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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr.

2/2011

IMPORTANA RELAIILOR DE THE IMPORTANCE OF CREDIT


CREDIT, I A SERVICIILOR BANCARE RELATIONS AND BANKING
PENTRU RECUPERAREA SERVICES FOR RECOVERY OF
CREDITELOR RESTANTE OUTSTANDING LOANS

Medar Lucian-Ion,
Medar Lucian-Ion, Professor, Department of Accounting and
Profesor, Facultatea de Contabilitate i Management Information Systems,
Informatic de Gestiune, Universitatea Constantin Brancusi University, Targu
Constantin Brncui, Trgu Jiu, Romnia Jiu, Romania

ABSTRACT : n relaiile de credit privind schimbul ABSTRACT: In the credit relations, on the current
unei valori monetare actuale contra unei valori monetare monetary exchange value against a future monetary
viitoare se ine cont att de costul sursei ct i de toate values, it take into account the source cost and all
sumele care se adaug pentru formarea preului. Prin amounts that are added to the price formation. The
preul creditului care se acord clientelei bancare se credit price, paid by the customers, cover all the risks
acoper toate riscurile determinate de inflaie i ali caused by inflation and other factors that eroding
factori ce erodeaz capitalul bancar. bank capital.
n fluxurile bancare relaiile de credit sunt In banking flows credit relations are the
suportul schimbului unei valori actuale, contra unei support of exchange a current values against a future
valori monetare viitoare. Afacerile bancare au un anumit monetary values. Banking businesses have a specific
pre numit dobnd sau comision. Prin preul creditului price called interest or fee. By the price of credit,
care se pltete de clientela bancar se acoper toate which is payable by the customer, bank shall cover
riscurile determinate de inflaie i ali factori ce all risks arising from inflation and other factors that
erodeaz capitalul bancar. eroded bank capital.

1. Credit relations and banking services in the


1. Relaiile de credit i serviciul bancar din cadrul current banking system
sistemului bancar actual
In the banking credit flows, trade
n cadrul fluxurile de credit bancar, relaiile de relationships based on trust, contribute to bank
schimb bazate pe ncredere contribuie la redistribuirea products redistribution, through credit institutions.
produselor bacare, prin instituiile de credit. Romanian credit institutions may be
n Romnia, instituiile de credit se pot established and operate as banks, credit cooperatives,
constitui i pot funciona ca bnci, organizaii electronic money institutions and savings banks for
cooperatiste de credit, instituii emitente de moned housing. Credit relations between bank customers
electronic i case de economii pentru domeniul locativ. and credit institutions are related to their lending
Relaiile de credit dintre clientela bancar i activities and realised by credit system, as part of the
instituiile de credit sunt legate de activitatea de creditare overall financial system.
a acestora i care se realizez prin sistemul de credit, Credit system architecture depends on the
ca parte a sistemului financiar general. banking system (consisting almost entirely of
Sistemul de credit depinde de arhitectura foreign-owned banks), which in Romania has a
sistemului bancar (format aproape n totalitate din bnci pyramidal shape. At the top of the pyramid is located
cu capital strin), care n Romnia are o form National Bank of Romania, whose fundamental goal
piramidal. n vrful piramidei se situeaz BNR al crei is to achieve and maintain price stability. Central
obiectiv fundamental este asigurarea i meninerea Bank, as a member of the European banking system,
stabilitii preurilor. Banca central a statului ca fulfills credit policy, and also monitor the credit
membr a sistemului bancar european ndeplinete system to fit with the parameters established by the
politica monetar i de credit, i totodat, supravegheaz III Basel Committee. Follow than, at the basis of the
sistemul de credit, pentru ca acesta s se ncadreze n pyramid, credit institutions and nonbanking financial
parametri stabilii de Comitetul de la Basel III. institutions, authorized to perform and develop
Urmeaz, apoi, instituiile de credit i IFN-urile, credit relationships.
autorizate s desfoare i s dezvolte relaii de credit. Thus, firstly, credit system includes
Astfel, n primul rnd, sistemul de credit institutional framework where credit relations
cuprinde cadrul instituional n care se desfoar perform. This is composed on NBR with its

