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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES

2.1 Theoretical Framework

2.1.1 Morphology

Morphology is a part of Linguistics. It is a study of words. There are

some definitions of morphology based on some experts as follows:

John Lions (1968) says :

.morphology deals with the internal structure of

words

L. Bloomfield ( 1973) says:

By the morphology of a language we mean the

constructions in which bound forms appear among the

constituents.

H.A. Gleason ( 1970 ) says:

.morphology is the description of the more intimate

combinations of morphemes, roughly what are familiarly

called words.

Charles F. Hockett ( 1958 : 177) says:

Morphology includes the stock or segmental morpheme

and the ways in which words are built out of them.

From the definitions above we can conclude that Morphology is a branch

of Linguistics that studies the word form, the forming process of word and also its

changing in forms which creates the difference in function and meaning.

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Morphology, Phonology, Phonemics and Syntax are related each other.

However, based on the object of study each of them has different scope. The

object of Morphology is called Morpheme, the object of Phonology is sound, the

object of Phonemics is Phoneme, and the object of Syntax is sentence.

2.1.2 Morpheme

There are some definitions of Morpheme based on experts:

L. Bloomfield says in his book, Linguistics form which bears no partial

phonetic semantics resemblance to any other form is a simple form morpheme.

Charles F. Hockett says that Morphemes are the smallest individually meaningful

elements in the utterances of a language.

Then, Ramlan (1980:11) says,

Morpheme adalah bentuk yang paling kecil yang tidak


mempunyai bentuk lain sebagai unsurnya. (Morpheme
is the smallest element which cannot be divided into
any other forms.)

So we can conclude that Morpheme is the smallest element that cannot be

divided into several elements and has a meaning. All the based form is

Morpheme. In Linguistics we can find that Morpheme is classified into two: Free

Morpheme and Bound Morpheme. Free Morpheme is a morpheme that can stand

alone (independent) without bound morpheme. For example : run, read, far, etc.

While bound morpheme is a morpheme that cannot stand alone (dependent) but

have to attach to free morpheme. For example: Affixation: Prefix, Suffix, and

Infix.

In English, there are 10 prefixes : in-(adj), un- (adj), un-(verb), dis-(verb),

dis- (noun), dis-(adj), dis-(verb),re- (verb), ex-(noun), in- (noun). For example,

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the word discount in English has a new meaning as reduction in price after

being attached together. Discount derives from the combination of prefix /dis-/

and verb /count/. While in Gayonese the are 7 prefixes : /mu-/, /pe-/, /be-/, /ke-/,

/te-/, /i-/, and /se-/. For example, the word munyara derives from the combination

of prefix /mu-/ and /sara/ which means unite in English and menyatu in

Bahasa.

2.1.3 Word

Based on the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary(1995:1374), Word is

a sound or group of sounds that expresses a meaning and forms an independent

unite of a language. From the statement above, we can conclude that word is the

smallest free element or we can also say that every free element is a word. There

are some criterions that can be used to identify a word:

1. A word might consists of one free morpheme. For example : sick, sleep,

fall, etc. These are called simple words.

2. A word might consists of one free morpheme and minimum one bound

morpheme. For example: unlock, unreal, dismiss, etc. These are called

complex words.

3. A word might consists of one bound morpheme or more with one more

bound morpheme with it. From example : unbreakable, unfaithfully, etc.

These are also called complex words.

4. A word might consists of one free morpheme and one free morpheme or

one bound morpheme. For example in Bahasa we find the word:

matahari, hulubalang, syahbandar. These are called compound word.

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So, we can conclude that each basic form is morpheme but not every

morpheme can be classified as word and not all morphemes can be made into

basic form.

2.2 An Account on Morphological Process

According to Nida, Morphology is the study of morphemes and their

arrangements in forming words (1967 : 1). Charles F. Hockett, (1958 :177) says,

Morphology includes the stock or segmental morpheme and the ways in which

words are built out of them. Katamba (1994 : 3 ) says that morphology is study

of internal structure.

Then, Samsuri (1975:37) states: Suatu cara pembentukan kata-kata

dengan menghubungkan morfem yang satu dengan morfem yang lain.( The way

of words forming by relating one morpheme to another.)

From the explanation given above, it is clear that morphology is the study

of word forming which also distinguish a word from morpheme. For example the

word /recheck/ has two morphemes : /re-/ which is bound morpheme and check

which is free morpheme. /Re-/ is dependent morpheme and can not stand alone if

it is combined with other independent morpheme. So we can conclude that

morphological process is the process of morphological which includes the

Affixation (Prefixation, Suffixation, Infixation ) Circumfixation, Modification and

Reduplication. A morphological process is a means of changing a stem to adjust

its meaning to fit its syntactic and communicational context.

