan that is sized for 1000 CFM and supplying air at 95/82oF DB/WB (v = 14.445 ft3/lb. of air)

is actually supplying 69.23 lbs. of air per minute. If this fan is providing outside air to air conditioning systems as

replenishment, the typical practice is to provide an exhaust fan sized for 1000 CFM to balance the air provided by

the supply fan. The 1000 CFM now being exhausted from air conditioned areas will be at temperatures close to that

air conditioned spaces. At 78/66.5oF DB/WB (v = 13.796 ft3/lb. of air), the exhaust fan is exhausting 72.48 lbs. of

air per minute. The difference between the mass of air being supplied and exhausted produces negative pressure

with regards to atmospheric pressure in the air conditioned area. If a weather door is opened, unfiltered, hot, and

humid outside air will infiltrate the air conditioned area.

In the heating season, the opposite occurs; a greater mass of air is supplied than is exhausted. The conditioned area

comes under positive pressure, and air exits when the weather doors are opened, thereby eliminating the infiltration

of unfiltered and cold air into the ship.

In mechanically ventilated areas, ventilation supply fans will be providing more air mass than is being exhausted,

thus creating a positive pressure.

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Neither positive nor negative pressure is desirable since either may create a safety hazard when opening weather

doors and doors separating air conditioned and ventilated areas of the ship. It is recommended that provisions for

maintaining the ship at a neutral pressure with regards to the atmosphere be incorporated in the HVAC design.

Standard forms have been developed to simplify and reduce the effort required to prepare and review a set of HVAC

calculations.

Table 6-1 lists a typical set of forms, the sections which describe each form, and when it is used.

Cooling Heating Ventilation

Form Section

Systems Systems Systems

Compartment Equipment List 6.1 X - X

Heating & Cooling Load Calculations 6.2 X X X

Psychrometric Chart 6.3 X - X*

Cooling Analysis 6.4 X - -

Heating Analysis 6.5 - X -

Supply System Analysis 6.6 - - X

Exhaust System Analysis 6.7 - X X

* Psychrometric Charts are required for ventilation systems only if precooling is used.

The forms listed in Table 6-1 are normally assembled in booklet form along with a title sheet, list of references, a

Table of Contents, and a list of abbreviations and symbols. Sample forms are provided in the figures at the end of

this section using results from some of the example cases presented.

A typical form used to calculate compartment equipment loads is shown in Figure 6-1. The pertinent information

shown is:

Equipment within the space

Manufacturer rating for each piece of equipment in Watts or Btu/hr

Use factor for each piece of equipment

Adjusted sensible and latent heat load for each piece of equipment to be used for calculating cooling or

ventilation requirements.

The equipment loads are calculated in conformance with Section 3.4. The adjusted sensible and latent equipment

loads are summarized for each space and the total adjusted loads are noted on the corresponding heating and cooling

load calculation sheet.

CASE 47 Stateroom with a 5 ft3 under-counter refrigerator. See Figure 6-2 and Section 3.4.2, CASE 19.

CASE 48 Laundry with electric clothes dryer (vented to the atmosphere), electric clothes washer, and

electric iron. See Figure 3 and Section 3.4.2, CASE 20.

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This form, Figure 6-4, is used to calculate the room loads described in Section 3. The necessary information which

must appear on this form is:

Space heating and cooling design temperature

Space and temperature adjacent to each boundary

Load key (defined below)

Boundary areas

Insulation type

Heat transfer coefficient, U, (with direction of heat flow) for each boundary condition

Insulation key for each boundary condition, defined below.

The standard load key is shown in the lower left hand corner of Figure 4. It is a means of identifying in the body of

the calculations what the physical relation of the boundary is to the room and is necessary for the proper

identification of U values to be used. The values of U are determined from the current edition of the Thermal

Insulation Report, SNAME Technical & Research Bulletin No. 4-7. These factors are defined according to the

insulation arrangement and thickness, direction of heat flow, and relationship between the room and adjacent spaces,

as to inside air, outside air, seawater or solar. The insulation key is the insulation Type defined within the tables of

T&R 4-7. These U values may also depend upon whether the room is being heated or cooled.

Once the basic parameters have been entered on the form, temperature differences and heat transfers for each

boundary can be calculated. Sensible and latent heat cooling loads and heating load can then be totaled.

The bottom portion of the form has been reserved for miscellaneous calculations to CFM, heat capacity, sensible

heat factor, room gross or net volume, and air rate of change. All symbols used on the form are also defined.

