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B Series Engine Training

course

2009-10-4
General Engine Specifications
4 & 6 Cylinder versions
Common Bore and Stroke 4.02 in [102 mm ] X 4.72 in [120 mm ]
6 Cyl Displacement 360 C.I.D. [5.9 liters]
6 Cyl Firing Order 1 5 3 6 2 4
4 Cyl Displacement 238 C.I.D. [4.5 liters]
4 Cyl Firing Order 1 3 4 2
Intake Valve Clearance 0.010 in [0.254 mm]
Exhaust Valve Clearance 0.020 in [0.508 mm]
The minimum cranking speed is 120 rpm.
General Engine Specifications
continued
Compression Ratio
B3.9....................(rotary pump) 17.6:1
B5.9....................(in-line pump) 17.9:1
Crankshaft Rotation (viewed from the front of the engine)
B3.9 and B5.9....................Clockwise
Aspiration
Turbocharged
B3.9....................Yes
B5.9....................Yes
Aspiration
Charge Air Cooled
B3.9....................Yes
B5.9....................Yes
B ratings-Automotive Applications

Engine Model Rating power Fuel pump Peak torque


(Kw@rpm) (N.m@rpm)

EQB210-20 155@2500 P7100 /PW2000/VE 700@1600

EQB190-20 140@2500 VE 650@1400

EQB180-20 132@2500 P7100/PW2000/VE 610@1500

EQB160-20 118@2600 VE/PW2000 550@1600

EQB150-20 (4cylinder) 112@2700 VE 502@1500

EQB140-20 (4cylinder) 103@2700 VE 502@1500

EQB125-20 (4cylinder) 92@2800 VE 410@1500


B ratings-construction
Applications

Engine Type Rating Power Max Torque Pump Governor


KW@rpm N.M@rpm Type Type

4BT3.9-C80 60@2000 330@1500 AWF RSV

4BT3.9-C100 75@2400 330@1500 AWF RSV

4BT3.9-C105 77@2800 330@1500 AWF RSV

4BTA3.9-C80 60@2200 380@1500 BYC PB RSV


4BTA3.9-C100 74@2200 410@1500 BYC PB RSV

4BTA3.9-C110 82@2200 460@1500 PW2000 RSV


4BTA3.9-C120 90@2400 480@1500 PW2000 RSV

4BTA3.9-C125 93@2200 475@1500 PW2000 RQV-K

4BTAA3.9-C125 93@2200 480@1500 PW2000 RQV-K

4BTA3.9-C130 97@2500 475@1500 PW2000 RQV-K


B ratings-construction
Applications continued

Rating Governo
Engine Type Max Torque Pump
Power r Type
N.M/rpm Type
KW/rpm

6BT5.9-C115 85@2000 430@1500 AWF RSV

6BT5.9-C120 87@2200 436@1500 AWF RSV

6BT5.9-C125 92@2400 425@1500 AWF RSV

6BT5.9-C125 92@2200 500@1500 AWF RSV

6BT5.9-C130 97@2200 560@1500 AWF RSV

6BT5.9-C130 97@2200 560@1500 P( BY) RSV

*6BTAA5.9-C130 97@2200 580@1500 P7100 (BY) RQV-K

6BT5.9-C135 100@2000 570@1500 ADBY RSV


Cylinder Block Group
Cylinder block

The cylinder block has an integral

Oil cooler housing


Water pump housing
Oil pump housing
Coolant intake port
Internal water bypass
Main bearing

The thrust bearing is located in the number


4 main bearing journal for four cylinder
engines, in the number 6 main bearing
journal for six cylinder engines.

Oversize service main bearings are


available for use with crankshafts that have
been machined undersize.

The main bearing caps are numbered to


ensure that they are installed in the correct
saddle position. The main caps should be
installed with the numbers toward the oil
cooler side of the engine.
connecting rod bearings

For the fracture split connecting rod, The


upper and lower connecting rod bearings
are made from different materials. Make
certain that the correct part number rod
bearings are used in their respective
location.

Oversize service rod bearings are available


for use with crankshafts that have been
machined undersized.

Connecting rod bearings are identified with


a part number and size stamped on the back
side.

a replaceable small end bushing and utilizes


a slip fit piston pin.
Crankshaft and Crankshaft Gear

Eight counterweights design.

