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Reece ea eli eg HLS rereoem yy. ts r Os ey te Fundamental Chess Endings Karsten Miller and Frank Lamprecht Foreword by John Nunn AMBHT First published in the UK by Gambit Publications Ltd 2001 Reprinted 2002 Copyright © Karsten Miller and Frank Lamprecht 2001 The right of Karsten Miiller and Frank Lamprecht to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. This baok is sold subject to the condition that it shalt not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired ont or otherwise citculated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which itis published and without a similar condition inctading this condition being im- posed on the subsequent purchaser. A copy of the British Library Cataloguing in Publication data is available from the British Library. ISBN | 901983 536 DISTRIBUTION: Worldwide {except USA): Central Books Lid, 99 Wallis Rd, London £9 SLN. Tel +44 (0920 8986 4854 Fax +44 (0}20 8533 5821. E-mail. orders@Centralbaoks.com, USA: BHB Intemational, Inc., 41 Monroe Turnpike, Trumbull, CT 06611, USA, For all other enquiries (including a full list of afl Gambit Chess titles} please contact the publishers, Gambit Publications Lid, RO. Box 32640, London W14 OJIN, England. E-mail Murray @gambitchess. freeserve.cu.uk Or visit the GAMBIT web site at hutp:/Mwww.gambitbooks.com. Edited by Graham Burgess ‘Typeset by John Nunn Printed in Great Brtain by The Bath Press, Bath, Somerset 1098765432 Gambit Publications Ltd Managing Director; GM Murray Chandler Chess Director: GM John Nunn Editorial Director: FM Graham Burgess German Editor: WEM Petra Nunn Contents Foreword by John Nunn Preface Statistics Nunn Convention Other Signs, Symbols and Abbreviations 1 The Basic Mates Lt Kingand Queen vs King 12 Kingand Rook vs King 1.3 Kingand Two Bishops vs King 14 — King, Bishop and Knight vs King 15 — Kingand Two Knights vs King and Pawn 2 Pawn Endings 24 King +Pawn(s) vs King 2.2 Small Number of Pawns A) Pawnson the Same File B) Pawns on Adjacent Files Cc) Both Sides Have Passed Pawns D) Geometry of the Board E) King +’Two Pawns vs King + Pawn F) — Bahr's Rule G) — Fortresses 2.3 Pawnson One Wing 24 — Passed Pawns A) King vs Passed Pawns B) Protected Passed Pawn vs Two Passed Pawns ©) Protected Passed Pawn vs Passed Pawn. D) Outside Passed Pawn, E) Breakthroughs 25 PawnsonBotb Wings 2.6 Corresponding Squares 3 Knight Endings 34 Knight vs Pawns A) Knight ys Pawn B) Knight vs Twoor Three Pawns ) Knight and Pawn vs King D} —_Knightand Pawns vs Pawns Dl) NoPassed Pawns 58 58 58 61 65 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS Both Sides Have Passed Pawns Both Sides Have Several Pawns Knight vs Knight Knight + Pawn(s) vs Knight Knight + Pawns vs Knight + Pawn(s) Pawns on One Wing Pawn Races Outside Passed Pawn Positional Advantages Bishop Endings Bishop vs Pawns Bishop vs Pawn(s) Fortresses Wrong Rook's Pawn Pawns on One Wing ‘The Principle of One Diagonal Complicated Cases Same-Coloured Bishop Endings Bishop + Pawn(s) vs Bishop Pawns on One Wing Pawns on Both Wings important Motifs and Resources Opposite-Coloured Bishop Endings Bishop + Pawns vs Bishop Fortresses Siege Techniques Bishop vs Knight ‘The Side with the Bishop has the Advantage Bishop + Pawn(s) vs Knight Extra Pawn for the Bishop Fortresses ‘Open Positions Space Advantage / Active King ‘The Side with the Knight has the Advantage Knight+ Pawn(s) vs Bishop Extra Pawn for the Knight ‘Closed Positions ‘The Bishop-Pair ‘Two Bishops vs Two Knights ‘Two Bishops vs Bishop and Knight Rook Endings Rook vs Pawns Rook ys One Pawn Rook vs Two Pawns 93 93 93 100 102 103 107 HO ii Wea AS us 121 123 161 416i 161 164 BI) B2) oO D) 62 Ay Aly Ala) Alb) Ale) Ald) CONTENTS Connected Pawns Isolated Pawns Rook vs Three Pawns Rook and Pawns vs Pawns Rook ys Rook Rook and Pawn(s) vs Rook Rook and Pawn vs Rook Basics: Philidor and Lucena Position ‘The Defending King is Cut Off Along a File ‘The Defending King is Cut Off Along aRank Rook's Pawn, Ald1) King in Frontof its Pawn Ald2) Rook in Front of its Pawn Ald3) Other Situations A2) A2ap A2b) Ale) A2d) Ale) B) BH B2) 53) Rook and Two Pawns vs Rook Connected Pawns Isolated Pawns ‘Two Rooks’ Pawns Rook's and Bishop's Pawns Doubled Pawns Pawns on One Wing (no Passed Pawns) Rook and Pawn vs Rook and Pawn Rook and Two Pawns vs Rook and Pawn Rook and Three Pawns vs Rook and Two Pawns Rook and Four Pawns vs Rook and Three Pawas Pawn Races. One Side has a Passed Pawn Rook's Pawn Knight's Pawn Bishop's or Centre Pawn Pawns on Both Wings Positional Advantage Outside Passed Pawn Seventh Rank Active King Space Advantage Better Pawn-Structure Material Advantage Principles of Rook Endings Double-Rook Endings Positional Advantage / Seventh Heaven Material Advantage Defensive Resources Rook vs Minor Piece(s) Rook vs Knight Rook (+ Pawns) vs Knight Knight + Pawns vs Rook Rook + Pawn vs Knight+ Pawn Pawns on the Same File Pawns on Adjacent Files 164 168, 169 2 v7 W7 177 177 182 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS Passed Pawns Several Pawns on One Wing Pawns on Both Wings Rook vsBishop Rook (+ Pawns} vs Bishop Bishop + Pawns vs Rook Rook + Pawn vs Bishop + Pawn Pawns on the Same File Pawns on Adjacent Files Passed Pawns Several Pawns on One Wing Pawns on Both Wings Rook vs Knight and Bishop Rook and Minor Piece vs Rook (and Minor Piece) Rook and Knight vs Rook Rook and Bishop vs Rook Rook and Minor Piece vs Rook and Minor Piece Rook and Knight vs Rook and Knight Same-Coloured Bishops with One Pair of Rooks Opposite-Coloured Bishops with One Pair af Rooks Rook and Bishop vs Rook and Knight Queen Endings Queen vs Pawns Queen vs Queen Queen vs Queen (no pawns) Queen + Pawn(s) vs Queen Drawing Zones Exchange of Queens, Stalemate and Underpromotion Queen + Pawn(s} vs Queen + Pawn(s} Perpetual Check Far- Advanced Passed Pawn/ Active King Extra Pawn Pawn Races Further Queen Endings Queen vs One Minor Piece ‘Queen vs Rook Queen vs Rook (no pawns) Queen vs Rook-+ Pawn(s) Queen + Pawn(s} vs Rook + Pawn(s) Queen vs Two Minor Pieces Queen vs Two Knights ‘Queen vs Bishop and Knight Queen vs Two Bishops ‘Queen vs Rook and Minor Piece 313 313 5 31s 316 v6 321 321 324 327 330 aa 334 337 339 