(http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAMorphologicalProces

s.htm).

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Most languages that are agglutinative in any way use suffixation. Some of

these languages also use prefixation and infixation. Very few languages use only

prefixation, and none employ only infixation or any of the other types of

morphological processes listed below. Affixation is the morphological process

whereby an affix is attached to a root or stem. Affixation is divided into three, as

follows:

1. Prefixation

Prefixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is


attached to the front of a root or stem. The kind of affix involved in this
process is called a prefix.

Example (English)

The prefix un- attaches to the front of the stem selfish to form the word
unselfish.

/un-/ + / selfish/ unselfish

2. Suffixation

Suffixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is


attached to the end of a stem. The kind of affix involved in this process is
called a suffix.

Example (English)

The past tense suffix -ed attaches to the end of the stem walk to form the
past tense verb walked.

/walk/ + /-ed/ walked

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3. Infixation

Infixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme attaches


within a root or stem. The kind of affix involved in this process is called an
infix.

Example: Philippines (Tagalog)

The focus marker -um- is a infix which is added after the first consonant of the
root.

bili: root buy

bumili: word bought

Other kinds of morphological process are as follows:

1. Circumfixation

Circumfixation is a morphological process whereby an affix made up of


two separate parts surrounds and attaches to a root or stem.

2. Modification

Modification is a morphological process which produces an alteration


within a root or stem.

Example (English)

The root man is modified when it it undergoes the pluralization that results
in the form men.

Source: Matthews 1991:136

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3. Reduplication

Reduplication is a morphological process in which a root or stem or part of it


is repeated.

Example (Ilocano, Philippines)

Singular Plural

pingan 'dish' pingpingan 'dishes'

talon 'field' taltalon 'fields'

In Gayonese, there are 3 kinds of morphological process: Prefixes, Infixes,

and Suffixes. Below are some examples for each of the Affixation in

Gayonese:

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No. Affixations No. Examples Meaning

1. Prefixes 1. /mu-/ /mu-/ + /nebang/ munebang Menebang

2. /pe-/ /pe-/ + /dabak/ pedabak penipu / pembohong

3. /be-/ /be-/ + /atur/ beratur Teratur

4. /ke-/ /ke-/ + / due/ kedue Kedua

5. /te-/ /te-/ + /remah/ teremah Terbawa

6. /i-/ . /i-/ + /perjak/ iperjak diinjak (pasif)

7. /se-/ /se-/ + /mtr / semtr satu meter

2. Infixes 1./-em-/ /-em-/ + /ralan/ remalan Berjalan

2. /-en-/ /-en-/ + /taring/ tenaring Peninggalan

3. Suffixes 1. /-an/, /-an/ + / uten/ anuten Hanyutkan


/-en/

2. /-i/, /-i/ + /muneram/ munerami Menerjangi

/-ni/

3. /-/, /-/ + /ijuel/ ijuel Dijualnya

/-ku/, /-ku/ + /ama/ amaku bapakku

/-mu/, /-mu/ + /baju/ bajumu bajumu

/-m/, /-m/ + /ine/ inem ibu kalian

/t/. /t/ + /umah/ umaht rumah kita

3. /-a/ /-a/ + /ama/ amaa bapak itu

4. /-ke/ /-ke/ + /ara/ arake adakah?

5. /- le/ /- le/ + /oya/ oyale Itulah

6. /-mi/ /-mi/ + /beluh/ beluhmi Pergilah

7. /-ph/ /-ph/ + /aku/ akuph Akupun

8. /-ne/ /-ne/ + /soboh/ sobohne subuh tadi

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2.3 A Brief Discussion of Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive Linguistics is the systematic comparison of two or more

languages, which its goal is to describe their similarities and differences. The

objective of the comparison may vary: language comparison is of great interest in

a theoretical as well as an applied perspective. It reveals what is general and what

is language specific and therefore it is important both for the understanding of

language in general and for the study of the individual languages compared. The

focus may be on general or on language specific features. The study may be

theoretical, without any immediate application, or it may be applied, i.e. carried

out for a specific purpose. The term 'contrastive linguistics', or 'contrastive

analysis', is especially associated with applied contrastive studies advocated as a

means of predicting and or explaining difficulties of second language learners

with a particular mother tongue in learning a particular target language.

(http://www.hf.uio.no/forskningsprosjekter/sprik/docs/ pdf/sj/johansson2.pdf. Feb,

02/2010).

Contrastive linguistics is a practice-oriented linguistics approach that seeks

to describe the differences and similarities between a pair of languages (hence it is

occasionally called "differential linguistics"). 'Contrastive linguistics' (CL) is

synonymous with 'contrastive analysis' (CA) but only the latter is a countable

noun. It is a form of comparative linguistics, related forms being 'comparative

diachronic linguistics' and 'synchronic linguistic typology'. Unique to

Comparative Linguistics is that its purview is limited to a pair of languages. There

is no requirement for the language pair to be in any way 'related'. The

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development of Contrastive analysis has been viewed from an applied to a

theoretical discipline.

