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Technical Information R&S® Network Scanner Network Scanner 1/16

Technical Information

Technical Information R&S® Network Scanner Network Scanner 1/16

R&S® Network Scanner

Technical Information R&S® Network Scanner Network Scanner 1/16
1. Network Scanner In mobile radio networks, it must be possible to obtain accurate information

1. Network Scanner

In mobile radio networks, it must be possible to obtain accurate information about the receiving conditions of a mobile unit at any place and any time. The radio network analyzer from Rohde & Schwarz provides outstanding performance independent of standards in a small unit. It meets the demands of network operators, regulatory authorities, railway carriers and infrastructure suppliers.

The measurement data is collected and statistically evaluated by the R&S® ROMES software from Rohde & Schwarz.

1.1 The necessaries

ROMES software from Rohde & Schwarz. 1.1 The necessaries • Measurement speed and accuracy are considerably

Measurement speed and accuracy are considerably higher than what mobile phones can deliver in order to represent the real physical nature

Mobile phones can only “see” what the base station tells them to see

o

Hidden neighborhoods

o

Pilot pollution and interference causes are not detectable

Limited channels/carriers (one carrier per mobile and SIM card)

Layer 1 and layer 2 decoding for better troubleshooting

Spectrum analysis provides detection of external interferences

No SIM card identification is required

o

No costs

o

No capacity is allocated

Failure of a mobile phone leads to data loss

Measurements are independent of mobile chipsets and provide unbiased reference data

Higher level and time accuracy compared to mobile phone-based measurements

o Calibration is possible

Use of only one unit for different networks and applications

Cheaper compared to many dedicated units

1.2 Features

General data

Frequency range: 80 MHz to 3 GHz

Bandwidth: 4 MHz

Resolution bandwidth: 10 kHz

FireWire IEEE 1394 interface

GPS PPS high-precision synchronization

Low-power consumption, typ. 8 W

Wide-range power supply 9 V to 18 V DC

Handy, portable and compact solution: 150 mm wide x 80 mm tall x 170 mm deep, and just 1.5 kg

WCDMA/CDMA2000® PN scanner

WCDMA/CDMA2000® PN scanner • All WCDMA bands (I to IX)/all CDMA frequencies • BCH demodulation and

All WCDMA bands (I to IX)/all CDMA frequencies

BCH demodulation and decoding of all SIBs (WCDMA)

2500

dynamic rake receivers

Sensitivity up to -122 dBm

Dynamic range up to 29 dB

GSM network scanner

All GSM bands

Sensitivity up to -112 dBm

Interference analysis (C/I, type, source, location)

Decoding of layer 3 “system information types 1 to 4” (e.g. ARFCN, NCC, BCC, CI, LAC, MNC, MCC)

CW power

Frequency range from 80 MHz to 3 GHz

Time or distance trigger (sampling rate: 1.6 ms in time triggered mode, 2 ms in distance triggered mode for single frequency mode)

Measurement in accordance with Lee criterion

Multitechnology & multiband

Channel power (average, peak, RMS)

Applicable for all GSM, WCDMA, CDMA, TETRA, WiMAX, broadcast and TV bands

WiMAX / LTE scanner

User-definable input frequency range from 30 MHz to 6 GHz

Two independent RF and signal processing paths, each with a bandwidth of 20 MHz

Integrated preselection for high intermodulation suppression while dynamic range is high

Support WiMAX IEEE 802.16e measurements together with the R&S®ROMES drive test software (R&S®TSMW-K28)

Support LTE measurement

I/Q baseband measurement with Gigabit interface (R&S®TSMW-K1)

Future-ready software-defined architecture

Integrated GPS

1.3

Benefits

Easy, time-saving and high-precision coverage measurements and network

optimization

Outstanding measurement performance (For comparison: WCDMA mobile: approx.