341 CONTENTS Queen vs Two Rooks ‘Queen vs Three Minor Pieces Queen and Minor Piece vs Queen Queen and Knight vs Queen ‘Queen and Bishop vs Queen ‘Queen and Minor Piece vs Queen and Minor Piece Endgame Strategy DoNot Rush Passed Pawns Must Be Pushed King Activity Mismatches ‘The Principle of Two Weaknesses Fight to the End Space Advantage General Endgame Principles Further Exercises Solutions to Exercises ‘Table of Computer Database Results Bibliography indexes index of Players Index of Composers N Foreword by John Nunn Everywhere one looks there are books about chess openings: "Win with the °, ‘Beating the ..’, “The Complete ,.”; the titles come one aftet another, One gains the impression that opening theory progresses at breakneck pace and that trying to master even part of itis practically a fulltime job, [n ‘contrast, endgame theory advances ara more sedate pace and readers may wonder what a new end- game encyclopaedia has to offer that is uot alteady in the classical works by Fine, Averbakh and ‘onhers, To answer this question, I must first mention the three main influences driving endgame the ory forwards, “The first is simply the inevitable expansion of any field of human knowledge with time, as each generation builds on the work of the last, Endgame theory as expounded by Averbslch was more ac- ‘curate and comprehensive than that of Fe, just as Fine was an advance over his predecessors ‘The second is of course the use of the. computer. The construction of af 5-man and many 6-man databases has removed a large element of doubt feom several arcas of endgame theory What was previously only guessed at can now be stated precisely, Finally, changes in the way chess is played, especially the introduction of faster time-timits, kas Ted toa greater emphasis on the practical side of endgame theory. Ikisnotenough to know that a po- sition is theoretically drawn; one also has to know the precise method of drawing it wath limited ‘ime cm the clock. Thus, there is an increased emphasts on concrete knowtedge, As ait example of liow endgame theory has evolved, Fine’s Basie Chess Endings (1942 fad thas to say about the ending WA vs W: “Thus is a draw untess White has 4 BP or centre P on the seventh rank supported by the King” Evcn before the days of the computer, Avechakh had cast doubt on this statement by showing that there were good winning chances even if dke king was not support- ing the pawn. He also showed that there sere mamy winning chatces with a kaght’s pawn on the seventh, and even in favourable cases with a rook’s pawn. However, Averbakh only analysed a few positions with the pawn further back, so the result of rost positions was still in doubt. Now the ‘computer has shown that this ending is almost always a win witha bishop's pawn or centre pawn, except if dhe defending king is infront of the pawn or has a chance to get in from of the pawn see p 319) As another example, Fine mentioned three poiats “so fundamental that they must always be bore wi mind”, and the first of these was that “without pawns ove mals be at least a Rook abead in ‘order tobe able to mate” He claimed shat the only exceptions to this rule were the cadings with two rooks against two minor pieces and four minor pieces against a queen (he apparently forget hus celsim that W vs 24-25 is "won most of the time”), However, we now knuw of a host af ather exeey- tions; for example, @ vs 28, 22 vs 4, H+ ys 28), Bek vs R40 with opposite-coloured bish- ‘ops, H+ v.28, ete (see pp. 406-6). Indeed, there are now so many exceptions that Fine’s "rute'is found waning However, there will probably be no semple replacement becausc the datzbases have revealed many paradoxes. For example, the only ending with wo minor pieces vs one minor piece. tobe generily wot is 22 vs ®, which perhaps seems natural enough in view of the power of the: two bishops on an almost empty board, But how does one then explain the fact that with W vs two minor pieces, the only combination of minor pieces whack genemlly dravrs is the two knights? Karsten Miller and Frank Lamprecht have incorporated these new crends jn endgame theory in their book. They have achieved an exceptional level of precision in thews coverage of the roost fone damental endgemes by usiag computer databases, In more complex endings, they have not ne- glected general advice but there is an ensphasis on the concrete atalysis that is essential for the rigours of contemporary chess. Readers have a feast abead of them, so itis tine for me fo finish and pass you over t0 Karsten, Frank and their siticom friends. Preface ‘The fascinating world of chess endings has been explored in several complete works before: the five- volume Averbakh series, the five-volume Excyclopaedia of Chess Endings, Chéron’s four volume work, Batsford Chess Endings and Fine's Basic Chess Endings. to name just a few. There are also many books devoted to specific piece distributions. Cur intention was therefore not to reinvent the wheel, but to connect the best from the past with the most suitable secent examples and research. We both have many years of experience as chess trainars and we can assure you that your en- gagement in endgame theory will soon repay itself. There are various seasons for this Fust, except for some new developments itt computer technology, endgame theaty is rather static, so what you Jearn wyll be useful throughout your chess career. Also, the number of precise pasitions that you need to know by heart is relayvely small and in many cases the knowledge of the general assess+ ment, win, draw o toss, is enough, Far more intportant is the understanding of some frequently- occurring themes and motifs that will guide you through the endgame jungle. These principles ‘won't just help you to inprove your endgame play, but they wil aiso strongly affeat your middte- game decisions and play, especially regarding the matter of pawn play and good or bad exchanges. ‘You will also improve your calculating abilities since in many endgame positions tt js necessary 10 Jook several moves ahead, while due to the timited material it is somewhat easies to stay on track than 19 a complex middiegame position, Fundamental Chess Endings is primarily conceived as a textbook and