Main journals and connecting rod


journals and the round corners are
hardened.

Internal cross drillings used to


lubricates connecting rod bearings.

A timing marker in crankshaft gear used


to seek top dead center (TDC) for
cylinder number 1
Piston Cooling nozzles

utilizes saddle-jet piston cooling nozzles.

oil from the main bearings is directed to the


nozzles and then sprayed onto the pistons.

The piston pins are splash lubricated by the


piston cooling nozzle spray.
Piston

high-swirl combustion bowl.

cast-aluminum body.

three-ring grooves.

a Ni-resist insert with a keystone profile for the top piston ring.

a hard-anodized combustion surface.

FRONT and/or arrow marking on the top of the piston


Piston Rings & piston pin

The chromed keystone groove compression


ring.

The plain rectangular intermediate ring.

Both of these rings are labeled to indicate


the correct orientation.

The oil ring can be installed either way.

Piston pin is offset for noise reduction


Connecting Rod

A fracture split connecting rod design.

The rod and cap are manufactured as a


unit and then separated by a controlled
fracture.

A matched mating face that has virtually


no gap.

Care must be taken when handling the


connecting rod or cap during service.

A replaceable small end bushing and


utilizes a slip fit piston pin.
Piston and Connecting Rod
Assembly
Align the front marking and/or arrow
on the top of the piston so that it points
towards the front of the engine.

The long end of the connecting rod (1)


will be on the exhaust side of the engine.
Camshaft & camshaft gear

Chilled iron castings Camshaft

through a linkage of pushrods and rockers,


the cams operate the valves

Intake cam drive the intake valve

Exhaust cam drive the exhaust valve

Eccentric cam drives the lift pump

A timing marker on the camshaft gear


Front Crankshaft Seal

Lip Seal

the rotating portion of the sealing occurs at


the contact surface between the lip of the seal
and the crankshaft.

replace the front crankshaft seal with the


same style seal as was previously installed.
Rear Crankshaft Seal

Lip Seal

the rotating portion of the sealing occurs at the


contact surface between the lip of the seal and
the crankshaft.

the rear crankshaft seal is mounted in a rear seal


carrier that bolts to the rear of the cylinder block
Crankcase Breather Tube

The crankcase breather is located on the


tappet cover

Inspect the crankcase breather tube


internally for obstructions or sludge
buildup to prevent excess crankcase
pressure buildup.
Vibration Damper

The vibration damper controls the twisting


or torsional vibration of the crankshaft.

A vibration damper is engineered for use on


a specific engine model.

It is not economical to repair a vibration


damper in the field. Install a new or rebuilt
vibration damper if the inspection indicates
that a damper is defective. Viscous damper (A) for engines
rated at speeds above 2500
The viscous vibration damper has a limited rpm.
service life. The damper must be replaced if Rubber element damper (B) for
worn or damaged. engines rated at speeds
below 2500 rpm.
Cylinder Head Gasket

Oversize cylinder head gaskets are available


for resurfacing of the cylinder head and
cylinder block combustion decks to maintain
correct:
Injector protrusion
Piston protrusion.

Never reuse the old head gasket. Always use


a new head gasket to prevent leakage.
Cylinder Head Group
Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is a 2 valve per cylinder


design. one intake and one exhaust valve.

The cylinder head also includes an integral


intake manifold, and integral thermostat
housing.

The cylinder head has integrally cast valve


guides, Valve seats.
Valves

The intake and exhaust valves look very


similar but are machined at different seat
angles.

intake valve :30


exhaust valve:45

The easiest way to distinguish the intake


from the exhaust valves is to look for the
dimple on the exhaust valve face.
Valve Seat

The cylinder head has integrally cast valve seat.

The valve seats are hardened.

Can be repaired with valve seat inserts.

the size of Intake valve seat bore the size of exhaust valve seat bore
Valve Guides and Valve Stem
Seals

The cylinder head has integrally cast valve


guides

The valve guides can be repaired with valve


guide inserts

Drive-On Seal
rocker lever assembly

Each cylinder of the engine has a separate


rocker lever assembly.

The pedestal support has drillings to route the


oil flow to the shaft and levers.

