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Chapter 9

PRESTRESSEDCONCRETESTRUCTURES

PartADesign
9.1 Scope

9.1.1 Provisionsofthischaptershallapplytomembersprestressedwithwires,strands,orbarsconformingto
thespecificationsofprestressingtendonsgiveninArticle9.5.1.3.

9.1.2 Allprovisionsofthiscodenotspecificallyexcluded,andnotinconflictwithprovisionsofthisChapter9,
shallapplytoprestressedconcrete.

9.2 Definitions
ACTION: Mechanical force or environmental effect to which the structure (or structural component) is
subjected.
AERODYNAMIC SHAPE FACTOR: Factor to account for the effect of geometry of structure on the surface
pressureduetowind.
ANALYSIS (ASSESSMENT): Acceptable methods of evaluating the performance indices or verifying the
complianceofspecificcriteria.
ANCHORAGE: In posttensioning, a mechanical device used to anchor the tendon to the concrete; in
pretensioning,adeviceusedtoanchorthetendonuntiltheconcretehasreachedapredeterminedstrength,
andtheprestressingforcehasbeentransferredtotheconcrete;forreinforcingbars,alengthofreinforcement,
oramechanicalanchororhook,orcombinationthereofattheendofabarneededtotransfertheforcecarried
bythebarintotheconcrete.
ANCHORAGE BLISTER: A buildup area on the web, flange, or flangeweb junction for the incorporation of
tendonanchoragefittings.
ANCHORAGE ZONE: The portion of the structure in which the prestressing force is transferred from the
anchoragedeviceontothelocalzoneoftheconcrete,andthendistributedmorewidelyinthegeneralzoneof
thestructure.
ATJACKING:Atthetimeoftensioningtheprestressingtendons.
ATLOADING:Thematurityoftheconcretewhenloadsareapplied.Suchloadsincludeprestressingforcesand
permanentloadsbutgenerallynotliveloads.
ATTRANSFER:Immediatelyafterthetransferofprestressingforcetotheconcrete.
AUTOGENEOUS SHRINKAGE: Volume decrease due to loss of water in the hydration process causing negative
porepressureinconcrete.
BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION: The physical or chemical degradation of concrete due to the effect of organic
matterssuchasbacteria,lichens,fungi,moss,etc.
BLEEDING: Segregation between water and the other ingredients in concrete causing water to rise up to the
surfaceofthefreshlyplacedconcrete.
BONDEDMEMBER:Aprestressedconcretememberinwhichtendonsarebondedtotheconcreteeitherdirectly
orthroughgrouting.

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BONDED POSTTENSIONING: Posttensioned construction in which the annular space around the tendons is
groutedafterstressing,therebybondingthetendontotheconcretesection.
BONDEDTENDON:Prestressingtendonthatisbondedtoconcreteeitherdirectlyorthroughgrouting.
BURSTING FORCE: Tensile forces in the concrete in the vicinity of the transfer or anchorage of prestressing
forces.
CARBONATION:Actioncausedbychemicalreactionbetweencalciumhydroxideinconcreteandcarbondioxide
intheenvironment,resultinginadensersurfaceforthecarbonatedconcreteandreductionofalkalinityinthe
carbonatedportion.
CASTINPLACECONCRETE:Concreteplacedinitsfinalpositioninthestructurewhilestillinaplasticstate.
CHARACTERISTICSTRENGTH:Unlessotherwisestatedinthiscode,thecharacteristicstrengthofmaterialrefers
tothevalueofthestrengthbelowwhichnoneofthetestresultsshouldfallbelowbymorethan15%or3.5MPa
for35MPaconcrete,and10%or3.5MPafor35Mpaconcrete,whicheverislarger.
CHEMICAL ADMIXTUREs: Admixtures which are usually used in small quantities typically in the form of liquid
andcanbeaddedtotheconcretebothatthetimeofmixingandbeforeplacingtoimprovevariousconcrete
propertiessuchasworkability,aircontentanddurability,etc.
CLOSELY SPACED ANCHORAGES: Anchorage devices are defined as closely spaced if their centre to centre
spacingdoesnotexceed1.5timesthewidthoftheanchoragedevicesinthedirectionconsidered.
CLOSURE: A placement of castinplace concrete used to connect two or more previously cast portions of a
structure.
COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION: Concrete components or concrete and steel components interconnected to
respondtoforceeffectsasaunit.
COMPRESSIONCONTROLLED SECTION: A crosssection in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension
steelatnominalresistanceislessthanorequaltothecompressioncontrolledstrainlimit.
COMPRESSIONCONTROLLEDSTRAINLIMIT:Thenettensilestrainintheextremetensionsteelatbalancedstrain
conditions.
CONCRETECOVER:Thespecifiedminimumdistancebetweenthesurfaceofthereinforcingbars,strands,post
tensioningducts,anchorages,orotherembeddeditems,andthesurfaceoftheconcrete.
CONFINEMENT: A condition where the disintegration of the concrete under compression is prevented by the
developmentoflateraland/orcircumferentialforcessuchasmaybeprovidedbyappropriatereinforcingsteel
orcompositetubes,orsimilardevices.
CONFINEMENT ANCHORAGE: Anchorage for a posttensioning tendon that functions on the basis of
containmentoftheconcreteintheanchoragezonebyspecialreinforcement.
CREEP:Timedependentdeformationofconcreteunderpermanentload.
CREEPCOEFFICIENT:Theratioofcreepstraintoelasticstraininconcrete.
CREEPINCONCRETE:Increaseinstrainwithtimeinconcretesubjectedtosustainedstress.
CURVATUREFRICTION:Frictionresultingfrombendsorcurvesinthespecifiedprestressingtendstageatwhich
thecompressivestressesonprofile.
DAMAGECONTROL:Ameanstoensurethatthelimitstaterequirementismetforrestorabilityorrepairability
ofastructure.
DECOMPRESSION:Thestageatwhichthecompressivestresses,inducedprestress,areovercomebythetensile
stresses.
DEEPCOMPONENT:componentsinwhichthedistancefromthepointof0.0sheartothefaceofthesupportis
lessthan2dorcomponentsinwhichaloadcausingmorethanonethirdoftheshearatasupportiscloserthan
2dfromthefaceofthesupport.
DEFORMABILITY:Atermexpressingtheabilityofconcretetodeform.
DEGREEOFDETERIORATION:Theextenttowhichtheperformanceofastructureisdegradedortheextentto
which the deterioration has progressed from the time of construction, as a result of its exposure to the
environment.
DESIGN LIFE: Assumed period for which the structure is to be used satisfactorily for its intended purpose or
functionwithanticipatedmaintenancebutwithoutsubstantialrepairbeingnecessary.

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DETERIRATIONFACTOR:Thefactoraffectingthedeteriorationprocess.
DETERIRATIONINDEX:Anindexselectedforestimatingandevaluatingtheextentofthedeteriorationprocess.
DETERIORATIONPREDICTION:Prediction of the future rateofdeterioration of a structurebased on resultsof
inspectionandrelevantrecordsmadeduringthedesignandconstructionstages.
DEVIATION SADDLE: A concrete block buildout in web, flange, or webflange junction used to control the
geometryofortoprovideameansforchangingdirectionof,externaltendons.
DRYING SHRINKAGE: Volume decrease due to loss of moisture from concrete in the hardened state which is
usuallyseriousinhotanddryenvironment.
DURABILITYDESIGN:Designtoensurethatthestructurecanmaintainitsrequiredfunctionsduringservicelife
underenvironmentalactions.
DURABILITYGRADE:Theextentofdurabilitytowhichthestructureshallbemaintainedinordertosatisfythe
requiredperformanceduringitsdesignlife.Thisaffectsthedegreeandfrequencyoftheremedialactionstobe
carriedoutduringthatlife.
DURABILITYLIMITSTATE:Themaximumdegreeofdeteriorationallowedforthestructureduringitsdesignlife.
DURABILITYPREDICTION:Predictionofthefuturedegreeofdeteriorationofthestructurebasedondatausedin
itsdesign.
DYNAMICAPPROACH:Anapproachbasedondynamicanalysistoassesstheoverallforcesonastructureliable
tohavearesonantresponsetowindaction.
DYNAMICRESPONSEFACTOR:Factortoaccountfortheeffectsofcorrelationandresonantresponse.
EARLYAGESTATE:Thestateofconcretefromfinalsettinguntiltheachievementoftherequiredcharacteristic
strength.
EFFECTIVEPRESTRESS:Stressremaininginprestressingtendonsafteralllosseshaveoccurred,excludingeffects
ofdeadloadandsuperimposedload.
ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIONS: An assembly of physical, chemical or biological influences which may cause
deterioration to the materials making up the structure, which in turn may adversely affect its serviceability,
restorabilityandsafety.
FATIGUE LOADS: Repetitive loads causing fatigue in the material which reduces its strength, stiffness and
deformability.
FINALPRESTRESS:Stresswhichexistsaftersubstantiallyalllosseshaveoccurred.
FINALTENSION:Thetensioninthesteelcorrespondingtothestateofthefinalprestress.
FORMWORK: Total system of support for freshly placed concrete including the mould or sheathing, all
supportingmembers,hardwareandnecessarybracings.
FRESHSTATEOFCONCRETE:Thestateofconcreteaftermixinguntilthecompletionofplacing.
FUNCTION:Thetaskwhichastructureisrequiredtoperform.
GENERALZONE:Regionadjacenttoaposttensionedanchoragewithinwhichtheprestressingforcespreadsout
toanessentiallylinearstressdistributionoverthecrosssectionofthecomponent.
GROUT:Amixtureofcementitiousmaterialandwaterwithorwithoutadmixtures.
HARDENEDSTATEOFCONCRETE:Thestateofconcreteafterachievingtherequiredstrength.
IMPORTANCE: rank assigned to a structure according to the likely overall impact caused by its failure, due to
deterioration,tosatisfactorilyperformitsfunctionsasdeterminedatthetimeofdesign.
INITIALPRESTRESS:Theprestressintheconcreteattransfer.
INITIALTENSION:Themaximumstressinducedintheprestressingtendonatthetimeofstressingoperation.
IRREGULAR STRUCTURES: Structures having unusual shapes such as open structures, structures with large
overhangsorotherprojections,andanybuildingwithacomplexshape.
JACKINGFORCE:Temporaryforceexertedbydevicethatintroducestensionintoprestressingtendons.
LIMITSTATE:Acriticalstatespecifiedusingaperformanceindex,beyondwhichthestructurenolongersatisfies
thedesignperformancerequirements.
LIMITSOFDISPLACEMENT:Allowabledeformationofstructureintermsofsuchparametersasinterstoreydrift
andrelativehorizontaldisplacement,tocontrolexcessivedeflection,crackingandvibration.

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Longterm performance index: Index defining the remaining capacity of a structure in performing its design
functionsduringthedesignlife.
LOCAL ZONE: The volume of concrete that surrounds and is immediately ahead of the anchorage device and
thatissubjectedtohighcompressivestresses.
MAINTENANCE: A set of activities taken to ensure that the structure continues to perform its functions
satisfactorilyduringthedesignlife.
MECHANICALFORCES:Anassemblyofconcentratedordistributedforcesactingonastructure,ordeformations
imposedonit.
MODEL: Mathematical description or experimental setup simulating the actions, material properties and
behaviorofastructure.
MONITORING:Continuousrecordingofdatapertainingtodeteriorationand/orperformanceofstructureusing
appropriateequipment.
NOMINALSTRENGTHOFMATERIAL:Thecharacteristicvaluesofthestrengthofmaterialsusedforcalculation,in
absenceoftheavailablestatisticaldata.
NORMALCONCRETE:Concretewhichiscommonlyusedinconstruction;itdoesnotincludespecialconstituent
materials other than Portland cement, water, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and common mineral and
chemicaladmixtures;itdoesnotrequireanyspecialpracticeforitsmanufacturingandhandling.
OVERALLPERFORMANCEINDEX:Indexindicatingtheoverallperformanceofthestructure.
specialpracticeforitsmanufacturingandhandling.
PARTIALPERFORMANCEINDEX:Indexindicatingapartialperformanceofthestructure.
PARTIALSAFETYFACTORFORMATERIAL:Foranalysispurposes,thedesignstrengthofamaterialisdetermined
asthecharacteristicstrengthdividedbyapartialsafetyfactor.
PERFORMANCE:Ability(orefficiency)ofastructuretoperformitsdesignfunctions.
PERFORMANCEINDEX:Indexindicatingstructuralperformancequantitatively.
PERMANENTACTIONS:Selfweightsofstructuresinclusiveofpermanentattachments,fixturesandfittings.
PLASTIC SHRINKAGE: Shrinkage arising from loss of water from the exposed surface of concrete during the
plasticstate,leadingtocrackingattheexposedsurface.
PLSTICSTATE:Thestateofconcretefromjustafterplacinguntilthefinalsettingofconcrete.
POSTTENSIONING:Methodofprestressinginwhichtendonsaretensionedafterconcretehashardened.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE : Reinforced concrete in which internal stresses have been introduced to reduce
potentialtensilestressesinconcreteresultingfromloads.
PRETENSIONING:Methodofprestressinginwhichtendonsaretensionedbeforeconcreteisplaced.
SHRINKAGELOSS:Thelossofstressintheprestressingsteelresultingfromtheshrinkageofconcrete.
RELIABILITY:Abilityofastructuretofulfillspecifiedrequirementsduringitsdesignlife.
REMAINING SERVICE LIFE: Period from the point of inspection to the time when the structure is no longer
useable,ordoesnotsatisfactorilyperformthefunctionsdeterminedatthetimeofdesign.
REMEDIAL ACTION: Maintenance action carried out with the objective of arresting or slowing down the
deteriorationprocess,restoringorimprovingtheperformanceofastructure,orreducingthedangerofdamage
orinjurytotheusersoranythirdparty.
REPAIR:Remedialactiontakenwiththeobjectiveofarrestingorslowingdownthedeteriorationofastructure,
orreducingthepossibilityofdamagetotheusersorthirdparty.
RESTORABILTY (OR REPAIRABILIY): Ability of a structure to be repaired physically and economically when
damagedundertheeffectsofconsideredactions.
ROBUSTNESS (OR STRUCTURAL INSENSITIVITY): Ability of a structure to withstand damage by events like fire,
explosion,impact,instabilityorconsequencesofhumanerrors.
SAFETY:Abilityofastructuretoensurethatnoharmwouldcometotheusersandtopeopleinthevicinityof
thestructureunderanyaction.
SEGREGATION:Separationofoneormoreconstituentmaterialsfromtherestoftheconcrete,suchasbleeding,
aggregateblocking,etc.