is divided into 12 chap- ters with exercises, We start with the basic mates and continue with chapters on all endings where each side bas at most one piece, plus sections on some of the most important endings with addi- tional pieces. The statistics (see page 1 Ly were only a rough guideline for the space we assigned tc particular endings For instance, we desoted a lot of space to Took endings as they occur most often in practice, and to pawn endings as they are fundamental for all other endings. Some endings with more pieces, such as double-rook endings or queen against two rooks, are also covered, and in Chapter 11 some generat endgame principtes are expiained using endings with more material AC ‘the end of each chapter or section, rules and principles for the specific ending are given. Study them caretully - you should know them by heart! A list of selected reference warks is also given in the same piace, A few words about how to work with the book: its certainly possible study the chapters tn an- other order than indicated, but the underlying endings should come first, since otherwise you might skip important rules oF definitions, Don't try to read the book too fast, as many postaons can't be understood just by a short look at the dragram and reading the 1ext, You will get the most out of the material by playing through the variations on a hoard or with a computer Also try hard tasolve the exercises, and don't become despondent if you have problems; even masters usually can't solve them in seconds! For the five-man and the pawn endings we used the Nunn Convention (page 13), Note that for these avsessments we ignore tbe 50-move rule, but we emphusize it when 1 has profound influence on the play, as in the endmg rook and bishop vs took (withaut pawns). Throughout the book, we bave used a player-centred approach, so a ¢-pawn on the seventh rank is on ¢7 if iis white and on 62 if it js black. Writing this book was no easy task, but fortunately it wasn'ta lonely ong efther. We would Itke to thank Georg vor Bulow, Martin Voigt, Christian Witelmi and Werner Mailer for udvive and proof-reading, and Rafael B. Andrist, Tim Bogan, Thies Henemaan and Christopher Lutz for pointing out inaccuracies in the first printing of Fundamental Chess Endings, Some material from section A2d on pp. 20414 and section 4 on pp. 304-5 originally appeared! in a modified form in the Endgame Corner column on the Chess Cafe website: thanks are due to Hanon W. Russell for 10 FUNDAMENTAL CRESS ENDINGS allowing us to use this material, We would also like to thank Edward Winter and John Emms. Spe- cial thanks go to ChessBase (without the endgarce tabilelases and the calculating power of the lat- est programs like Fritz 6 and Nimzo 8 we woutdn’t have dared to start this project!) and to Gambit Publications for the initial idea to write this book and a cooperative attitude throughout, Especially Graham Buegess and John Nunn did a marvellous job, just as with our first book Secrets af Pawn Endings ‘While careful work fas been done, some mistakes are unavoidable anc we offer thanks jn sd- vance for any comections by ourreaders. Finally, we have this dream that at some moment you will show your friend the beautiful queen sacrifice from the first round, hut immediately afterwards comes this splendid endgame petfor- ‘mance where you cutplayed your strong opponent from a completely level position! Karsten Milller, Frank Lamprecht Hiarsburg, August 2001 Statistics You don’t trust statistics? You are probably right, but these are based on a well-edited database that contains nearly 1.7 million games mainly from the last two decades. Our aima heve is te sce how of ten we can expect to geta particular type of ending in cur chess carver. There is no definate answer a5 we are talking about probabilities and the answer ntight also depend on your style and choice of ‘openings. However, some endings are certainly more likely to arise than others, ‘We searched for endings that were on the board for at least two half-moves (a very short time: just ane move by cach player). If you search for longer-lasting endgames the numbers drop rapidly, Let's take all rook endings from the database as an example: ig Quantity 142,488 HL S34 Here are the results for severel different types of ending. 111s worth noting the high numbers for Took + minor piece vs rook + minor piece (more than 15 percent of ail games) and rouk endings. Bishop + Knight vs King Pawa Endings King + Pawn vs King Knight vs Pawns Haught vs Kmght Bishop vs Pawns Bishop vs Bishop (Same Cotoury | 27, Bishop vs Bishop {Opposite Colour) Bishop vs Knight 55,476 (19,670 draws) vn 3.29 Rook vs Pawns £2,723, 075 Rook vs Rook 4 142,488 455,974 alraws} Rook + Pawn vs Rook 1giR 067 _[ Rook + Two Pawns vs Rook | 9,398 3.574 connected) Two Rooks vs Two Rooks 58211 Rook vs Knight Rook vs Bishop Rg FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS Rook + Knight vs Rook Rook + Bishop vs Rook 23,910 (467 without pawns; 418 draws} 29,785 (736 without pawns; 401 draws} Rook + Minor Piece vs Rook + Minor Piece 255,347 Queen vs Pawns 7,086 Queen vs Queen Queen + Pawn vs Ques Queen vs One Minor Piece Queen vs Rook Queer vs Two Minor Pieces Queer vs Rook + Minor Pieoe ‘Queen vs Two Rooks 6,769 (263 without pawns and 10 halt-moves; 2 draws) 1276 11637 Queen vs Three Minor Pieces Queen and Manor Piece vs Queen 239 15,128 Queen + Bishop vs Twa Rooks Only one without pawns! Source: ChessBuse, Mega Database 2001, 1,687,182 games Nunn Convention John Nunn introduced the following sysiem for move evaluations in his famous book Secrets of Rook Endings: 1 The only move that doesn’t change the evaluation of the position (if we ignore moves that, fead to a repetition). Thus, every move that leads to a position that has to be reached sf the defender plays appropriately gets an exclamation mack. The exception is that if there is ‘only oné legal move, it doesn't get an exclamation raark, u A particularly beautiful or hard-to-see exclamation-mark move. 7 Amove that changes the result of the position. Of course, the result can only be changed ina negative way. 22 An obvious or very unfortunate question-mmark move. 12 A move that makes one’s task easier or creates problems for the opponent. 