The rocker levers are push rod actuated and


use an adjusting screw to control the
clearance between the rocker lever and valve
stem.

Excessive valve lash can indicate a worn


valve stem, push rod, valve tappet, or rocker
lever.
Overhead Set

Engine coolant temperature must be less than 60C [140F].


Four-Cylinder Engine Adjustment
Make sure the engine is at top dead center (TDC) for cylinder number 1.
Set number#1#2#3#6 valves
rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees.
Set number#4#5#7#8

Six-Cylinder Engine Adjustment


Make sure the engine is at top dead center (TDC) for cylinder number 1.
Set number#1#2#3#6#7#10 valves
rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees.
Set number#4#5#8#9#11#12 valves
Cam Followers
Tappets and Push Rods

Sliding tappet

The two main factors affecting the


performance of engine valve trains are
wear and friction

the tappet is slightly offset from the


cams and the cam is slightly conical to
match the domed tappet to facilitate
tappet rotation for even wear and to
reduce slippage

Push Rods
Fuel System Group
specifications

Automotive
Distributor-Type Fuel Injection Pumps B3.9 and B5.9 Engines
Maximum Inlet Restriction to the Fuel Transfer Pump Must Not
Exceed....................100 mm Hg [4 in Hg]
Maximum Allowable Return Line Restriction....................518 mm Hg [20.4 in
Hg]
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop across Fuel Filter....................35 kPa [5
psi]
Maximum Inlet Pressure to the Injection Pump Must Not
Exceed....................70 kPa [10 psi]
In-Line-Type Fuel Injection Pumps B3.9 and B5.9 Engine
Maximum Inlet Restriction to the Fuel Transfer Pump Must Not
Exceed....................100 mm Hg [4 in Hg]
Fuel Transfer Pump Minimum Output Pressure....................175 kPa [25 psi] at
Rated rpm
Fuel Filter Restriction (maximum pressure drop across filters)....................35
kPa [5 psi]
Fuel Pressure Gallery Pressure....................140 kPa [20 psi] at Rated rpm
Fuel Return Maximum Restriction....................518 mm Hg [20.4 in Hg]
Specifications continued

Industrial Applications
For performance and fuel rate values, refer to the Engine Data Sheet or the fuel injection pump
for the particular model involved.
Distributor-Type and In-Line-Type Fuel Injection Pumps
Engine Idle Speed....................700 to 1000 rpm
Maximum Fuel Inlet Restriction to Lift Pump....................14 kPa [4 in Hg]
Maximum Allowable Return Line Restriction....................69 kPa [20 in Hg]
Fuel Pressure Range at Fuel Filter Outlet (engine cranking)....................21 to 28 kPa [3
to 4 psi]
Fuel Pressure Range at Fuel Filter Inlet (engine running at idle)....................34 to 48 kPa
[5 to 7 psi]
Maximum Pressure Drop across Fuel Filter....................34 kPa [5 psi]
Fuel Drain Line Maximum Restriction....................70 kPa [10 psi]
Fuel Transfer Pump Minimum Output Pressure (low flow)....................37.9 kPa [5.5 psi]
Fuel Transfer Pump Minimum Output Pressure (high flow)....................172 kPa [25 psi]
Minimum Fuel Injection Pump Gallery Pressure (low flow fuel transfer
pump)....................82.7 kPa [12 psi]
Minimum Fuel Injection Pump Gallery Pressure (high flow fuel transfer
pump)....................140 kPa [20 psi]
Fuel Inlet Maximum Temperature....................70C [158F]
Engine Minimum Cranking Speed....................110 rpm
Fuel Lift Pump

Measure the fuel lift pump inlet


restriction with a vacuum gauge
between the fuel lift pump inlet and
the supply line from the fuel tank.