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SERVICELIFE:Thelengthoftimefromthecompletionofastructureuntilthetimewhenitisnolongerusable
becauseofitsfailuretoadequatelyperformitsdesignfunctions.
SERVICEABILITY:Abilityofastructuretoprovideadequateservicesorfunctionalityinuseundertheeffectsof
consideredactions.
SETTLEMENTOFCONCRETE:Sinkingoftheconcretesurfaceafterplacingduetobleedingand/orescapingofthe
entrappedandentrainedairintheconcrete.
SPECIAL CONCRETE: Concrete other than normal concrete including light weight concrete, roller compacted
concrete,selfcompactingconcrete,fiberreinforcedconcrete,antiwashoutunderwaterconcrete,etc.
STIFFANDFLEXIBLESTRUCURES:Stiffstructuresrefertothosethatarenotsensitivetodynamiceffectsofwind,
whileflexibleonesarethosethataresensitivetosucheffects.
STRENGTHENING: Remedial action applied to a structure with the objective of restoring or improving its load
bearingcapacitytoalevelwhichisequalto,orhigherthan,theoriginaldesignlevel.
STRESS AT TRANSFER : The stress in both the prestressing tendon and the concrete at the stage when the
prestressingtendonisreleasedfromtheprestressingmechanism.
SURFACE FINISHING: Action, such as troweling, applied to the exposed portion of concrete to obtain a neat
surface.
TEMPERATURECRACKING:Crackingcausedbythermalstresswhicharisesfromdifferentialtemperaturesinthe
concretemass.
TENDON:Steelelementsuchaswire,cable,bar,rod,orstrand,orabundleofsuchelements,usedtoimpart
prestresstoconcrete.
THRESHOLDLEVELOFPERFORMANCE:Minimumacceptablelevelofperformanceofastructure.
TRANSFER: Act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from jacks or pretensioning bed to concrete
member.
TRIBUTARYAREA:Areaofbuildingsurfacecontributingtotheforcebeingconsidered,duetowindactions,and
projectedonaverticalplanenormaltothewinddirection.
TRANSMISSION LENGTH : The distance required at the end of a pretensioned tendon for developing the
maximumtendonstressbybond.
ULTIMATELIMITSTATE:Limitstateforsafety.
VARIABLE ACTION: Action due to a moving object on the structure as well as any load whose intensity is
variable,includingtrafficload,waveload,waterpressure,andloadinducedbytemperaturevariation.
WOBBLE FRICTION: Friction caused by unintended deviation of prestressing sheath or duct from its specified
profile.
WORKABILITY:Thetermexpressingtheeasewithwhichconcretecanbeplaced,compactedandfilled.

9.3 Notations

a = depthofequivalentrectangularstressblock,mm
A = areaofthepartofcrosssectionbetweenflexuraltensionfaceandcentre
ofgravityofgrosssection,mm2
2
Aps = areaofprestressedreinforcementintensionzone,mm
2
As = areaofnonprestressedtensionreinforcement,mm
2
A's = areaofcompressionreinforcement,mm
b = widthofcompressionfaceofmember,mm
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of nonprestressed
tensionreinforcement,mm
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of compression
reinforcement,mm

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db = nominaldiameterofbar,wire,orprestressingstrand,mm
dp = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressed
reinforcement,mm
D = deadloads,orrelatedinternalmomentsandforces
e = baseofNapierianlogarithm
f c
2
= specifiedcompressivestrengthofconcrete,N/mm
f ci
2
= compressivestrengthofconcreteattransferofprestress,N/mm
fd = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme fiber of section where
tensilestressiscausedbyexternallyappliedloads,N/mm2
fpe = compressivestressinconcreteduetoeffectiveprestressforcesonly(after
allowanceforallprestresslosses)atextremefiberofsectionwheretensile
stressiscausedbyexternallyappliedloads,N/mm2
fpc = averagecompressivestressinconcreteduetoeffectiveprestressforceonly
(afterallowanceforallprestresslosses),N/mm2
fps = stressinprestressedreinforcementatnominalstrength,N/mm2
fpu = specifiedtensilestrengthofprestressingtendons,N/mm2
fpy = specifiedyieldstrengthofprestressingtendons,N/mm2
fr = modulusofruptureofconcrete,N/mm2

fse = effective stress in prestressed reinforcement (after allowance for all


prestress
fy = specifiedyieldstrengthofnonprestressedreinforcement,N/mm2
h = overallthicknessofmember,mm
hf = overallthicknessofflangeofflangedsection,mm
I = moment of inertia of crosssection resisting externally applied factored
loads,mm4
k = wobblefrictioncoefficientpermeterofprestressingtendon
l = length of span of twoway flat plates in direction parallel to that of the
reinforcementbeingdetermined,mm
lx = length of prestressing tendon element from jacking end to any point x,
metre
L = liveloads,orrelatedinternalmomentsandforces
Mcr = momentcausingflexuralcrackingatsectionduetoexternallyappliedloads,
kNm
Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to externally applied loads,
kNm
Mu = factoredmomentatsection,kNm
Nc = tensileforceinconcreteduetounfactoreddeadloadplusliveload(D+L),
kN
Pj = prestressingtendonforceatjackingend,kN

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PIP = Inherentorpossessedperformanceindex
PIR = Inherentorpossessedperformanceindex
Px = prestressingtendonforceatanypointx
s = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to
longitudinalreinforcement,mm
Vc = nominalshearstrengthprovidedbyconcrete,kN
Vci = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking
resultsfromcombinedshearandmoment,kN
Vcw = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking
resultsfromexcessiveprincipaltensilestressinweb,kN
Vd = shearforceatsectionduetounfactoreddeadload,kN
Vi = factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring
simultaneouslywithMmax,kN
Vn = nominalshearstrength,kN
Vp = verticalcomponentofeffectiveprestressforceatsection,kN
Vs = nominalshearstrengthprovidedbyshearreinforcement,kN
Vu = factoredshearforceatsection,kN
x = shorteroveralldimensionofrectangularpartofcrosssection
= totalangularchangeofprestressingtendonprofileinradiansfromtendon
jackingendtoanypointx
y = longeroveralldimensionofrectangularpartofcrosssection
yt = distancefromcentroidalaxisofgrosssection,neglectingreinforcement,to
extremefibreintension
1 = factordefinedinSec9.5.5(c)
p = factorfortypeofprestressingtendon
= 0.55for f py f pu notlessthan0.80

= 0.40for f py f pu notlessthan0.85

= f py f pu
0.28for notlessthan0.90
= curvaturefrictioncoefficient
= ratioofnonprestressedtensionreinforcement= As bd
= ratioofcompressionreinforcement= As bd
p = ratioofprestressedreinforcement= A ps bd p
= strengthreductionfactor
= f y f c

= f y f c
p = p f ps f c

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w , pw , w = reinforcement indices for flanged sections computed for w, wp, and w'
except that b shall be the web width, and reinforcement area shall be
thatrequiredtodevelopcompressivestrengthofwebonly.
For other symbols and units of quantities, reference shall be made to
Chapter6.

9.4 Analysisanddesign

9.4.1 Requirement

9.4.1.1 General
(a) Prestressed members shall be designed for adequate strength in accordance with the
provisionsofthischapter.
(b) Unless specifically excluded or superseded by the provisions of this chapter, all other
relevantprovisionsofthiscodeshallapplytoprestressedconcrete.
(c) Designofprestressedmembersshallbebasedonstrengthandonthebehavioratservice
conditions at all critical load stages during the life of the structure from the time of
prestressisfirstapplied.
(d) Stressconcentrationsduetoprestressingshallbeconsideredindesign.
(e) Provisions shall be made for effects on adjoining construction of elastic and plastic
deformations, deflections,changes inlengthand rotationsdue to prestressing.Effects of
temperatureandshrinkageshallalsobeconsidered.
(f) Thepossibilityofbucklinginamemberbetweenpointswherethereisintermittentcontact
between prestressing steel and an oversized duct and buckling in thin webs and flanges
shallbeconsidered.
(g) Incomputingsectionpropertiesbeforebondingofprestressingsteel,effectoflossofarea
duetoopenductsshallbeconsidered.
(h) Thermalgradientanddifferentialshrinkageshallbeconsideredincompositeconstruction
usingprestressedconcretemembers.
(i) Inevaluatingtheslendernesseffectsduringliftingofslenderbeams,considerationshallbe
given to beam geometry, location of lifting points, method of lifting and tolerances in
construction.Allbeamswhichareliftedonverticalorinclinedslingsshallbecheckedfor
lateralstabilityandlateralmomentonaccountoftiltingofbeam.Referencemaybemade
tospecialistliteratureinthisregard.

9.4.1.2 DesignAssumptions
(a) Strength design of prestressed members for flexure and axial loads shall be based on
assumptions given in Sec 9.4.1.2 b. to g. and shall satisfy the applicable conditions of
equilibriumandcompatibilityofstrains.
(b) Strainsinsteelandconcreteshallbeassumedtobedirectlyproportionaltothedistance
fromtheneutralaxisexceptforDeepBeams.
(c) Stressinnonprestressedreinforcement(ifused)belowfy,shallbetakenasEstimessteel
strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy, stress in reinforcement shall be
consideredindependentofstrainandequaltofy.
(d) Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber shall be assumed to be
0.003.
(e) The relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain
shallbeassumedtoberectangular,trapezoidal,parabolic,oranyothershapethatresults
inpredictionofstrengthinsubstantialagreementwithresultsofcomprehensivetests

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(f) Requirements of 9.4.1.2e. are satisfied by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress


distributiondefinedbythefollowing:
i) Concrete stress of 0.85fc shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an
equivalentcompressionzoneboundedbyedgesofthecrosssectionandastraight
linelocatedparalleltotheneutralaxis at a distance a = 1c from the fiber of
maximumcompressivestrain.
ii) Distance from the fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis, c, measured in a
directionperpendiculartotheneutralaxis.
iii) Forfc'between17.5and28MPa,1shallbetakenas0.85.Forfc'above28MPa,
1shallbereducedlinearlyatarateof0.05foreach7MPaofstrengthinexcess
of28MPa,but1shallnotbetakenlessthan0.65.
(g) Forinvestigationofstressesattransferofprestress,atserviceloads,andatcrackingloads,
elastictheoryshallbeusedwiththefollowingassumptions:
i) Strainsvarylinearlywithdepththroughtheentireloadrange.
ii) Atcrackedsections,concreteresistsnotension.

9.4.1.3 Classificationofprestressedconcretemembers
PrestressedconcreteflexuralmembersshallbeclassifiedasClassU(uncracked),ClassT(transition)andClassC
(cracked)basedonextremefiberstressintensionintheprecompressedtensilezoneasfollows:
(a) ClassU:Permissibleflexuraltensilestresses f t 0.62 f c
(b) ClassT: 0.62 f c f t 1.0 f c
(c) ClassC: f t >1.0 f c
(d) d. Prestressedtwowayslabsystemsshallbedesignedas f t 0 . 50 f c

9.4.1.4 Shapesofbeamsandgirders
Forprestressedconcretenoncompositebeams/girders,thefrequentlyusedshapesare:
(a) SymmetricalIsection,(b)UnsymmetricalIsection,(c)Tsection,
(d)InvertedTsection,(e)Boxsection,(f)solidrectangularsection.
Commentary:
The suitability of selecting a particularshape will depend on the specific design requirementand
economyofconstruction.Ingeneral,toachieveeconomyinsteelandconcrete,itisbesttoputthe
concreteneartheextremefibersofthecompressionflange.Tosuitthiscondition,Isectionisthe
mostnaturalchoice.TheinvertedTsectionmayonlybeselectedforcompositeconstructionwhen
tensionflangeisprecastandthecompressionflangeispouredinplace.
Inchoosingbeam/girdershapes,dueconsiderationshouldbegiventothesimplicityofformwork.
Whenformworkistobeusedonce,itmayconstitutethemajorcostofbeam/girder.Anyirregular
shape of beam/girder is generally unjustifiable on this ground. Rectangular solid sections are an
obvious choice for flat slabs for floor and roof. Precast Tee or double Tee sections with a light
concretetappingmaybemoreeconomicalchoiceforfloorconstructionofmultistoriedresidential,
commercialandfactorybuildingswithmoderatecolumnspacing.