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relaiile de credit. Acesta este format din BNR cu subsidiaries, the credit institution with operational
sucursalele sale, din reele ale instituilor de credit care units (branches, agencies) and networks of non-bank
se regasesc n teritoriu sub forma de uniti operative financial institutions (NFI). Secondly, the credit
(sucursale, agenii) i din reele ale instituiilor system includes legal regulatory framework that
financiare nebancare (IFN). includes all the rules: laws, regulations, detailed
n al doilea rnd, sistemul de credit cuprinde rules and procedures that limit the risks of credit
cadrul normativ juridic ce cuprinde ansamblul relationship. And thirdly, the credit system include
reglementrilor: legilor, regulamentelor, normelor management strategies for pricing bank services and
metodologice i procedurilor care limiteaz riscurile din products, techniques and methods to perform
relaiile de credit. banking operations, of which credit activities are the
i n al treilea rnd, sistemul de credit cuprinde most monitored, in terms of money creation and
strategii manageriale de formare a preurilor la providing bank liquidity.
serviciile i produsele bancare, tehnici i metode de Banking operations to mobilize cash and
efectuare a operaiunilor bancare dintre care activitile their placement as banking products in the credit
de creditare sunt cele mai monitorizate din punctul de relationship, are made by banking mediation, with a
vedere al creaiei monetare i de asigurare a lichiditilor specific price.Banking mediation is made by a range
bancare. of specific banking services, which is also the
Operaiunile bancare de mobilizare a principal means of achieving the activity object of
disponibilitilor bneti i de plasare a acestora sub credit institutions.
form de produse bancare n cadrul relaiilor de credit se Bank service is an intangible and
efectueaz prin intermediere bancar, cu un anumit pre. irreversible activity for a client, which may be
Intermedierea bancar se efectueaz printr-o serie de effected or may arise before or following credit
servicii specifice domeniului bancar ce constituie relations (access to banking products), for which the
totodat, principalul mijloc de realizare a obiectului de credit institution receives a price, called banking fee.
activitate al instituiilor de credit. Type of services offered by credit
Serviciul bancar reprezint o activitate institutions on customer relations is very important.
intangibil, ireversibil efectuat unui client, care se As a rule, the credit institutions provides two
poate realiza sau poate rezulta naintea sau n urma different types of services:
relaiilor de credit (accesrii produselor bancare), pentru the service ,, today with today - is a simple
care instituia de credit primete un pre, numit comision transaction. For example, the purchase of
bancar.Tipul de servicii oferite de instituiile de credit n foreign currency. The person will come to a
cadrul relaiilor cu clientela este foarte important. De branch of a credit institutions, will buy
regul, instituiile de credit ofer dou tipuri diferite de foreign currency, and then will go away,
servicii : which is the end of the transaction;
serviciul "azi cu azi" - este o tranzacie simpl. De the service "relationship" - is determined
exemplu, procurarea de valut strin. Persoana va veni by several banking operations to which the client
la o unitate operativ a unei instituii de credit, va will call by using the service repeatedly. For
procura valuta, apoi va pleca, acesta fiind de fapt example, the current account: the customer opens the
sfritul tranzaciei. account and it will use to deposit and withdraw
serviciul "de relaie" este determinat de mai multe money for transfers etc. When selling a service may
operaii bancare la care clientul va apela utiliznd be given and any others informations that might be
serviciul respectiv n mod repetat. De exemplu, contul useful to the customer. This type of service is one
curent: clientul va deschide contul i-l va folosi pentru a which ensures the perpetuation of relations between
depune i a retrage bani, pentru viramente .a. Cu ocazia the bank and its customers.
vnzrii unui serviciu se pot indica i altele care ar putea Thus, relationship services may cause
fi utile clientului. Acest tip de serviciu este cel care purchasing more services by the customers. Both
asigur perpetuarea relaiilor dintre banc i clienii si. types of services are important for strengthening
Astfel, serviciile de relaie pot determina relationships with customers.
clientela bancar ctre achiziionarea mai multor On the one hand, if the client has several
servicii. Ambele tipuri de servicii sunt importante pentru contacts with the credit institution and its staff, it will
consolidarea relaiilor cu clienii. Pe de o parte, cu ct be easier to evaluate products and services and build
clientul are mai multe contacte cu instituia de credit i a credit relation. On the other hand, knowing the
cu personalul acesteia, cu att i va fi mai uor s customer by the credit institution shall mean, that
evalueze produsele i serviciile i s construiasc relaie can anticipate some of his requirements, giving the
de credit. Pe de alt parte, cunoaterea clientului de ctre appropriate products and services, before he realise
instituia de credit nseamn, adesea, c se pot anticipa its price.
unele dintre cerinele acestuia, oferindu-i-se produsele i The request of banking products influence
serviciile adecvate, nainte ca el s contientizeze preul theirs specificity and whatever techniques are use in
acestora. banking products, important is the price, coming