2! A move that makes it casy for the opponent or canses oneself unnecessary difficulties, ‘We demonstrate the convention with the following stady: L.Ceoturini, 1856 Lakh ‘No exclamation mark as 1 S25 works in the same manner, 1..h6 2 f2+ Was 3 Re5t White has to bung about this position in any case, as ...2d6 has to be prevented. 3 8.447! £46!7 4 Rio Sb6 5 RdB+ Hob 6 Se7 Kh2!? and 7 eS is not possible. 3...2g3 4 eT! LbG 5 KAB+! eb 6 Mh4! Hh? 7 RI SS 8 ha7 8 ig] can be played first, so no exclamation mark, 8..,0069 RbBI Rel 1) Re5 La7 tl Ladd Budd 12 bw! Promotion to a queen is unique, because 12 b8R”” only reaches a drawn rook vs bishop ending {see Chapter 7), Important Note We have used the Nuno Convention throughout the anal ysis ifthe starting position of an example is afive-man endgame (which can he checked with tablebases) and in Chapter 2 (on pawn endings). If we apply it in other examples we give (NC) afjer the first move where we started to use it and itis valid for the whole venation from that point on, Other Signs and Symbols Move Assessments ‘When the Nunn Convention is not being used, the move-assessment symbols have the follewrng, more standard, meanings: 1 avery heautiful and strong move t a strong move {2 an interesting move 2 a dubious move 2 abad move 7 ablunder Other Symbols 4+ White is winning White és clearly better and should win White is a fide bit hetter but his advantage shoulda’t be enough fac a win “Tbe position is eqital or drawn Black is a litle bit hetter but his advantage shouldn't be enough for a win Black is clearly better and shoutd win Black is winning Cad xt to the diagrams we use the following symbals: ‘The position is considered with White to move ‘The position is considered with Black to move WB The position is considered both with White to move and with Black to move mez | Hw In the diagrams there are the following symbols: © — acritical square * — akey square marks, pertcularly in Chapter 2, the key squares so that qumbers can still be read Figures like Vor Ia mark the comesponding squares Below the diagrams you will find signs ltke +/. The sign in front of the slush gives the evatua- tion from White's point of view with White to move, white the sign after the slash is the evalaa- tion with Black 19 move from his point of view. Therefore: ‘f= means that White to move wins, while Black to move can draw, eo means that Black to move loses, and we do not discuss the position with White to move. Ic might be uninteresting for us ox meaningless (e.g., Black's king maigla be uv check), With the exercises itis different, Stars replace the signs, and they are located next to the diagram. They mean: * easy ** medium wee difficult weer very difficalt e999 exiremely difficult OTHER SIGNS AND SYMBOLS WS Thus: #9) means that White is to move in this difficult exercise. ‘7% means that itis a two-part exercise: with White to play it fs of medium difficulty, white the Black-to-play case is easy. ‘The following symbols are used in the move notation and the game references. + check ++ — double check x captures # checkmate Ch championstap Cht team championship Weh world championship Weht world team championship Ech European championship Echt European team championship BCC European Ciuos Cup Ct candidates event TZ interzonal event % zonal event OL olympiad fF junior event wom women's event mem memorial event spd tapidplay geme sim game from simultaneous display ady Advanced chess (human + computer} core. correspondence game 4-0 the game ends in a win for White ‘it the game ends ina draw 0.1 the game ends in a win for Black {n) nth match game {D} see next diagram Abbreviations (NC) Nunn Convention is used from this point onwards (PL) Frank Lamprecht (KM) Karsten Miller ECE Encyclopedia of Chess Endings (of the endgame type concerned) BCE Batsford Chess Endings ‘Av Averbakh (of the endgame type concemed) Inf 63. Informator 63 (etc.} CBM ChessBase Magazine NIC New in Chess Magazine 1 The Basic Mates ‘You must of course Have learned to mate with queen orreok in one of your first chess lessons, so you might want to skip the first wo sections of this chipter, but you might he able to mate more guckily sf you study them The most important mate here is the owe with knight and bishop, which might be unsolvable ‘with fimited time and knowledge (even grand masters have fulted wn overthe-board situa tions), In this chapter we consider’ Lt; King and Queen vs King Kingand Rook vs King King and Twe Bishops vs King 17 1 1 4 Vs King. Bishopand Knight vsKing 17 King and Two Kmghts va Ring and Paven 9 1.1 King and Queen vs King At first the black king js cut off along the Sth rank, 4.6 2 died ‘Then White's king approaches his enemy coumerpart, 2ke6 3Bd3 dG d Hed L0G Now as the white king has arrived, Black's king is driven further hack 4 sc6 3 deS did? 6 Who es 7 a? (and nor 7 sd67? stalemate} 7.8 6 edo Wek 9 Wie 7A. 5 Whee 3 Waa is one move faster: 5.. pawn would only lead to forress 4 10C (see page 97). in 2 31K, Black need not fear the advance of ‘White's h-pawn: 1 h3 Wh8 214 degS 3S eh8 4h6 ogB! (4. exh67? 5 WET + 1S wes gxho! ee L 4 wee oO ® “e 8 Be HY Black sticks to the comer, nothing can go verong: I gd ht (11879 Son? PT 3 pst Hie 4 g6 +-) 2 BET hh7! 3 gS Gs! 4 26 stalemate, PAWN ENDINGS 37 1 eT bg 2 ht GUS 3 g7+ 8 (3..h7 =) 4 tg6 1s stalemate, Black is lost if the position 1s shifted one file 10 the left or one rank down. The following position is no fortress, because the g-pawa is still on g§, Our discussion follows John Nunn’s analysis: a a, We ae x oan ae a wll ae ae” 232 Nunn, ‘Brains of the Earth’, Test 1, 999 Ast Not: 1 btS?SE71 2 ha p64! 3 hes Gel! at wee tg! 2 96 Sg8 = 14? SIT = Tons 1.87 2 GAS! +a 1...80H7 2 ESE +, 2Sgat 2 bp3? G7 3 dtd Geb =, 2. 2...96 3 G4! G17 4 BeS! We 5 bd +, Hf Black were to move in this postion he would he in mugzwang immediately. Therefore ‘White must lose a tempo by « clever manoeuvre! Sans! da? 3., ET 4 ba! Gy 5 a6! Wes 6 bE! + - 4..ig6 5 Gaga! 5 ga! Tiptoeing around gat Sc8N7 For S...deg8 6 dog4! + see the mam line 6 GtG Sigh 7 digd! gb 8 UE! GIT 9 est Sey 10 hat + tis amazing that White's king, which was 50 well placed in the centre on eS, had to go to h¢ in onder to secure the win! If Black is to move, he can hold on, but not by just hiding in the corner: 1_.def8! (1. weh7? 