1000 ms/measurement)

o

WCDMA: up to 3 ms/measurement (PN scan)

o

CDMA: up to 100 ms/measurement (PN scan)

o

GSM: up to 12.5 ms/channel (demodulation of sys. types)

o

CW: up to 1.6 ms/measurement (20 channels parallel)

• One hardware platform for different technologies (GSM, CDMA2000®, WCDMA, CW-Power 80 MHz – 3

One hardware platform for different technologies (GSM, CDMA2000®, WCDMA, CW-Power 80 MHz – 3 GHz, WiMAX, LTE), Frequency range: 80 MHz up to 3/6 GHz

Easy means of competitive analysis without SIM card identification, e.g. for four or more network operators (benchmarking) in one drive

o Twelve carriers for PN scanning simultaneously possible

Indication of interference/pilot pollution problems

Base station/Cell troubleshooting and maintenance

Site finder for new base stations (test transmitter required)

Ideal for high-speed measurements on railways, for example

o All 19 GSM-R channels simultaneously at 180 km/h with 10 cm measurement distance

Internal distance trigger (CW power) for uniform coverage measurements

RF tracking as slave during CW power measurements

Indoor measurements possible: backpack solution

EMF measurement with the R&S® TSMU-H

1.4 Test Mobile vs. Scanner

 

Test Mobile

Scanner

Frequency limitation

-

++

Band limitation

O

++

Operator limitation

-

++

Operating charges

-

++

QoS

++

O

End-to-end

++

O

Coverage

+

++

Accuracy

-

++

Speed

-

++

1.5 The Solutions

1.5.1 Basic configuration

Rohde & Schwarz receiver (e.g. R&S® TSMU)

GPS

Notebook

R&S® ROMES software

& Schwarz receiver (e.g. R&S® TSMU) • GPS • Notebook • R&S® ROMES software Network Scanner

1.5.2 Indoor configuration

R&S® TSMx / R&S® TSM-DVB receiver

Battery pack and charger

2 mobile phones

GPS

Notebook

R&S® ROMES software

Backpack

• Notebook • R&S® ROMES software • Backpack 1.5.3 Portable configuration • R&S® TSMx receiver

1.5.3 Portable configuration

R&S® TSMx receiver

Up to 4 mobile phones

GPS

Notebook

R&S® ROMES software

Robust suitcase

Notebook • R&S® ROMES software • Robust suitcase 1.5.4 Vehicle-mounted configuration • Rohde & Schwarz
Notebook • R&S® ROMES software • Robust suitcase 1.5.4 Vehicle-mounted configuration • Rohde & Schwarz

1.5.4 Vehicle-mounted configuration

Rohde & Schwarz receiver

Uninterruptible power supply system with separate battery

Up to 16 mobile phones

GPS

R&S® ROMES software

19" rackmount

2.

Applications

2.1 Transmitter Scan

2. Applications 2.1 Transmitter Scan The GSM Network Scanner allows measurement and demodulation on multiple GSM
2. Applications 2.1 Transmitter Scan The GSM Network Scanner allows measurement and demodulation on multiple GSM

The GSM Network Scanner allows measurement and demodulation on multiple GSM bands in parallel. Selected channels or bands will be defined in the measurement configuration, together with the scanning speed

measurement configuration, together with the scanning speed The NWS Transmitter Scan View shows the currently detected

The NWS Transmitter Scan View shows the currently detected signals with:

· ARFCN

· Code Power of BCCH

· BSIC

· CI

· LAC

· MNC

· MCC · T(MEAS) = Total Time since first reception of signal · T (TDMA)

· MCC

· T(MEAS) = Total Time since first reception of signal

· T (TDMA) = TDMA Frame Offset

· Frame Number FN

This view is continuously updated with the measurement data and can be configured in many ways for optimum display of the signals.

2.2

Benchmarking

The GSM NWS Top N View displays the properties of the signals from the base transceiver stations that are elements of the Top N Pools defined in the driver configuration menu. A Top N Pool contains up to N BSICs with specific characteristics providing the strongest synchronization channel P(SCH) level at a given position and time

channel P(SCH) level at a given position and time 2.3 2G/3G BCH Demodulation & BTS Position

2.3 2G/3G BCH Demodulation & BTS Position Estimation

Communication with seamless coverage and without interference, reliable data transmission at an acceptable speed – these and many other quality criteria are decisive for the success of a mobile radio network on the market. To enable network operators to provide the required quality -- and thus be commercially successful. Rohde & Schwarz offers with it’s coverage systems professional solutions for all state of the art technologies. The Software ROMES controls the devices for the data acquisition and is used for data evaluation.