Heating and cooling load calculations can be performed manually or by the aid of computer programs. Regardless

of which method is used, the results shall be documented as shown on Figure 6-4.

Upon completion of the heating and cooling load calculations, the HVAC engineer shall perform the following

analyses:

a. Ships air balance shall be performed to ensure that the amount of required supply is equal to the amount of

required exhaust in each subdivision.

b. Cooling load analyses for all air conditioning systems to size the cooling coils, fans and determine the required

airflows for each air conditioned space.

c. Heating load analyses for all air conditioning systems to determine the heating requirements for each space and

size the heaters

d. Supply systems analyses for all ventilation supply systems to size the supply fans, determine the pre-heat loads

and size the pre-heaters and reheaters.

e. Exhaust systems analyses for all exhaust systems to size the exhaust fans, and determine the heating loads for

spaces with natural supply and mechanical exhaust, and size the heaters serving these spaces.

CASE 49 Air conditioned Stateroom. See Figure 5 and Section 3.1.2, CASES 1 through 5, Section 3.2.2

CASE 12, Section 3.3.2 CASE 17, Section 3.5.2 CASE 26, and Section 6.1.1 CASE 47.

CASE 50 Ventilated Laundry Room. See Figure 6-6 and Section 3.1.2, CASES 7 through 11, Section 3.2.2

CASE 15, Section 3.3.2 CASE 18, and Section 6.1.1 CASE 48.

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Figure 6-7 shows a typical psychrometric chart that can be used for analyzing total system performance and

parameters. However, any standard psychrometric chart can be used. Appendix A contains a sample psychrometric

chart.

The cooling analysis, Figure 6-8, is used to summarize the cooling requirements for each air conditioned space. For

this purpose, space has been provided to list the compartment and location, sensible and latent cooling loads,

sensible heat factor, and required outside air for each space served by the system.

Upon completion of all entries for a system, total system requirements can be determined. The cooling analysis sheet

can then be used to summarize all cooling systems in a similar manner. Appendix A contains a sample cooling

analysis.

Figure 6-9 shows the form developed for summarizing system heating requirements. It is very similar to the cooling

analysis form, but lists space heating loads, required temperature rise, and summarizes heater required performance.

Appendix A contains a sample heating analysis.

Figure 6-10 is used to list the supply system analysis for ventilated spaces. The form provides for listing space name,

location, design temperatures (cooling and heating seasons), cooling and heating loads, and supply CFM. Appendix

A contains a sample supply system analysis.

Figure 6-11 is used to list the exhaust system analysis for ventilated spaces requiring exhaust. The form provides for

listing space name, location, design temperatures (cooling and heating seasons), cooling and heating loads, and

exhaust CFM. Appendix A contains a sample exhaust system analysis.

40

Figure 6-1: Compartment Equipment List

SPACE SPACE NO.

USE

EQUIPMENT TOTAL REMARKS

FACTOR

WATTS BTU/HR BTU/HR* SENSIBLE LATENT

NOTES:

COMPARTMENT

EQUIPMENT LIST

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

41

Figure 6-2: Sample Form, CASE 47

SPACE SPACE NO.

STATEROOM C-11

MFG. RATING MAX. PROB. HEAT DISSIPATION, BTU/HR

USE

EQUIPMENT TOTAL REMARKS

FACTOR

WATTS BTU/HR BTU/HR* SENSIBLE LATENT

REFRIGERATOR 5 ft3 1300 0.3 390 390 TABLES 3-5 & 3-6

NOTES:

COMPARTMENT

EQUIPMENT LIST

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

42

Figure 6-3: Sample Form, CASE 48

SPACE SPACE NO.

LAUNDRY C-9

MFG. RATING MAX. PROB. HEAT DISSIPATION, BTU/HR

USE

EQUIPMENT TOTAL REMARKS

FACTOR SENSIBLE

WATTS BTU/HR BTU/HR WATTS

DRYER 4400 0.3 1320 1320 TABLES 3-5 & 3-6

NOTES:

COMPARTMENT

EQUIPMENT LIST

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

43

Figure 6-4: Heating & Cooling Load Calculations

SPACE SPACE NO.