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Cererea produselor bancare influeneaz into contact with the customer when the bank offers
specificul acesteia i indiferent de tehnica folosit him a product or service through financial
privind produsele bancare, important este preul supermarkets.
acestuia, cu care intr clientul n contact, cnd i se ofer The concept of financial supermarkets1
un produs sau serviciu bancar prin supermaketurile means the possibility that, in a branch or banking
financiare. agencies, the customer can get insurance services,
Prin conceptul de supermarket financiar se leasing or financing advice for performing operations
nelege posibilitatea ca, n cadrul unei sucursale sau on the capital market.
agenii bancare, clientul s poat obine servicii de Monetary and credit policy is led by
asigurri, finanri n leasing sau consultan pentru National Bank of Romania (BNR). The fundamental
efectuarea de operaiuni pe piaa de capital. aim of price stability, BNR can influence monetary
Politica monetar i de credit este condus de creation.
Banca Naional a Romniei (BNR). Avnd ca obiectiv The economic downturn growthing rate of
fundamental stabilitatea preurilor, BNR poate influena inflativo and reduces rate of capital investment. To
creaia monetar. Recesiunea economic ce influeneaz avoid these decreases investors need to protect their
creterea ratei inflaiei diminueaz rata investiiilor de savings. Increase in savings decreases gain to offset
capital. Pentru evitarea acestor diminuri investitorii the annual consumption. Some bank economists
trebuie s-i protejeze economiile. Creterea economiilor taking into account the tax of interest effect,
micoreaz ctigul pentru compensarea consumului increased debate on monetary creation and on the
anual. Se consider c instituiile de credit sunt price of bank loans. It believes that credit institutions
preocupate de ratele reale ale dobnzii dup ce au fost are concerned to real interest rates after they have
impozitate n prealabil sumele care fac obiectul been previously taxed the amounts covered
tranzaciei. Instituia de credit, n funcie de strategia transaction.
adoptat i de evoluia pieei monetare i bancare, Credit institution, depending on the adopted
stabilete nivelul dobnzilor ce urmeaz a se practica n strategy and changes in money market and bank
tranzaciile cu clientela. interest rates that are determined to practice in
2. Folosirea Ordinul de Plata Conditionat n transactions with customers.
transferurile-credit, o posibil soluie de ncasare a
crenelor restante 2. Using Conditional Payment Order (CPO) in
n condiiile actuale din Romnia, BNR a redus credit- transfers, a possible solution to collect
dobnda de politic monetr, dnd un semnal instituiilor claims outstanding
de credit de a mrii oferta de credite i de a reduce
dobnda la creditele bancare. Cu toate acestea, n anul In the present, in Romania, the central bank
2010 instituiile de credit au continuat s menin un reduced the monetary policy interest, giving a signal
pre destul de mare, la produsele bancare plasate, astfel to the credit institutions to increase the supply of
creditele restante au ajuns la finalul anului 2010 la credit and reduce interest on bank loans. However, in
valoarea de 16,15 miliarde lei (circa 3,75 miliarde euro), 2010, credit institutions have continued to maintain a
fiind de aproape de dou ori mai mari fa de nivelul de fairly high price to banking products placed, so the
la finalul lui 2009. Ponderea creditelor restante n total overdue loans have reached the end of 2010
plasamente bancare a ajuns n decembrie 2010 la 7,66%. amounted to 16.15 billion lei (about 3.75 billion
Angajamentele totale, ale instituiilor de euros) , being almost twice higher than the level at
credit din Romnia, la 31.03.2011 au fost de 203 956,4 the end of 2009. The share of overdue loans in total
milioane lei, dintre care 35 033,8 milioane lei la loans, reached in december 2010 to 7.66%.
gospodiile populaiei (i 62 999,6 milioane lei pentru Romanian credit institutions total liabilities,
creditele acordate n valut ). at 31.03.2011, was about 203 956,4 million lei, from
Necunoatere clientelei bancare (a persoanelor which 35 033,8 million lei at the private households
fizice), a activitii de afaceri a acestora, mai ales dup (and 62 999,6 million lei for loanes in foreign
accesarea creditelor a condus la creterea n continuare a currency).
creditelor nerambursate la scaden, ntegistrndu-se la Ignorance of knowledge bank customers (physical
sfritul lunii aprilie a.c. credite restante, pe total sistem persons), theirs business activity, especially after
bancar romnesc (sursa: BNR), n sum de 17,8 miliarde accessing loans, led to further growth of outstanding
lei ceea ce reprezint 8,66% din totalul mprumuturilor loans, recorded at the end of April this year, total
primite de gospodriile populaiei (inclusiv persoane loans outstanding on the Romanian banking system
fizice). (source: BNR), in the amount of 17.8 billion lei
which represents 8,66% of the total loans received by
private households (including individual persons).