2.3.1 Features of 2G/3G BCH Demodulation and BTS Position Estimation • Detailed analysis of System
2.3.1 Features of 2G/3G BCH Demodulation and BTS Position Estimation • Detailed analysis of System

2.3.1

Features of 2G/3G BCH Demodulation and BTS Position Estimation

Detailed analysis of System Information S1 – S19 without a test mobile

No SIM card is necessary for authorization to network

Parallel measurement in appropriate and competitive networks

Fast scan with up to 50 meas. / sec for a complete scan

Usable for all GSM and UMTS bands

Automatic BTS localization

Creation and export of BTS list

On-line control of measurement activities by ROMES

Evaluation by Replay function of ROMES

2.3.2

Benefits

2.3.2.1 Benefits of 2G/3G Demodulator

2G/3G network analysis without using a test mobile

Independent of test mobile with different net performance

Reference system with high performance

No SIM card needed

Easy benchmark tests of net performance e.g. all bands WCDMA, CDMA, CDMA2000, GSM

Only one Drive Test Scanner TSMQ for parallel measurements in all bands needed e.g. for 5 operators 5 test mobiles would be needed

Small, compact test system for mobile applications

Easy to operate – time saving

2.3.2.1 Benefits of BTS Position Estimation

Computes the geographical coordinates of GSM Transmitter stations by a special algorithm using BCH Demodulation data and timing information.

Fast and easy creation of BTS list in unknown area

Detection and localization of interfering Base Stations

• Just driving • Automatic BTS list generation • Marginal equipment costs (just Scanner and

Just driving

Automatic BTS list generation

Marginal equipment costs (just Scanner and GPS is required)

Marginal equipment costs (just Scanner and GPS is required) Map display of all decoded and localized

Map display of all decoded and localized GSM transmitters

Map display of all decoded and localized GSM transmitters Map display of localized GSM transmitters from

Map display of localized GSM transmitters from network operator A

of localized GSM transmitters from network operator A Map display of localized GSM transmitters from network

Map display of localized GSM transmitters from network operator B

Map display of localized GSM transmitters from network operator C 2.4 Interference Analysis Interference in
Map display of localized GSM transmitters from network operator C 2.4 Interference Analysis Interference in

Map display of localized GSM transmitters from network operator C

2.4 Interference Analysis

Interference in Mobile Networks is most common and can only hardly be analyzed with regular network engineering measures. The continuous installation and reconfiguration of base stations – always under time pressure – is a major challenge for Frequency Planning. Very often does the missing synchronization between Network Planning and Network Operation lead to inconsistent data and parameter settings for the base stations. Other factors for interference are undue frequency or power settings, including one’s own or those of neighboring countries. Close to borders, interference gains an even higher mportance.

Interference

in Mobile Networks

is either Co-Channel, Adjacent Channel or Traffic

Channel Interference, or external sources like spurious emissions or intermodulation.

Function of the GSM Interference Analyzer: The defined ARFCN channels to participate in the analysis are scanned with up to 80 channels per second, including Cell Identity (CI) demodulation. All measured date is referenced with time stamp and geographic position. No SIM card needs to be used for this measurement, as the scanner works only passively. In case there are more than one BCCH on one ARFCN, those will be identified and displayed as different co-channel signals by their CI.

Interference Analysis is done in 5 steps:

1. The Test Mobile makes an endless call. RxLev, RxQual and, if available, C/I from the

mobile are continuously monitored.

2. If one or more thresholds of those are exceeded,

situation and triggers the analysis process.

the analyzer suspects an

interference

3. Determination of potential interferers by comparison of the current SC with all entries in

the Base Station Database comprising the same or an adjacent ARFCN, that lie in a certain radius around the measurement location (e.g. 35 km).