COOLING SEASON: T = _______ F HEATING SEASON: T = _______ F

LOAD INSUL U U

ADJACENT COMPARTMENT A TO T QS QL QT TO T QW

KEY KEY COEFF DIR COEFF DIR

NOTES:

SYMBOLS KEY

A = Boundary Area [ft2] U = Heat Transfer Coefficient [Btu/ft2/hr/F] 1 = Deck Over 6 = Inboard Bulkhead

QS = Heat Load, Sensible [Btu/hr] T = Space Design Temp. [F] 2 = Deck Under 7 = Lights

HEATING & COOLING

QL = Heat Load, Latent

QT = Heat Load, Total

[Btu/hr]

[Btu/hr]

TO = Temperature of

Adjacent Space / Outside

[F] 3 = Outboard Bulkhead / Shell

4 = Forward Bulkhead

8 = Equipment

9 = Personnel

LOAD CALCULATIONS

QW = Heat Load, Winter [Btu/hr] T = Temperature Difference [F] 5 = After Bulkhead 10 = Infiltration

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. OF

44

Figure 6-5: Sample Form, CASE 49

SPACE SPACE NO.

COOLING SEASON: T = __78__ F HEATING SEASON: T = __70__ F

STATEROOM C-11

LOAD INSUL U U

ADJACENT COMPARTMENT A TO T QS QL QT TO T QW

KEY KEY COEFF DIR COEFF DIR

A/C CABIN 1 10 156 78 0 - - 0 0 0 70 0 - - 0

ENG. STOREROOM 2 55 156 115 37 0.11 635 0 635 30 40 0.09 562

SOLAR 3 63 90 125 47 0.11 465 0 465 0 70 0.09 567

SOLAR 3 GLASS 6 960 0 960 0 70 1.13 475

LAUNDRY 4 6 104 105 27 0.313 879 0 879 70 0 - - 0

S.R. TOILET 5 5 40 85 7 0.376 105 0 105 70 0 - - 0

HOSPITAL 5 5 64 78 0 - - 0 0 0 75 -5 0.354 -113

PASSAGEWAY 6 5 96 78 0 - - 0 0 0 70 0 - - 0

EQUIPMENT 8 390 0 390 0

PERSONNEL 9 265 335 600 0

LATENT HEAT SUBTOTAL 335 0

VOLUME = 1008 FT3

SHF = 4275 / 4610 = 0.93

SYMBOLS KEY

A = Boundary Area [ft2] U = Heat Transfer Coefficient [Btu/ft2/hr/F] 1 = Deck Over 6 = Inboard Bulkhead

QS = Heat Load, Sensible [Btu/hr] T = Space Design Temp. [F] 2 = Deck Under 7 = Lights

HEATING & COOLING

QL = Heat Load, Latent

QT = Heat Load, Total

[Btu/hr]

[Btu/hr]

TO = Temperature of

Adjacent Space / Outside

[F] 3 = Outboard Bulkhead / Shell

4 = Forward Bulkhead

8 = Equipment

9 = Personnel

LOAD CALCULATIONS

QW = Heat Load, Winter [Btu/hr] T = Temperature Difference [F] 5 = After Bulkhead 10 = Infiltration

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. OF

45

Figure 6-6: Sample Form, CASE 50

SPACE SPACE NO.

COOLING SEASON: T = __105__ F HEATING SEASON: T = __70__ F

LAUNDRY C-9

LOAD INSUL U U

ADJACENT COMPARTMENT A TO T QS QL QT TO T QW

KEY KEY COEFF DIR COEFF DIR

A/C CABIN 1 57 156 78 -27 0.23 -969 0 -969 70 0 - - -

ENG. STOREROOM 2 53 156 115 10 0.28 437 0 437 30 40 0.187 1167

SOLAR 3 63 96 125 20 0.11 211 0 211 0 70 0.09 605

CLEAN LINEN 4 5 104 105 0 - - 0 0 0 60 10 0.354 368

DECK CADET S.R. 5 6 104 78 -27 0.313 -879 0 -879 70 0 - - -

PASSAGEWAY 6 5 96 78 -27 0.376 -975 0 -975 70 0 - - -

EQUIPMENT 8 2730 2730 0

LATENT HEAT SUBTOTAL 0 0

SYMBOLS KEY

A = Boundary Area [ft2] U = Heat Transfer Coefficient [Btu/ft2/hr/F] 1 = Deck Over 6 = Inboard Bulkhead

QS = Heat Load, Sensible [Btu/hr] T = Space Design Temp. [F] 2 = Deck Under 7 = Lights