Contrastive Analysis (CA) or Contrastive Linguistics (CL): "In the study

of foreign language learning, the identification of points of structural similarity

and difference between two languages. "Contrastive analysis was developed and

practiced in the 1950s and 1960s as application of structural linguistics to

language teaching". Contrastive Analysis a describing similarities and differences

among two or more languages at such levels as phonology, grammar, and

semantics. (http://www. lotsofessays.com/ viewpaper/1683824.html, Feb, 02

2010).

The study began in Central Europe before the Second World War and

developed afterwards in North America. In the United States in the late 1950s,

Robert Lado proposed contrastive analysis as a means of identifying areas of

difficulty for language learners, although already in 1945 Charles Fries had

formulated the theory. The earlier contrastive analysis research was language-

focused. During the pre-Chomsky an structuralism period, linguists examined

features of the native language which contrasted with features of the foreign

language, indicating that these would be areas most likely to cause difficulty for

foreign language learners.

By the early 1970s, this contrastive analysis theory had been to an extent

supplanted by error analysis, which examined not only the impact of transfer

errors but also those related to the target language, including overgeneralization

structural linguists, though, consider this analysis theoretically impossible,

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because each grammatical or phonological system has to be defined in terms of

the language for which it--and only it--has been developed. Transformational

generative grammars assume the existence of universals, so that, in theory at least,

a complete transformational grammar is already a potential contrastive analysis

with other languages. Before the writer is going further to analyses the contrast of

question word between English and Mandailing languages, it is worth to know

what contrastive study means.

Actually, contrastive linguistics has been related with comparative

linguistic. Contrastive linguistics is a language science that observes the non-

correspondences which consist in two or more language family and then

comparative linguistics intends to search the correspondences and non-

correspondences of the comparing languages, while contrastive analysis only

observes the non- correspondences, which are so different in two or more

languages. But the correspondences are not so important and they are regarded as

a general one. The similar is both of them doing a comparison between two or

more languages.

Contrastive linguistics is the study to find out the similarities and

differences between to different background language. The aim of this study is not

merely to find the similarities and dissimilarities only, but the more important

thing is to support the process of teaching and learning foreign language.

Ridwan.T.A(1998:17) says that contrastive analysis refers to

correspondences between aspects of language. In other books Naibaho Jawasi

(2006: 1) contrastive analysis is the method of analysis whereby the differences

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and similarities of two or more language (or sub-system of language) are made

explicit.

In accordance with the above idea, contrastive analysis is actually a

working procedure where the activity or the duty is trying to compare the first

language structure with the second language in order to identify the non-

correspondence of two languages. The non- correspondences of two languages in

the different language family that are got and produced by contrastive analysis can

be used as the reason in predicting the difficulties in learning the languages that

will be faced by the students, even for those who study language.

2.4 Previews Theory

In writing this thesis, the writer uses the some theories from books and

theses which are related to this topic.

First, Ridwan (1998:8) in An Introduction to Phonetics and Grouphemic.

This book explains about the definition and concept of Contrastive Analysis.

Some ideas are taken by the writer writing this thesis. For example, Ridwan states

that Analisis Kontrastif adalah suatu proses penganalisisan linguistic yang

berusaha mendeskripsikan, membuktikan, dan menguraikan perbedaan atau

persamaan aspek-aspek kebahasaan dari dua bahasa atau lebih yang

dibandingkan.

Second, Francis Katamba (1993) in Modern Linguistics: Morphology. This

book tells about the explanation of Morphology in general. The writer takes some

definitions in supporting this writing. Katamba says that an affix is a morpheme

which only occurs when attached to some other morpheme or morphemes such as

a root or stem or base.

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Third, Eugene A. Nida (1967) in Mrphology :The Desriptive Analysis of

Words. This book tells about the understanding of morphology in general. Some

definition and description of word taken from this book. According to Nida,

Morphology is the study of morphemes and their arrangements in forming words

(1967 : 1).

Fourth, Dardanila (1985) in Perbandingan Afiksasi Bahasa Gayo Dialek

Gayo LUT dengan Afiksasi Bahasa Indonesia. The writer takes the data from this

book which are related to this writing.

Fifth, Raykan (1986) in Suatu Analisis Kontrastif Afiksasi Bahasa Inggeris

dan Bahasa Banten. This thesis talks about the kontrastif beween English and

Bantenese in the use of prefix. Some data taken from this book especially the

English prefix data. For example, uncover derives from prefix /un-/ and /cover/

which means open.

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