205 hs 3h g6 Sys 4 hal +2 GAs (2 SES S71 34 geet 4 hes Hel! =) 2..he7! 3 Sea Bat 4 Ed dG S ted Heb! 6 hd Sade! = 2.3 Pawns on One Wing If the pawns are blocked, the result depends on the activity of the kings, H.Rasmussen ~ O.Buch Lyngby 1974 White has to win the fight for the enuicaj squares of the bé-pawa. He only succeeds in this endeavour thanks 10 the smportant spare zempo b2-b3. To have more spare tempi than the ‘opponent is often a decisive element in pawn endings, 186 1 3? uses White's sj 1.47! 2 Bt6 aot 3 SAS! L.Ge6 2 3 de? 3 dee7! Opposition, 3.86 4 Bt Surrounding Black's king to gain access to the key squares, Thus method occurs very often and 1s therefore worth remembering 4.67 5 Gd7! a6 6 c6 Sa7 7 He! ‘Gae 8 Shs 1-0 If Black is to move, he draws because of the possible counteraltack against c4: 1,..ded6! (1.877 2 deft ded 3.31 dea7 4 U7! dds 5 ‘eB! encircling Black or winmng the race} 5.105 6Sd7 Sida 7 dice sc} 8 dxb61 dub} 9 b5t! +) 2 HAG aT! 3 Gt7 Gaol 4 Ged deSt Sha7 heddt 6 deb dxed! 7 bxbs! Ss 8 tempo too early! 38 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS The following construction of a stalemate cage is a very important defensive method: ena 0 M.Chigorin - $.Tarrasch Ostend 1905 In spite of the very active black king, White can draw: Lega? Nov 267 h5! —+; 1 BS? AOL —+; 1 grt? ext6! 2 Sigh Ged 3 hs G nF WE OL was dee gamey 3.cext5! 4 hb Ged? 5 doxh? bhS +, 1..de4 2 g61 ho 2.pxg6 3 fxg6! £5» 4 dop3 = ayo leads toa draw. 3 3, Finally, from 62 or b3 White ean reac the 2 or 3, hut Back has only one square PAWN ENDINGS 53 from which he can go to 2 and 3; £3 = 1. Sob2 and 3 get a | as well and White wins: 1 decd S2k4 2 eb3 GES 3 wh? Wis 4 eer! $3 5 Ld2! did 6 Ger! wed 7 Les! ds 8 dat hed 9 heal dexbd 10 dS! dic5 11 Ges! ba 12-d6! b3 13 7! b2 14 dBW BIW 15 We7+ hb 16 Wb+ +— Now we proceed to more complicated exam- ples, where extensive manoeuvring of the kings is necessary: j 4a tim Lasker and G-Reichhelm Chicago Tribune, 1904 The key squares are b5, x5 and b5. The shortest route between them for White ts c4- B3-(e2/e3)-(02/13}-g3-h4 and for Black bO-c7- (67148) (e7/e8)-(F7H66)-g6 tthe vertical {ines 1m the diagram mndicate thal the squares el-e3 correspond to the squares d7-d8 and that 12/03 coatesponds to e7ie8 and g3 to £6/E7). On the Kingside Black has more squares and we only number h4-=6= g6 If Black's king has arrived ‘on the kingside he bas the possibility of a ceun- terattack against the white f-pawn. so White can't simply go back and try agar, It js clear now that for the system on the queenside. the distance te the Kingside is of interest. The squares on the d-filé for White correspond 10 squares on the c-file for Black It follows: c4= 1 b7.d2=d—c8,c2=5 b8. The remaining squares on the befile and the first rank carry no new threats.and sono now numbers have to be introduced. The squares o21 the b-file have an additional ‘a’, because Black can defend oa the c-file and on the 4-file ac- cordingly Furthermore we have a7 = 2a and a& = 4a for Black, a1-a3 don’t get numbers as b7 and b8 would correspond to them. How dovs the play proceed in the system? ‘The defender (Black} has t move to the cor- responding square. Uf this isn't possible, the threat (at the moment occupation of bl =2 orb2 = 4) has to be parried. if Black iy t move, he. achieves this with 1...ceb7 or L..eb8. ‘The attacker (White} has to oceupy a corres sponding square or mave m such a way that the defender can't go to the corresponding square. The attacker should approach the key squares if possible, Lfnot, he should not move further away. ‘Thus, if it is White's turn to play, he shouid oc- cupy the corresponding square to a7: Leda! Not: } b2? sea8tt =, 1 stra2? db? 2 db? the? 3 dee3 Hh! 4 dad Gc7! 5 Bed kd? 6 df3 de? 7 tgs Bl7 BBs shes! =, LWT 2 Wel! We7 3 dal! a8 (0) i aeth = a a 8 ge . 4 det! The corresponding square b8 is out of reach for Black, so White comes closer, 4.8 5 ddd! ded 6 Weed! de? 7 ded3t B68 e3 + ‘White penetrates on the kingside. 2.63 shows Reichhelm’s version from the Chicago Tribune 1901, presumably constructed following, analysis of a game between Reicb- elm and Lasker, while Lasker had put the white king on a3 and the black king on a8 in the Man- chester Evening News 1901 ithe British Chess Magazine of November 1910 hay the white f- pawn on £5 and the black one on £6) In 1944, Chéron placed the f-pawas in another way 54 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS {white pawns on [2, £4 and £5 and a black ene on £6) in order wo avoid Black's kangside counter- play. ve ctl ee wo Pikoo4 Be: a a ee 2.64 (g8 = 3a) British Chess Magazine, 1892 ‘There is the obvious key square £4 with the pair of corresponding squares = 65. Ad ditionally, the threat of Winte playmg eS gives ns d4 = 2 = fo, (Note that we ignore the key squares d6 and d? in the diagram; they induce the corresponding squares ¢7-e7 and o8-e8, but although White can use them by | db2? dhgt! 2 Sb3 Bes! 3 Wd iB! 4 WHS, it doesn’: ae~ tually help him.) We proceed ta label d3 = 26 Then we mark e4, 3, e2. d2 and e2 = 4-8, witch correspond 9 £7, g7, h7, ho and hS re- spectively, For the ather squares, na new num- bershave to be introduced, Squares on the a-file are not numbered due to the possible counterat- tack against the e&-pawen, if White goes to the I-file, Black oan osealiate between g6 and h6, so the correspondence is not one-to-one. If Black ss to move, he can draw with esther 7. ‘White to play can win as follows. 1 bit Not; | b2? Gh}! 2Gh3 sgh! 3 ded wet 4 hdd Sei! =: | sha? dg7 2 Sibi ge = (B16? 3 Ge2! +), 1.87 2 Sel! dg6 3 ddl! Ses Now Black has no access to h7 and White proach; 4 die2! 