4. Synchronization

Database information, by comparison of measured CI and the listed CIs from the database.

of

the

network

scanner

measurement

data

and

the

Base

Station

5. List display of the results. The Frequency Reuse Event List View list all events

5. List display of the results. The Frequency Reuse Event List View list all events during interference analysis. Timestamp, details of the interference event, description of the serving cell, Channel / Frequency Hopping, C/I Value from the Test Mobile (if available), and the very Test Mobile triggering the interference analysis.

the very Test Mobile triggering the interference analysis. 2.5 2G/3G Handover & Neighborhood Analyzer This system

2.5 2G/3G Handover & Neighborhood Analyzer

This system compares the configured neighbours as seen by a mobile and the GSM BTS database (the planned situation) with the TopN calculations of the GSM NWS results (the measured situation). Normally it will be expected that the serving cell and the configured neighbours shall be in the TopN list of strongest stations.

Any differences (missing neighbours) can be used for optimization of the neighbour configuration.

The GSM Neighbourhood Analyser is the internal components which uses information from three sources:

• Measurement results from the GSM Network Scanner

• Measurement results from GSM test mobiles in dedicated mode

• Configuration information from the GSM BTS database

The results of the analysis are shown in three areas:

1. Upper events list showing missing neighbours as pairs (MN – SC) This list shows two types of events:

a) symbolized by two towers is where a neighbour cell is in the top N,

a) symbolized by two towers is where a neighbour cell is in the top N, which is not a

neighbour of another top N member (normally all TopN members should be mutually

neighbours)

(normally all TopN members should be mutually neighbours) b) symbolized by a tower and a mobile

b) symbolized by a tower and a mobile is where there is a top N member which is not a

neighbour of the serving cell as defined by the mobile. Each event condition can happen several times, each time the length and duration is recorded and shown in sub items of the main entry. The main entry shows the sum of the sub items.

2. Lower left Serving Cell list

This list shows a statistic how many of the configured neighbours of a serving cell where actually measured by the GSM NWS and what was the shortest distance to the serving cell. The list is sorted from the worst case (red) to the best case (green).

3. Lower right neighbours list

This list is valid for the selected serving cell on the left. It shows in detail the measurement

results for the neighbours. For P min und P max also the [power] of the serving cell at the location of the min or max measurement is displayed.

2.5 3G Network Tuning with Network Scanner

System Configuration sample

measurement is displayed. 2.5 3G Network Tuning with Network Scanner System Configuration sample Network Scanner 12/16

The basic measurements of scanner are:

The basic measurements of scanner are: • CPICH_RSCP (received signal code power) • CPICH_Ec/No (received energy

• CPICH_RSCP (received signal code power)

• CPICH_Ec/No (received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band)

• RSSI (received signal strength indicator)

The scanner will be used to achieve:

• Crossed feeder issues (DL)

• Coverage verification

• Interference problems (overshooting cell, pilot pollution)

• Missing neighbours

Coverage Verification. Network scanner with high sensitive receiver is used to detect the coverage area. It will measure the P-CPICH RSCP and P-CPICH Ec/No to figure out the coverage.

Coverage level

RSCP [dBm]

Ec/N0 [dB]

Sufficient

RSCP ≥ −100

Ec/N0 ≥ −14

Poor

115 RSCP <100

16 Ec/N0 < 14

No coverage

RSCP < 115

Ec/N0 <16

Best server signal strength (RSCP)

No coverage RSCP < − 115 Ec/N0 < − 16 Best server signal strength (RSCP) Network

Pilot Ec/No Measurements

Pilot Ec/No Measurements Interference . By correlating low Ec/No with high RSCP ( RSCP > -90
Pilot Ec/No Measurements Interference . By correlating low Ec/No with high RSCP ( RSCP > -90

Interference. By correlating low Ec/No with high RSCP (RSCP > -90 dBm AND Ec/No < -9 dB), areas with high interference can be detected

Potential Inteference
Potential
Inteference
Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – OVERSHOOTING Network Scanner 15/16
Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – OVERSHOOTING Network Scanner 15/16

Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – OVERSHOOTING

Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – OVERSHOOTING Network Scanner 15/16
Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – PILOT POLLUTION : High CPICH reception levels from many

Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – PILOT POLLUTION: High CPICH reception levels from many Cells, (more than MAX_ACTIVE_SET)

E c

N 0

E c

N 0

serving

size

Pilot count(

threshold

) >

AS

0 E c N 0 serving size Pilot count ( ≥ − threshold ) > AS