Fuel Lift Pump Inlet Restriction -


Clean Fuel Filter : max 2.5in hg
63.5KPa

Fuel Lift Pump Inlet Restriction -


Dirty Fuel filter max 2.5in hg
63.5KPa Diaphragm Style Piston Style
Fuel Lift Pump continued

Output Pressure Test (Diaphragm Style)

Operate the engine and measure the output


pressure of the fuel lift pump using an in-
line pressure gauge at the inlet to the
injection pump.
The minimum pressure at high idle is 21
kPa [3 psi].
If the minimum pressure is not achieved,
check for:
Dirty fuel filter
Faulty lift pump.
Fuel Lift Pump continued

Output Pressure Test (Piston Style)

Operate the engine, and measure the output


pressure of the fuel lift pump with an in-line
pressure gauge at the inlet to the injection
pump.
Minimum pressure at high idle is 124 KPa
[18 psi].
If the minimum pressure is not achieved,
check for:
Dirty fuel filter

Faulty lift pump.


Fuel Filter & Fuel-Water Separator

Spin-On Type

Can be pre-filled with clean fuel

Drain the water and sediment from the


separator daily.
vent

Controlled venting is provided at the injection pump through the fuel drain
manifold. Small amounts of air introduced by changing the filters or
injection pump supply line will be vented automatically if the fuel filter is
changed in accordance with the instructions.

manual bleeding will be required if one of the following conditions exists:


The fuel filter is not filled prior to installation
The fuel injection pump is replaced
The high-pressure fuel line connections are loosened, or the lines are
replaced
It is an initial engine start-up or start-up after an extended period of no
engine operation.
Fuel Injection Pump

PW2000 PW ROTATE
PUMP PUMP
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Rotary distributor pumps perform the four basic functions of:


Producing the high fuel pressure required for injection
Metering the exact amount of fuel for each injection cycle
Distributing the high-pressure, metered fuel to each cylinder at the precise
time
Varying the timing relative to engine speed.

Distributor-Type Pump Governor


Balance between the governor flyweights and control lever position controls
the metering of the amount of fuel to be injected.
The fuel injection pump governor performance and setting can affect engine
power. Special equipment and qualified personnel are required to verify
governor performance. If the seals are broken on the external Bosch VE
adjustment screw, the fuel rate can, perhaps, be out of adjustment.
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Manual Shutdown Levers

Some fuel injection pumps are equipped


with mechanical shutdown levers. These
levers are spring-loaded in the run position.
Not all applications will use these manual
shutdown controls and there will be no
cable or rod connected to the lever.

NOTE: Partial actuation of the mechanical


shutdown levers will affect fuel flow and
engine power.
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Electrical Shutoff Valves

Some fuel injection pumps are equipped


with electrical shutoff valves. These
solenoid-operated valves block the supply
of fuel to the high-pressure pumping and
distribution components.

The Bosch VE shutoff valve is located at


the top rear of the pump.
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Remove

Locate top dead center for cylinder Number 1 by barring the engine slowly,
while pushing in the top dead center pin.

The special washer on the injection pump must be removed so the lock screw
can be tightened against the drive shaft.
Torque Value: 30nm

Pull the fuel injection pump drive gear loose from the pump drive shaft.

Remove the three mounting nuts and take off the fuel injection pump.
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Install
Install the pump. Make sure the key does not fall into the gear housing.
Hand tighten the three mounting nuts. The pump must be free to move in the
slots.
Install the pump drive shaft nut and spring washer. The pump will rotate
slightly because of gear helix and clearance. This is acceptable, provided the
pump is free to move on the flange slots and the crankshaft does not move.
Torque Value: 15 to 20 nm
If installing the original pump, rotate the pump to align the scribe marks.
Torque Value: 24 nm
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

If installing a new or rebuilt pump without scribe marks, take up gear lash
by rotating the pump against the direction of drive rotation. Tighten the
flange mounting nuts.
Torque Value: 24 nm
Permanently mark the injection pump flange to match the mark on the gear
housing.
Loosen the fuel pump lock timing screw and install the special washer that is
wired to the fuel pump.
Tighten the fuel pump lock timing screw.
Torque Value: 13 nm
Disengage the timing pin before rotating the crankshaft.
Tighten the pump retaining nut.
Bosch VE (M14-1.5 nut) 98 nm
Bosch VE (M12 nut) 65 nm
Install the access cap.
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary
Idle speed adjust

Bosch VE Fuel Injection Pump Adjustment


Screws
A - Idle Screw
B - High-Idle Screw

The high-speed adjustment screw on both


fuel injection pumps provides the stop for full
speed. The high-speed adjusting screws are
sealed. Adjustment of this screw must be
performed only by an authorized fuel
injection pump service center, and then
resealed.
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

The high-speed adjusting screw can be


used to derate engines.

Bosch RSV Governor

Idle speed adjustment for industrial


engines requires the setting of both the
low-idle speed screw (1) and the bumper
spring screw (2).

First, loosen the locknut; then, back out the


bumper spring screw until there is no
change in engine speed.
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Loosen the locknut, and adjust the idle speed


screw to 40 to 50 rpm less than the desired
speed. Turn the idle speed screw
counterclockwise to decrease rpm and
clockwise to increase rpm.

Tighten the locknut.


Torque Value: 8 nm

Turn the bumper spring screw clockwise


until the desired idle speed is obtained.
Tighten the locknut.
Torque Value: 8 nm
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

The fuel injection pump performs the three basic functions of:

Metering the exact amount of fuel for each injection cycle

Producing the high fuel pressure required for injection

Delivering the high-pressure metered fuel to each cylinder at the precise


time.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

pressure relief valve

The pressure relief valve arrangement on


the Bosch P7100 fuel injection pump in the
supply side of the fuel circuit creates a self-
bleeding system for air introduced during
replacement of the supply-side components.

Small amounts of air can be bled from the


pump by operating the hand primer on the
fuel transfer pump or by cranking the engine.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Remove
Locate top dead center for cylinder Number 1. Push the top dead center pin
into the hole in the camshaft gear while slowly barring the engine.
NOTE: Be certain to disengage the timing pin after locating top dead center.
Remove the fuel injection pump mounting bracket, if applicable.
Remove the gear cover access cap.
Remove the nut and washer from the fuel injection pump shaft.
Use fuel pump gear puller, Part Number 3163381 or Part Number 3824469
with M8-1.25 x 50 capscrews, grade 8.8 or equivalent. Pull the fuel injection
pump drive gear loose from the shaft.
Remove the four mounting nuts.
Remove the fuel injection pump.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Install

Make certain that the engine has cylinder


Number 1 at top dead center.

Remove the access plug.


Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Remove the timing pin.

If the timing tooth is not aligned with the


timing pin hole, rotate the fuel injection
pump shaft until the timing tooth aligns.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Reverse the position of the timing pin so


the slot of the timing pin will fit over the
timing tooth in the pump.
Install and secure the timing pin with the
access plug.

Use clean lubricating engine oil 15w-40 to


lubricate the gear cover housing to make
certain that the fuel injection pump will
slide into the gear cover housing easily.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Make certain that the o-ring seals for the


fill orifice and pilot are correctly installed
and are not damaged.
Install new pilot o-ring.
Slide the pump shaft through the drive gear
and position the pump flange onto the
mounting studs.
Push the pump forward until the mounting
flange and o-ring are properly fitted into
the gear housing bore.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Install the mounting nuts.


Torque Value: 43 nm
Install the support bracket (if equipped).
Torque Value: 32 nm

Install the retaining nut and washer.


Torque Value: 10 to 15 nm

To prevent damage to the timing pins, do not


exceed the torque value given. This is not the
final torque value for the retaining nut.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Disengage the engine timing pin.

Remove the access plug.


Add the following quantity of clean
lubricating engine oil:
RSV 450 mL [0.48 qt]
RQV 750 mL [0.79 qt]

RQVK 750 mL [0.79 qt]


Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Remove the fuel injection pump timing pin


plug, reverse the position of the timing pin,
and install the timing pin, plug, and
sealing washer.
Torque Value: 27 nm

Tighten the fuel injection pump drive nut.


A Pump :85 nm
P7100 :195 nm

Install the gear cover access cap hand-


tight.
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Install the fuel injection pump mounting bracket capscrews.


Tighten all capscrews by hand for proper alignment.
Torque Value: 24 nm
Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

injector
Fuel flow diagram

1. Fuel from supply tank


2. Prefilter or screen
3. Fuel lift pump
4. Fuel/water separator
5. Fuel filter
6. Low-pressure fuel line
7. Turbocharger boost control line
8. Bosch P7100 injection pump
9. Bosch rotary injection pump
10. Fuel drain manifold
11. High-pressure fuel line
12. Bosch 7-mm closed-nozzle,
hole-type injectors
13. Fuel return to supply tank.
Fuel flow diagram
Lubrication Oil
System Group
Flow diagram
Flow diagram
Flow diagram
Fill oil hole

There are three locations available:

the top of the rocker lever cover.


a low position on the front gear cover
the left side of the block.
Oil pan

The stamped steel oil pan


A front sump (1), rear sump (2), or
center sump (3)
oil pump

The gerotor type lubricating oil pump.


mounted at the front of the cylinder
block

Gear driven by the crankshaft.


specifications

Lubricating Oil Pressure at Idle (minimum allowable). 69 kPa


[10 psi]

Lubricating Oil Pressure at Rated (minimum allowable)...207


kPa [30 psi]

Regulating Valve Opening Pressure.................... 449 kPa [65 psi]


Lubricating Oil Capacity Standard Pan Only
B3.9....................9.5 liters [10 qt]
B5.9.................... 14.2 liters [15 qt]
Lubricating Oil Capacity Total System - Liters [U.S. qt]
B3.9....................11 liters [11.6 qt]
B5.9....................16.4 liters [17.3 qt]
Lubricating Oil Capacity Low to High
B3.9....................0.9 liter [1 qt]
B5.9....................1.9 liters [2 qt]
Oil flow

The suction tube delivers oil to the lubricating oil pump.

The pump then delivers the lubricating oil through an internal drilling to the
oil cooler cover and the pressure regulator. When the oil pressure exceeds
the pressure regulator valve opening pressure , the valve opens, allowing
some oil to drain back to the oil sump

Oil also is directed to a cast-in passage in the oil cooler cover leading to the
oil cooler element.

From the outlet of the cooler, the oil continues through another cast passage
in the oil cooler cover to the oil filter, The oil flows up the center of the filter
and into the filter head.
Oil flow

In the event of a plugged filter, the cooler cover incorporates a bypass valve
to maintain oil flow. If the pressure drop across the oil filter exceeds
specification, the bypass valve opens, allowing unfiltered oil to lubricate the
engine.

Once the oil is cooled and filtered, oil flow is divided, with a portion of the
oil flowing to the turbocharger and the rest passing through the cooler cover
down a cast passage to a cross drilling in the block.

One cross drilling between cylinder number one and cylinder number two
carries the oil across the block to the main oil rifle, carries oil to the
overhead ( lubricates the overhead and main bearings( lubricates the
bearings)
Oil flow

The transfer drillings connected to the main oil rifle supplies oil to a groove
in the upper main bearing shells. Oil is then supplied to the cam bores
through short radial drillings.( lubricates camshaft main journals)

From the main bearings, oil enters the crankshaft and lubricates the
connecting rod bearings through internal cross drillings.

Oil from the main bearings is directed to saddle-jet piston cooling nozzles
and then sprayed onto the pistons.
Oil flow

The piston pins are splash lubricated by the piston cooling nozzle spray Oil

To the overhead is carried to the cylinder head deck by individual vertical


drillings - one per cylinder - intersecting the main oil rifle. The oil then
continues to flow vertically through drillings in the cylinder head.

From the drillings in the cylinder head, oil flows through a groove in the
bottom of the pedestal plate. The oil then flows around the rocker lever
mounting capscrews to the rocker shafts.

Oil flows through angle drillings in the capscrew bore in the shaft. At each
end of the shaft, a drilling allows oil to flow from the inside
Diameter of the shaft to the rocker lever bore.
Oil flow

A lubrication groove in each end of the shaft directs oil to two drillings
providing a path for oil flow; one drilling directs oil flow to the foot pad that
contacts the crosshead. Oil from this drilling then travels down the
crosshead and lubricates the valve stems. The second drilling in the rocker
lever directs oil to the adjusting screw. Oil flow around the adjusting screw
lubricates the push rod sockets.