4 sie1 2! @g6 and White ts not making prog- ress, 4.826 5 ded?! Shs 6 Het 6 8627! Gh sad White tas to go back aud try again. GQ6 7 GAR! FG 7..hg5 8 de3! Gg6 9 bra! Shs 10 ts te, 8 Sdst Sg6 9 eSt SIS (D} 9..dxeS-+ 10 dines! bt? 11 WtSt de? 12 dbaga! Gao 13 BIS +~. . wes wae me 1G exd6! f6 EE hed! eS 12 West ee 13 Sia ‘Chéron pointed out that the system of corre- sponding squares is symmetrical about the b8- 182 diagonal. We close out discussion with the follovang exercise: determine the key and corresponding squares it 2.26, 2.29 and in 2.53 before aod af ter 2.03, Solutions can be found, e.g,, in The Fi- nal Countdown (pos 71, 31-33 and 114 ~ this does not fit exactly, butis very surnilar to the at- ter 263 case} of in Secrets of Pawn Endings 12.08, 12.08 and A121). General Principles: Pawn Endings ‘These principles stould be applied carefully as chess is a concrete game and each situation has its own features, 1) ‘The king is a powerful unit. Activate itt 2) The material advantage of one pawn is often decisive. 3) A protected passed pawn is favourable. 4) An catside passed pawn deflects the op ponent’s king. 5) It js unfavourable to have many isolated pawns and pawn-isiands. PAWN ENDINGS By now you should be famthar with the fol- lowing concepts and expressions: opposition (distant, diagonal, virtual), mate fle, key squares, passed pawn (outside, protected, connected), square rule, majority, breakthrough, cugewang, reciprocal zagewang, corresponding squares, tnangulaton, encirclement, king-march, fight for tempi, liquidation of one wing, Always rermemiber that in pawn endings, the difference between a win, 1oss or draw is often just one careless king ox pawn move. Be alec! Reference works Encyclopaedia of Chess Endings (ECE), Pawn Endings volume, Belgrade 1982 Bauernendspiele (Av), Averbakh, Sportver- ag Berlin 1988 The Final Countdown, Hajenius and Van Riemsdyk, Cadogan 1997 Secrets of Pawm Endings (SoPE), K.Miller and 1 amproeht, GamhivEveryman 2000. Exercises (Solutions on pages 366-8) We offer a few words of advice before you start. ‘There are many ways to work with exercises. it is probably best to play the positions out with a ‘friend or a computer, take your me aver this Pawn endings are very sustable to train your calculating abjlines, $6 at Teast try to solve the easier ones (one OF two stars} in your head and analyse the others on the board. The method of exclusion (see 213A) might help you. Note that the mizin point of the exercise is not always the first move; there is often a later wick that neads to be detected! Anyway, before you read the solution, you should have reached an opin- ion about the final result and the expeeted main line. Most importantly, we hope that yos find the exercises enjoyable and stimulating. atte . oe es pol orate oe a White’s king bas penetrated a long way up the bord, Is Black lost? all seta a eet Oo | aaa It fooks pretty grim for Black as hts king ts very faraway from the action, Does Black have a way to defend? pen UAE. “a3 ‘The grandmaster with Black in this example thought that he had found a good defence when he simplified into this pawn ending. However, one of his students later proved lnm wrong, Can you do the same’ 56 FUNDAMENTAL CRESS ENDINGS oe ee ¥ . 2 @ a o 2 8 a Bo is Ak, aa ww ey oe 2 is White lost? B eee 2° was Sa fy & nike eae a eae How do you axsess this position? / meas a ae” es me ae ak. Reon ae Ek aee Be “ee eo in this top level game, Black found the way. to defend. Can you do the same? a a a Be w be a oem. © ana aeetata eee gee 8. Can White's extra pawn and more active king, be converted into victory? aoe -. ne E207 aaay 2 oer ee oe ‘The position fooks drawish, but Black has way to break through. Can you spot it? Polat am i aa BO MADRE) oo eae ae we oe a 2 8 a How should Biack’s protected passed c- pawn be neutralized? PAWN ENDINGS 5? 20 Be Bee Aa | | mae Cues Which is the correct method for White to draw? 3 Knight Endings Before we go into details, we should talk about some of the knight's characteristics We all know that the knight is somewhat slow. Even en an ‘open board, reaching a particular sqjuare from a comer can take up to six moves! Thus, the knight is not especially alept at fighting simal- taneously on both flanks. On the other hand, the knight is tricky. From your earliest chess expe- tiences you undoubtedky recall having lost your queen through a knight fork, while the knight often gains unexpected speed thanks to litle checks along its Way. Its influence ranges from eight squarcs when standing in the centre to a meagre two squares when in a comer. With ev- ery move, the knight changes its square colour and attacks a new set of squares, but it totally loses its direct infinence on all the squares pre- viously attacked; when forced to move. st can't maintain protection of 2 certaty pawn or square, Also, if can't protect a pawn that in tim pro- tects the knight. Finally, thé kaight is unable to lose a tempo, as it shvays needs an even number ‘of moves to get from one light square to an- other. Bearing these characteristics ia mind, let's start, Our subchapiers are: 34: Knight vs Pawns 58 3.2: Knight vs Kmght 16 3.1 Knight vs Pawns Now we discuss. A 2 Knight vs Pawn 58 B: KnightysTwoorThreePanns 61 €: Koightand Pawa vs King 63 D: Kmghtand Pawns vs Pawns 65 A) Knight vs Pawn This matertal balance 15 usually a draw, The knight faces most problems deakng with a rook’s pawn, hecaust ats mobility is restricted at the edge If the anight occupies the square direerly in front of the pawn, the position is alivays drawn (there is just one exception ~ sée 3.1925. 1b6 Deke! 2 Wh7 Odo! 3 WeF Dstt 4 @hé Da6? (D) 5 2c6 $07 Ac8r! =. AB! 6 Be? Da! = hite has made no progress and the knight ‘was busy all the time and could not sacrifice 1- self for the pawn, so even additional black pawns on g6 and h6 would not change the result. Chéron ascribes this defensive method to Philidor (see Chéron 783), KNIGHT ENDINGS The only exception is a rock's pawn on the seventh rank: in Be aS. ee 2 oon 8 is ae tt With White to move, Black's king arrives too late: 1 OT! dees 2 bxaBl! dhe6 3 b8 +, If Black is 10 move, he drava: 1..dee8t 2 HDT edb! 3 sexad dee7t stalemate. Jn some positions the knight is able to build a ‘barrier: 59 Chekhover, 1938 Black's king can't approach the kingside pawns since the whole ¢- are roined: 1..