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Saybolt Global Inspection Manual

BITUMEN (ASPHALT)

19.1. INTRODUCTION The level of the ullage (void space between the asphalt
and reference point) is then recorded and the volume is
Asphalt (or Bitumen) is a natural component of most derived from the calibration tables of the tanks which
petroleum. reflects the volume of asphalt at all levels of the ullage.
The crude petroleum is refined to separate the various
fractions and recover the asphalt. It is advisable to apply a film of lube oil or grease on the
metal rod of the gauging tape or sensor rod before taking
Asphalt has many uses, as it is a very strong cement, ullage/temperature. This is for easy cleaning.
easily adhesive, waterproof and durable. It is a plastic
substance that imparts controllable flexibility to mixtures. The temperature of the asphalt is also measured by means
of a thermo-fluke specially designed to record high
It is highly resistant to the actions of most acids, alkali's temperatures. The metal sensor rod is immersed in the
and salts. Although a solid or semi-solid at atmospheric asphalt until it covers approx. half of the rod and the
temperature, asphalt may be readily liquefied by applying temperature is read.
intense heat or by dissolving it in petroleum solvents.
The fluke consists of a sensor rod (approx 200cm long)
Almost all asphalts used in the world are refined from which is connected to a highly heat resistant wire that is
petroleum. This asphalt is produced in a variety of final attached to the temperature indicator which registers the
types of grades. temperature.
The semi-solid form known as asphalt cement, is the basic
material. The gross standard volume is calculated by using the VCF
from one of the following methods:
19.1.1. Some uses of asphalt 1. ASTM Table 55
Disinfectants, fence-post coatings, protection for tanks, 2. ASTM Standard D 4311 (also called Asphalt
wind and water corrosion control, roofing felts/coatings, Institute table (4-1)
airport runways, roads, highways, taxiways, flooring for 3. Asphalt Institute table (4-2)
buildings, crack fillers, acid-proof enamels, acid-resistant
coatings, anti-corrosive paints and many others. Items 1 and 2 will result in a VCF, which reduces the
volume to 15C.
Item 3 will result in a VCF, which reduces the volume to
19.1.2 Transporting of asphalt 60F.
1. 42 Gallon Steel Drums
2. Specially Designed Road tankers The quantity in weight or mass is calculated by
3. Dedicated Sea Barges multiplying the gross observed volume by the V.C.F. to
4. Specially Modified Sea tankers derive to the gross standard volume. The GSV is then
multiplied with the WCF from table 56 OR the density,
depending whether it is calculated in air or vacuum.
19.2. TERMINAL/INSTALLATION STORAGE AND
LOADING OPERATION OF ASPHALT These measurements are carried out before and after the
loading/discharge to ascertain the quantity
19.2.1. Shore operations delivered/received. Weights may be verified by draft
Asphalt is stored in specially insulated cylindrical surveys.
tanks and is constantly heated to a temperature range of
150-190 C. 19.2.2. Draft surveys
Locally draft surveys may be applied to establish the
This is to ensure that the asphalt is in constant liquid delivered or received quantities.
condition. Refer to chapter 20 for draft survey procedures.
Quantification of the asphalt in these tanks is based on
physical or remote gaugings (ullages). 19.2.3. Pipelines system for asphalt

Issued: May 01, 2002 Saybolt Inspection Support & Development Group Chapter 19, Page 1 of 3
Printed versions of this document are NOT controlled copies
Saybolt Global Inspection Manual

BITUMEN (ASPHALT)

Asphalt are loaded to barges or vessels by means of a at all times when sampling. It is also advised that
dedicated pipeline system which is well insulated and sampling is carried out with a partner.
constantly heated to maintain the liquidity of the asphalt.
Samples should also be contained in round sampling cans
These lines are constantly fully packed to accommodate with a big opening to allow for expansion. These cans
loading operations and for easy access of leakage should then be shut tight and handled carefully as they are
inspections. extremely hot.

The asphalt tanks and lines systems are usually close to


the berth area for maximum loading rate and minimum 19.4. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR HANDLING
back pressure which could cause solidification in pipeline OF ASPHALT
through faulty heating. 1. Never allow skin contact with asphalt.
2. When gauging asphalt tanks and sampling, full
The pipeline is connected to the vessel manifold through a personal protection equipment as stated above should be
well-insulated loading arm of approx. 8" in diameter. worn at all times.
3. When sampling, always inform terminal personnel for
19.2.4. Barges / vessel loading operations of assistance and only they, should handle the sampling
asphalt point valves.
Specially designed double-hulled dedicated vessels are 4. All gauging equipment should be immediately cleaned
chartered to load asphalt cargo. The hulls of these vessels after gauging asphalt.
are designed to withstand extensively heated asphalt 5. Do not inhale the asphalt fumes.
cargo. 6. If skin comes in contact with asphalt, wash it off
immediately with solvents and cold water.
These vessels are also fitted with special heating coils to 7. Always stay clear from manifold during loading /
maintain the liquidity of the asphalt. connection and disconnection of hoses.
8. If asphalt is splashed into eyes, wash off immediately
Methods of calculating the quantity onboard is similar to and report to medical officer as soon as possible.
the shore calculations. These vessels are usually equipped 9. Always work in pairs when gauging tanks and
with thermo sensors in the tanks to register average sampling asphalt cargo.
temperature of the asphalt cargo.

The vessel's pipelines and cargo pumps are also designed 19.5. TYPICAL QUALITY
specially to withstand extensive heated cargo for
maximum loading/discharge operations. Item Test Method Limits

Density at 25 deg C, KG/M3 ASTM D 70 1010-1050

19.3. SAMPLING OF ASPHALT Ductility At 25 Deg C , CM ASTM D 113 100 Minimum


Asphalt samples are drawn only from the sampling point
along the pipeline. The cargo in the tank is circulated Flash Point, COC, Deg C ASTM D 92 250 Minimum
through these lines and samples are drawn during the Penetration At 25 Deg C ,
circulation. 100g For 5S ASTM D 5 60-70

Softening Point
As the asphalt is extremely hot (approx. 160 C), safety
Ring And Ball, Deg C ASTM D 36 49-56
precautions have to be exercised.
Solubility In Trichloroethylene
Ensure that there is absolutely no skin contact with the Wt.Pct ASTM D 2042 99.5 Minimum
asphalt. Glass shields should be used as a barrier between Thin Film Oven Test
the sampler and the sampling point. Mass Change Loss On Heating
Wt.Pct ASTM D 1754 0.8 Maximum
Thick leather gloves and face shields, long-sleeved
overalls and safety boots should be worn by the sampler Retained Penetration As Pct

Issued: May 01, 2002 Saybolt Inspection Support & Development Group Chapter 19, Page 2 of 3
Printed versions of this document are NOT controlled copies
Saybolt Global Inspection Manual

BITUMEN (ASPHALT)

Of Original ASTM D 5 55 Min

Ductility Of Residue
At 25 Deg C, CM ASTM D 113 100 Min

Issued: May 01, 2002 Saybolt Inspection Support & Development Group Chapter 19, Page 3 of 3
Printed versions of this document are NOT controlled copies