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Tabel 1: Judeele care nregistrau cel mai mare volum al creditelor restante la 31.12.2010 mil.lei-
Denumire jude Soldul Credite Ponderea din care:
creditelor restante %
Credite restante Credite
contractate
lei restant
n
valut
Galati 4.100 561,13 13,66 290,10 271,03
Alba 2.650 341,27 12,86 136,00 205,27
Bistrita-Nasaud 2.130 271,24 12,72 149,04 122,20
Ialomita 1.350 168,20 12,46 88,10 80,10
Suceava 3.230 354,34 10,97 248,70 105,64
Neamt 2.360 258,30 10,92 159,90 98,40
Arad 2.940 319,40 10,86 147,75 171,85
Botosani 1.760 186,75 10,63 141,25 45,50
Hunedoara 2.600 265,02 10,21 170,90 94,12
Braov 6.510 652,95 10,02 336,05 316,90
Sursa: Banca Naional a Romniei
Tabel 1: Counties recorded the largest volume of overdue loans 31.12.2010
-bil.lei-
Of which:
The balance Overdue Share
County Name Overdue
of loans % Overdue lei
currency
Galati 4.100 561,13 13,66 290,10 271,03
Alba 2.650 341,27 12,86 136,00 205,27
Bistrita-Nasaud 2.130 271,24 12,72 149,04 122,20
Ialomita 1.350 168,20 12,46 88,10 80,10
Suceava 3.230 354,34 10,97 248,70 105,64
Neamt 2.360 258,30 10,92 159,90 98,40
Arad 2.940 319,40 10,86 147,75 171,85
Botosani 1.760 186,75 10,63 141,25 45,50
Hunedoara 2.600 265,02 10,21 170,90 94,12
Braov 6.510 652,95 10,02 336,05 316,90
Source : National Bank of Romania