€b3 (NC; L.. 1.04 2Dedt 3 dubs =) 2nd te3 ga £4 4 Der! £3 5 Dddst = and Black loses his pawa, ‘You shoutd always remember thet the knight can get into severe trouble near the edge of the board: ‘The posiuan seems hopeless, but with Black to move, the bastier gains the tempo he needs: 1igd 2 eS (2 sf? eS = and Black reaches c7 in time; 2 Se? DeBr! =; 2 ded6 DeB+! =) 2.3 3 dedd a8 =. If White is to move, he wins with either £ $BE7 of 1 She, stepping around the minefield. Chekhover realized this theme in an attrac- tive study: += The knight is not only helpless itself, but even obstructs its own king: f a6! we? (t. 2c Zal! +-) 2 aT! + and Black can't preveat the pawa from queening. ‘The following practical example also dem- onstrates this theme (see diagram on following page): 1..£31 2 Qyxel 213 Ba3 18t O-1 60 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS USSR Ch {Odessa} 1974 The next two studies from Grigoriev present ‘amore agile picture of the knight. wa aoa oe N.Grigoriev, 1932 1Abat 1 403? hS! 2 Bid5+ deft 3 Hic? ha! 4 Des aegat +. 1.5 2 Debt Wed nets 2.43 BieS! 34 = G01), 3 Dastt hd 4 Beat h3 4, dOPS 5 Bed? deg 6 Uhodt 3 (6.8127 DeS! =) 7 De3t h2 8 DAelet =, SA\aI+1 ed 6 AMT +! DIZ 7 DbAt = 3.01) ‘Note that it doesn’t matter where Black's King starts in the original position; White always draws (exercise; prove it!), However, with the pawn on 15, White 1s very often fost. For example, if Black is to move, he wins by pushing hus pawn with 1..b5! +, N.Grigoriey, 1938 Black threatens ..,22c5, $0 the first move is forced: 1 Be7! seed 2 Det ‘The knight takes one step back, so it can re- tum with new speed viad6, Not 24262 bt +. ‘Note thal the diagonal ‘opposition’ soften yery dangerous for the knight. Though sceringly near, it needs at least three moves to give & kt 2.03 3 B64! whb4 4 Ded? b2 5 Bd2t =, 3 DEG! ddd 4 Dek! Hedy? 5 Det has 6 DeBe! 6 DS+? weS! 7 Gic7 b3! & Debs Wes —+. 6.82057 DEG! ddd & DeB b3 9 d6r be 9.52 10 @\bS4 edd 11 B03! = 16 Dede! deed 11 Dds! 2 12-Areat b1W 13 oss! Finally a fork secures the draw. If Black is to move, he wins wath 1.0205! ot. Grigoriev composed White to play and win studies with this material as well e.g., wied3. Ags, bieaS, Gat (64', $932) 1 gt Bnd 2 edt DeS+ 3 15! Db7 4 deeds There is one important case where the knight wins (see following diagram): ‘White’s king is poorly placed in front of its pawa, and has only «wo squares in which to breathe. Afier 1 dea8 yeB! White ts forced to ‘nail shut his own coffin: 2 a7 Zib6#t. ‘With Black to move it isa bit more difficult: 1,.b54! Only this wins. After 1...cS+? 2 dea nO 3 Wea? itis only a perpetual, which by the way KMGHT ENDINGS Of vee ass wo i ws nee at a emt a oe 8 eB a | ‘Stamma’s Mate uught be the only way for Black to save the game if White had some more pawns, 2 ha8 eB! 3.a7 Dest Note that you can never force a mate if the pawn 1s still on the fourth rank. However, the same idez can also work with several pawns; see Salvio 1634 (Av 385; wiet2, Qed; bieh2, &g6, 63) or Mendherm 1832 (Av 402, weft, Yf6; baht, Ae6, 4, ¢8, b3). The next example features Stamma’s Mate: cele oe es ee ae a oa sa a a a we al ean a” HEng- AHaik Hamburg 1984 1,208 2 a6 Le3 3 Hh?! ddd 4 bb72 £e7!? Much easier than 4,..$b6 5 a7 Sixa7! 6 ska8 067 Wb7 Sxc? + (see 1.06), $ hea8 DAG 6 cBW+ Sexc8 7 SxaT she7 8 ‘has Dek! 9 a7 Dhow B) Knight vs Two or Three Pawns Against iwo pawns, the knight usually draws: A.O’Kelly - G.Forintos Bordeaux 1964 The knight 1 far away and the connected passed pawns look menacing, but it is neverthe- ess a draw: 1 Fe Hdd 2 hel Hd33 Deo ‘The game in fact ended 3 @\a8? 24! 4 el boat Ol, 3.03 4 SET 4 Dg5? 225 Dh3 24! —~», 4..fg24 5 gl! the 6 QE44 shel 7 Dxgdi = Ic is important that the knight i on the right track. With the knight on bR or d8 White loses, ‘but with the knight on 8 it is a draw againt ” eascer = VMikhalewski St Petersburg 1 1999 62 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS If the pawns are not so far advanced, the co- operation between king and knight usually teads to a draw, as in the above diagram: ¥Sf3 Sc3 2 we? b4 2.05 3d Bb? 4 De3 4 5c? c3 6 Db4 Sb3 7 Dc? b4 8 xb4 =. 3Sd1 Sb2 4 Des b3 5 Dxeé 5 42? deal —+. 5..,eal 6 Ad4 b27 Ab3+! Not 7 @c2+? sea?! 8 Bb4+ b3t -+ and Black wins. Jn Sbea2 MaMa Duc to8 Qd2 Sal 9 de2 =, Now we discuss the situation with isolated pawns: 310 TZoltek - W.Kruszynski Polish Ch (Zielona Gora) 1974 The b-pawn is very dangerous, so-care is re- Not: | $d67 bal —+; 1 $162 D4! 2 Dxg6b3! 4; 1 Qa77 bd 2 Dies 2513 tb gal 4 sees 23! 2.85 3 d6 g4 4 Sc5 g3 5 wxbd 92.6 De2 32f7 PhS 4 Lt g5 § dts 24 6 kot heS7 Sc3 HhS 8 Sl2 Hh4 9 Sg? Ghd 10de3 Ses 11 Qb3 StS 12 Das wgs 13 2b3 Sts 14 Das shed 15 dexg ddd 16 ES Hed 17 Sc3 LbS 18 Qb3 wed 19 Ad2+ Hc3 20 we2 b3 21 Axb3 Sxb3 hs Without Black's g-pawn, | @d7 and | Deb followed by 2 @lc5 draw, but all other moves lose. The following grandmaster game features ar imeresting battle: manatee ee" a eg fis J Rector - J.Levitt Greested 1990 Hector managed to save himself by the skin of his teeth: 1 bf6 dopa 2 kes Toachieve the draw, the king and knight have to swap their duties. uh 3 shad ho 4 Ded! Now with White's king in the square of the a-pawn, his knight deals with the other rook’s wn. PELMES 5 DeSs! spd 6 Dealt te 6.83 7 Des! h2 8 DEL +! =. 7 BeSt Gy3 8 eat a3 9 eS! S310 BQe5+! Sed U1 Bet! Siz 12 Best wes 13 yest a2 14 db2! Sf3 15 DeS+! Hg3 16 Ded! $3.17 Desa! eth Against three pawns, the knight has much more difficulty. We again start with connected passed pawns (see following diagram). If the passed pawns have the support of the king and cross the middie of the board they usu- ally win: 's bas 1 £5+ dp? 2 g5 2.05 3 deed +~. 3det Do 3.34 4 hes +-. 416+ There is an altemative win by 4 hS Bd? 5 Bd5 SE7 6 h6 DES 7 Sed6 (7 26427 Dxg6! =) 7.8 8 26 +~. 4..Sg6 5 We5 DdT+ 6 Web BB+ 7 we7 ®h7 8 £7 Sg7 9 bS DEB 10 26 +- KNIGHT ENDINGS 63 Hf Black is to smove, he cam prevent the en- emy pawns from advancing to the fifth tank ina hroadl front: onDdS! 2 £5+ 2DhS+ dhG! (2.169 3 6 dege 4 5 Ze § Dgd QS hI +o} 3 deed EMGr 4 LS 4 BER DUS 5 hyd Dod 6 dha Sig?s =) 4. Eds § hed Ded 6 g5+ Hxh5 = ZuWRE6! 