HEATING & COOLING

QL = Heat Load, Latent

QT = Heat Load, Total

[Btu/hr]

[Btu/hr]

TO = Temperature of

Adjacent Space / Outside

[F] 3 = Outboard Bulkhead / Shell

4 = Forward Bulkhead

8 = Equipment

9 = Personnel

LOAD CALCULATIONS

QW = Heat Load, Winter [Btu/hr] T = Temperature Difference [F] 5 = After Bulkhead 10 = Infiltration

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. OF

46

Figure 6-7: Psychrometric Chart

47

Figure 6-8: Cooling Analysis

SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS COIL SIZE QTY COIL ENTERING AIR TEMP COIL LEAVING AIR TEMP COIL FLOW TOTAL COIL LOAD

/ F DB / F WB / F DB / F WB GPM TONS

COIL NO.: FAN SIZE: FAN TOTAL PRESS.: IN. WG TOTAL AIR: CFM MIX TEMP: F DB

AIRSIDE P: IN. WG FAN MOTOR HP: HP FAN AIR: CFM REPL AIR: CFM REPL TEMP: F DB

FAN MOTOR HEAT: BTU/HR FAN BYPASS AIR: CFM RETURN AIR: CFM RETURN TEMP: F DB

SPACE NAME SPACE NO. SENSIBLE LATENT TOTAL SHF (Y/N) CFM/BTU AIR (CFM) (CFM)

NOTES:

COOLING

ANALYSIS

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

48

Figure 6-9: Heating Analysis

SYSTEM NO. FAN AIR: CFM TOTAL AIR: CFM T1 = SPACE DESIGN TEMP: F DB T4 = OFF-COIL TEMP: F DB

FAN BYPASS AIR: CFM REPL AIR: CFM T2 = REPL AIR TEMP: F DB T5 = LIGHT LOAD TEMP: F DB

RETURN AIR: CFM T1 = LIGHT LOAD MIX TEMP: F DB T6 = WINTER MIX TEMP: F DB

AIRFLOW (CFM) SPACE LOAD (BTU/HR) REQUIRED T (F) HEATER DATA

SPACE LIGHT LIGHT TIN TOUT PWR

COOL HEAT WINTER REHEAT

SPACE NAME NO. LOAD WINTER LOAD REHEAT CFM (F) (F) (kW) NO. REMARKS

NOTES:

HEATING

ANALYSIS

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

49

Figure 6-10: Supply System Analysis

SPACE (F) (BTU/HR) (CFM)

SPACE NAME NO. COOL HEAT COOL HEAT COOL HEAT REMARKS

NOTES:

SUPPLY SYSTEM

ANALYSIS

CALCULATED BY: HULL OR JOB NO.:

CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

50

Figure 6-11: Exhaust System Analysis

SPACE (F) (BTU/HR) (CFM)

SPACE NAME NO. COOL HEAT COOL HEAT COOL HEAT REMARKS

NOTES:

EXHAUST SYSTEM

ANALYSIS

CALCULATED BY: HULL OR JOB NO.:

CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

51

BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES

Technical and Research Bulletin No. 4-7, Thermal Insulation Report

52

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

General

Appendix A an example of the application of the criteria and procedures, recommended in the Bulletin.

Appendix A presents a discussion of psychrometric analysis which was not included in the body of the bulletin. This

analysis demonstrates the link between the air conditioning design requirements of a system to the chilled

water/refrigeration equipment performance. In addition, the psychrometric analysis accompanied with a psychrometric

chart provides a graphic representation of the air conditioning process.

The use of a Psychrometric chart is essential for air conditioning system design. The chart depicts dry air and moisture

properties at various temperatures. Relative humidity lines are noted on the chart which helps the designer in

determining system compliance with design requirements. Most important is the ease with which properties of air

stream mixtures can be determined. While several properties of air mixture (dry air and water moisture mixture) are

shown on the chart, only two properties are required to locate a point on the chart. Typically, dry and wet bulb

temperatures are used for this purpose. In addition to illustrating the air conditioning process, the cooling coils entering

air conditions can be determined. These conditions (dry and wet bulb temperatures of air entering the coil) are essential

inputs for sizing the coil.

Psychrometric charts used to only be constructed manually by HVAC designers. Currently, psychrometric softwares

offered by several companies are available to designers. The software is user friendly. Charts created with the software

are clear and more accurate than manually constructed charts.

The example considers two air conditioning system designs; PULL THROUGH AND PUSH THOUGH. The use of

each is dictated by the designers preference and often by space availability.

In a PULL THROUGH system, the fan is located downstream of the cooling coil. The fan motor heat increases the

temperature of the air leaving the coil, and as such, the system airflow has to be increased to accommodate the

temperature rise. The sketch below is a graphical presentation of a PULL THROUGH system.

53

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

In a PUSH THROUGH system, the fan is located upstream of the cooling coil. The fan motor heat increases the

temperature of the air entering the coil. In this type of system, the fan motor heat does not affect the system airflow.

The sketch below is a graphical presentation of a PULL THROUGH system.

In order to demonstrate the subtle difference between the two types of systems, the following items remain the same for

both systems:

2. Cooling and heating loads of the spaces served are the same for both systems

3. Required replenishment air of 990 CFM is the same for both systems

4. Same Off-coil temperature of 51.5/50.5 deg F (WB/DB) for both systems

5. Fan Motor Heat Load temperature rise of 3.0 deg F was used for both systems

6. Supply Duct Load temperature rise of 2.0 deg F (Section 4.3.1) is assumed for both systems

7. Return Path Load temperature of 5.0 deg F (Section 4.4.1 is assumed for both systems

8. Replenishment air is assumed to be preheated to 42 deg F in the heating season.

See Sheet No. 1 for Cooling Analysis

See Sheet No. 2 for system Psychrometric Chart

See Sheet No. 3 for Heating Analysis

See Sheet No. 4 for Cooling Analysis

See Sheet No. 5 for system Psychrometric Chart

See Sheet No. 6 for Heating Analysis

It should be noted that air conditioning loads for both systems is approximately the same, while the total required heating

load is exactly the same. For the convenience of the Bulletin user, a table of comparison was prepared to highlight the

subtle difference between design particulars of the two systems. See Table A-1 on the next page for the System Design

Comparison.

54

SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)

Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table A-1: System Design Comparison

ITEM PULL THROUGH PUSH THROUGH

Replenishment air 990 CFM 990 CFM

Replenishment air temp deg F 98.0 (95+3 for supply fan rise) 98.0 (95+3 for supply fan rise)

Off-coil temp DB/WB 51.5/50.5 51.5/50.5

Total spaces sensible heat ratio 0.82 0.82

Supply duct load 2.0 deg F 2.0 deg F

System relative humidity 42.2% 42.9%

Fan motor heat load 3.0 deg F downstream of coil 3.0 deg F upstream of coil

Total spaces sensible loads 92416 BTU/HR 92416 BTU/HR

Temp of air supply to spaces 56.5 deg F (51.5+2+3.0) 53.5 deg F (51.5+2)

System airflow 4000 CFM 3500 CFM

Return path load 5.0 deg F 5.0 deg F

Mix air temp (DB/WB) deg F 86.7/69.5 87.2/70.4

Coil entering (DB/WB) deg F 86.7/69.5 90.2/71.3

Air conditioning load 19.5 tons 19.0 tons

Winter mix 63.1 deg F 62.1 deg F

Total required heating 39.3 kW 39.3 kW

The difference in the air conditioning loads is attributed to the supply duct and the return path loads.

Because of the difference in airflows between the two systems, it is expected that these loads will be

different and as a result, there will be a small difference in the air conditioning loads.

55

SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS COIL SIZE QTY COIL ENTERING AIR TEMP COIL LEAVING AIR TEMP COIL FLOW TOTAL COIL LOAD

PULL THROUGH 86.7 / 69.5 F DB / F WB 51.5 / 50.5 F DB / F WB GPM 19.50 TONS

COIL NO.: FAN SIZE: FAN TOTAL PRESS.: IN. WG TOTAL AIR: 4000 CFM MIX TEMP: 86.7 F DB

AIRSIDE P: IN. WG FAN MOTOR HP: HP FAN AIR: 4000 CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM REPL TEMP: 98 F DB

FAN MOTOR HEAT: BTU/HR FAN BYPASS AIR: NONE CFM RETURN AIR: 3010 CFM RETURN TEMP: 83 F DB

SPACE NAME SPACE NO. SENSIBLE LATENT TOTAL SHF (Y/N) CFM/BTU AIR (CFM) (CFM)

Radio Room 8425 335 8760 0.96 N 0.04328 365 365

Inspectors Stateroom 2639 335 2974 0.89 N 0.04328 114 110

Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 2736 335 3071 0.89 N 0.04328 118 120

Chief Engineer Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.04328 143 145

Deck Officer Stateroom 2287 335 2622 0.87 N 0.04328 99 100

Masters Office 3127 1005 4132 0.76 N 0.04328 135 135

Masters Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.04328 143 145

Assistant Master Stateroom 2348 335 2683 0.88 N 0.04328 102 100

Officer Stateroom (1) 2420 335 2755 0.88 N 0.04328 105 105

Officer Stateroom (2) 2605 335 2940 0.89 N 0.04328 113 110

Officers Mess 4119 2190 6309 0.65 N 0.04328 178 180

Crew Mess 7945 5120 13065 0.61 N 0.04328 344 345

Lounge 4700 1340 6040 0.78 N 0.04328 203 200

Engine Department Stateroom (1) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.04328 121 120

Engine Department Stateroom (2) 2985 670 3655 0.82 N 0.04328 129 130

Deck Department Stateroom (1) 2914 670 3584 0.81 N 0.04328 126 130

Deck Department Stateroom (2) 4306 670 4976 0.87 N 0.04328 186 190

Deck Department Stateroom (3) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.04328 119 120

Deck Department Stateroom (4) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.04328 119 120

Deck Department Stateroom (5) 4036 670 4706 0.86 N 0.04328 175 175

Steward Department Stateroom (1) 2414 670 3084 0.78 N 0.04328 104 105

Steward Department Stateroom (2) 2638 670 3308 0.80 N 0.04328 114 110

Steward Department Stateroom (3) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.04328 121 120

Hospital 2389 670 3059 0.78 N 0.04328 103 100

Machinery Control Room 9683 335 10018 0.97 N 0.04328 419 420

NOTES:

1. Supply air temp = 51.5 + 3 deg fan rise + 2 deg supply duct rise = 56.5 deg F

COOLING

2. System airflow = total sensible load / (1.08 x (78 56.5) ANALYSIS

3. CFM/BTU = system airflow / total sensible load HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 1

56

57

SYSTEM NO. FAN AIR: CFM TOTAL AIR: CFM T1 = SPACE DESIGN TEMP: 70 F DB T4 = OFF-COIL TEMP: 51.5 F DB

FAN BYPASS AIR: N/A CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM T2 = REPL AIR TEMP: 42 F DB T5 = LIGHT LOAD TEMP: N/A F DB

PULL THROUGH

RETURN AIR: 3010 CFM T1 = LIGHT LOAD MIX TEMP: N/A F DB T6 = WINTER MIX TEMP: 63.1 F DB

AIRFLOW (CFM) SPACE LOAD (BTU/HR) REQUIRED T (F) HEATER DATA

SPACE LIGHT LIGHT TIN TOUT PWR

COOL HEAT WINTER REHEAT

SPACE NAME NO. LOAD WINTER LOAD REHEAT CFM (F) (F) (kW) NO. REMARKS

Radio Room 365 365 6314 N/A N/A 22.9 - - 365 63.1 86.0 2.65

Inspector Stateroom 110 110 3650 N/A N/A 37.7 - - 110 63.1 100.7 1.31

Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 120 120 2905 N/A N/A 29.3 - - 120 63.1 92.4 1.11

Chief Engineer Stateroom 145 145 3825 N/A N/A 31.4 - - 145 63.1 94.4 1.44

Deck Officer Stateroom 100 100 2808 N/A N/A 32.9 - - 100 63.1 96.0 1.04

Masters Office 135 135 2672 N/A N/A 25.3 - - 135 63.1 88.3 1.08

Masters Stateroom 145 145 3825 N/A N/A 31.4 - - 145 63.1 94.4 1.44

Assistant Master Stateroom 100 100 2678 N/A N/A 31.7 - - 100 63.1 94.8 1.00

Officer Stateroom (1) 105 105 2706 N/A N/A 30.8 - - 105 63.1 93.9 1.02

Officer Stateroom (2) 110 110 3456 N/A N/A 36.0 - - 110 63.1 99.1 1.25

Officers Mess 180 180 3126 N/A N/A 23.0 - - 180 63.1 86.1 1.31

Crew Mess 345 345 4911 N/A N/A 20.1 - - 345 63.1 83.2 2.20

Lounge 200 200 5687 N/A N/A 28.6 - - 200 63.1 91.7 1.81

Engine Dept Stateroom (1) 120 120 4374 N/A N/A 40.7 - - 120 63.1 103.8 1.55

Engine Dept Stateroom (2) 130 130 3860 N/A N/A 34.4 - - 130 63.1 97.5 1.42

Deck Dept Stateroom (1) 130 130 4019 N/A N/A 35.6 - - 130 63.1 98.6 1.46

Deck Dept Stateroom (2) 190 190 6005 N/A N/A 36.2 - - 190 63.1 99.3 2.18

Deck Dept Stateroom (3) 120 120 4001 N/A N/A 37.8 - - 120 63.1 100.9 1.44

Deck Dept Stateroom (4) 120 120 4001 N/A N/A 37.8 - - 120 63.1 100.9 1.44

Deck Dept Stateroom (5) 175 175 6005 N/A N/A 38.7 - - 175 63.1 101.8 2.14

Stew Dept Stateroom (1) 105 105 4019 N/A N/A 42.4 - - 105 63.1 105.4 1.41

Stew Dept Stateroom (2) 110 110 3709 N/A N/A 38.2 - - 110 63.1 101.2 1.33

Stew Dept Stateroom (3) 120 120 4375 N/A N/A 40.7 - - 120 63.1 103.8 1.55

Hospital 100 100 3756 N/A N/A 46.7 - - 100 63.1 109.8 1.48

Machinery Control Room 420 420 7884 N/A N/A 24.3 - - 420 63.1 87.4 3.23

NOTES:

1. Space temperature = 70 deg F for all spaces except Hospital

HEATING

2. Hospital space temperature = 75 deg F ANALYSIS

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 3

58

SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS COIL SIZE QTY COIL ENTERING AIR TEMP COIL LEAVING AIR TEMP COIL FLOW TOTAL COIL LOAD

PUSH THROUGH 90.2 / 71.3 F DB / F WB 51.5 / 50.5 F DB / F WB GPM 19.0 TONS

COIL NO.: FAN SIZE: FAN TOTAL PRESS.: IN. WG TOTAL AIR: 3500 CFM MIX TEMP: 87.2 F DB

AIRSIDE P: IN. WG FAN MOTOR HP: HP FAN AIR: 3500 CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM REPL TEMP: 98 F DB

FAN MOTOR HEAT: BTU/HR FAN BYPASS AIR: NONE CFM RETURN AIR: 2510 CFM RETURN TEMP: 83 F DB

SPACE NAME SPACE NO. SENSIBLE LATENT TOTAL SHF (Y/N) CFM/BTU AIR (CFM) (CFM)

Radio Room 8425 335 8760 0.96 N 0.03787 319 320

Inspectors Stateroom 2639 335 2974 0.89 N 0.03787 100 100

Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 2736 335 3071 0.89 N 0.03787 104 100

Chief Engineer Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.03787 125 125

Deck Officer Stateroom 2287 335 2622 0.87 N 0.03787 87 85

Masters Office 3127 1005 4132 0.76 N 0.03787 118 120

Masters Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.03787 125 125

Assistant Master Stateroom 2348 335 2683 0.88 N 0.03787 89 90

Officer Stateroom (1) 2420 335 2755 0.88 N 0.03787 92 90

Officer Stateroom (2) 2605 335 2940 0.89 N 0.03787 99 100

Officers Mess 4119 2190 6309 0.65 N 0.03787 156 155

Crew Mess 7945 5120 13065 0.61 N 0.03787 301 300

Lounge 4700 1340 6040 0.78 N 0.03787 178 180

Engine Department Stateroom (1) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.03787 106 110

Engine Department Stateroom (2) 2985 670 3655 0.82 N 0.03787 113 110

Deck Department Stateroom (1) 2914 670 3584 0.81 N 0.03787 110 110

Deck Department Stateroom (2) 4306 670 4976 0.87 N 0.03787 163 160

Deck Department Stateroom (3) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.03787 105 105

Deck Department Stateroom (4) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.03787 105 105

Deck Department Stateroom (5) 4036 670 4706 0.86 N 0.03787 153 150

Steward Department Stateroom (1) 2414 670 3084 0.78 N 0.03787 91 90

Steward Department Stateroom (2) 2638 670 3308 0.80 N 0.03787 100 100

Steward Department Stateroom (3) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.03787 106 110

Hospital 2389 670 3059 0.78 N 0.03787 90 90

Machinery Control Room 9683 335 10018 0.97 N 0.03787 367 370

NOTES:

1. Supply air temp = 51.5 + 2 deg supply duct rise = 53.5 deg F

COOLING

2. System airflow = total sensible load / (1.08 x (78 53.5) ANALYSIS

3. CFM/BTU = system airflow / total sensible load HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 4

59

60

SYSTEM NO. FAN AIR: 3500 CFM TOTAL AIR: 3500 CFM T1 = SPACE DESIGN TEMP: 70 F DB T4 = OFF-COIL TEMP: 51.5 F DB

FAN BYPASS AIR: NONE CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM T2 = REPL AIR TEMP: 42 F DB T5 = LIGHT LOAD TEMP: N/A F DB

PUSH THROUGH

RETURN AIR: 2510 CFM T1 = LIGHT LOAD MIX TEMP: N/A F DB T6 = WINTER MIX TEMP: 62.1 F DB

AIRFLOW (CFM) SPACE LOAD (BTU/HR) REQUIRED T (F) HEATER DATA

SPACE LIGHT LIGHT TIN TOUT PWR

COOL HEAT WINTER REHEAT

SPACE NAME NO. LOAD WINTER LOAD REHEAT CFM (F) (F) (kW) NO. REMARKS

Radio Room 320 320 6314 N/A N/A 26.2 - - 320 62.1 88.3 2.65

Inspector Stateroom 100 100 3650 N/A N/A 41.7 - - 100 62.1 103.8 1.32

Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 100 100 2905 N/A N/A 34.8 - - 100 62.1 96.9 1.10

Chief Engineer Stateroom 125 125 3825 N/A N/A 36.3 - - 125 62.1 98.3 1.43

Deck Officer Stateroom 85 85 2808 N/A N/A 38.5 - - 85 62.1 100.6 1.04

Masters Office 120 120 2672 N/A N/A 28.5 - - 120 62.1 90.6 1.08

Masters Stateroom 125 125 3825 N/A N/A 36.3 - - 125 62.1 98.3 1.43

Assistant Master Stateroom 90 90 2678 N/A N/A 35.5 - - 90 62.1 97.6 1.01

Officer Stateroom (1) 90 90 2706 N/A N/A 35.8 - - 90 62.1 97.8 1.02

Officer Stateroom (2) 100 100 3456 N/A N/A 39.9 - - 100 62.1 102.0 1.26

Officers Mess 155 155 3126 N/A N/A 26.6 - - 155 62.1 88.7 1.30

Crew Mess 300 300 4911 N/A N/A 23.1 - - 300 62.1 85.2 2.19

Lounge 180 180 5687 N/A N/A 32.0 - - 180 62.1 94.1 1.82

Engine Dept Stateroom (1) 110 110 4374 N/A N/A 44.7 - - 110 62.1 106.8 1.56

Engine Dept Stateroom (2) 110 110 3860 N/A N/A 40.4 - - 110 62.1 102.5 1.41

Deck Dept Stateroom (1) 110 110 4019 N/A N/A 41.7 - - 110 62.1 103.8 1.45

Deck Dept Stateroom (2) 160 160 6005 N/A N/A 42.7 - - 160 62.1 104.8 2.16

Deck Dept Stateroom (3) 105 105 4001 N/A N/A 43.2 - - 105 62.1 105.3 1.44

Deck Dept Stateroom (4) 105 105 4001 N/A N/A 43.2 - - 105 62.1 105.3 1.44

Deck Dept Stateroom (5) 150 150 6005 N/A N/A 45.0 - - 150 62.1 107.1 2.14

Stew Dept Stateroom (1) 90 90 4019 N/A N/A 49.3 - - 90 62.1 111.3 1.40

Stew Dept Stateroom (2) 100 100 3709 N/A N/A 42.3 - - 100 62.1 104.3 1.34

Stew Dept Stateroom (3) 110 110 4375 N/A N/A 44.7 - - 110 62.1 106.8 1.56

Hospital 90 90 3756 N/A N/A 51.6 - - 90 62.1 113.6 1.47

Machinery Control Room 370 370 7884 N/A N/A 27.6 - - 370 62.1 89.7 3.24

NOTES:

1. Space temperature = 70 deg F for all spaces except Hospital

HEATING

2. Hospital space temperature = 75 deg F ANALYSIS

HULL OR JOB NO.:

CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 6

61