Prin unitile operative se vnd de ctre Through operative units, credit institutions sold "to
instituiile de credit att, serviciile bancare "la pachet" package" banking services, especially, products to
ct mai ales, produsele bancare pentru atragerea de attract funds or distributing them in the form of loans
disponibiliti bneti sau distribuirea acestora, sub or other investments. This manner of organizing
forma creditelor sau a altor plasamente. Acest mod de bank operations, through operative units, becomes
organizare a operaiunilor bancare din cadrul unitior increasingly more visible in our country, within the
operative devine din ce n ce mai vizibil n cadrul managerial credit institutions strategy. Banking
strategiei manageriale a instituiilor de credit din ara product, totally immaterial, includes both the
noastr. Produsul bancar n genere imaterial, cuprinde financial and banking services and loans advanced in
att serviciile financiar-bancare ct i creditele avansat current accounts.
n conturile curente Flows of credit transfers, require that the
Fluxurile privind transferurile-credit presupun ca payer have the initiative to give instructions to an
pltitorul s aib iniiativa de a da instruciuni direct intermediary to transfer funds directly to the
unui intermediar s transfere fonduri beneficiarului. beneficiary. For such an instruction to be accepted
Pentru ca o astfel de instruciune s fie acceptat i s and can cross the banking intermediaries
poat strbate mediul intermediarilor bancari, ea trebuie environment, it must be conditional on the payment
condiionat sub forma ordinului de plat, care are order form, which has as its central sequence of
drept secven central de instruciune de nscriere n instruction for inclusion in the credit of the
creditul contului beneficiarului, la banca sa. beneficiary account at his bank.
Prin urmare, n fluxurile de transfer-credit, de Therefore, in the flows of transfer-credit,
decontri bancare, creditul reprezint creanele reale ale bank settlement, loan represent actual claims of
instituiilor de credit (suma angajat + dobnda) cnd credit institutions (amount committed + interest)
debitorul primete banii respectivi sub diferite forme, fie when the debtor receives the money in various

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a onora pli n contul curent (pentru achitarea datoriilor forms, either to honor current account payments (for
fa de furnizori) fie pentru a reealona datoriile pe care debts to suppliers), or to reschedule debts that are not
nu i le-a achitat. paid.
O posibil soluie pentru deblocarea sitemului A possible solution to release the system
i urgentarea ncasrii creanelor restante and speed up the collection of receivables
Este folosirea n fluxurile de transfer-credit, a ordinului outstanding is to use in operational flow the
de plat condiionat (OPC), care reprezint un ordin cu conditional payment order (CPO), which is an order
o sum i o serie de condiii transmise de banca with an amount and a number of conditions
emitent, bancii receptoare cu scopul creditrii contului submitted by the issuing bank, the receiving bank to
benefficiarului. Creditarea contului se face numai dup credit the beneficiary's account
ndeplinirea condiiilor, de ctre banca receptoare, astfel Crediting the account shall be made only
nct sumele s fie folosite numai n scopul descris de after the fulfilment of the conditions, by the
OPC, i anume: receiving bank, so that the amounts to be used only
rambursarea creditelor pe care clienii le-au for the purpose described by OPC, namely:
contractat cu alte bnci astfel s fie - repayment of loans that customers have
eliberate de sarcini imobilele, care pot intra contracted with other banks, for issued by the
n circuitul civil; specifications assets that can enter the civil circuit;
refinanarea creditelor pe care clienii le-au - refinancing of the loans which customers have
contractat cu alte bnci care activeaz n contracted with other banks operating in the
Romania; Romania;
plata anumitor facturi sau bilete la ordin - the payment of certain bills or promissory notes
emise de clieni i care urmez a fi pltite issued by the customer and which follow to be paid
de acetia. by them.
Fluxul operaional privind particularitile Operational flow on the particularities of
operarii OPC este stabilit de fiecare instituie de credit driving CPO is established by each credit institution
conform procedurilor SEP (sistemul electronic de pli). according to the SEP (electronic payments).
Sistemul de pli este acel sistem care cuprinde, The payment system is that system which
de regul, un set de instrumente, proceduri bancare i includes, as a rule, a set of instruments, banking
sisteme de fonduri cu scopul facilitrii circulaiei procedures and systems of funds, to facilitate the
monetare. circulation of money funds