9.4.2 Materialpropertiesfordesign

9.4.2.1 Concrete
(a) Class
TheClassofconcreteisdefinedbythecharacteristicstrengthofconcreteincylinderat28days,
f'c. For example, Class 10 concrete indicates concrete with fc' = 10 N/mm2. The classes of
concretecommonlyusedare:Class10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45and50,althoughconcretein
betweentheseclassesmayalsobeused.
(b) Modulusofelasticity,Ec

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Modulus of elasticity, Ec for concrete shall be permitted to be taken as wc1.50.043(fc')0.5 (in


N/mm2)forvaluesofwcbetween1440and2560kg/m3.Fornormalweightconcrete,Ecmaybe
permittedtobetakenas4700(fc')0.5.

9.4.2.2 Reinforcingsteel
a. Modulusofelasticity,Es
Whereitisnotpossibletoascertainthemodulusofelasticityofreinforcing steel by test and
fromthemanufacturerofsteel,themodulusofelasticityof reinforcing steel may be permitted
tobetakenasEs=200,000N/mm2.

9.4.2.3 Prestressingsteel
(a) Modulusofelasticity,Es
Whereitisnotpossibletoascertainthemodulusofelasticityofreinforcingandprestressing steel
bytestandfromthemanufacturerofsteel,thevaluesofEs giveninTable9.4.1maybeused:

Table9.4.1 Modulusofelasticityofprestressingsteelandcolddrawnwire

Typeofsteel Modulusofelasticity,Es
(kN/mm2)
Plain/indentedcolddrawnwire 200
Hightensilesteelbarsrolledorheattreated 205
Strands 195

9.4.3 Nominalstrengthsofbondedreinforcementandofconcreteattransfer

9.4.3.1 Bondedreinforcement
(a) Tensilestressatnominalstrengthofbondedreinforcementislimitedtofyfornonprestressed
reinforcementandtofpyforprestressedreinforcement.Tensilestressatnominalstrengthof
unbondedprestressedreinforcementforresistingtensileforcesintheanchoragezoneshallbe
limitedtofps=fse+70.
(b) Exceptforconcreteconfinedwithinspiralsorhoopsprovidingconfinementequivalenttothat
correspondingtoEq.(9.4.31),compressivestrengthinconcreteinthegeneralzoneshallbe
limitedto0.7fci.
Commentary:
Eq.(9.4.31)isgivenbelow.
Ag fc '
s = 0.45( 1)
Ach f yt
(9.4.31)
wherethevalueof f yt usedinEq.(9.4.31)shallnotexceed700N/mm2.For f yt greaterthan
420N/mm2normallapsplicesasshowninChapter6shallnotbeapplied.

9.4.3.2 Concretestrengthattransfer
Compressive strength of concrete at time of posttensioning shall be specified in the contract
documents. Unless oversize anchorage devices are sized to compensate for the lower compressive
strength or the prestressing steel is stressed to no more than 50 percent of the final prestressing
force,prestressingsteelshallnotbestresseduntilcompressivestrengthofconcreteasindicatedby
testsconsistentwiththecuringofthemember,isatleast28N/mm2formultistrandtendonsorat
least17N/mm2forsinglestrandorbartendons.

9.4.4 ServiceabilityRequirementsFlexuralMembers

9.4.4.1 Stressesinconcreteimmediatelyafterprestresstransfer

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Stressesinconcreteimmediatelyafterprestresstransfer(beforetimedependentprestresslosses
occur)areasfollows:
(a) Extremefiberstressincompressionexceptas
permittedin(b)shallnotexceed................0.60fci
(b) Extremefiberstressincompressionatendsof
simplysupportmembersshallnotexceed...0.70fci

(c) Where computed concrete tensile strength, ft , exceeds 0 .5 f c at ends of simply


supportedmembers,or 0.25 f c atotherlocations,additionalbondedreinforcementshall
beprovidedinthetensilezonetoresistthetotaltensileforceinconcretecomputedwiththe
assumptionofanuncrackedsection.

9.4.4.1.1 Stressesinconcreteatserviceloadsandreinforcementspacing

9.4.4.1.2 Allowablestressesinconcrete
ForClassUandClassTprestressedflexuralmembers,stressesinconcreteatserviceloads(based
on uncracked section properties and afterallowancefor allprestress losses)shallnot exceed the
following:
(a) Extremefiberstressincompressiondue
toprestressplussustainedload....................0.45fc
(b) Extremefiberstressincompressiondue
toprestressplustotalload.............................0.60fc
(c) Permissiblestressesin9.4.3.2and9.4.4.1shallbepermittedtobeexceededif shown by test
oranalysisthatperformancewillnotbeimpaired.

9.4.4.1.3 Reinforcementspacing
(a) For Class C prestressed flexural members not subject to fatigue or to aggressive exposure, the
spacingofbondedreinforcementnearesttheextremetensionfaceshallnotexceedthatfornormal
ReinforcedConcrete,asgivenbelow:
s 380 280/fs 2.5cc (9.4.41)
but not greater than 300 (280/fs), where cc is the least distance from the surface of
reinforcementorprestressingsteeltothetensionface.Ifthereisonlyonebarorwirenearest
totheextremetensionface,susedintheaboveequationisthewidthoftheextremetension
face.
(b) Calculatedstressfsinreinforcementclosesttothetensionfaceatserviceloadsshallbecomputed
basedontheunfactoredmoment.Itshallbepermittedtotakefsas2/3fy.
(c) For structures subject to fatigue or exposed to corrosive environments, investigations, judgment
andprecautionsarerequired.
(d) Thespacingrequirementsshallbemetbynonprestressedreinforcementandbondedtendons.The
spacing of bonded tendons shall not exceed 2/3rd of the maximum spacing permitted for
nonprestressedreinforcement.
(e) Where both reinforcement and bonded tendons are used to meet the spacing requirement, the
spacingbetweenabarandatendonshallnotexceed5/6ofthatpermittedby9.4.3.2.2a.,b.andc.
(f) InapplyingEq.9.4.41toprestressingtendons,fpsshall besubstitutedforfs,where fpsshall be
takenasthecalculatedstressintheprestressingsteelatserviceloadsbasedonacrackedsection
analysisminusthedecompressionstressfdc .Itshallbepermittedtotakefdcequaltotheeffective
stressintheprestressingsteelfse.Seealso9.4.4.2.2g.below.
(g) InapplyingEq.(9.4.41)toprestressingtendons,themagnitudeoffpsshallnotexceed250N/mm2.
Whenfpsislessthanorequalto140N/mm2,thespacingrequirementsof9.4.4.2.2a.andb.shall
notapply.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6459
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(h) Where h of a beam exceeds 900 mm, the area of longitudinal skin reinforcement consisting of
untensioned reinforcing steel or bonded tendons shall be uniformly distributed along both side
facesofthemember.Skinreinforcementshallextendforadistanceofh/2fromthetensionface.
Thespacingsshallbeasprovidedin9.4.4.2.2,whereccistheleastdistancefromthesurfaceofthe
skin reinforcement or prestressing steel to the side face. It shall be permitted to include such
reinforcement or prestressing steel to the side face. It shall be permitted to include such
reinforcement in strength computations if a strain compatibility analysis is made to determine
stressintheindividualbarsorwires.

9.4.5 Permissiblestressesinprestressingsteel
Tensilestressinprestressingtendonsshallnotexceedthefollowing:
(a) Duetoprestressingsteeljackingforce......0.94fpy
but not greater than the lesser of 0.80fpu and the maximum value recommended by the
manufacturerofprestressingsteeloranchoragedevices.
(b) Immediatelyafterprestresstransfer........0.82fpy
butnotgreaterthan0.74fpu.
(c) Posttensioningtendons,atanchoragedevicesand
couplers,immediatelyafterforcetransfer.......0.70fpu

9.4.6 Lossesofprestress
To determine effective stress in the prestressing steel, fse, allowance for the following sources of
lossofprestressshallbeconsidered:

9.4.6.1 Immediatelosses
(a) Lossduetoelasticshorteningofconcrete;
(b) Lossduetoprestressingsteelseatingattransfer(Anchorageslip);
(c) Lossduetofriction(forposttensionedconcreteonly).

9.4.6.2 Longtermlosses
(a) Lossduetorelaxationofprestressingsteelstress;
(b) Lossduetocreepofconcrete;
(c) Lossduetoshrinkageofconcrete.
Unless otherwise determined by actual tests, allowance for these losses shall be made in
accordancewiththeprovisionsofSec9.4.6.3through9.4.6.8.

9.4.6.3 Lossduetoelasticshorteningofconcrete
(a) Thelossofprestressduetoimmediateelasticshorteningofadjacentconcreteupontransferof
initial prestress shall be calculated as specified in this section. For pretensioning, the loss of
prestressinthetendonsattransfershallbecalculatedonamodularratiobasisusingthestress
intheadjacentconcrete.
(b) For members with posttensioned tendons which are not stressed simultaneously, there is a
progressivelossofprestressduringtransferduetothegradualapplicationoftheprestressing
forces.Thislossofprestressshallbecalculatedonthebasisofhalftheproductofthestressin
the concrete adjacent to the tendons averaged along their lengths and the modular ratio.
Alternatively, the loss of prestress may be exactly computed based on the sequence of
tensioning.

9.4.6.4 LossDuetoprestressingsteelseatingattransfer(Anchorageslip)
a. Anylossofprestresswhichmayoccurduetoslipofwireorstrandduring anchoring or due
tostrainingoftheanchorageshallbeallowedforinthedesign. Necessaryadditionalelongation
maybeprovidedforatthetimeoftensioningto compensateforthisloss.

9.4.6.5 Lossduetofriction(forposttensionedtendonsonly)

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(a) Thedesignshalltakeintoconsiderationalllossesinprestressthatmayoccurduringtensioning
due to friction between the posttensioning tendons and the surrounding concrete or any
fixtureattachedtothesteelorconcrete.
(b) ThevalueofprestressingforcePx atadistance l x metresfromthejackingendandactingin
thedirectionofthetangenttothecurveofthecable,shallbecalculatedfromtherelation:
(K l + )
P = Pje x
x 9.4.51
When(klx+)isgreaterthan0.3,Pxmaybecomputedfrom
Pj
Px =

1 + Kl x + 9.4.52

For use in Eq. (9.4.51) and Eq. (9.4.52), the values of wobble friction coefficient K and
curvature friction coefficient shall be experimentally determined or obtained from the
tendonmanufacturer,andverifiedduringtendonstressingoperations.
(c) Inabsenceoftestresultsormanufacturer'srecommendation,thefollowingvaluesof and
K showninTable9.4.2maybetakenasaguide:

Table9.4.2FrictionCoefficients(K&)forposttensionedtendons

coefficient,Kper Curvaturecoefficient,per
meter radian
Tendonsin

Mastic sheathing

Wiretendons 0.00330.0049 0.150.25


Grouted

metal

Highstrengthbars 0.00030.0020 0.080.30


7wirestrand 0.00160.0066 0.150.25


coated

Wiretendons 0.00330.0066 0.050.15


Unbonded

7wirestrand 0.00330.0066 0.050.15


tendons

greased

Wiretendons 0.0010.0066 0.050.15


Pre

7wirestrand 0.0010.0066 0.050.15

Values of wobble and curvature friction coefficients used in designshall be shown on design
drawings.
(e) The effectof reversefriction shallbetakenintoconsiderationin suchcaseswherethe initial
tension applied to a prestressing tendon is partially released and action of friction in the
reverse direction causes significant alteration in the distribution of stress along the length of
thetendon.
(f) Where loss of prestress in a member occurs due to connection of member to adjoining
construction,suchlossofprestressshallbeallowedforindesign.

9.4.6.6 Lossduetorelaxationofpretressingsteelstress
(a) The relaxation losses in prestressing steel shall be determined from experiments. When
experimental values are not available, the relaxation losses, considering normal relaxation
steel,maybeassumedasgiveninTable9.4.3.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6461
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Table9.4.3RelaxationLossesforprestressingsteelat1000hoursat27oC

InitialStress RelaxationLoss
N/mm2
0.5fpu 0
0.6fpu 35
0.7fpu 70
0.8fpu 90

Fortendonsathighertemperatureorsubjecttolargelateralloads,greaterrelaxationlossesmay
beallowed,subjecttotheadviceofthemetallurgyspecialist.
(b) No reduction in the value of the relaxation losses should be made for a tendon with a load
equaltoorgreaterthantherelevantjackingforcethathas been applied for a short
durationpriortotheanchoringofthetendon.

9.4.6.7 Lossduetocreepofconcrete
(a)Creep occurs due to superimposed permanent dead load added to the member after it has
beenprestressed.Creepofconcretemaybeassumedtobeproportionaltothestressprovided
thestressinconcretedoesnotexceed40percentofitscompressivestrength.
(b) In the absence of test data, the ultimate creep strain may be estimated from the following
valuesofcreepcoefficient,whichistheratiooftheultimatecreepstraintotheelasticstrainat
theageofloading.Table9.4.4showsthevaluesatdifferentdays.

Table9.4.4Creepcoefficientofconcrete

AgeatLoading Creepcoefficient
7days 2.2
28days 1.6
1year 1.1
(c) The ultimate creep strain estimated as above does not include the elastic strain.
Forthecalculationofdeformationatsomestagebeforethetotalcreepisreached,itmaybe
assumed that 50 per cent of the total creep takes place in the first month after loading and
about75percentofthetotalcreeptakesplace in the first six months after loading. For post
tensioningthecreep coefficientsshallbetakenas80%ofthosegivenhere.
(d) The loss of prestress due to creep of concrete shall be determined for all the permanently
appliedloadsincludingtheprestress.Lossduetostressesofshortdurationincludingliveload
anderectionstressesmaybeignored.
(e) Thelossofprestressduetocreepofconcreteshallbeobtainedastheproductofthemodulus
of elasticity of the prestressing steel and the ultimate creep strain of the concrete fiber
integratedalongthecentrelineoftheprestressingsteeloveritsentirelength.
(f) Thetotalcreepstrainduringanyspecificperiodshallbeassumedtobethecreepstraindueto
sustainedstressequaltotheaverageofthestressesatthebeginningandendoftheperiod.

9.4.6.8 Lossduetoshrinkageofconcrete
(a) In the absence of test data, the approximate value of shrinkage strain in concrete for design
purposesshallbeassumedasfollows:
Forpretensioning : 0.0003
0.0002
Forposttensioning :
log10 (t + 2 )
where,t=ageofconcreteattransferindays.
(b) Forthecalculationofdeformationofconcreteatsomestagebeforethemaximumshrinkage
occursitmaybeassumedthat50percentoftheshrinkagetakesplaceduringthefirstmonth

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andabout75percentoftheshrinkage takes place in the first six months after drying of


concretestarts.
(c) The loss of prestress due to shrinkage of concrete shall be obtained as the product of the
modulusofelasticityofsteelandtheshrinkagestrainofconcrete.

9.4.7 ControlofDeflection

9.4.7.1 For prestressed concrete flexural members, designed in accordance with the provisions of this
chapter,immediatedeflectionshallbecomputedbyusualmethodsorformulasforelasticdeflections,
and the moment of inertia of gross concrete section, Ig, shall be permitted to be used for Class U
flexuralmembers.

9.4.7.2 For Class C and Class T flexural members, deflection calculations shall be based on cracked
transformed section analysis. It shall be permitted to base calculations on an effective moment of
inertia,IeasgiveninEq.9.4.71.

M
3
M
3

Ie = cr I g + 1 cr I cr
Ma M a
9.4.71
fr I g
Where, M cr = and f r = 0.62 f c '
yt
Deflectioncomputedinaccordancewith9.4.7.1shallnotexceedthelimitsstipulatedin6.5.9.4.

9.4.7.3 Additional longterm deflection of prestressed concrete members shall be computed taking into
account stresses in concrete and steel under sustained load and including effects of creep and
shrinkageofconcreteandrelaxationofsteel.

9.4.8 FlexuralStrength

9.4.8.1 Design moment strength of flexural members shall be computed by the strength methods of the
Code.Forprestressingsteel,fpsshallbesubstitutedforfyinstrengthcomputations.

9.4.8.2 Asanalternativetoamoreaccuratedeterminationoffpsbasedonstraincompatibility,thefollowing
approximatevaluesoffpsshallbepermittedtobeusediffseisnotlessthan0.5fpu.
(a) Formemberswithbondedtendons

p f
pu d
f = f 1 p + ( ) (9.4.81)
f d
ps pu
1 c p
whereisfy/fc,isfy/fc,andpis0.55forfpy/fpunotlessthan0.80; 0.40 for fpy /fpu not
lessthan0.85;and0.28forfpy/fpunotlessthan0.90.
If any compression reinforcement is taken into account when calculating fps by Eq. (9.4.81), the
termshallbetakennotlessthan0.17andd'shallbenogreaterthandp.
f pu d
p + ( )
f
c
d
p

(b) Formemberswithunbondedtendonsandwithaspantodepthratioof35orless:
f c'
f ps = f se + 70 +
100 p
(9.4.72)
but fps in Eq. (9.4.7.2) shall not be taken greater than the lesser of fpy and (fse + 420).

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6463
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c. Formemberswithunbondedtendonsandwithaspantodepthratiogreaterthan35:
f c'
f ps = f se + 70 +
300 p
(9.4.73)
butfpsinEq.(9.4.7.3)shallnotbetakengreaterthanthelesseroffpyand(fse+210)

9.4.8.3 Nonprestressed reinforcement conforming to 9.4.4.2.2, if used with prestressing steel, shall be
permittedtobeconsideredtocontributetothetensileforceandtobeincludedinmomentstrength
computations at a stress equal to fy. Other nonprestressed reinforcement shall be permitted to be
included in strength computations only if a strain compatibility analysis is performed to determine
stressesinsuchreinforcement.

9.4.9 Limitsforflexuralreinforcement

9.4.9.1 Prestressed concrete sections shall be classified as either tensioncontrolled, transition, or


compressioncontrolledsections,inaccordancewitha.andb.below.
(a) Sectionsarecompressioncontrolledifthenettensilestrainintheextremetensionfibert,is
equaltoorlessthanthecompressioncontrolledstrainlimitwhentheconcreteincompression
reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003. The compressioncontrolled strain limit is the net
tensilestraininthereinforcementatbalancedstrainconditions.ForGrade420reinforcement,
andforallprestressedreinforcement,itshallbepermittedtosetthecompressioncontrolled
strainlimitto0.002.
(b) Sectionsaretensioncontrolledifthenettensilestrainintheextremetensionsteel,t,isequal
toorgreaterthan0.005whentheconcreteincompression reaches its assumed strain limit of
0.003.Sectionswithtbetweenthecompressioncontrolledstrainlimitand0.005constitutea
tension region between the compressioncontrolled and tensioncontrolled sections.
Appropriatestrengthreductionfactor, ,from 9.4.9.2shallapply.

9.4.9.2 Theappropriatestrengthreductionfactor,,shallapplyasgivenina.tof.below.
(a) Tensioncontrolledsections 0.90
(b) Forcompressioncontrolledsections
i. Memberswithspiralreinforcementas
definedin9.4.9.4 0.75
ii. Otherreinforcedmembers 0.65
(c) Shearandtorsion 0.75
(d) Posttensionedanchoragezones 0.85
(e) Strutandtiemodels 0.75
(f) Flexuralsectionsinpretensioned
memberswherestrandembedmentlengthisless
thanthedevelopmentlength
i. Fromtheendofthemember
totheendofthetransferlength 0.75
ii. Fromtheendofthetransferlength
totheendofthedevelopment
length,shallbetakenas 0.75to0.90
Wherebondingofthestranddoesnotextendtotheendofthemember,strandembedmentshall
beassumedtobeginattheendofthedebondedlength.

9.4.9.3 Totalamountofprestressedandnonprestressedreinforcementinmemberswithbondedprestressed
reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored load at least 1.2 times the cracking load

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computed on the basis of the modulus of rupture fr, as given in 9.4.6.2. This provision shall be
permitted to be waived for flexural members with shear and flexural strength at least twice that
requiredby9.4.8.

9.4.9.4 Volumetricspiralreinforcementratio,s,shallbenotlessthanthevaluegivenby

Ag f '
s = 0.45 1 c
Ach f yt (9.4.91)
2
where the value of f yt in Eq. (9.4.91) shall not exceed 700 N/mm . For f yt greater than 420
N/mm2wherelapsplicesshallnotexceedinaccordancewith9.4.9.4a.thisshallnotbeused.
(a) Spiralreinforcementshallbespliced,ifneeded,byanyoneofthefollowingmethods:
Lapsplicesnotlessthanthelargerof300mmandthelengthindicatedinoneof(1)through(5)
below:
i) deformeduncoatedbarorwire 48db
ii) plainuncoatedbarorwire 72db
iii) epoxycoateddeformedbarorwire 72db
iv) plainuncoatedbarorwirewithastandard
stirruportiehookinaccordancewith
9.4.8.5c.atendsoflappedspiralreinforcement.
(b) Thetermstandardhookasusedinthiscodeshallmeanoneofthefollowing:
i) 180degreebendplus4dbextension,butnotlessthan65mmatfreeend ofbar.
ii) 90degreebendplus12dbextensionatfreeendofbar.
(c) Forstirrupandtiehooks
i) No.16barandsmaller,90degreebendplus6dbextensionatfreeendof bar;or
ii) No.19,No.22barandNo.25bar,90degreebendplus12dbextensionat free end of
bar;or
iii) No.25barandsmaller,135degreebendplus6dbextensionatfreeend ofbar.

9.4.9.5 Part or all of the bonded reinforcement consisting of bars or tendons shall be provided as close as
practicable to the tension face in prestressed flexural members. In members prestressed with
unbondedtendons,theminimumbondedreinforcementconsistingofbarsortendonsshallbe
asrequiredby9.4.10.

9.4.10 Minimumbondedreinforcement

9.4.10.1 Aminimumareaofbondedreinforcementshallbeprovidedinallflexuralmemberswithunbonded
tendonsasrequiredby9.4.10.2and9.4.10.3.

9.4.10.2 Exceptasprovidedin9.4.10.1,minimumareaofbondedreinforcementshallbecomputedby

As=0.004Act (9.4.101)
where Act is area of that part of cross section between the flexural tension face and center of
gravityofgrosssection.
(a) Bonded reinforcement required by Eq. (9.4.101) shall be uniformly distributed over pre
compressedtensilezoneascloseaspracticabletoextremetensionfiber.
(b) Bondedreinforcementshallberequiredregardlessofserviceloadstress conditions.

9.4.10.3 For twoway flat slab systems, minimum area and distribution of bonded reinforcement shall be as
requiredina.,b.,andcbelow.

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(a) Bondedreinforcementshallnotberequiredinpositivemomentareaswhereft, the


extremefibrestressintensionintheprecompressedtensilezoneatservice loads (after
allowanceforallprestresslosses),doesnotexceed0.17fc.
(b) Inpositivemomentareaswherecomputedtensilestressinconcreteatservice load exceeds
0.17f'cminimumareaofbondedreinforcementshallbe computedby
As Nc/0.5fy (9.4.102)
wherethevalueoffyusedinEq.(9.4.102)shallnotexceed420MPa. Bonded reinforcement
shallbeuniformlydistributedoverprecompressedtensilezone as close as practicable to the
extremetensionfiber.
(c) Innegativemomentareasatcolumnsupports,theminimumareaofbonded reinforcement
Asinthetopoftheslabineachdirectionshallbecomputedby
As 0.00075Acf (9.4.103)

where, Acf is the larger gross crosssectional area of the slabbeam strips in two orthogonal
equivalentframesintersectingatacolumninatwowayslab.

9.4.10.4 BondedreinforcementrequiredbyEq.(9.4.103)shallbedistributedbetweenlinesthatareoutside
oppositefacesofthecolumnsupport.Atleastfourbarsorwiresshallbeprovidedineachdirection.
Spacingofbondedreinforcementshallnotexceed300mm.

9.4.10.5 Minimum length of bonded reinforcement required by 9.4.10.2 and 9.4.10.3 shall be as required in
9.4.10.5a.,b.,andc.
(a) Inpositivemomentareas,minimumlengthofbondedreinforcementshallbe onethird the
clearspanlength,ln,andcenteredinpositivemomentarea.
(b) Innegativemomentareas,bondedreinforcementshallextendonesixththe clear span, ln ,
oneachsideofsupport.
(c) WherebondedreinforcementisprovidedforMninaccordancewith9.4.7.8,or for tensile
stressconditionsinaccordancewith9.4.9.3b.,minimumlengthalso shall conform to
provisionsofChapter6.

9.4.11 Staticallyindeterminatestructures

9.4.11.1 Frames and continuous construction of prestressed concrete shall be designed for satisfactory
performanceatserviceloadconditionsandforadequatestrength.

9.4.11.2 Performanceatserviceloadconditionsshallbedeterminedbyelasticanalysis,consideringreactions,
moments, shears, and axial forces induced by prestressing, creep, shrinkage, temperature change,
axialdeformation,restraintofattachedstructuralelements,andfoundationsettlement.

9.4.11.3 Moments used to compute required strength shall be the sum of the moments due to reactions
induced by prestressing (with a load factor of 1.0) and the moments due to factored loads.
Adjustmentofthesumofthesemomentsshallbepermittedasallowedin9.4.11.4.

9.4.11.4 Redistributionofmomentsincontinuousprestressedflexuralmembersshallbeas follows:


(a) Where bonded reinforcement is provided at supports in accordance with 9.4.11, it shall be
permitted to decrease negative or positive moments calculated by elastic theory for any
assumedloading,inaccordancewith9.4.11.4b.,c.andd.below.
(b) Except where approximate values for moments are used, it shall be permitted to decrease
factoredmomentscalculatedbyelastictheoryatsectionsofmaximumnegativeormaximum
positive moment in any span of continuous flexural members for any assumed loading
arrangementbynotmorethan1000tpercent,withamaximumof20percent.

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(c) Redistributionofmomentshallbemadeonlywhent isequaltoorgreaterthan0.0075atthe


sectionatwhichmomentisreduced.
(d) Thereducedmomentshallbeusedforcalculatingredistributedmomentsatallothersections
within the spans. Static equilibrium shall be maintained after redistribution of moments for
eachloadingarrangement.

9.4.12 CompressionmembersCombinedflexureandaxialload

9.4.12.1 Prestressed concrete members subject to combined flexure and axial load, with or without non
prestressedreinforcement,shallbeproportionedbythestrengthdesignmethodsofthisCode.Effects
ofprestress,creep,shrinkage,andtemperaturechangeshallbeincluded.

9.4.12.2 Limitsforreinforcementofprestressedcompressionmembersshallbeasfollows:
(a) Members with average compressive stress in concrete less than 1.6 N/mm2, due to effective
prestressforceonly,shallhaveminimumreinforcementinaccordancewithChapter6.
(b) Except for walls, members with average compressive stress in concrete due to effective
prestress force only, equal to or greater than 1.6 N/mm2 shall have all tendons enclosed by
spiralsorlateraltiesinaccordancewithc.throughg.
(c) SpiralsshallconformtoChapter6.
(d) LateraltiesshallbeatleastNo.10insizeorweldedwirereinforcementofequivalentarea,and
shallbespacedverticallynottoexceed48tiebarorwirediameters,ortheleastdimensionof
thecompressionmember.
(e) Tiesshallbelocatedverticallynotmorethanhalfatiespacingabovetopoffootingorslabin
anystory,andnotmorethanhalfatiespacingbelowthelowesthorizontalreinforcementin
memberssupportedabove.
(f) Wherebeamsorbracketsframeintoallsidesofacolumn,tiesshallbeterminatednotmore
than75mmbelowlowestreinforcementinsuchbeamsorbrackets.
(g) For walls with average compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress force only
equaltoorgreaterthan1.6N/mm2,minimumreinforcementrequiredbyChapter6shallnot
applywherestructuralanalysisshowsadequatestrengthandstability.

9.4.13 Slabsystems

9.4.13.1 Factoredmomentsandshearsinprestressedslabsystemsreinforcedforflexureinmorethanone
direction shall be determined in accordance with provisions of 6.5 or by more detailed design
procedures.

9.4.13.2 Mn of prestressed slabs with loads and load combinations required by Chapter 2 and 6 at every
section shall be greater than or equal to Mu considering 9.4.11.3 and 9.4.11.4. Vn of prestressed
slabsatcolumnsrequiredbyChapter6shallbegreaterthanorequaltoVu.

9.4.13.3 At service load conditions, all serviceability limitations, including limits on deflections, shall be met,
withappropriateconsiderationofthefactorslistedin9.4.11.2.

9.4.13.4 Foruniformlydistributedloads,spacingoftendonsorgroupsoftendonsinatleastonedirectionshall
not exceed the smaller of eight times the slab thickness and 1.5 m. Spacing of tendons also shall
provide a minimum average effective prestress of 0.9 N/mm2 on the slab section tributary to the
tendon or tendon group. For slabs with varying cross section along the slab span, either parallel or
perpendicular to the tendon or tendon group, the minimum average effective prestress of 0.9
N/mm2MPaisrequiredateverycrosssectiontributarytothetendonortendongroupalongthespan.
Concentratedloadsandopeninginslabsshallbeconsideredwhendeterminingtendonspacing.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6467
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StructuralDesign

9.4.13.5 Inslabswithunbondedtendons,bondedreinforcementshallbeprovidedinaccordancewith9.4.9.3
and9.4.9.5.

Except as permitted in 9.4.13.6, in slabs with unbonded tendons, a minimum of two 12.7 mm
diameter or larger, sevenwire posttensioned strands shall be provided in each direction at
columns,eitherpassingthroughoranchoredwithintheregionboundedbythelongitudinal
reinforcement of the column. Outside column and shear cap faces, these two structural integrity
tendons shall pass under any orthogonal tendons in adjacent spans. Where the two structural
integritytendonsareanchoredwithintheregionboundedbythelongitudinalreinforcementofthe
column,theanchorageshallbelocatedbeyondthecolumncentroidandawayfromtheanchored
span.

9.4.13.6 Prestressed slabs not satisfying 9.4.13.5 shall be permitted provided they contain bottom
reinforcementineachdirectionpassingwithintheregionboundedbythelongitudinalreinforcement
of the column and anchored at exterior supports as required by bar detailing requirement of slabs
giveninChapter6.Theareaofbottomreinforcementineachdirectionshallbenotlessthan1.5times
thatrequiredbyEq.(9.4.131)asgivenbelow.

0.25 f c '
As, min = bw d
fy
(9.4.131)
and not less than 2.1bwd/fy, where bw is the width of the column face through which the
reinforcementpasses.Minimumextensionofthesebarsbeyondthecolumnorshearcapfaceshall
beequaltoorgreaterthanthebardevelopmentlengthrequiredbyChapter6.

9.4.13.7 Inliftslabs,bondedbottomreinforcementshallbedetailedinaccordancewith9.4.13.8.

9.4.13.8 In slabs with shear heads and in lift slab construction where it is not practical to pass to pass the
bottombars,requiredbybardetailingrequirementofChapter6,atleasttwobondedbarsorwiresin
eachdirectionshallpassthroughtheshearheadorliftingcollarasclosetothecolumnaspracticable
andbecontinuousorsplicedwithaClassAsplice.Attheexteriorcolumns,thereinforcementshallbe
anchoredthespearheadorliftingcollar.

9.4.14 Posttensionedtendonanchoragezones

9.4.14.1 Divisionintozones
Theanchoragezoneshallbeconsideredascomposedoftwozonesasdescribedbelowandshownin
Fig.9.4.141.
(a) Thelocalzoneistherectangularprism(orequivalentrectangularprismforcircularoroval
anchorages)ofconcreteimmediatelysurroundingtheanchoragedeviceandanyconfining
reinforcement;
(b) Thegeneralzoneistheanchoragezonebeyondthelocalzone.

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Fig.9.4.141 Anchoragezones

9.4.14.2 Localzone
(a) Design of local zones shall be based upon the factored prestressing force, Ppu, and the
requirementsof9.4.14.2b.andc.below.
(b) For posttensioned anchorage zone design, a load factor of 1.2 shall be applied to the
maximumsteeljackingforce.
(c) Whiledesignstrengthprovidedbyamember,itsconnectionstoothermembers,anditscross
sections in terms of flexure, axial load, shear and torsion, shall be taken as the nominal
strengthcalculatedinaccordancewithrequirementsandassumptionsofthiscode,multiplied
bythestrengthreductionfactor, ,forposttensionedanchoragezonethisshallbetakenas
0.85.
(d) Localzone reinforcement shall be provided where required for proper functioning of the
anchoragedevice.

9.4.14.3 Generalzone
(a) Design of general zones shall be based upon the factored prestressing force, Ppu, and the
requirementsof9.4.14.3b.andc.
(b) Generalzonereinforcementshallbeprovidedwhererequiredtoresistbursting,spalling,and
longitudinal edge tension forces induced by anchorage devices. Effects of abrupt change in
sectionshallbeconsidered.
(c) Thegeneralzonerequirementsof9.4.14.3b.aresatisfiedby9.4.3,9.4.14.4,and9.4.14.5and
whicheveroneof9.4.15.2or9.4.15.3or9.4.16.3isapplicable.

9.4.14.4 Designmethods

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The following methods shall be permitted for the design of the general zones of the prestressed
componentsprovidedthatthespecificproceduresusedresultinpredictionofstrengthinsubstantial
agreementwithresultsofcomprehensivetests:
a. Equilibriumbasedplasticitymodels(strutandtiemodels);
b. Linearstressanalysis(includingfiniteelementanalysisorequivalent);or
c. Simplifiedequationswhereapplicable.
d. Simplified equations shall not be used where member cross sections are nonrectangular, where
discontinuitiesinornearthegeneralzonecausedeviationsintheforceflowpath,whereminimum
edgedistanceislessthan11/2timestheanchoragedevicelateraldimensioninthatdirection,or
wheremultipleanchoragedevicesareusedinotherthanonecloselyspacedgroup.
e. Thestressingsequenceshallbeconsideredinthedesignandspecifiedonthedesign drawings.
f. Threedimensional effects shall be considered in design and analyzed using threedimensional
proceduresorapproximatedbyconsideringthesummationofeffectsfortwoorthogonalplanes.
g. Foranchoragedeviceslocatedawayfromtheendofthemember,bondedreinforcementshallbe
provided to transfer at least 0.35Apsfpu into the concrete section behind the anchor. Such
reinforcement shall be placed symmetrically around the anchorage devices and shall be fully
developedbothbehindandaheadoftheanchoragedevices.
h. Wheretendonsarecurvedinthegeneralzone,exceptformonostrandtendonsinslabsorwhere
analysisshowsreinforcementisnotrequired,bondedreinforcement shall be provided to resist
radialandsplittingforces.
i. Except for monostrand tendons in slabs or where analysis shows reinforcement is not required,
minimum reinforcement with a nominal tensile strength equal to 2 percent of each factored
prestressing force shall be provided in orthogonal directions parallel to the back face of all
anchoragezonestolimitspalling.
j. Tensilestrengthofconcreteshallbeneglectedincalculationsofreinforcementrequirements.

9.4.14.5 Detailingrequirements
Selection of reinforcement sizes, spacing, cover, and other details for anchorage zones shall make
allowancesfortolerancesonthebending,fabrication,andplacementofreinforcement,forthesizeof
aggregate,andforadequateplacementandconsolidationoftheconcrete.

9.4.15 Designofanchoragezonesformonostrandorsingle16mmbartendons

9.4.15.1 Localzonedesign
Monostrand or single 16 mm or smaller diameter bar anchorage devices and local zone
reinforcement shall meet the requirements of ACI 423.7 or the special anchorage device
requirementsof9.4.16.2.

9.4.15.2 Generalzonedesignforslabtendons
(a) Foranchoragedevicesof 12.7mmorsmallerdiameterstrandsinnormalweightconcrete
slabs, minimum reinforcement meeting the requirements of 9.4.15.2 b. and c. shall be
provided unless a detailed analysis satisfying 9.4.14.4 shows such reinforcement is not
required.
(b) TwohorizontalbarsatleastNo.13insizeshallbeprovidedparalleltotheslabedge.Theyshall
bepermittedtobeincontactwiththefrontfaceoftheanchoragedeviceandshallbewithina
distanceofh/2aheadofeachdevice.Thosebarsshallextendatleast150mmeithersideofthe
outeredgesofeachdevice.
(c) Ifthecentertocenterspacingofanchoragedevicesis300mmorless,theanchoragedevices
shallbeconsideredasagroup.Foreachgroupofsixormoreanchoragedevices,n+1hairpin
barsorclosedstirrupsatleastNo.10insizeshallbeprovided,wherenisthenumberof
anchoragedevices.Onehairpinbarorstirrupshallbeplacedbetweeneachanchoragedevice
and one on each side of the group. Thehairpin bars orstirrups shall be placed with the legs
extending into the slab perpendicular to the edge. The center portion of the hairpin bars or

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stirrupsshallbeplacedperpendiculartotheplaneoftheslabfrom3h/8toh/2aheadofthe
anchoragedevices.
(d) For anchorage devices not conforming to 9.4.15.1, minimum reinforcement shall be based
uponadetailedanalysissatisfying9.4.14.4.

9.4.15.3 Generalzonedesignforgroupsofmonostrandtendonsinbeamsandgirders
Design of general zones for groups of monostrand tendons in beams and girders shall meet the
requirementsof9.4.13.3,9.4.14.2or9.4.14.3or9.4.15.3.

9.4.16 Designofanchoragezonesformultistrandtendons

9.4.16.1 Localandgeneralzonedesign
Basicmultistrandanchoragedevicesandtherelatedlocalandgeneralzonereinforcementshallmeet
the requirements of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (SI), 2007, Articles 5.10.9.6,
ApproximateStressAnalysisandDesign,and5.10.9.7,DesignofLocalZones.

9.4.16.2 Specialanchoragedevices
(a) AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (SI), 2007, Articles 5.10.9.7.3, Special Anchorage
Devicesrequiresthatspecialanchoragedevicesthatdonotsatisfythe requirements specified
in9.4.16.1,theyhavebeentestedbyanindependenttesting agency acceptable to the
EngineerandhavemettheacceptancecriteriaspecifiedinArticles10.3.2and 10.3.2.3.10 of
AASHTOLRFDBridgeConstruction Specifications.
(b) Where special anchorage devices are to be used, supplemental skin reinforcement shall be
furnished in the corresponding regions of the anchorage zone, in addition to the confining
reinforcement specified for the anchorage device. This supplemental reinforcement shall be
similar in configuration and at least equivalent in volumetricratio to any supplementary skin
reinforcementusedinthequalifyingacceptancetestsoftheanchoragedevice.

9.4.17 ColdDrawnLowCarbonWirePrestressedConcrete(CWPC)
CWPC(Colddrawnwireprestressedconcrete)istermedasprestressedconcretetechnologyofchinesepattern.
This technology is a modification of conventional prestressed concrete. In the conventional prestressed
concretehighstrengthwireisusedasreinforcementwhileinChinesepatterncolddrawnlowcarbonmildsteel
wireisusedassuchthistechnologyisnamedascolddrawnwireprestressedconcrete.Inshortitistermedas
CWPC. CWPC technology is a process whereby cold drawn low carbon steel wire has been adopted as
reinforcementforprefabricatedprestressedconcretemembersofmediumandsmallsizeasproducedbypre
tensioningmethod.Intheotherhandlargesizesstructuralmembersareproducedbyconventionalprestressed
concrete.
ThemainfeaturesandadvantagesofCWPCtechnologycanbesummarisedasfollows:
(a) Availability(Availabilityofmaterials):Therawmaterialofcolddrawnwireismadefromlowcarbon
mild steel which can be supplied by the local mills. The tensioning process of colddrawn wire and
productionofprecastmembersarealsosimpleandveryeasytohandle.
(b) Simplicity(Simplicityofequipmentanddevicesforproduction):Thecoldprocessoflowcarbonmild
steel and prefabrication process of members are done using simple equipments and devices. The
precise and large sized equipments are not necessary. The production techniques of manufacturing
membersarerathersimple.
(c) Quality(Goodinquality):Thememberssomanufacturedhavehighcrackresistanceandstiffness.After
pretensioning no crack would occur under the service load, thus the wires within the concrete
membersarewellprotected.InContrasttoconventionalreinforcedconcretemembersunderthesame
serviceconditions,theyhavecomparativelyhighdurabilitytoensurelongtermquality.
(d) Economy(Lowcost):Thecolddrawnlowcarbonsteelwireusedforprestressingismadeofordinary
hotrolledcarbonsteelcoilrod.Thisisprocessedatroomtemperaturethroughaspecialwiredrawing
die. The low carbon coil rods are manufactured by the steel mills; the wires are processed at the
construction site or in a prefabrication plant; or are supplied by the cold drown wire plants as ready
madeproducts.Bycolddrawingthelowcarbonrodintowiresthestrengthisenhancedabouttwiceas

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much as that of the coil rod. This reduces the amount of steel required in prefabricating prestressed
concretemembers.
(e) Therefore,incomparisonwithconventionalreinforcedconcretereinforcedwithcommoncarbonsteel,
a prestressed concrete member reinforced with cold drawn wire would have saving of steel
consumption by 3050%. Furthermore, since prestressed concrete members have high stiffness a
reductionofcrosssectionofmembersispossible.Aconsiderableamountofconcretecanalsobesaved
andhenceworkincludingtransportation,handlinganderectioncanbereduced.
(f) Lightweightedness(Lightinweight):Asalreadymentionedthatthestiffnessofprestressedconcrete
membersmaybeenhanced,thedimensionofit'scrosssectioncanbereducedcrosspondingly.These
resultnotonlyreductionofconcretevolumebutalsoitsdeadweightwhichisestimatedas1030%.

9.4.17.1 Materials
BasicallythematerialsusedinCWPCtechnologyaresteelandconcrete.
(a) Steel:steelusedforCWPCisobtainedbycolddrawing.Colddrawingasalreadymentionedis
aprocessofreducingthediameterofthecoilrodbyforcingittopassthroughaconicaldie.
Bythisprocess,thesteelcanbestrengthenedby100%.
(b) Concrete: The requirement of concrete in CWPC is same as that of ordinary reinforced
concrete.

9.4.17.2 Design
Similar to other reinforced concrete structures, CWPC structures have a complete set of design
specificationandcomputationalapproachesbywhichvariousmembersoftheCWPCcanbedesigned.In
thedesignofprestressedmembersthefunctionofprestressingforceandprestressinglossesshouldbe
calculated. CWPC members should be checked for its strength, stability and cracking resistance
respectively atdifferent stagesincluding service, manufacturing, erection and construction.Indesigning
membersconformitytolocalspecificationsshouldbeconsidered.
Cold drawn low carbon wire conforming to ASTM A615 or equivalent may be permitted for
prestressingprovidedthemechanicalrequirementsshowninTable9.4.5aresatisfied.

Table9.4.5TensileStrengthandElongationofColdDrawnWire

Diameterofwire Minimumtensilestrength Minimumelongation


2
(mm) (N/mm ) (percent)
3 650 2.0
4 600 2.5
5 550 3.0

9.4.18 Externalposttensioning

9.4.18.1 Posttensioningtendonsshallbepermittedtobeexternaltoanyconcretesectionofamember.The
strength and serviceability design methods of this Code shall be used in evaluating the effects of
externaltendonforcesontheconcretestructure.

9.4.18.2 Externaltendonsshallbeconsideredasunbondedtendonswhencomputingflexuralstrengthunless
provisionsaremadetoeffectivelybondtheexternaltendonstotheconcretesectionalongitsentire
length.

9.4.18.3 Externaltendonsshallbeattachedto theconcretememberinamannerthatmaintainsthedesired


eccentricitybetweenthetendonsandtheconcretecentroidthroughoutthefullrangeofanticipated
memberdeflection.

9.4.18.4 Externaltendonsandtendonanchorageregionsshallbeprotectedagainstcorrosion,andthedetails
oftheprotectionmethodshallbeindicatedonthedrawingsorintheprojectspecifications.

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9.4.19 Performancerequirementofprestressedconcretedesign

9.4.19.1 Classificationofperformancerequirement
Aftertheoutlineofthememberdimensionsaredeterminedandthemostsuitablekindandtypeof
prestressing options are selected at the structural planning stage, the prestressed concrete
noncompositeandcompositestructuresandmembersshallsatisfyalloftherequiredperformances
such as safety, serviceability, restorability, durability, reparability, societal and environmental
compatibility,etc.ateverystageofdesign,constructionandmaintenancethroughoutthedesignlife
ofthestructure.
Table9.4.8givestheperformancerequirementofprestressedconcretestructuresandcomponents
andrelatedperformanceitems.

9.4.19.2 Performanceverificationmethod
(a) Performanceverificationshallbebasedonthepartialfactormethodonthebasis of
reliabilitytheoryandasastandarddesignprocedure,itshallbebasedonthe limit state
method.
(b) Ingeneralverificationshallbebasedondesignresponsestodesignactions, designlimitsas
determinedbydesignmaterialstrengths,andindividualpartial factors. The performance
ofthestructureshall,ingeneral,beverifiedusingEquations9.4.191and9.4.192:

Table9.4.8 Classificationofperformancerequirementforprestressedconcretestructures

Performance Performance item Examples of check items Example of verification


requirements index
Safety Structuralsafety Resistanceofwholestructure, Stressresultant,stress
components,stability,
deformationperformance
Publicsafety Injurytousersandthirdparties
Serviceability Liveloadoperating Soundnessandrigidityof Floorflatness,deformationof
performance structures/membersunder maingirder
usualconditions
Usercomfort Usercomfortunderwalking Naturalfrequencyofmain
inducedvibrations girders
Restorability Restorabilityafter Levelofdamage(easeof Responsevalue(damagelevel)/
earthquake, restoration) limitvalueofperformance
cyclone,tidalbore, (damagelevel)
fire,etc.
Durability Fatigueresistance Fatiguedurabilityagainst Equivalentstress
variableactions range/allowablestressrange
Corrosion Rustpreventionandcorrosion Corrosionenvironmentand
resistance protectionperformanceofsteel surfacefinish,paint
material specification
Resistanceto Concretedeterioration Watercementratio,coverof
material concrete
deterioration
Maintainability Easeofmaintenance
(inspection,easeofrepair,etc.)
andeaseofrestoration
Socialand Socialcompatibilty Appropriatenessofpartialfactor Partialfactor,structuralfactor,

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Performance Performance item Examples of check items Example of verification


requirements index
environmental (considerationofsocial etc.
compatibility importanceofstructure)
Economic Socialutilityduringlifecycleof Lifecyclecost(LCC),lifecycle
rationality structure utility(LTU)
Environmental Noise,vibration,environmental Noiseandvibrationlevelsfor
compatibility impact,aesthetics,etc. surroundingresidents,
aestheticreactiontostructural
shapeandcolor,monumental
aspect,etc.
Constructability/ Safetyduring Safetyduringconstruction Stressresultant,stress,
workability construction deformation
Initialsoundness Materialquality,welding Materialproperties,
quality,etc. workmanship
Easeofconstruction Easeoffabricationand Userfriendlyconstruction
constructionwork methodologyconceivedat
designstage
Sd
i 1 .0
Rd (9.14.191)
a .S ( f .Fk )
i 1.0
R( f k / m ) (9.14.192)
where, Rd :designresistance
fk :characteristicvalueofmaterialstrength
m :materialfactor
b :structuralmemberfactor
R() :functionforcalculatinglimitvalueofstructurefrommaterial strength
Sd :designresponse
Fk :individualcharacteristicvalueofaction
a :structuralanalysisfactor
f :actionfactorcorrespondingtoeachaction(loadfactor)
S() :functionforcalculatingresponsevalueofstructurefromaction
i :structuralfactor
(a) During design, a verification shall be carried out for every limit state that can be
considered.
(b) TheflowchartexplainingtheconceptofverificationofsafetyisgiveninFig.9.4.19.

Design resistance R Design action effect


Characteristicvalueofmaterialstrength:fk Characteristicvalueofaction:Fk
m f

Designvalueofmaterialstrength:fd=fk/m Designvalueofaction:Fd=fFk

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Resistance:R(fd) Actioneffect:S(Fd)
b a


Designresistance: Rd=R(fd)/b Designactioneffect:Sd= aS(Fd)

i
Sd
Verification: i 1.0
Rd
9.4.19.3 Partialfactors
(a) Partialfactorsshallbedeterminedontheconceptgiveni.andii.below.
i) Thematerialfactor,structuralmemberfactor,structuralanalysisfactor,andactionfactor
shall be determined in consideration of (i) unfavorabledeviations from characteristic
values,(ii)uncertaintiesincomputationalaccuracy,and(iii)discrepanciesbetweendesign
andpracticewithrespecttoactionsorstructuresandmaterials.
Table9.4.9showsthe standardvaluesofpartialfactors.
ii) Thestructuralfactorishallbedeterminedaccordingtostructuralimportanceandalsothe
socialandeconomicalimpactofthestructurereachingitslimitstate.
Table9.4.10showsthestandardvaluesofstructuralfactorifordifferentperformanceitems.

Table9.4.9Standardvaluesofpartialfactors

Performanceitem Actionfactor Structuralanalysis Materialfactor Structuralmember


f factora m Factorb

Structuralsafety 1.01.6 1.01.1 1.01.05 1.01.3
Serviceability(user 1.0 1.0 1.01.05 1.0
comfort)
Durability(fatigue 1.01.1 1.0 1.0 1.01.1
resistance)

Table9.4.10Standardvaluesofstructuralfactors

Performanceitem Structuralfactori
Structuralsafety 1.01.2
Serviceability(Usercomfort) 1.0
Durability(fatigueresistance) 1.0

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PartBMaterialandConstruction
9.5 MaterialandConstruction

9.5.1 Materials

9.5.1.1 ConcreteingredientsandapplicableASTMstandards
Table9.5.1showsthelistofcommonlyapplicablestandardsforcement,coarseandfineaggregates,
admixturesandmixingwater.

Table9.5.1Cement,coarseandfineaggregates,admixtures,waterandapplicablestandards

Designationofthe
Material TitleoftheStandard
Standard
Concrete ASTMC39 Compressiontestingofcylindricalconcretespecimens
Cement BDSEN1971,issued Part1:Composition,specificationsandconformitycriteriaforcommon
April2003 cements
Fine&coarseaggregates ASTMC13606 Standardtestmethodforsieveanalysisoffineandcoarseaggregates
Standardtestmethodfororganicimpuritiesinfineaggregatesfor
ASTMC4004 concrete
Claylumpsandfriableparticles
ASTMC142 Specificgravityandabsorptionofcoarseaggregate
ASTMC127 Specificgravityandabsorptionoffineaggregate
ASTMC128 DegradationofsmallsizecoarseaggregatebyL.A.abrasiontest
ASTMC131 Unitweightsandvoidsinaggregates
SurfacemoistureinfineaggregateSoundnessofaggregatesbyuseof
ASTMC29 sodiumsulfateormagnesiumsulfate
ASTMC70 Soundnessofaggregatesbyuseofsodiumsulfateormagnesiumsulfate
Alkalireactivity,potentialofcementaggregatecombinations
Potentialalkalireactivityofaggregates(Mortarbarmethod)
ASTMC88 Sandequivalentvalueofsoilsandfineaggregate

ASTMC227

ASTMC1260

ASTMD2419

Admixtures ASTMC494 TypeAWaterreducing
TypeBRetarding
TypeCAccelerating
TypeDWaterreducingandretarding
TypeEWaterreducingandaccelerating
TypeFWaterreducing,highrange
TypeGWaterreducing,highrangeandretarding
TypeSSpecificperformanceadmixture

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Designationofthe
Material TitleoftheStandard
Standard
Mixing ASTMC1602/ Standardspecificationformixingwaterusedin the
Water C1602M06 productionofhydrauliccementconcrete
T

9.5.1.2 Reinforcingsteelandapplicablestandards
Table 9.5.2 shows the types of reinforcing steel with the ASTM and BDS Designation standard
specifications.

Table9.5.2ListofStandardsforthereinforcingsteel

Material DesignationoftheStandard TitleoftheStandard


ReinforcingSteel ASTMA615/A615M04a Standardspecificationsfor
deformedandplaincarbonsteel
barsforconcretereinforcement
ASTMA706/A706M04a Standardspecificationsforlow
alloysteeldeformedandplain
carbonsteelbarsforconcrete
reinforcement
BDSISO69352:2009/ISO69352: Bangladeshstandard,Steelfor
2007 thereinforcementofconcrete,
Part2:Ribbedbars(1strevision)

9.5.1.3 PrestressingsteelandapplicableASTMstandards
Table 9.5.3 shows the types of high tensile prestressing steel and cold drawn wires used for
prestressing,withtheASTMDesignationstandardspecifications.

Table9.5.3ListofStandardsforthepretressingsteel

Material Designationofthe TitleoftheStandard


Standard
Prestressing ASTMA416416M02 Standardspecificationforsteel,wire,harddrawnforprestressing
Steel concretepipe
ASTMA64804a Standardspecificationforuncoatedhighstrengthsteelbarsfor
prestressingconcrete

9.5.2 Constructionofprestressedconcretestructures

9.5.2.1 Posttensioningducts

9.5.2.1.1 Corrosionprotectionforunbondedtendons
(a) Unbondedprestressingsteelshallbeencasedwithsheathing.Theprestressing steel shall be
completelycoatedandthesheathingaroundtheprestressingsteelfilled with suitable material
toinhibitcorrosion.
(b) Sheathingshallbewatertightandcontinuousoverentirelengthtobeunbonded.
(c) Forapplicationsincorrosiveenvironments,thesheathingshallbeconnectedtoall stressing,
intermediateandfixedanchoragesinawatertightfashion.
(d) Unbondedsinglestrandtendonsshallbeprotectedagainstcorrosionin accordance with
ACI423.7.

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9.5.2.2 Posttensioningducts
(a) Ductsforgroutedtendonsshallbemortartightandnonreactivewith concrete, prestressing
steel,grout,andcorrosioninhibitor.
(b) Ductsforgroutedsinglewire,singlestrand,orsinglebartendonsshallhaveaninsidediameter
atleast6mmlargerthantheprestressingsteeldiameter.
(c) Ductsforgroutedmultiplewire,multiplestrand,ormultiplebartendonsshall have an inside
crosssectionalareaatleasttwotimesthecrosssectional area oftheprestressingsteel.
(d) Ductsshallbemaintainedfreeofpondedwaterifmemberstobegroutedare exposed to
temperaturesbelowfreezingpriortogrouting.

9.5.2.3 Groutforbondedtendons

9.5.2.3.1 Materialsforgrouts
(a) GroutshallconsistofPortlandcementandwater;orPortlandcement,sand,andwater.
(b) Materialsforgroutshallconformto9.5.2.2.1c.,d.,e.andf.below.
(c) Portlandcementshallconformto9.5.1.1.
(d) Watershallconformto9.5.1.1.
(e) Sand,ifused,shallconformto9.5.1.1exceptthatgradationshallbepermittedtobemodified
asnecessarytoobtainsatisfactoryworkability.
(f) Admixtures conforming to 9.5.1.1 and known to have no injurious effects on grout, steel, or
concreteshallbepermitted.Calciumchlorideshallnotbeused.

9.5.2.3.2 Selectionofgroutproportions
Proportionsofmaterialsforgroutshallbebasedoneithera.orb.below.
(a) Resultsoftestsonfreshandhardenedgroutpriortobeginninggrouting operations;or
(b) Prior documented experience with similar materials and equipment and under comparable
fieldconditions.
(c) CementusedintheWorkshallcorrespondtothatonwhichselectionofgroutproportionswas
based.
(d) Water content shall be minimum necessary for proper pumping of grout; however, water
cementratioshallnotexceed0.45byweight.
(e) Watershallnotbeaddedtoincreasegroutflowabilitythathasbeendecreasedbydelayeduse
ofthegrout.

9.5.2.3.3 Mixingandpumpingofgrout
(a) Groutshallbemixedinequipmentcapableofcontinuousmechanicalmixingandagitationthat
will produce uniform distribution of materials, passed through screens, and pumped in a
mannerthatwillcompletelyfilltheducts.
(b) Temperatureofmembersattimeofgroutingshallbeabove2Candshallbemaintainedabove
2C until fieldcured 50 mm cubes of grout reach a minimum compressive strength of 5.5
N/mm2.
(c) Grouttemperaturesshallnotbeabove32Cduringmixingandpumping.

9.5.2.4 Protectionforprestressingsteelduringwelding
Burning or welding operations in the vicinity of prestressing steel shall be performed so that
prestressingsteelisnotsubjecttoexcessivetemperatures,weldingsparks,orgroundcurrents.

9.5.2.5 Applicationandmeasurementofprestressingforce

9.5.2.5.1 Prestressingforceshallbedeterminedbybothof(a)and(b):
(a) Measurementofsteelelongation.Requiredelongationshallbedeterminedfromaverageload
elongationcurvesfortheprestressingsteelused;

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(b) Observation of jacking force on a calibrated gage or load cell or by use of a calibrated
dynamometer.

9.5.2.5.2 Causeofanydifferenceinforcedeterminationbetween9.5.2.4.1(a)and(b)thatexceeds5
percent for pretensioned elements or 7 percent for posttensioned construction shall be
ascertainedandcorrected.

9.5.2.5.3 Where the transfer of force from the bulk heads of pretensioning bed to the concrete is
accomplishedbyflamecuttingprestressingsteel,cuttingpointsandcuttingsequenceshallbe
predeterminedtoavoidundesiredtemporarystresses.

9.5.2.5.4 Longlengthsofexposedpretensionedstrandshallbecutnearthemembertominimizeshock
toconcrete.

9.5.2.5.5 Totallossofprestressduetounreplacedbrokenprestressingsteelshallnotexceed2percentof
totalprestress.

9.5.2.6 Posttensioninganchoragesandcouplers

9.5.2.6.1 Anchoragesandcouplersforbondedandunbondedtendonsshalldevelopatleast95percentof
the fpu when tested in an unbonded condition, without exceeding anticipated set. For bonded
tendons,anchoragesandcouplersshallbelocatedsothat100percentoffpushallbedeveloped
atcriticalsectionsaftertheprestressingsteelisbondedinthemember.

9.5.2.6.2 Couplersshallbeplacedinareasapprovedbythelicenseddesignprofessionalandenclosedin
housinglongenoughtopermitnecessarymovements.

9.5.2.6.3 Inunbondedconstructionsubjecttorepetitiveloads,attentionshallbegiventothepossibility
offatigueinanchoragesandcouplers.

9.5.2.6.4 Anchorages,couplers,andendfittingsshallbepermanentlyprotectedagainstcorrosion.

9.5.3 Performancerequirementofmaterial

9.5.3.1 Performancerequirementofmaterial
(a) Thefundamentalperformancerequirementofmaterialsformingthestructureisthattheyshould
beabletoresistactionssuchasthevariousloadingstowhichthestructureisexposed.
(b) Materials forming the structure should not reach unexpected limit states as a result of
deteriorationphenomenaduringtheworkinglifeofthestructure.
(c) Materialsrelated energy consumption and CO2 discharges should be minimized, while
recyclabilityshouldbehigh.
(d) Any materials that escape into the surrounding environment during construction and service
shouldnothaveastrongimpactonhumanbeings,animalsandplants.
Commentary:
Corresponding to design requirements, the materials should be evaluated to ensure that their
propertiesaresuitablewithrespecttostrength(tensile,compressiveandshear),deformation(e.g.
elasticmodulus),heatresistanceandwatertightness.
The characteristic values obtained from the tests, complying appropriate BDS, ASTM, BS, or
equivalentstandards,onsuchspecimensshouldbeconvertedtosuitthedesigncalculationmodels
usingappropriateconversionfactorsorfunctions.
ThecharacteristicvalueofmaterialstrengthfkiscalculatedfromtestresultsusingEq.9.5.31.
fk fmk 9.5.31
wherefm:meanoftestvalues,:standarddeviationoftestvalues,andk: coefficient of variance.
The coefficient k is determined from the probability of obtaining a test value less than the
characteristic value and the probability distribution of test results. The 5% fractile value is often
taken as the characteristic value. In this case, the value of k is 1.64 if the normal distribution is
assumedforthetestvalues.

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Atthestructuraldesignstage,verificationshallbeperformedsothatresponsevalueislessthanor
equaltothelimitvalueofperformancethroughoutbothconstructionperiodandworkinglife.Atthe
end of construction stage, just completed structure shall fulfill the all required performances
consideredinitsdesign.

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PartCMaintenance
9.6 Maintenance

9.6.1 General
Iftheprestressedconcretestructureisdesignedandconstructedinaccordancewiththeappropriateconcepts
describedinPartIandIIofthisChapter,basedonwhichthedurabilityischeckedbyverifyingtheperformance
requirements of the concrete and its constituent materials, it is not likely that structural deterioration would
become so significant as to degrade the performance of the structure. On the other hand it is not easy to
estimate the performance degradation process of the structure during its service life accurately. Also, it is
difficulttocompletelyavoidconstructiondefectsatallconstructionstages.Therefore,thenewstructureshould
be appropriately maintained by routine and regular inspections, based on an adequate maintenance plan
formulatedatthedesignstage.
For existing structures, deterioration may be evident in some cases, with the performance having been
degraded.Thedefectsofsuchstructuresshouldbeaccuratelyassessedandidentifiedasinitialdefects,damage,
ordeteriorations.Majorcausesforsuchdefectsshouldbeidentifiedsubsequentlysothatappropriateremedial
actionscanbeselected.Theinitialdefectsanddamageshouldbetreatedpromptlyandappropriatelyincluding
emergency treatments. When the deterioration that would degrade the performance is evident, the
deteriorationmechanismsshouldbeidentifiedandappropriatemaintenance,carriedoutbasedontheresults
ofdeteriorationpredictionandperformancedegradationevaluation.

9.6.2 ClassificationofMaintenanceAction
Maintenanceactionsshallbeclassifiedintodifferentcategoriesdependingonsuchfactorsastheimportanceof
thestructure,designlife,impactonathirdparty,environmentalconditions,easeofmaintenance,andcost.
Intheviewoftheabove,fourcategoriesarerecommendedfortheclassificationsofthemaintenanceactions:
CategoryAPreventivemaintenance
Maintenancetopreventdeteriorationwhichwouldotherwiseleadtounsatisfactorystructuralperformance.
CategoryAstructuresarethose
- forwhichremedialactionsaredifficulttotakeafterdeteriorationbecomesapparent;
- ofwhichdeteriorationmustnotbeapparent;
- havingalongdesignlife.
Structuresinthiscategorygenerallyhaveahighdegreeofimportancewhichinmanycasesrequiremonitoring.
CategoryBCorrectivemaintenance
Maintenance to restore the performance level and/or to reduce the rate of deterioration so as to maintain
satisfactorystructuralperformance.
CategoryBstructuresarethoseforwhich
- remedialmeasurescanbetakenafterdeteriorationbecomesapparent;
- apparentdeteriorationcausesnoappreciableinconvenience.
CategoryCObservationalmaintenance
Maintenanceinwhichvisualinspectionisnecessarywithoutanyremedial action regardless of the
deteriorationlevel.
CategoryCstructuresarethose
- foruseaslongastheyareusable;
- forwhichensuringsafetyfromthreatsposedtothirdpartiesistheonlyrequirement.
CategoryDIndirectmaintenance
Maintenanceinwhichnodirectinspectionisnecessaryorpossible.

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Category D structures are those for which direct inspection is extremely difficult. For these reasons, non
inspection maintenance after the initial inspection is carried out not as routine or regular inspection, but as
extraordinaryinspectionfollowingnaturaldisasters,accidents,etc.

9.6.3 MaintenanceRecord
Records,drawingsandrelateddocumentspreparedduringthetimeofplanning,designandconstructionshall
be referred to and made use of while developing an appropriate methodology for maintenance covering
inspectionandrepairs.
Commentary:
A thorough study of the planning, design and construction related documents often provide insights into the
inherent weaknesses of the structure which in turn often serve as pointers for further detailed inspection
and/orrepairs.
Furthermore, a clear record should be kept of the difficulties encountered, remedial actions taken and any
deviation from the design drawings. These record also serve as a valuable reference in the design and
constructionofsimilarstructuresandtheirsubsequentinspections.

9.6.4 Inspection

9.6.4.1 General
Onthebasisofthemethodsusedinthefrequencyandtiming,inspectionshallbeclassifiedasinitial
inspection,routineinspection,regularinspection,detailedinspection,extraordinaryinspection,and
monitoring.

9.6.4.2 Initialinspection
Initial inspection is intended to examine whether the structure is adequately constructed. It also
allowsthecollectionofbasicdataforinitiatingamaintenanceprogram.Initialinspectionshallalsobe
carriedoutjustafterthecompletionofremedialactions.
Initialinspectionshouldcovertheexternalappearanceofthestructure,variationofconcretequality,
existence of construction defects, construction errors on reinforcing and pretsressing bar
arrangement,andsoon.

9.6.4.3 Routineinspections
It shall be carried out on a routine basis at certain intervals without making any specific effort to
identify signs of deterioration, if any, and the time of their first appearance. The exact tools to be
usedandthefrequencyofsuchinspectionsmaybedecidedonthebasisofsuchfactorsasthelikely
mechanisms of such deterioration, environmental conditions, importance of the structure, and the
maintenanceactionclassification.
Aroutineinspectionshouldcovertheexternalappearanceofthestructureincludingcracks,spalling,
delamination,colorchanges,ruststainfromreinforcement,andisolationoffreelimefromconcrete.

9.6.4.4 Regularinspection
Itshallbecarriedoutatregularintervalsusingappropriatetoolstoidentifysignsofdeteriorationand
the time of their first appearance. Efforts shall be made during a regular inspection to observe the
structurecloselytoobtaindetailswhichwillbedifficulttogatherduringaroutineinspection.
Visualinspectionand/orhammeringinspectionarecarriedoutmainlytoobtainmoredetailsonthe
itemsinspectedinaroutineinspection.Inaddition,inspectionsbyusingappropriatenondestructive
testsortakingconcretecoresetc.canbeeffectivelycombinedwiththevisualinspection.

9.6.4.5 Detailedinspection
Detailedinspectionshallbedonewhen
(a) somesignsofdeteriorationorachangeintheperformancelevelareobservedduringaroutine
and/orregularinspection;
(b) it is difficult to obtain reliable and accurate information during a routine and/or regular
inspection;

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(c) itisfoundthatthestructuralintegrityofthestructurehasbeenadverselyaffectedbytheextent
ofthedeterioration;
(d) more detailed information is required before deciding on the necessity and scope for
undertakingamajorrepair,rehabilitationorstrengtheningwork.

9.6.4.6 Extraordinaryinspection
Itshallbecarriedoutafterastructurehasbeensubjectedtoanaccidentalloadtoassesstheextent
ofthedamageandtheneedforremedialactions.Suchaccidentalloadsmayincludethosecausedby
anearthquake,storm,flood,fire,explosion,etc.

9.6.5 Monitoring
Thedeteriorationand/orperformanceoftheconcernedstructureasdeterminedin9.6.2,shallbemonitored,
throughcontinuousrecordingoftheappropriatedata,togetherwithroutineandregularinspections,sothatthe
appropriateremedialactionscanbetakenbeforethedeteriorationbecomesdetrimentaltotheappearanceand
otherperformanceofthestructure.

9.6.6 DeteriorationMechanismandPrediction

9.6.6.1 General
Theprevailingstateoftheconcernedstructureshallbeevaluatedasproperlyaspossibleaccordingto
the inspection results, design and construction records, environmental conditions, and any other
relevantinformation.Thenwhenanydeteriorationisfound,thepossiblecausesofthedeterioration
andthecorrespondingmechanismcanbeappropriatelyestimated.

9.6.6.2 Identificationofdeteriorationmechanisms
Deterioration of a structure is caused by the environmental actions and loading conditions.
Environmentoriented deterioration includes carbonationinduced deterioration, chlorideinduced
deterioration, chemical attack, alkaliaggregate reaction, etc. On the other hand external force
orienteddeteriorationincludesfatigue,excessiveloading,anddifferentialsettlementofthesupport.

9.6.6.3 Deteriorationfactors
Deteriorationfactorsmaybeclassifiedintothose
(a) external to structures such as temperature, humidity and any other environmental
characteristics;and
(b) internaltothestructuresuchasdesignparametersandqualitycontrolduringconstruction.
Commentary:
Designfactorsincludethegeometryofthemembers/segments, crackwidthspecifications,concrete
covertoreinforcingbarandpretressingsteel/ducts,anddesignstrength.Constructionfactorsinclude
materialselection,mixproportions,transportation,placement,andcuringmethods.

9.6.6.4 Determinationofdeteriorationlevelsandrates
The level of deterioration and/or performance shall be determined based on the results of
inspectionsandsimulationsusingappropriatemodelsforthemechanismsofdeterioration.
The following features appearing on the surface of the structure may be used for evaluating the
degreeofdeteriorationandthelevelofperformance:
(a) crackpattern,lengthandwidth;
(b) theextentofdelamination,peelingandspallingofconcretecover,andscalinganddegradation
areas;
(c) abnormalhammertappingsoundandtheextentofabnormality;
(d) presenceanddegreeofexudationofrustandefflorescenceandwaterleakage.

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9.6.7 EvaluationandDecisionMaking

9.6.7.1 General
Ingeneral,thedeteriorationandperformancedegradationofastructureprogressmonotonically.The
decision, therefore, should be made based on the evaluation outcome of the performance of the
structureatthetimeofinspectionandattheendofitsdesignlife.

9.6.7.2 Thresholdlevel
Thethresholdlevelofthestructuresdegradedperformanceshallbespecifiedinaccordancewiththe
requirementsofsafety,functionality,appearance,societalfriendlinessandsuchotherfactors,taking
into consideration the type, importance and maintenance level of the structure and the
environmentalconditions.

9.6.7.3 Evaluationofinspectionresults
The results from routine and regular inspections shall be evaluated and a decision shall be made
whetheradetailedinspectionisrequiredorotherwise.
Theresultsfromthedetailedand/orextraordinaryinspectionsshallbeevaluatedandadecisionshall
bemadewhetheraremedialactionisrequiredorotherwise.
Immediate remedial actions shall be taken in cases where deterioration, damage and/or initial
defectsarefoundtobehazardoustothirdparties.

9.6.8 RemedialAction

9.6.8.1 General
A remedial action on a deteriorated structure shall be taken on the basis of the inspection results,
importance of the structure, maintenance classification, and the threshold level of deterioration
and/orperformance.
Commentary:
Repairandstrengtheningarethemaintechniquesofremedialactionsofwhichdetailsaredescribed
in9.6.8.3and9.6.8.4respectively.Thefollowingmeasuresarealsoincludedintheremedialactions.
Intensified inspection: inspection may be carried out by suitably increasing one or more of the
following:frequencyofinspection,numberofinspectionitems,andthelocationsforinspection.
Usagerestriction:suitablerestrictionshallbeimposedonthemaximumliveloadthatthestructure
maycarry,dependingonthelevelofdeteriorationobserved.
Functionalimprovementorrestoration:thismayincludeanappearanceimprovementthatbeautifies
astructurewithsuitablypaintingorplacingadditionalconcrete,andsoon.
Dismantlingandremoval:inacasewhenthedeteriorationofastructureistoosevereforits
structural performance to be sufficiently restored, and dismantling or the removal is one of the
choicesastheremedialmeasures.
Special care for emergency: when a deteriorated structure poses an immediate threat to the
environment,itsusers,orthirdparties,suitableemergencyactionshallbetakenimmediately.

9.6.8.2 Selectionofremedialaction
Selectionofmethodsandmaterialssuitablefortherelevantdeteriorationmechanismanddegreeof
performancedegradationisparticularlyimportantformeasuresforwhichwidevarietiesofmethods
andmaterialsareavailable.Careshouldbetakenasthemethodofrestoringtheperformancemay
varydependingonthedeteriorationmechanism,venifthelevelofperformanceisthesame.

9.6.8.3 Repair

9.6.8.3.1 General
Repair of a structure refers to the remedial action taken to prevent or slow down its further
deteriorationandreducethepossibilityofdamagetoitsusersorthirdparties.

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Types of repair include (i) repair of defects such as cracking and peeling; (ii) removal of concrete
damaged by deterioration due to carbonation and such like; (iii) surface coating to prevent re
intrusionofhazardoussubstances.

9.6.8.3.2 Preparationandexecution
Acompleteplanfortherepairworkincludingmethodsofrepair,materialstobeused,andteststo
ensurethequalityofwork,shallbedevelopedbeforetherepairworkcommences.
Repair works shall be carried out with minimum disturbances to the surrounding environment.
Necessaryteststoensurethequalityoftherepairworkshallbecarriedout.Detailedrecordofthe
repairworkshallbemaintainedforfuturereference.

9.6.8.3.3 Methodsandmaterials
Somecurrentrepairmethodsandassociatedmaterialsare
- crackrepairbyinjectingepoxy;
- sectionrepairincludingpatchingusingpolymercementmortar;
- surfaceprotectionbyresinormortar;
- cathodicprotection;
- realkalization;
- desalinationwhereverrequired.
Commentary:
Development of a repair plan comprises the selection of a repair method suitable for the
deterioration mechanism, establishment of the required repair level, and decisions on the repair
policy, specifications for the repair materials, sectional dimensions after repair, and execution
methods.

9.6.8.4 Strengthening

9.6.8.4.1 General
Strengtheningofastructurereferstotheremedialactiontakentorestoreorimproveitsstructural
propertiesincludingloadcarryingcapacityandstiffness,toalevelwhichisequaltoorhigherthan
thatoftheoriginaldesign.
Commentary:
Strengthening methods include (i) replacement of members; (ii) an increase in the crosssectional
area of concrete; (iii) addition of members; (iv) an increase of the support points; (v) addition of
strengtheningmembers;(vi)externalprestressing,etc.

9.6.8.4.2 Preparationandexecution
Strengthening of a structure shall be preceded by a thorough investigation of its deterioration
consideringsuchfactorsastheremainingdesignlife,deteriorationmechanism,possiblecausesand
extentofdeterioration,theremaininganddesiredloadcarryingcapacityorstiffness,importanceof
thestructure,maintenanceclassification,andanyremedialactionstakenpreviously.
A complete plan for the strengthening work including design calculations, methods of
strengthening, materials to be used, and tests to ensure quality of the work, shall be developed
beforeworkcommences.
Strengtheningworkshallbecarriedoutwithminimumdisturbancetothesurroundingenvironment
andtheserviceconditionofthestructure.

9.6.8.4.3 Methodsandmaterials
Somecurrentmethodsandassociatedmaterialsforstrengtheningare
- external bonding viz plate or sheet bonding and over or underlaying using steel or carbon
sheets;

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- externalprestressingusingadditionaltensioncables;
- additionofgirders,bracesand/orsupports;
- replacementofmembers;
- seismicisolation.
Commentary:
When selecting a strengthening method, it is necessary to consider effects of strengthening,
constructability,costeffectiveness,andimpactonthecommunity/environmentduringexecution.
Itisalsoimportanttoconsidertheeaseofmaintenanceafterstrengtheningandanyinfluenceon
thelandscape.

9.6.8.5 Record

9.6.8.5.1 General
Records shall be kept and preserved for future reference. Such records shall include details
concerning the design, inspection and evaluation procedures, plans and execution of any repair
and/orstrengtheningworkundertaken,andothersuchinformation.

9.6.8.5.2 Preservation
Themaintenancerecordsofastructureshallbepreservedwhilethestructureremainsinservice.It
isalsodesirablethatsuchrecordsbepreservedforanindefiniteperiodasausefulreferenceforthe
constructionandmaintenanceofothersimilarstructures.
Commentary:
It is important to devise a format that makes it easy to understand the history of a structure by
simplyreferringtorecords.Therecordsshouldbemadeaccessibleatalltimes.

9.6.8.5.3 Methodanditemofrecording
Recordsshallbekeptinaneasytounderstandformat.
Theitemstoberecordedshallincludereferencestoconcernedagencies,drawings,immediateand
nearbyenvironment,classificationofstructure,resultsofdeteriorationrateestimation,resultsof
anyinspectionscarriedout,evaluationofthestructure,anddetailsoftheplanandactualexecution
ofremedialandotheractions.

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