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NOISE & VIBRATION

NOISE & VIBRATION Topic 6 : Vibration Control Ir Dr Zainal Fitri B Zainal Abidin Sept
Topic 6 : Vibration Control
Topic 6 :
Vibration Control

Ir Dr Zainal Fitri B Zainal Abidin Sept 2016

Chapter Outline • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the source

Chapter Outline

Chapter Outline • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the source •
Chapter Outline • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the source •

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Reduction of Vibration at the source

Balancing of Rotating Machines

Whirling of Rotating Shafts

Balancing of Reciprocating Engines

Control of Vibration

Control of Natural Frequencies

Introduction of Damping

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Absorbers

2

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations

Fifth Edition in SI Units

Introduction • Vibration leads to wear of machinery and discomfort of humans, thus we want

Introduction

Introduction • Vibration leads to wear of machinery and discomfort of humans, thus we want to

Vibration leads to wear of machinery and discomfort of humans, thus we want to eliminate vibration

Designer must compromise between acceptable amount of vibration and manufacturing cost

We shall consider various techniques of vibration control in this chapter.

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Reduction of Vibration at the source • Balancing of Rotating

Chapter Outline

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Reduction of Vibration at the source • Balancing of Rotating Machines

Introduction

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Reduction of Vibration at the source • Balancing of Rotating Machines

Reduction of Vibration at the source

Balancing of Rotating Machines

Whirling of Rotating Shafts

Balancing of Reciprocating Engines

Control of Vibration

Control of Natural Frequencies

Introduction of Damping

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Absorbers

4

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations

Fifth Edition in SI Units

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Vibration nomograph displays the variations of displacement, velocity and

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Vibration nomograph displays the variations of displacement, velocity and

Vibration nomograph displays the variations of displacement, velocity and acceleration amplitudes wrt frequency of vibration

Harmonic motion:

x(t)= X sinωt

v(t)= x(t)= ωX cosωt = 2πfX cosωt

Velocity:

Acceleration:

a(t) x(t)

= =−

2

ω X sinωt

=− 4π

Amplitude of velocity:

v

max

= 2 πfX

(9.4)

2

f

Amplitude of acceleration:

a

max

= − π X = − πfv

4

f

2

2

2

2

X sinωt

max

(9.5)

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Taking log of Eq. 9.3 and Eq. 9.4: ln

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Taking log of Eq. 9.3 and Eq. 9.4: ln ln

Taking log of Eq. 9.3 and Eq. 9.4:

ln

ln

v

v

max

max

(

ln 2

ln

=

=−

f

π

)

+

ln

X

a

max

(

ln 2

f )

π

When X is constant, ln v max varies linearly with ln(2πf)

When a max is constant, ln v max varies linearly with ln(2πf)

This is shown as a nomograph in the next slide.

Every pt on the nomograph denotes a specific sinusoidal vibration.

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria 7 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria 7 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units
Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria Ranges of Vibration 8 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria Ranges of Vibration 8 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in

Ranges of Vibration

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria Ranges of Vibration 8 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in
Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria Frequency sensitivity of different parts of human body 9 ©

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria Frequency sensitivity of different parts of human body 9 © 2011

Frequency sensitivity of different parts of human body

Frequency sensitivity of different parts of human body 9 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in
Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Vibration severity of machinery is defined in terms of

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Vibration severity of machinery is defined in terms of the

Vibration severity of machinery is defined in terms of the root mean square (rms) value of vibration velocity. (ISO 2372)

Vibration severity of whole building vibration (ISO DP 4866)

Vibration limits for human (ISO 2631)

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction The seat of

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction The seat of a

Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction

The seat of a helicopter, with the pilot, weights 1000N and is found to have a static deflection of 10 mm under self-weight. The vibration of the rotor is transmitted to the base of the seat as harmonic motion with frequency 4 Hz and amplitude 0.2 mm. •a) What is the level of vibration felt by the pilot? •b) How can the seat be redesigned to reduce the effect of vibration?

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution Mass =

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution Mass = m

Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution

Mass = m = 1000/9.81 = 101.9368 kg Stiffness = k = W/δ st = 1000/0.01 = 10 5 N/m

Natural frequency = ω n = k 10 5 = = 31.3209 rad/s = m
Natural frequency = ω n =
k
10 5
=
=
31.3209 rad/s
=
m
101.9368
ω
4.9849
•Frequency ratio = r =
=
= 1.2462
ω
4.0
n
Y
X =±
•Amplitude of vibration felt by pilot:
2
1
− r

•where Y is the amplitude of base displacement

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

12

4.9849 Hz

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution X =

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution X = v

Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution

X =

v

a

max

max

0.2

= 0.3616 mm

2

π

()(

5 0.3616

)

=

1

=

1.2462

2

fX

2

π

=

=

(

f

2

π

)

2

X

=

9.0887 mm/s

=

228.4074 mm/s

2

0.2284 m/s

2

•At 4 Hz, the amplitude of 0.3616 mm may not cause much discomfort. •However the velocity and acceleration at 4 Hz are not acceptable for a comfortable ride. •Try to bring a max down to 0.01 m/s 2

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution a max

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution a max =

Example 9.1 Helicopter Seat Vibration Reduction Solution

a

max

=

10 mm/s

2

=−

(

f

2

π

)

2

X =−

(

8

π

)

2

X

= 0.01583 mm

 

X

0.01583

1

 

=

Y

0.2

1

r

2

ω

8

π

ω

n

=

3.6923

=

3.6923

=

or

r =

3.6923

6.8068 rad/s

=

k m
k
m

m

= 101.9368 kg

k

=

4722.9837 N/m

•Either use softer material for seat or increase mass of seat.

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at

Chapter Outline

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the

Introduction

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Reduction of Vibration at the source

Balancing of Rotating Machines

Whirling of Rotating Shafts

Balancing of Reciprocating Engines

Control of Vibration

Control of Natural Frequencies

Introduction of Damping

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Absorbers

15

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations

Fifth Edition in SI Units

Control of Vibration • Some import methods to control vibrations:  Control ω n and

Control of Vibration

Control of Vibration • Some import methods to control vibrations:  Control ω n and avoid

Some import methods to control vibrations:

Control ω n and avoid resonance under external excitations. Introduce damping mechanism to prevent excessive response of system Use vibration isolators to reduce transmission of excitation forces from one part of the machine to another Add an auxiliary mass neutralizer or vibration absorber to reduce response of system

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at

Chapter Outline

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the

Introduction

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Reduction of Vibration at the source

Balancing of Rotating Machines

Whirling of Rotating Shafts

Balancing of Reciprocating Engines

Control of Vibration

Control of Natural Frequencies

Introduction of Damping

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Absorbers

17

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations

Fifth Edition in SI Units

Control of Natural Frequencies • Resonance  Large displacements  large strains and stresses 

Control of Natural Frequencies

Control of Natural Frequencies • Resonance  Large displacements  large strains and stresses  failure

Resonance Large displacements large strains and stresses failure of system

Often the excitation frequency cannot be controlled.

Hence must control natural frequency by varying mass m or stiffness k to avoid resonance.

Practically mass cannot be changed easily.

Hence we change stiffness k by altering the material or number and location of bearings.

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at

Chapter Outline

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the

Introduction

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Reduction of Vibration at the source

Balancing of Rotating Machines

Whirling of Rotating Shafts

Balancing of Reciprocating Engines

Control of Vibration

Control of Natural Frequencies

Introduction of Damping

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Absorbers

19

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations

Fifth Edition in SI Units

Introduction of Damping • System may be required to operate over a range of speed,

Introduction of Damping

Introduction of Damping • System may be required to operate over a range of speed, hence

System may be required to operate over a range of speed, hence cannot avoid resonance

Can use material with high internal damping to control the response.

Can also use bolted or riveted joints to increase damping.

Bolted or riveted joints permit slip between surfaces and dissipate more energy compared to welded joints.

However they also reduce stiffness of structure, produce debris and cause fretting corrosion.

Introduction of Damping mx  + ( k 1 + i η ) x =

Introduction of Damping

Introduction of Damping mx  + ( k 1 + i η ) x = where

mx  +

(

k 1

+

i

η

)

x

=

where loss factor

F e i

0

η

=

ω t

(

W / 2

π

)

W

Energy dissipated during1cycle of harmonic displacement/radian

=

Maximum strain energy in cycle

F 0

=

k η

F 0

aE

η

,

a =

constant

Introduction of Damping • Viscoelastic materials have larger values of η and are used to

Introduction of Damping

Introduction of Damping • Viscoelastic materials have larger values of η and are used to provide

Viscoelastic materials have larger values of η and are used to provide internal damping.

Disadvantage is their properties change with temperature, frequency and strain.

Sandwich viscoelastic material between elastic layers – Constrained layer damping

Material with largest η will be subjected to the smallest stresses.

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at

Chapter Outline

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the

Introduction

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Reduction of Vibration at the source

Balancing of Rotating Machines

Whirling of Rotating Shafts

Balancing of Reciprocating Engines

Control of Vibration

Control of Natural Frequencies

Introduction of Damping

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Absorbers

23

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations

Fifth Edition in SI Units

Vibration Isolation • Insert isolator between vibrating mass and vibration source to reduce response •

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Insert isolator between vibrating mass and vibration source to reduce response • Passive

Insert isolator between vibrating mass and vibration source to reduce response

Passive isolators: springs, cork, felt etc.

E.g. Mounting of high-speed punch press

cork, felt etc. • E.g. Mounting of high-speed punch press 24 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth
cork, felt etc. • E.g. Mounting of high-speed punch press 24 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth
Vibration Isolation • Exhaust Hangers Design • Engine mounting Bad example Exhaust Hangers 25 ©

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Exhaust Hangers Design • Engine mounting Bad example Exhaust Hangers 25 © 2011
Vibration Isolation • Exhaust Hangers Design • Engine mounting Bad example Exhaust Hangers 25 © 2011
Vibration Isolation • Exhaust Hangers Design • Engine mounting Bad example Exhaust Hangers 25 © 2011

Exhaust Hangers Design

Vibration Isolation • Exhaust Hangers Design • Engine mounting Bad example Exhaust Hangers 25 © 2011

Engine mounting

Bad example Exhaust Hangers

Vibration Isolation • Active isolator comprised of servomechanism with sensor, signal processor and actuator. •

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Active isolator comprised of servomechanism with sensor, signal processor and actuator. •

Active isolator comprised of servomechanism with sensor, signal processor and actuator.

Effectiveness given in terms of transmissibility T r which is the ratio of amplitude of the transmitted force to that of the exciting force

2 types of isolation situations:

Protect base of vibrating machine against large unbalanced or impulsive forces

Protect system against motion of its foundation

Vibration Isolation • Protect base of vibrating machine against large unbalanced or impulsive forces F

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Protect base of vibrating machine against large unbalanced or impulsive forces F i

Protect base of vibrating machine against large unbalanced or impulsive forces

F

i

(t)

=

kx(t)

+

cx(t)

Protect system against motion of its foundation

F

i

(t) = mx(t)  = k[x(t) y(t)] + c[x(t) y(t)]

t ) − y ( t ) ] + c [ x ( t ) 
t ) − y ( t ) ] + c [ x ( t ) 
Vibration Isolation • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation • Resilient member placed between vibrating

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation • Resilient member placed between vibrating

Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation

• Resilient member placed between vibrating machine and rigid foundation

• Member is modeled as a spring k and a dashpot c as shown:

Member is modeled as a spring k and a dashpot c as shown: 28 © 2011
Vibration Isolation • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation • Reduction of force transmitted to

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation • Reduction of force transmitted to

Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation

• Reduction of force transmitted to foundation:

• Equation of motion:

+ + =

cx

kx

F cosωt

0

mx

x(t)= X cos(ωt −φ) • Steady state solution: F ω c  0 − 1
x(t)= X cos(ωt −φ)
• Steady state solution:
F
ω c
0
− 1
• where
X =
and
φ
= tan
(
2
)
2
2
2
 
k − m
ω
2 
k
m
ω
+
ω
c

• Force F t transmitted to the foundation:

F

t

(t) = kx(t)+ cx(t) = kX cos

(ωt φ)

cωX

sin

(ωt φ)

• Magnitude of total transmitted force F T :

F = ( ) 2 2 kx + ( cx  ) = X T
F
=
(
)
2
2
kx
+
(
cx 
)
=
X
T
2 2 2 F k + ω c 2 2 2 k + ω 0
2
2
2
F
k
+
ω
c
2
2
2
k
+
ω
0
c
=
(
2
)
2
2
2
k
m
ω
+
ω
c
Vibration Isolation • • • • • • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation Reduction

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • • • • • • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation Reduction of

Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation

Reduction of force transmitted to foundation:

Transmissibility

T

r

=

=

2 2 2 F k + ω c T = 2 ) 2 F (
2
2
2
F
k
+
ω
c
T
=
2
)
2
F
(
2
2
k
m
ω
+
ω
c
0
1 +
(
2
ζ
r
)
2
where r =
(
2
2
)
2
1
r
+
(
2
ζ
r
)

ω

ω

n

Following graphs shows the variation of T r with r.

Vibration Isolation • • • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation Reduction of force transmitted

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • • • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation Reduction of force transmitted to

Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation

Reduction of force transmitted to foundation:

Foundation Reduction of force transmitted to foundation: 31 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI
Vibration Isolation • • • • • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation Reduction of

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • • • • • Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation Reduction of force

Vibration Isolation System with Rigid Foundation

Reduction of force transmitted to mass:

mz+ cz+ kz = −mywhere z = x y

Displacement transmissibility

T d

=

X

Y

=

1 + ( ) 2 2 ζ r ( 2 ) 2 1 − r
1
+
(
)
2
2
ζ
r
(
2
)
2
1
r
+
(
2
ζ
r
) 2

T d is also the ratio of the maximum steady-state accelerations of the mass and the base.

Vibration Isolation • • • Isolation of Source of Vibration from Surroundings By defining 1

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • • • Isolation of Source of Vibration from Surroundings By defining 1 =

Isolation of Source of Vibration from Surroundings

By defining

1 = for r > T r 2 r − 1 ω 2 π N
1
=
for
r >
T r
2
r − 1
ω
2 π
N
δ
st
r =
=
ω
60
g
n
T r 2 r − 1 ω 2 π N δ st r = = ω

2 and smallζ

=

2 − R 1 − R
2 − R
1 − R

where

R

= 1

T

r

N =

30 g  2 −  π δ  1 − R st
30
g
 2 −
π δ
 1 − R
st

R =  29.9092

2 − R δ ( R) 1 − st
2 − R
δ
( R)
1
st
Vibration Isolation • Isolation of Source of Vibration from Surroundings (Isolation efficiency) • 34 ©

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Isolation of Source of Vibration from Surroundings (Isolation efficiency) • 34 © 2011

Isolation of Source of Vibration from Surroundings (Isolation efficiency)

34

of Vibration from Surroundings (Isolation efficiency) • 34 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI

© 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.4 • Spring Support for Exhaust Fan •An exhaust fan, rotating

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.4 • Spring Support for Exhaust Fan •An exhaust fan, rotating at

Example 9.4

Spring Support for Exhaust Fan

•An exhaust fan, rotating at 1000rpm, is to be supported by 4 springs, each having a stiffness of K. If only 10% of the unbalanced force of the fan is to be transmitted to the base, what should the value of K? Assume the mass of the exhaust fan to be

40kg.

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.4 • Spring Support for Exhaust Fan • Solution •Transmissibility =

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.4 • Spring Support for Exhaust Fan • Solution •Transmissibility = 0.1

Example 9.4 Spring Support for Exhaust Fan Solution

•Transmissibility = 0.1

0.1 =

•Forcing frequency

 

+ 

ζ

2

ω

ω

n

2

 

1

1

− 

ω

ω

n

2

2 2

 + 

2

 

ζ

ω

ω

n

1000

×

2

π

ω

=

= 104.72 rad/s

60

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.4 • Spring Support for Exhaust Fan • Solution •Natural frequency:

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.4 • Spring Support for Exhaust Fan • Solution •Natural frequency: k

Example 9.4 Spring Support for Exhaust Fan Solution

•Natural frequency: k K ω= = = n m 3.1623 •Assuming ζ=0, ± 1 0.1
•Natural frequency:
k
K
ω=
=
=
n
m
3.1623
•Assuming ζ=0,
± 1
0.1 =
2
  1 −   104.72
×
3.1623  
K
 
•To avoid imaginary values,
331.1561 =
3.3166 or
K =
K

9969.6365 N/m

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.8 • Isolation from Vibrating Base •A vibrating system is to

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.8 • Isolation from Vibrating Base •A vibrating system is to be

Example 9.8

Isolation from Vibrating Base

•A vibrating system is to be isolated from its supporting base. Find the required damping ratio that must be achieve by the isolator to limit the transmissibility at resonance to T r =4. Assume the system to have a single degree of freedom.

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.8 • Isolation from Vibrating Base • Solution •Setting ω =

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.8 • Isolation from Vibrating Base • Solution •Setting ω = ω

Example 9.8 Isolation from Vibrating Base Solution

•Setting ω=ω n ,

T

r

=

( 2 1 + 2 ζ )
(
2
1
+
2
ζ
)

2 ζ

or

ζ

=

1 1 = 2 2 T − 1 2 15 r
1
1
=
2
2
T
1
2
15
r

= 0.1291

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.11 • Isolation Under Shock •An electronic instrument of mass 20kg

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.11 • Isolation Under Shock •An electronic instrument of mass 20kg is

Example 9.11

Isolation Under Shock

•An electronic instrument of mass 20kg is subjected to a shock in the form of a step velocity of 2m/s. If the maximum allowable values of deflection (due to clearance limit) and acceleration are specified as 20mm and 25g respectively, determine the spring constant of an undamped shock isolator.

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.11 • Isolation Under Shock • Solution •Magnitude of velocity of

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.11 • Isolation Under Shock • Solution •Magnitude of velocity of mass:

Example 9.11

Isolation Under Shock

Solution

•Magnitude of velocity of mass:

•Magnitude of acceleration of mass:

displacement amplitude

x = Xω

max

n

x = Xω

max

n

where X is the

X

=

x

max

ω

n

<

0.02 or

ω

n

>

x

max

X

=

2

0.02

= 100 rad/s

2

X ω

n

(

25 9.81

100 rad/s

ω

n

)

=

245.25m/s

2

or

ω

n

110.7362 rad/s

 x max X
 x
max
X

=

245.25 0.02
245.25
0.02

= 110.7362 rad/s

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.11 • Isolation Under Shock • Solution •Selecting the value of

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Example 9.11 • Isolation Under Shock • Solution •Selecting the value of ω

Example 9.11 Isolation Under Shock Solution

•Selecting the value of ωn as 105.3681,

k

=

2

mω

n

=

20(105.3681)

2

=

5

2.2205 10 N/m

×

Vibration Isolation • Active Vibration Control • An active vibration isolation system is shown below.

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Active Vibration Control • An active vibration isolation system is shown below. 43

Active Vibration Control

• An active vibration isolation system is shown below.

• An active vibration isolation system is shown below. 43 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition
Vibration Isolation • Active Vibration Control • System maintains a constant distant between vibrating mass

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation • Active Vibration Control • System maintains a constant distant between vibrating mass and

Active Vibration Control

• System maintains a constant distant between vibrating mass and referee

• Depending on the types of sensor, signal processor and actuator used, the system can be electromechanical, electrofluidic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric or fluidic.

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at

Chapter Outline

Chapter Outline • Introduction • Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria • Reduction of Vibration at the

Introduction

Vibration Nomograph and Vibration Criteria

Reduction of Vibration at the source

Balancing of Rotating Machines

Whirling of Rotating Shafts

Balancing of Reciprocating Engines

Control of Vibration

Control of Natural Frequencies

Introduction of Damping

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Absorbers • When the excitation freq coincides with the ω n , the system

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • When the excitation freq coincides with the ω n , the system may

When the excitation freq coincides with the ω n , the system may experience excessive vibration.

Dynamic vibration absorber is another spring mass system designed to shift ω n of the resulting system away from the excitation freq.

Vibration Absorbers • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber m  x + m  x +

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber m  x + m  x + 1

Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

m  x + m  x +

1

2

1

2

k x

1

1

k

2

(

+

x

2

k

2

−

(

x

1

x

1

)

x

= 0

2

)

=

F

0

sin

ω t
ω
t
Vibration Absorbers • • • • • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber Assuming x j (

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • • • • • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber Assuming x j ( t

Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

Assuming

x

j

(t)=

X

j

sin

t,

ω

j = 1,2

Amplitude of masses:

X

X

(

)

 

k

2

m

2

ω

2

F

0

 

(

k

1

+

2

m

1

ω

2

k

)(

k

2

2

F

0

m

2

ω

2

)

k

2

2

k

1

+

k

2

m

1

ω

2

)(

k

2

m

2

ω

2

)

k

2

2

=

1 k

2 (

=

We want to reduce X 1 . Thus set numerator of X 1 to zero.

2

ω =

k

2

m

2

,

2

2

ω ω =

1

k

1

m

1

Vibration Absorbers • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • X 1 and X 2 can be

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • X 1 and X 2 can be rewritten

Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

X 1 and X 2 can be rewritten as:

X

1

δ st

X

2

δ st

=

=

 

2

 

1 − 

ω

ω

2

 

2

2

1

k

2

k

1

+ − 

ω

ω

2

 

 

1

1

− 

ω

ω

2

 −

k

2

k

1

1

k

+ − 

2

k

1

ω

ω

2

2

 

 

1

− 

ω

ω

2

2

 −

k

k

2

1

Vibration Absorbers • • • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber 2 peaks correspond to 2 ω

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • • • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber 2 peaks correspond to 2 ω n

Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

2 peaks correspond to 2 ω n of composite sys.

Absorber 2 peaks correspond to 2 ω n of composite sys. 50 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations
Vibration Absorbers • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • At X 1 =0, ω = ω

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • At X 1 =0, ω = ω 1

Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

• At X 1 =0, ω= ω 1 ,

X

2

=−

k

1

k

2

δ

st

=−

F

0

k

2

• Size of absorber can be found from:

k

2

X

2

= m

2

ω

2

X

2

=−F

0

• Absorber introduces 2 resonant frequencies Ω 1 and Ω 2 , at which the amplitudes are infinite.

• Values of Ω 1 and Ω 2 can be found by noting

k

2

k

1

=

k

2

m

2

m

2

m

1

m

1

k

1

=

m

2

m

1

ω

2

ω

1

2

Vibration Absorbers • • • • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber X Setting denominator of 1

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • • • • Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber X Setting denominator of 1 =

Undamped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

X Setting denominator of 1 = 0, δ st 4 2 2 2  
X
Setting denominator of
1 = 0,
δ st
4
2
2
2
ω
ω
ω
ω
  
2
2
2
1
+ 
1
+
m   
 + =
1
0
ω
ω
ω
m
 
 
−   
ω
 
2
1
2
1
1
2 roots of the equation:
2
2
2
2
2
Ω  
m  
ω
m  
ω
ω
1
+ 
1
+
2
2
 
1
+ 
1
+
2
1
2
 
2
− 4 
m
ω
ω
ω
  
m 1   
1
ω 1  
 
1
1
2
=
2
2
Ω  
ω
2 
2
2
ω
ω 1 
2
 
Vibration Absorbers • Example 9.15 • Vibration Absorber for Diesel Engine •A diesel engine, weighing

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Example 9.15 • Vibration Absorber for Diesel Engine •A diesel engine, weighing 3000

Example 9.15

Vibration Absorber for Diesel Engine

•A diesel engine, weighing 3000 N, is supported on a pedestal mount. It has been observed that the engine induces vibration into the surrounding area through its pedestal at an operating speed of 6000 rpm. Determine the parameters of the vibration absorber that will reduce the vibration when mounted on the pedestal. The magnitude of the exciting force is 250 N, and the amplitude of motion of the auxiliary mass is to be limited to 2 mm.

Vibration Absorbers • Example 9.15 • Vibration Absorber for Diesel Engine • Solution •We have

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Example 9.15 • Vibration Absorber for Diesel Engine • Solution •We have f

Example 9.15

Vibration Absorber for Diesel Engine

Solution

•We have

f

6000

=

60

= 100Hz or

ω=

628.32 rad/s

•Amplitude of motion of auxiliary mass is equal and opposite to that of the exciting force.

F

0

= m

2

ω

2

X

2

2

(

628.32

)(

2

0.002

)

250

m

k =

= m

2 = 0.31665 kg

2

ω

2

m = (628.32) (0.31665)

2

2

= 125009 N/m

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • Amplitude of machine can be reduced by

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • Amplitude of machine can be reduced by adding

Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

• Amplitude of machine can be reduced by adding a damped vibration absorber as shown.

be reduced by adding a damped vibration absorber as shown. 55 © 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth
Vibration Absorbers • • • • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber Equations of motion m 

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • • • • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber Equations of motion m  x

Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

Equations of motion

m  x

1

1

m  x

2

2

+

k x

1

1

+ k

2

(

+

x

2

Assume solution:

k

2

(

x

1

x

1

)

+

x

2

c

2

x

j

(t)=

)

+

c

(

x

2

2

2 −

e

X j

i

(

x

1

x

1

t

ω

)

,

= 0

x

2

)

=

F

0

j = 1,2

sin

ω t

Steady-state solutions:

X

X

=

1

=

2

(

k

2

)

F

0

2

ω

2

)

m

ic

+

]

2 ω

(

k

ω

1

m

1

ω

2

2

m

2

ω

2

m k

2

2

ω

2

+

ic

2

1

m

1

ω

2

m

2

ω

2

[(

k

)(

k

)

 

X

1

(

k

2

+

ic

2

ω

)

k

m

ω

2

+

ic

(

2

2

2

ω)

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber / m 1 / / k m 1

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber / m 1 / / k m 1 m

Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

/ m

1

/

/

k

m

1

m

2

Mass ratio

Absorber mass/main mass

µ

δ

= m

2

st

2

=

=

=

F

k

k

0

2

1

=

=

=

Static deflection of the system

=

ω

a

Square of natural frequency of absorber

2

ω

n

f =

g =

c

=

c

a

/

/

/

1

n

=

=

Square of natural frequency of main mass Ratio of natural frequencies

n

=

Forced frequency ratio

ω

n

=

Critcial damping constant

ω ω

ωω

2

m

2

ζ

=

c

2

/

c

c

=

Damping ratio

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber X 1 δ st X 2 δ st

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber X 1 δ st X 2 δ st =

Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

X

1

δ

st

X

2

δ st

=

=

 

(

ζ

2

g

) 2

+

(

g

2

f

2

)

2

(

ζ

2

g

)(

2

g

2

−+ 1

µ

g

2

)

2

+

[

f

µ

2

g

2

(

g

2

1

)(

g

2

f

2

)]

2

 

(

ζ

2

g

)

2

+

f

4

(

ζ

2

g

)(

2

g

2

−+ 1

µ

g

2

)

2

+

[

f

µ

2

g

2

(

g

2

1

)(

g

2

f

2

)] 2

g 2 − 1 )( g 2 − f 2 ) ] 2 58 © 2011
Vibration Absorbers • • • • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber If c 2 = ζ

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • • • • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber If c 2 = ζ =0,

Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

If c 2 =ζ=0, resonance occurs at 2 undamped resonant frequencies

If ζ=, m 2 and m 1 are clamped together and system behaves as 1-DOF system. Resonance occurs at

g =

ω 1 = ω 1 + µ n
ω 1
=
ω
1 +
µ
n

= 0.9759

All curves intersect at pt A and B which can be located by

g

4

2

g

2

 

1 +

f

2

+

µf

2

2 +

µ

 +

2 f

2 +

2

µ

= 0

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • The most efficient absorber (tuned vibration absorber)

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • The most efficient absorber (tuned vibration absorber) is

Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

• The most efficient absorber (tuned vibration absorber) is one where pts A and B coincides.

vibration absorber) is one where pts A and B coincides. • Make curve horizontal at either

• Make curve horizontal at either A or B.

• Set slope =0 at A and B:

 µ  µ  3 −  µ + 2   2 ζ
µ
µ 
3
µ
+
2
2
ζ
8
=
µ )
3
( 1 +
µ
µ 
3
+
µ
+
2
2
ζ
8
=
( 1 +
µ )
3

for point A

for point A

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • Average value of ζ 2 used in

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration Absorbers • Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber • Average value of ζ 2 used in design:

Damped Dynamic Vibration Absorber

• Average value of ζ 2 used in design:

2 3 µ ζ = optimal 8 ( µ ) 3 1 +  X
2 3
µ
ζ
=
optimal
8 (
µ )
3
1 +
 X 
2
1
1
= 
X  
=
1
+
δ
δ
µ
st
st
optimal
max
THE END
THE END

THE END