3. Reflecie asupra dobnzii anuale efective i


calculul acesteia 3. Reflection on interest and its calculation

n cadrul relaiilor de credit este important de In the credit relationship is important to


reinut faptul c, mai ales, n condiiile procesului note that, especially in terms of the inflationary
inflaionist rata dobnzii mbrac dou forme: process interest rate takes two shapes:
-dobnda nominal exprimat ca atare i - nominal interest, stipulated in credit
stipulat n contractul de credit (rata curent de pia); agreement (current market rate);
-dobnda real, ce se stabilete ca diferen - real interest, determined as the difference
ntre dobnda nominal i gradul de eroziune al between nominal interest and the degree of erosion
capitalului mprumutat determinat de evoluia procesului borrowed capital, determined by the evolution of the
inflaionist. inflationary process.
Menionm c dobnda real este direct Note that, real interest is directly
proporional cu dobnda nominal i invers proportional with nominal interest and revers with
proporional cu gradul de depreciere monetar. Formula the degree of nominal monetary depreciation.
de calcul a ratei dobnzii reale (RDr) este urmtoarea: The formula for calculating the real interest
rate (RDr) is as follows:
1+ R
(1) R = Dr -1 1+ R
Dr 1+ R (1) R = Dn -1
I Dr 1+ R
I
unde:
RDr - rata dobnzii reale where:
RDn- rata dobnzii nominale RDr real intrest rate
RI rata inflaiei RDn- nominal intrest rate
RI inflation rate
Cu alte cuvinte ratele dobnzii nominale trebuie
s creasc mai mult dect rata inflaiei, pentru c prin In other words, nominal interest rates must
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favorizarea ratei profitului din dobnda real s nu se increase more than inflation rate, because by
modifice prea mult ctigul rezultatului investiiei. promoting profit rate by the interest rate, does not
Costul aplicabil activelor plasate de o instituie de change too much the investement earning result.
credit reprezint suma rezultat ca urmare a aplicrii Applicale cost on placed assets, is the
ratei dobnzii i a altor comisioane aferente activitii de amount obtained as a result of the interest rate and
creditare. other fees for loans. Credit institution, depending on
Rata dobnzii poate fi fix sau flotant i se the adopted strategy and changes in money and bank
stabilete n funcie de riscul implicat de creditele market, determined interest rates to practice in
acordate (creditele de trezorerie reprezint un risc mai clients transaction.
mare de nerambursare), The interest rate may be fixed or floating
La negocierea i ncheierea cu clienii a and determined by the risk posed by loans (cash
contractelor pentru creditele acordate n lei sau valut loans are a higher risk of default).
este justificat s se aib n vedere dobnda stabilit prin In concluding and negotiatation of loans
strategia bncii pentru o anumit perioad, cu excepia agrement in domestic or foreign currency, is justified
cazurilor de linii de finanare speciale (exemplu, cele that customers take into accont the interest rate, set
pentru activitatea de export sau convenii externe), la by the bank's strategy for a certain period, unless
care costurile se stabilesc n funcie de acestea i care se special financing lines (for export activity or foreign
comunic unitilor teritoriale (sucursalelor) de ctre conventions) where the costs are defined according
centrala bncii. to them, and who are communicate to the branches
Reamintim c din literatura de specialitate by head office of the bank.
rezult faptul c tehnica de calcul a dobnzilor la We recall that, banking literature shows that
creditele plasate a impus dou formule de calcul a the technique of calculating interest, on the loans
dobnzii: placed, imposed two formulas for the calculation of
Calculul dobnzii simple interest:
unde: Simple interest calculation:

k * t*z k * t*z
(2) D = (2) D =
360 * 100 360 * 100
unde:
D = dobnda; where:
k = capitalul mprumutat; D = interest;
t = perioada ( nr. de zile); k = capital borrowed;
z = rata dobnzii t = time (no. days);
Pentru calculul dobnzii compuse se utilizeaz z = interest rate
formula:
n To calculate the compound interest formula
R is used:
(3) S= K 1+ 100