3 thes Dede 4 wa3 Or: 4 Sid Dd5+ =; 4 hed des Fh5 Ded a; 4 hdd Bers =, 4 DMI 5 ee? Beds 6 WI3 WeS 7S Ded 8 theS igs = (D) S a8 ©e e © ee se oe 8 a BATA Against three isolated pawas, the knight has a tough job (see following diagram). White draws with annoying checks, eventa- ally winning one of the pawns: 1 Bers { Deb+ dies 2Bes 2 Anc7? AI! 3 shed e! ~+) 2 .sbfS 3. Dh3 hed 4 Dei Gt 403 4 O.Panno - K.Vaganian Buenos Aires 1978 2ixh3 Wxhd 6 ed =) 5 Ah3+ WIS 6 red 57 Df2 04 8 xed = LAOES 2 Ge Hid 3 Dede wes 3. Geet 4 Ded WES 5 hed 3 6 Dees h27 AE2 c$ 8 Ht3 04 9 hg? des 10 dexh? eed 11 Bits 4 gd SiS 5 hd whys 6 Ddd 03 7 BY3+ hea 8 Det e2 9 dexhd (NC) 9.05 10 hI! ed 41 hig? hed 12 gd c3 13 dey! ed? 14 S12! Sbdl 15 Dg?! tae Due to 18.02 16 Hed+! Wea? 17 Dees sbxc2 18 dexe2! =, €) Knight and Pawn vs King As the knight doesn’t have enough horsepower to mate an his own, everything depends on the survival of the last paws. If the king proteets its pawn, there are no problems, since the pawn can advance to the seventh rank, whereupon the knight can, if necessary, make a waiting move to avoid stalemate. The exception is a rook’s pawn; then the knight is needed ta control the comer square. Hf the king 1s far away, the knight hras to protect the pawn until its king can come nto play. For these cases the following rate is useful: the knight should protect the passed pawn from behind. The dagramn on the follow- ang page explains why. ‘Although the knight as attacked, it can't be captured (note: this wouldn't be the case with, the Knight on c7 or b8) and so there is plenty of lime to activate the white king: 1Gb3 a7 1..ABxe5 2 aT) 4—. 64 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS 2-&b4 Vhs 3 Wed Wa? 4 WS Wad 5 WH ‘Wh8 6 Deb was 7 De7+ The knight must control the queening square, iteh® ‘White now mates in four moves: 8 a74 eS 9 a8W+ Ld? 10 Webs ded 11 ‘West ‘You should memorize this maze, ast would also work with, fr instance, a new-born black queen on fl. The next diagram shows the only exception (the knight could also be on 6 or 08): re ats The knight protects the pawn from behind, but due to stalemate White can’t wia, Shift the position to the right (or down the board) and it would be an easy win, Even if the knight protects the pawn from the front, the attacker might win the pawn ending: [te a A aa ed woe “oe 2 ‘@ @ we 31s 7 als MEuwe 1 Das! WeS 2 We?! hd 3 WES! sexad 4 eat bs 5 BdS! We7 6 West + (2.06) and White ocoupies a key square next move. ‘The chessboard’s special geometry 18 the key toastudy from Kuzmichev (ECE 2; wib2, bf, BM, Bab): 1 We3t Ne} 2 Wada! = If Black is to ‘move, he has a lot of winning op- ons, including 1. “$eS, but 1. a5? 2-4b3 only leads to.a deaw, ‘There is one more position worth noning: a 2 ie a a a “ “oe a x 3.46 = 5 a oS ‘The white king is jammed 1 the corner, ‘while Black's king must keep moving between 7 and ¢8. Since the knight can’t lose a tempo, ‘White can oniy win with Black to move 1...®e? 22ig3 eB 3 2¥5 Be7 4 Dds +—. If White is 10 move, he can achieve nothing. 3 gh ert 2 Os et BBE BT! 4 Bb KNIGHT ENDINGS D) Knight and Pawns vs Pawns From one of aur first chess tessons we know that the knight is worth three pawns, Unfocta- nately, this rule is not so useful here, as knight endings are all about concrete calculation. How- ever, some Key ideas occur again and again. Bur pies now are. ‘No Passed Pans 65 be Both Sides Have Passed Pawns 66 Da: Both SidesHave Several Pawns 67 D1) No Passed Pawns With blocked pawns the attacker always wins when the King protects its pawn (except for sotne very unfortunate cases; John Nunn gives wilic8, Sb5; b&a7, Sad, 4b6, when Black to move is even fosing). There is just one impor- tant elementary fortress: 3 wee ‘ee e a a 228 6 @ a we oe “J < a E.Lobron ~ .Blatny Erevan OL 1996 Luke Black ignores the knight and hides in the corner. 2DAS+ G8 35 dak Leb SH 5 Dd6 5 BMG Wic8?? 6 DIT Gas 7 Zibb! +. $..2xb6 6 daxb6 dea8! 7 27 (stalemate) Man" ‘The typical win with a blocked pair of pawns i illustrated m the next example (see following Giagreir): 1 ..@3d2+ 2 Bd5 (2 ddd AG 3 ded @gS +) 2..debd 3 eG Ded! (without his pawn Whate could draw with #5 now, but here everything is hopeless) 4 dd5 gS 0-1. With €6 protested, White recognizes that his last A.Lagovoi ~ PSkatchkov Si Petersburg Chigorin mem 1999 chance for an honotable resignation has come. Note that with his king on al instead of b4 Black would als win. since the white king nteds two moves each time oscillates between e7 und d5. while the black knight swings 10 4 and back to 25 mm one move, thus gainmg time for its king to approach, With hlocked rock's pawns this swing would be mpossibte. If the pawns are not yet blocked, the drawing chances increase: Be — atenonae matt 2 a me a 319 JBlackburne— Mtukertor London ({3) 1881 H White is to move, he can put Black in zag~ sewing: 1 Seta! gS Blocking the pawns. After 1_.dke4 White’s King reaches its pawn, winning shortly: 2 Ag? 66 FUNDAMENTAL CHESS ENDINGS B53 tg3 Ws 4 Bel He5 5 D+ +-, 2 ded! hed 3 od? 3 Dd dd 4 2F2 dg3 5 wed! wg? 6 wes Sia 3...dedd 4 Did shed 5 dee? etd 6 Did bog3 7 Wed! +, 4 hd3 OFS 5 Sedat Sts 6 hast ded F eS! In the game it was Black's move, which changes things substantially: L...@g3! put White in zugzwang and drew: 2 deel sb&3! 3 ded? Pe (3.82 is also playable) 4 @d3 WEF! 5 Sad BE4t and White conidn’t improve his position: 6 WAS txe3! 7 WeS! He! 8 EtG! (8 2572 even leads 10 a disaster: &...dg4! 9 S16 th5t —1) 8.GE3 9 ded? ES ‘Some positions are very difficult to win for the knight; e.g.: ame i atta ee oe ee a ‘ay ne ee ae 3.194, tH Son — Khorovets Tashkent 1978 L P51? DES) 2 b3 ed! 3 SEA Dek! 4 bgt Dyg2t 5 3 De3t 6 wea dat 7 $13 DES? 7...5902! was called for ~ see the game con- tinuanon, 8 er? White returns the favour. After 8 hed! Black can't release the knight: 8...de4 9 dogs! WeS lO shyt L6 (10.,.heo 11 gst =) 11 EHS! =, $..De3! 9 SE3 dea! 10 oa Dads 14 H3 DeT 12 Sed Sg6! 13 dys wedt 14 cxg6 ‘Bld! 0-1 The next example shows a typical winning procedure for the knight: A.Remon — R.Vera Havana Capablanca mem 1990 Black's pawns are safely blocked, which ives White alt the time in the world: 1 of3 2&7 (2 Ded? wed 3 Wed Wis 4 eda? {NC} 4..sbofal 5 hed3 (5 did shes! =) 5. sets! 6 wed Wet eS 3 gd Hed 4 Bos bed 5 gS heb (5.04 6 DhG +-) 6 LA dS 7 DiG+ aa 8 gd Sas 9 WeI Ges 1 Wed dd6 1 OG (1 E SeS deb 12 Ayxt7 dxf? 13 BaS! +) LL..@e6 12 BdS (Dj 1-0. 3.204, At this point Black resigned due to the com tinuation 12.86 13 24 Gd7 14 eS Se? 15 QdSe HeB 16 16 GB 17 De7 Ge 18 Axgs + D2) Both Sides Have Passed Pawns Usuaity the attacker's king should support lit passed pawn: