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HKDSE

Interactive Geography

Notes

Section 1

Opportunities and risks


Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

HKDSE Interactive Geography


Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009
Unit 1 Where can we find tectonic hazards?

Natural hazard
A natural hazard is an unusual ____________ phenomenon or process that could

cause loss of _______ and damage to ____________.


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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

In general, there are four types of natural hazards:

Examples

____________ hazards _________________, volcanic eruption and Tsunami

________________ hazards Landslide and Avalanche

Climatic hazards Typhoon, _____________ and _____________

______________ hazards Disease and locuts

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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Global distribution patterns of the tectonic hazards


Refer to Fig.1.4 and Fig.1.5 in Section 1 p.9

Scientists have identified two regions where tectonic hazards are most active. They

are:

This runs around the __________ Ocean. Most of the

earthquakes, volcanoes and sources of tsunamis on the

Earth can be found here.


1. The Circum-Pacific
It is known as the ___________________________
Belt
because many volcanoes are distributed in a circular

pattern around the Pacific Ocean.

This runs from the _______ in Europe to the

2. The Alpine- ________________ in South Asia. It is a zone with a


Himalayan Belt very active occurrence of earthquakes.

Tectonic hazards can be found as well in _________________ and the middle of

____________ Ocean.

The distribution of tectonic hazards coincides with

___________________________.

Refer to Fig.1.6 in Section 1 p.10

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Section 1
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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Unit 2 What are the causes of tectonic hazards?

Structure of our Earth


Refer to Fig.2.1 and Fig.2.2 in Section 1 p.14
Refer to Table 2.1 in Section 1 p.15

Our Earth can be divided into three main layers:

It is the ________________ part of the Earth, which is also the layer

of the Earths surface we _______ on.


It is a thin layer of brittle rock which consists of _________________
Crust
crust and ___________ crust.
Continental crust is ___________ and less _________ than oceanic

crust and it forms all continental landmasses on Earth.


It is the layer between the _________ and the _________.
It can be divided into two layers, the _________ mantle and the

_________ mantle.

Mantle The ____________________ of the upper mantle is in semimolten

state, while the rest of the upper and lower mantle is _________.
The uppermost part of the mantle, together with the crust on top, is

called the __________________.


It is the _________ of the planet, which is made of extremely dense

materials under high _________________ and ______________.


Core
The core is divided into two layers: the solid _________ core and

the molten _________ core.

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Plate tectonics theory


It is the study of plate __________________ and interaction, as well as crustal

formation and destruction which results in many ______________ we commonly find

on earth.
The theory also provides reasonable explanations of the causes of many __________

_____________.

Plates
Refer to Fig.2.5 in Section 1 p.17

The Earth is completely covered by a layer of _________. According to the plate

tectonics theory, the crust is made up of different pieces called tectonic plates or

_________.
The plates are large pieces of solid landmass floating on the __________________

which form the Earths surface.


A plate may be composed of ___________ crust or __________________ crust, or

both.
Some plates such as the ___________ Plate are dominated by oceanic crust. Other

plates such as the ____________ Plate are composed mainly of continental crust.

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Movement of plates
Refer to Fig.2.8 in Section 1 p.20

The movement of plates is driven by the _______________________________ in the

mantle.
Owing to the high temperature of the core, mantle material near the core is heated

and _______ up. As it comes closer to the top of the mantle, it cools slowly and

_____________. It is then heated again when it gets closer to the core.


In this way, the convection currents in the mantle are formed, providing strong forces

to drive the plates to _____________, _____________ or move _____________.

Different types of plate boundaries

It is formed where two adjacent plates move ________ from

each other, creating _______________ force in between.

1. Constructive _______________ is produced here as magma rises to the


plate boundaries Earths surface, cools and solidifies.
It is also called a _______________ plate boundary.

It is formed where two adjacent plates move ____________

each other, creating _______________ force in between.


As two plates collide, the higher-density plate will ________
2. Destructive
beneath the lower-density plate. The denser plate is then
plate boundaries
pushed into the mantle and __________.
It is also known as a _______________ plate boundary.

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It is formed where two adjacent plates ______________ one

3. Conservative another laterally along a transform fault.


plate boundaries _________ stress is created along the boundary but no crust is

formed nor destroyed.

Types of plate boundaries

Processes associated with plate movements

3.1 Folding
When ___________________ forces are applied to rock, the rock will be folded and

deformed.
Folding takes place on different scales:

- Small-scale folds can be found in various places in Hong Kong, such as

___________________ and ___________________.

- On a global scale, we can find __________________________ such as the

Himalayas and the Andes, which are formed by the collision of two landmasses.

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Rock before folding

Rock after folding

3.2 Faulting
Faulting occurs along the ____________________________ of rocks.
When tensional force, compressional force or shear stress is greater than the rock

can withstand, the rock will break along the __________________ and faulting

occurs. This causes the rock to _______________ either vertically or horizontally.

Rock after faulting

___________________ and _________________________ are the most typical

large-scale landforms that are formed by faulting.

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Formation of rift valley

Before After

Tensional

force

Compressiona

l force

Formation of block mountain

Before After

Tensional

force

Compressiona

l force

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3.3 Vulcanicity

Refer to Fig.2.16 in Section 1 p.25

Plate movements and their associated tectonic forces produce _________________

________________ in the crust. As a result, magma and gases in the mantle either

___________ onto the Earths surface or ___________ into the Earths crust. This

process is called vulcanicity.


The most conspicuous landform related to vulcanicity on the Earths surface is a

___________.

Landforms can be found at constructive plate boundaries

1. Rift valleys
When two continental crusts are _________________ by tensional forces,

__________ are formed in the middle and the crust is split into huge blocks.
As the two crusts move further apart, the huge blocks of crust _______ due to

gravity. A rift valley is thereby formed.


Example: ______________________________________
______________ can be found along the rift valley as magma rises up through lines

of weakness, while ________ are also created at some deeper locations of the rift

valley.

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Formation of a rift valley

Refer to the case study of East African Rift Valley in Section 1 p.30

2. Mid-oceanic ridges
Under the sea, when two oceanic crusts _________________ from each other,

___________ rises up from the mantle through lines of weakness to the surface.

Then it cools and solidifies to form _______________.


As the uprising of magma continues, newly formed crust is gradually pushed away

from the plate boundary. This process is called

______________________________.
Repeated uprising and solidification of magma form

__________________________.
Examples: _________________________________ and the East Pacific Rise

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Crust moves __________

Formation of a mid-oceanic ridge

Refer to the case study of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Section 1 p.31


Refer to the case study of the East Pacific Rise in Section 1 p.32

3. Volcanoes and volcanic islands


Volcanoes are often found at the ______________________ where hot magma can

rise to the Earths surface through lines of weakness.


Volcanic islands are formed when volcanoes on the sea floor emerge at the

___________________ after repeated eruptions.


Examples: ___________ and Easter Island

Formation of a volcanic island


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Landforms can be found at destructive plate boundaries

When a continental crust collides with an oceanic crust, the crust with higher density

(___________ crust) is pushed beneath the crust with lower density

(_______________ crust).
The denser crust then sinks into the hot mantle and melts. This process is known as

_________________ and a subduction zone is created.

Crust of ___________
density is subducted

Cross section of a subduction zone

When two _______________ crusts collide, no subduction zone is formed. Instead,

sediments and crustal materials at the plate margin are pushed up to form ________

_______________.

13
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1. Ocean trenches

Refer to Fig.2.30 in Section 1 p.34

Along subduction zones, long and narrow undersea ___________ are formed,

running ______________ to plate boundaries. These are known as ocean trenches.

2. Volcanoes and island arcs


Volcanoes are also common on the Earths surface above _______________ zones.
Melted crustal materials at a subduction zone are _______________ than the

mantle. Therefore, they rise to the Earths surface along cracks in the crust and form

______________.
These volcanoes usually form a curved chain running parallel to the plate

boundaries, therefore known as _________________ (over the sea) or

_____________________ (over a continent).

Refer to the case study of Island arc - Japan in Section 1 p.34

Ocean trench, volcano and island arc are formed when two oceanic
crusts collide

14
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3. Fold mountains

a. Oceanic- continental collision


When a continental crust collides with an oceanic crust, the oceanic crust

_____________ into the mantle due to higher density.


The sedimentary rocks on the ocean floor are compressed, __________ and pushed

up to form a mountain belt called a ______________________ range. It runs parallel

to the _________________________.
Example: _______________ in South America

Refer to the case study of the Andes in Section 1 p.35

b. Continental- continental collision

Refer to Fig.2.35 in Section 1 p.36

When two continental crusts collide, ___________ one is pushed into the mantle

because of similar density.


The __________________ rocks and crustal materials are crushed,

_______________ and pushed upward to form a huge fold mountain range.


As there is no subduction, _______________ and volcanic eruptions are absent at

this type of plate boundary (continental-continental collision), but ________________

are quite common.


Example: ______________________

Refer to the case study of the Himalayas in Section 1 p.36

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50 million
years ago

Present

Formation of the Himalayas

Landforms can be found at conservative plate boundaries

Transform faults
When two plates slide past each

other ___________, _________

stress builds up along the plate

boundary.
If the stress is too great, the plates

will ______________ and produce a

transform fault along which many

________________ occur.
Example: _______________________
Structure of a transform fault

Refer to the case study of San Andreas Fault


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in Section 1 p.38

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Natural hazards found along plate boundaries

1. Earthquakes
An earthquake is a _______________________ of the ground.
As plates move, __________________ and _______________ force or _________

stress will develop along plate boundaries.


Stress is created and accumulated at the plate boundary until the plate

______________. This sudden release of stress produces ____________________

which propagate in all directions, causing the ground to shake (earthquake).


The point where the crust suddenly fractures and releases seismic waves is called a

_________, and the point on the Earths surface vertically above the focus is known

as an _______________.

Refer to Fig.2.43 in Section 1 p.40

Earthquakes which occur at _________________ and _________________ plate

boundaries are limited to the areas along the plate boundary, and they are mainly

shallow-focus earthquakes.
At _________________ plate boundaries, subduction of one plate creates an

earthquake zone deep in the crust. Earthquakes of various depths can be found

here. The area affected by earthquakes is also much _________.

Refer to Fig.2.45 in Section 1 p.41

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2. Volcanic eruptions
Convection currents in the mantle drift the plates to converge or diverge. As a result,

strong tensional and compressional forces are exerted on the crusts at the plate

boundaries, creating __________________________.


When the _____________ beneath the Earths surface becomes very high, magma

and gases are pushed up to the surface through lines of weakness or vents, causing

a _______________________.
When a volcano erupts, ________ (such as sulphur dioxide), _______ and

__________________ are ejected.


Violent eruptions may also cause __________________ and _______________.

3. Tsunamis

Refer to Fig.2.47 in Section 1 p.42

Tsunamis are very __________________ caused by geological activities.


Most tsunamis are triggered by strong __________________ that occur under the

sea floor, whereas some are caused by particularly violent ________________

______________ or landslides under the sea.


The dramatic tremor in the sea produces big waves, but they are usually not

noticeable in deep sea. The waves become prominent when they reach the

_______________, causing devastating effects on the coastal areas.


As the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are most frequent at the plate boundaries,

most of the __________ of tsunamis are also found there.


The coastal areas around the _________ Ocean are especially vulnerable to

tsunamis due to active tectonic activities in the region.

19
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Reasons that some earthquakes located far away from plate boundaries

Intraplate earthquakes are earthquakes which occur

within the ___________ part of plates.


The causes of intraplate earthquakes:

- In general, many of these earthquakes are the


1. Intraplate earthquakes
result of fault rupture or

____________________ in fault zones.

Refer to Fig.2.49 in Section 1 p.46

Human activities and artificial structures may trigger

earthquakes due to exertion of ____________ on

land.
Examples:

2. Human activities - the heavy weight of water stored in a large

______________

- violent explosions caused by humans, such as

__________________________

20
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Reasons that some volcanic eruptions not happen along plate


boundaries

Hot spots
Refer to Fig.2.51 in Section 1 p.48

The formation of hot spots is caused by _________ heat distributions in the mantle.
______________ of hot material are buoyant enough to rise from the mantle to the

Earths surface through an opening. Therefore, ______________ activities are

common at hot spots.


Hot spots can be found both at plate boundaries and in the ___________ of plates.

The positions of some hot spots remain relatively ________.


As tectonic plates move over a fixed column of hot mantle material, a chain of

______________ following the direction of plate movement will be formed.


Example: ______________

Refer to Fig.2.52 and 2.53 in Section 1 p.48

21
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Unit 3 What are the effects of tectonic hazards?

Factors affecting the power of tectonic hazards

1.1 Characteristics of the hazard events

Magnitude:

- the ___________ released by an earthquake

- usually measured on the __________________


Intensity:

- the ______________ caused by an earthquake

to human settlements and natural environment

- usually measured on the __________________

_____________________________________

- The higher number of the scales, the

___________ the destruction.


1. Magnitude
a. Earthquakes Refer to Table 3.1 in Section 1 p.53
and intensity
The intensity of an earthquake depends on two

factors:

- distance from the _______________

- _________ of the earthquake


Usually the closer to the epicentre, the

__________ the intensity an area will experience.


An earthquake with a _____________ focus brings

more destructive effects than a deep earthquake.

Refer to Fig.3.1 and Fig.3.2 in Section 1 p.52

22
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The _______ that a volcano erupts affects its power of

destruction.
In general, volcanic eruptions can be classified as

b. Volcanic ______________ and ___________.


eruptions Most explosive volcanic eruptions are found along

_______________ plate boundaries, and they usually

cause greater damage than gentle eruptions.

The power of a tsunami is determined by the

______________ of its sources.


If the tsunami is triggered by an earthquake, the
1. Magnitude
and intensity greater the _______________ of the earthquake, the

bigger the tsunami.


Coastal regions with _______________ relief will be

damaged more significantly by the big waves.


c. Tsunamis
The intensity of a tsunami is usually represented by its

___________________, i.e. the maximum height of

the waves.
In general, the greater the run-up height, the further

___________ the waves will reach, leading to more

damage and casualties.

23
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Frequency of occurrence means how ________ a hazard recurs.


A volcano may remain _____________ for decades since its previous
2. Frequency eruption.
of
occurrence
Earthquakes recur more often especially along the area of plate

_______________.

Refer to Table 3.2 in Section 1 p.54


Duration measures how _______ a hazard event lasts.

3. Duration In general, the __________ the duration, the more damage can be

possibly brought.
Areal extent refers to the ______ of an area impacted by a hazard

event.
4. Areal
While volcanic eruptions are usually ______________ events,
extent
earthquakes under oceans may trigger tsunamis that affect all coastal

regions around the ocean.


Speed of onset means how ______ a hazard event occurs.
5. Speed of
Tectonic hazards usually occur in a ___________ and this makes
onset
prediction and warning difficult.

1.2 Societal conditions of the affected areas

The ___________ the population density of an affected area, the


1. Population
greater the casualties and economic loss that will be caused by
density
the event.
2. Preparedness If citizens of an affected area ________________ for the hazard,
of people they will know how to react properly when a hazard occurs.

24
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Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

If a place is equipped with ______________________________

_______________ systems for hazards, scientists can give


3. Monitoring
and warning warnings before a hazard occurs.
system
This can help reduce the ________________ and economic

losses through earlier evacuation and proper preparations.

The effects of earthquakes

1. Primary effects

effects that happen ________________ and directly as a result of ground shaking.

Along the active fault line where an earthquake occurs, ground


a. Fault rupture
and deformation of surfaces may rupture and ___________, causing cracks and
ground
_________________.
_________________________ is a direct result of energy

released from the focus when seismic waves reach the ground

b. Ground shaking surface.


Such shaking may destroy buildings and other structures at the

_______________ or areas nearby.


_________________ often follow an earthquake.
These tremors may continue for several _________________
c. Aftershocks
____________, causing further destruction to affected areas.

Refer to the case study in Section 1 p.58

25
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2. Secondary effects

the impacts and damage caused by the primary ____________

_______________effect

When there is a violent shaking of ground, _________

materials and debris on slopes may move down.


a. Landslides
Large-scale landslides will be triggered in areas with ________

relief and unstable slopes.


During an earthquake, the pressure of

____________________ increases.
If the soil is poorly compacted, ____________

_________________ may occur when soil particles mix with


b. Soil liquefaction
ground water.
The strength of the soil in supporting the ________________

of buildings will be severely weakened. Therefore, buildings

may ________ and collapse.


A strong earthquake may damage ________ or other

waterworks along a river.

c. Flooding The water from the river or reservoir would then __________

downstream areas in a very short time, leading to casualties

and economic losses.


If the earthquake occurs under the sea, the tremor may cause
d. Tsunamis
a _______________.

26
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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Cities are linked by many highways, railways and road

networks. All these transport networks form important

e. Disruption of ______________ to a city.


transport Any damage to the lifelines will make ________ more difficult

and delay resumption of normal life.

______________________ through telephone and Internet

may be interrupted if the earthquake damages underground

f. Disruption of cables.
communications This reduces the ______________ of rescue and contributes

to further economic loss.

If an urbanised area is struck by an earthquake,

______________ and ________________ networks will be

damaged.
g. Fire hazards
________ may break out as a result of gas leakage or

electrical short circuits. This may lead to more casualties.

If there is no prompt action to bury dead bodies and maintain

supplies of clean water after an earthquake, ____________


h. Disease and
and ____________ like malaria may spread among victims
epidemics
which cause further casualties and suffering.

27
Section 1
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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

The effects of volcanic eruptions

1. Short term effects


Lava flow can endanger our lives and cause extensive

___________________ loss.
Less ____________ lava can move at speeds of up to 50 km

a. Lava flows per hour on steep slopes, and can spread quickly over tens of

kilometres from the volcano. The lava will _______

everything it passes through.

When a volcano erupts, mixtures of ______________,

_____________ rock fragments and ______________

_______ are ejected from the volcano.


These pyroclastic materials, together with hot gases, travel

downhill at high speed due to gravity. This is known as a

________________________.
b. Pyroclastic
The high temperature of gases and large pieces of rock
flows and ash fall
(________________________) may kill people.
The volcanic ash blows into the atmosphere to form

________________________. Areas around the volcano will

be covered with __________________ _______ when it is

deposited. Daily lives of people are seriously disturbed.

28
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Active volcanoes produce large amounts of _________

___________ and gases such as _______________

____________, ________________________, hydrogen

sulphide and carbon monoxide.


Carbon dioxide can drive oxygen away, making humans and

c. Gases animals ____________.


Acid gases like sulphur dioxide may attack our

________________ system and also cause

__________________ which damage the environment.


Some gases emitted are even _______________, such as

hydrogen sulphide.
When large amounts of volcanic ash and dust are injected

into the atmosphere, they act as

___________________________________ which speed the

d. Thunderstorms formation of water droplets, causing heavy rainstorms and


and mudflow __________________.
____________ occurs when volcanic materials are mixed

with rainwater and flow quickly through river valleys and low-

lying areas.
Landslides may occur when the slope of the volcano is

e. Landslides ________ and ____________, or when the eruption is

particularly violent.

29
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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Before or during a volcanic eruption, the release of

accumulated ____________ and gases under the ground

f. Earthquakes may cause violent shaking of the crust, resulting in

__________________.

If a volcanic eruption occurs under the sea, the great shock

generated may trigger a ____________.

g. Tsunamis __________________________ regions may suffer severe

damage as a result.

2. Long term effects

During a volcanic eruption, large amounts of volcanic ash are

ejected into the stratosphere where it reflects

____________________________________________ back

to space. This leads to a regional or even a global _______


a. Drop in global
in air temperature.
temperature
As it takes a very long time for the ash to settle, local and

global ___________ may be affected for several years as a

result of a volcanic eruption.

30
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When a volcano erupts, ______________________ in

magma are released. When these gases, particularly sulphur

dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, are mixed with rainwater,

b. Acid rain ________________ results.


This may destroy natural ___________ and damage human

___________________.

A volcanic eruption often destroys nearby ___________

c. Destruction of ____________ directly.


natural habitats Ecological ___________________ may take decades.

Apart from the deaths caused by direct hazards like

pyroclastic flow, a volcanic eruption may bring further deaths


d. Famines and
due to ___________ and epidemic, particularly in _______
epidemics
developed countries.

31
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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Benefits brought by volcanic eruptions

The volcanic ash and lava ejected during an eruption

are rich in _____________.

a. Fertile soil This makes the farmlands near volcanoes more

___________ and good for farming.

Volcanic eruptions may produce different landforms,

such as ______________________ and

_________________.
b. Attractive landforms
These scenic landforms, together with
for tourists
__________________ near them, are attractive to

tourists.

The high temperatures brought by underground magma

flows make the use of ___________________________


c. Geothermal energy
possible, which is beneficial to humans.

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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

The effects of tsunamis

1. Short term effects

When a series of tsunami waves rush ashore, the strong

__________ actions will sweep everything on the shore

towards inland.
This causes direct destruction of ___________

__________________ and the environments along the

__________. Most deaths are caused by ________________


a. Sweep effect
when the waves sweep ashore.
The destruction caused by sweep effect is more significant

along coastal areas with _________ relief.


Sea waves may reach several kilometres ___________ in

case of large-scale tsunami, causing massive destruction.

A tsunami may also bring temporary _______________ to the

affected areas when a lot of sea water rushes inland.

b. Flooding Most flooding ends when the _______________ returns to

normal.

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2. Long term effects

After a devastating tsunami, the ____________ of affected


a. Change of
areas may be changed permanently.
coastline

The ________________________ may also be seriously

affected.

b. Damage of the Example: ________________ may be destroyed by large


ecosystem waves during the passage of a tsunami. Such damage may

take decades to recover.

After a tsunami, _________________ activities in affected

areas will be interrupted or even halted.


The more serious the damage to ___________________, the
c. Interruption of slower the resumption of normal economic activities.
the local
economy
Tourists may also avoid visiting places where a tsunami has

just occurred. This slows economic recovery of the affected

areas, especially for those that rely heavily on ____________.

Refer to the case stud of 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Section 1 p.72

34
Section 1
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Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Measures used to reduce the impact of tectonic hazards

3.1 Preparatory measures before hazard events

Advanced __________________ allows us to better

understand how and what precursors may take place before

the onset of hazards.


Earth scientists can use different instruments and technologies

to monitor the _______________ before a volcanic eruption,

such as changes in the underground water level,

_____________ of the volcano, or volcanic gas emissions.


1. Monitoring and
predicting Although it is still very difficult to predict the exact time and
systems
place of an earthquake, a network of __________________

stations may give scientists up-to-date information on crustal

activities for further research.


This also helps locate the ________________ of earthquakes

more accurately and increase the efficiency of rescue

operations.

2. Issue warnings With the help of monitoring and predicting systems, scientists

are able to issue timely ____________, especially for volcanic

eruptions and tsunamis.


Governments can ______________ affected populations

before the hazard occurs to reduce the number of casualties.


To monitor tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean region, the ________

____________________________________ has been set up.

- The centre monitors the earthquakes occurring around the

Pacific Ocean and assesses their possibilities of triggering


35
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

____________.

- It will issue ____________ to the governments of affected

countries when necessary.

Refer to Fig.3.29 in Section 1 p.78


Scientists have analysed the chance of hazards occurring at

different places. Such information can be presented in the form


3. Risk
of ____________________.
assessment
mapping The ________________________ mapping can help people

prepare better for possible hazards in the future.

Refer to Fig.3.30 in Section 1 p.79


Risk assessment mapping done on a local scale can be used

by governments for ________________________.


Areas with a higher risk of hazards can be identified on a

hazard map. Planners can zone these areas for

________________ development with fewer human


4. Land use
settlements and activities.
zoning
Example: Along the coastal areas vulnerable to tsunami

attacks, _________ zones such as green belts can be

designated. This can reduce the impact of hazards when they

occur.

Refer to Fig.3.31 and Fig.3.32 in Section 1 p.79

36
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

A government should ____________ its citizens about potential

hazards and their signs and impact.


5. Education and
____________________ should be conducted so that people
drills
know what actions (e.g. evacuation) should be taken to protect

themselves if a hazard occurs.


Casualties can be reduced by improving building designs with

reinforced structures, such as _______________,

6. Improve _______________ and base isolators.


building design Governments should set up ______ and _______________ to
and set up
building ensure all new buildings are built with designs that can
regulations withstand strong earthquakes, especially in

____________________ regions.

Refer to Fig.3.37a and b in Section 1 p.82


We can buy _______________ in advance to reduce economic

losses caused by the hazard.


7. Buy insurance
The money recovered can be used for __________________

after the hazard.

3.2 Immediate actions after hazard events

After a hazard, prompt __________ actions can save many

lives and good ___________ services can ensure a greater


1. Prompt rescue chance of survival.
and medical
services
The government should organise efficient __________

_______ equipped with the most advanced tools to minimise

casualties.

37
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Survivors of a hazard event are often ________________ and

lack basic necessities.


Therefore, it is important for the government to provide them

2. Efficient aid with ____________________ such as shelters, clean water,


and clean-up food and other necessities. ___________ must be maintained

in affected areas.
These measures can help prevent deaths caused by

___________ and outbreak of ___________ after a hazard.

3.3 Remedial measures after hazard events

After a hazard, _____________________ and human


1. Implementation settlements may be severely damaged.
of rehabilitation
programmes
The government needs to carry out comprehensive

________________ programmes to rebuild the affected areas.


While physical damage can be recovered in a short period of

time, ___________________________ of the survivors may

last for a long time.


Many people may have lost family members and friends in the
2. Help people
overcome hazard, or have suffered great economic losses. Such
traumatic ______________ experiences make it difficult for them to
experiences
return their lives to normal.
_______________ services should be provided to help them

recover from such painful experiences.

Refer to Fig.3.41 in Section 1 p.84


Refer to the case study of 1995 Kobe earthquake in Section 1 p.85

38
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Factors affecting the effectiveness of these measures


Sometimes scientists may issue false warnings due to

_______________ predictions, while in other cases hazards

come unexpectedly and cause serious casualties.


This is especially true for the prediction of ________________,

1. Technological as the technologies available today are still unable to predict


limitations the exact location, magnitude and time of potential

earthquakes.
For volcanic eruptions and tsunamis, the warnings are

relatively more accurate but still not entirely ___________.

Many administrative measures such as defining building

regulations and formulating evacuation plans should be done

by the _________________.

2. Government Therefore, the effectiveness of these measures depends


enforcement heavily on ___________________ by government officials.
If they do not fully implement the measures, _______________

will be reduced.

________________ and regular ________ are important

measures to help citizens become familiar with actions to take

3. Participation when hazards occur.


by the public However, this requires ___________________________ by

the public.

39
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Even if an advanced prediction system can give accurate

predictions of dangerous hazard events, casualties cannot be


4. Adoption of reduced if there is no proper plan of ____________________
appropriate
measures or ___________________ are too weak to withstand the

hazards.

Adequate ___________________ are very important to make


5. Adequate
measures effective.
preparations

The success of all measures used to minimise the impacts of

natural hazards depends on the ________________ strength

of the government.
If the government does not have enough money to fully carry
6. Financial
out the programmes and measures needed, their effectiveness
constraints
will be _____________.
This explains why _______ developed countries are more

vulnerable to natural hazards.

40
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Unit 4 The choice to live in hazard-prone areas

Reasons for less developed areas suffer more from natural hazards
Less developed areas are usually ___________.
Although there are many measures to reduce the impact of

natural hazards, most of them are too __________________

for the less developed areas to adopt.

1. Socio-economic The lack of _______________ also leads to other problems,


gap such as inadequate medical services and inefficient rescue

after hazards.
The governments are also unable to have their properties

insured due to ______________ limitations.

Many less developed areas lack ______________ to buy or

develop the equipment needed.


This creates a __________________________ between the
2. Technological
less developed and the more developed areas. Therefore,
gap
the less developed areas are poorly prepared for the

hazards.

Communication and infrastructure such as transport networks

are less _____________ in less developed areas, especially


3. Poor
in remote villages.
communication
and infrastructure This makes prompt ___________ more difficult and

increases the number of casualties when hazards occur.

41
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Citizens in less developed areas usually have _______

education. Some of them are even _____________.


4. Low literacy
level and lack of Therefore, they have little knowledge about natural hazards
awareness
and they are unable to _____________ for and ___________

themselves from the hazards properly.


Many government officials in less developed areas do not

_________ very well how to prepare for natural hazards.


________ and regulations that can reduce the impact of

hazards (such as land use zoning and emergency plans) may


5. Poor governance
be absent.
________________ is often common in less developed

areas, which makes enforcement of regulations against

hazards less effective.

International cooperation helping less developed areas tackle hazards


International organisations, science agencies and more developed areas can help the

less developed areas better prepare for hazards through ____________________

______________, _______________ transfers and _____________ aid.


Other _____________ organisations such as International Federation of Red Cross

and Red Crescent Societies, Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF) and World Vision also

pay attention to hazards around the world, particularly in less developed areas.
They provide immediate _________________ and _______________ to the people

who suffer from hazards. Community _________________ programmes are also

offered.

42
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Causes driving people leave a hazard-prone area


People who have _________________ a major disaster in

the past may feel scared of having another one in the future.

1. Past experience To avoid this frightening experience, they may choose to


of hazards leave that location and move to a place where they feel

__________.

With the help of advanced technology and past hazard

records, we can identify _____________ locations.


2. High probability
People can choose to move to the low-risk region so as to
of having hazards
___________ their exposure to natural hazards.

Reasons for people still live in hazard-prone areas


There are many _______________________ in areas

along the plate boundaries.


Deposition of volcanic ash and the weathering of

solidified lava around volcanoes form ____________

soil.
1. Supply of natural
___________ deposits are formed in areas with large-
resources
scale active tectonic activities.
___________________ energy resources can also be

developed in volcanically active regions.


Landforms such as hot springs and volcanoes, are also

good attractions for ____________.

43
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Some hazard-prone areas lie within climatic zones

which are good for _____________ activities and


2. Good climate
_________________ to live in, i.e. tropical and

subtropical regions.
Some high-risk areas, such as big cities in the USA and

Japan, have a long ____________ of development.

They are well-developed with good infrastructure and

facilities, giving a higher


3. Well-developed with
___________________________ and attract a lot of
good facilities
people.
These cities usually have developed a good mechanism

to _____________ natural hazards. People are less

willingly to move to other places.


In less developed areas, such as the Philippines and

Indonesia, people are too ________ to migrate to other


4. _________________
places. They have no choice but to stay and live with the

risk of natural hazards where they are.


People often do not want to change their living places

because of established ___________ networks, career

and ________________ ties.


5. _________________
Unless a threat is ______________ and serious, they

will choose to stay in the place where they are used to

living.

44
Section 1
Opportunities and risks
Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

Many people think it is unlikely for them to experience a

big natural hazard event.


However, the possibility of a big one does exist, and
6. __________________
past records cannot provide accurate
of hazards
_________________ for the time and magnitude of

future events.

There is no place that is completely free of natural

hazards.

7. __________________ Therefore, many people think there is very ________

____________________ they can do to avoid hazards. They will remain where

____________________ they are as long as the risk of hazards is acceptable to

them.

45