unde: n
R
S = suma rezultat ca urmare a multiplicrii (3) S= K 1+
creditului; 100
K = capitalul iniial mprumutat;
R = rata dobnzii anuale; where:
n = perioada de creditare (timpul n ani). S = amount resulting from multiplying the
loan;
Dobnda compus se folosete foarte rar, pentru K = the initial capital borrowed;
creditele acordate pe termen mijlociu sau lung (pentru R = annual interest rate;
creditele acordate pe o perioad mai mare de 12 luni). n = loan period (time in years).
De regul aceast formul de calcul se folosete de
banc la constituirea depozitelor (mobilizarea Compound interest is infrequently used, for
disponibilitilor pe termen lung). loans to medium and long term (for loans longer than
Este foarte important s reamintim faptul c 12 months). Credit institutions usually use this
numrul de zile (perioada) de creditare, n cadrul tehnicii formula for setting deposits (long-term mobilised
de calcul a dobnzii, se ia n considerare, fcndu-se availability). It is very important to remember that, in
distincie ntre ziua de decontare, care este o zi efectiv computing interest, is taken into account credit
de primire a creditului, i ziua de operare n documente number of days (period), distinguishing between the
bancare (contract de credit, convenie, etc) ca zi efectiv day of settlement, which is a day of actual receipt of
de calcul a dobnzii. credit, and day operating the bank documents (credit
Din cultura bancar se menioneaz c agreement, convention, etc.), as the day of
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produsele bancare sunt de fapt acele plasamente sub calculating the effective intrest rate.
form de credite (angajamente bancare materializate n The banking culture mentions that banking
sume de bani) pe care le primesc mprumutaii. Dup ce products are those investments in the form of loans
a fost negociat de client, creditul reprezint datoria (bank commitments embodied in the amounts of
money) receiving by the borrowers. After being
potenial sau real a instituiilor de credit pentru care
clientul s-a angajat s plteasc un anumit pre. negotiated by the client, loan representing potential
Cererea de servicii i produse bancare se or actual dept of a credit institutions, for which the
client has committed to pay a certain price.
constituie ca o condiie a adaptrii politicii de pre prin
Demand for banking services and products shall be
elasticitatea instituiilor de credit, atunci cnd afecteaz
cu precdere nivelul preurilor established as a condition of the adaptation of policy
Cererea i oferta unui produs bancar se through price elasticity of credit institutions, in
realizeaz de ctre instituile de credit n mod particular when it affects the level of prices and
transparent i cuprinde pe lng costul produsului i demand a bank product is carried out by the
principalele elemente ce caracterizeaz performana instituile of credit in a transparent manner and
produsului respectiv. Consecina dobnzii asupra includes in addition to the cost of the product and the
main elements that characterize the performance of
creditrii depinde ns i de strategiile politicii monetare.
the product concerned. The consequence of interest
on lending depends, however, and the strategies of
monetary policy.
Tabel 1: Informaii puse la dispoziia consumatorilor

Informaii Explicaii
ofert produsele i serviciilor pe care o instituie de credit le ofer pe pia.
comision suma de bani pe care clienii o pltesc pentru serviciul dorit
dobnd preul pe care clienii l pltesc pentru creditul dorit
distribuie i conduit operaiunile prin care o instituie de credit i pune produsele la dispoziia
consumatorilor
comunicare operaiunile desfurate cu scopul convingerii clientului de avantajele pe care i le
ofer serviciul i produsul bancar.

Tabel 1: Information made available to consumers of banking products and services

information Explanations
offer products and services provide on market by the credit institution
fee amount of money that customers pay for a desired service
interest the customers price paid for a desired loan
distribution and credit transactions whereby credit institution puts its products available to consumers
conduct
communication bank transactions conducted to convince customer by the offer product and services
benefits.

Oferta de servicii i produse bancare reprezint The offer of banking services and products
una dintre condiiile politicii de pre deoarece aceasta is one of the policy of price conditions, because the
din urm s-i poat diferenia n funcie de modul n care priece would be able to distinguish services
este oferit produsul i anume ca produs bancar global ori depending on the way in which is offered product,
ca produse i servicii separate. Tipul de comunicare like global banking product or like separated
utilizat, forma i mijloacele de plat sunt doar cteva products and services. The type of communication
componente ale activitii de fundamentare, promovare, used, form and means of payment are only a few
de distribuire pe pia a produselor i serviciilor bancare, parts of substantiation, promotion, distribution on the
n funcie de pre. market of products and banking services, according
Clienii care vor s achiziioneze mai multe to the price.
produse bancare sub form de pachet vor beneficia de The customers who want to buy more
taxe i comisioane bancare mai mici. n UE, peste 50% banking products as package, will benefit from tax
din veniturile bncilor provin din taxe i comisioane i and banking fee lower. In EU, more than 50 percent
doar 20-30% din dobnzi, situaie invers fa de ceea of banks' income are from fees and taxes and only
ce se ntmpl n Romnia. ns, i instituiile de credit 20-30 percent of interest, reverse situation from what
romneti vor trebui s se alinieze acestui trend, astfel is happening in Romania. But, the romanian credit
c, nu peste mult timp, comisioanele bancare vor deveni institutions will have to align to this trend, so that,

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factorul cel mai important de cost, n cadrul deciziei not much more than time, banking fees will become
clentelei bancare de a alege un serviciu, sau un produs the most important cost factor, in the customer
bancar. decision, to choose a service or a banking product.

Concluzii Conclusions
Instituiile de credit trebuie s comunice Credit institutions must inform customers, about
clienilor tipurile de credit pentru care costurile cresc la: increasing costs for types of credit: Long-term loans,
creditele pe termen lung; creditele pentru autoturisme; car loans, credit card discovery etc.
descoperirea de card .a. Banking products are customized by credit
Produsele bancare sunt personalizate de institutions depending on demand and are generated
instituiile de credit n funcie de cerere i sunt generate by banking activities which provides a high degree
de activiti bancare care asigur un grad ridicat de of individualization and differentiation of their
individualizare a serviciilor i de difereniere a acestora services in a banking financial institutions.
n cadrul unei instituii financiar bancare. In the analysis of the credit that wish to buy,
n analiza creditului pe care doresc s-l customers have more choices and will follow at the
cumpere, clienii au mai multe opiuni i vor urmrii la credit institutions mainly: arrangements for the
instituiile de credit n principal: modalitile de refund credit (monthly installments, grace periods);
rambursare a creditului (rate lunare, termene de graie); annual rate of interest; credit limits that can be
rata anual a dobnzii; limitele creditului care poate fi employed and especially the effective annual
angajat i mai ales dobnda anual efectiv. interest.
Eficiena serviciilor bancare puternic Highly computerized banking efficiency are
informatizate se evalueaz i innd seama de evaluated taking account of the fulfilment of
satisfacerea cerinelor clientelei bancare. requirements for bank customers.
Calitatea relaiilor de credit, a serviciilor i Credit quality of relationships, continuity of
continuitatea n oferta de produse i servicii vor ajuta la services and product offerings, will help increase
creterea fidelitii clienilor, acetia fiind astfel mai customer loyalty and they are thus less tempted to
puin tentai s evalueze alternativa utilizrii serviciilor evaluate the alternative use of the services
concurenei. competition.
Urgentarea ncasrii creanelor restante prin Speeding through the collection of
SEP se poate efectua utiliznd instrumente de plat outstanding claims can be made using the EPS
condiionate. conditional payment instruments.

BIBLIOGRAFIE BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Mariana Diaconescu, Bnci, sisteme de pli, riscuri, - Mariana Diaconescu, Banks, payment systems,
Editura Economic, Bucureti, 1999 risks, Economic Publishing House, Bucharest, 1999
-Hennie van Greuning, Sonja Brajovic Bratanovic, -Hennie van Greuning, Sonja Brajovic Bratanovic ,
Analiza i Managementul riscului bancar, Casa de Analysis and banking risk management, Irecson
Editur Irecson, Bucureti, 2003 Publishing House, Bucharest, 2003
- Ilie Mihai - Tehnica si managementul operatiunilor - Ilie Mihai, Technology and Banking Operations
bancare, Editura Expert, 2003 Management, Expert Publishing House, 2003
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institutiilor de credit , IBR, Bucuresti, 2006 institutions, IBR, Bucuresti, 2006
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