For a front gear train equipped engine, lubrication is received from oil
splash and oil carryover. The oil pump idler gear is pressure-lubricated.
From here the oil drains back to the pan for recirculation.
Cooling System
Coolant flow diagram

1. Coolant inlet
2. Pump impeller
3. Coolant flow past
lubricating oil
cooler
4. Coolant flow past
cylinders
5. Coolant flow to
cylinder head.
Coolant flow diagram

1. Coolant flow from


the cylinder head
2. Coolant flow to
thermostat housing
3. Coolant flow past
injector
4. Thermostat
5. Coolant bypass
passage
6. Coolant flow to
water pump inlet
7. Coolant bypass
closed
8. Coolant flow back
to radiator.
Water pump

Coolant is circulated by the


integrally- mounted water pump.
The pump is belt driven
The pump installs in the integral
volute in the engine block
Thermostat

The integral thermostat housing, located in the cylinder head


provides a location for mounting the vented thermostat vertically in the
cooling system
Depending on engine application and date of manufacturer the thermostat
can be found in either a vertical or horizontal position.
Coolant heater

Depending on turbocharger mounting


location, two optional block heater
mounting locations are available.

bolted coolant heater

Threaded coolant heater


Coolant flow

Coolant flow begins at the water pump

The output from the water pump empties into the side of the oil cooler cavity
of the cylinder block. This provides the oil cooler with coolant at the lowest
possible temperature.

A small passage from the bottom of the oil cooler cavity allows some coolant
to return to the suction side of the water pump to ensure constant coolant
flow around all areas of the oil cooler core.
Coolant flow

The coolant then exits the oil cooler cavity and circulates into the block to
cool the cylinders.

The head gasket is orificed to control coolant flow into the cylinder head.

When the engine is below operating temperature, the thermostat is closed,


allowing the coolant to pass the radiator and flow back to the water pump
inlet through internal drillings in the cylinder head and block.
Coolant flow

When operating temperature is reached, the thermostat opens, blocking the


bypass passage to the water pump and opening the outlet to the radiator.

The engine must never by operated without a thermostat. Without a


thermostat, the coolant recirculates, by-passing the radiator, causing the
engine to overheat.

The coolant flow to the air compressor. After cooling the air compressor the
coolant returns to the engine by way of connection at the rear of the cylinder
head.
SPECIFICATIONS

Coolant Capacity (engine only)


B3.9....................7 liters [7.4 qt]
B5.9....................10.5 liters [11.1 qt]
Standard Modulating Thermostat Range
Start to Open....................83C [181F]
Fully Open....................95C [203F]
Pressure Cap
104C [220F] Systems....................103 KPa [15 psi]
99C [210F] Systems....................48 kPa [7 psi]
Minimum Recommended Operating Temperature....................71C
[160F]
Minimum Recommended Pressure Cap....................48 kPa [7 psi]
Maximum Recommended Pressure Cap....................103 kPa [15 psi]
Intake system

A filter minder, installed at the air cleaner, indicates the condition of the
filter and whether the restriction is excessive.

The intake manifold is integrated into the cylinder head

A grid heater is required for most applications. It is installed on the intake


manifold cover and is designed to heat intake air in cold ambient conditions.

The charge air cooler mounted in front of the radiator reduces the
temperature of the intake air.
Intake system flow

the intake air is drawn through the air cleaner into the compressor side of
the turbocharger ,After leaving the turbocharger, the hot intake air flows to
the charge air cooler by means of a large pipe, Once inside the charge air
cooler, heat from the intake air is transferred to the outside air flowing
around the fins of the cooler, thus decreasing the temperature of the intake
air. The cooled intake air leaves the charge air cooler and enters another
large pipe which allows the air to flow to the intake manifold , Air flow
continues through the inlet ports creating a swirl pattern into the combustion
chambers. After combustion, the exhaust gases flow from the combustion
chambers to the opposite side of the cylinder head.
exhaust system

Single Piece exhaust manifold on 4 Cylinder Engines

Two Piece exhaust manifold on 6 Cylinder Engines

Optional Turbocharger Mounting Locations

Exhaust Capscrews mounted with spacers to increase bolt stretch and


eliminate exhaust leaks
Exhaust flow

After combustion, the exhaust gases flow from the combustion chambers to
the opposite side of the cylinder head , the exhaust gas pass through the
exhaust manifold , enter the turbo of the turbocharger, the exhaust energy is
used by the turbocharger compressor wheel to pump intake air into the
engine, from the outlet of the turbo, the exhaust gas flow to the silencer
specifications

Maximum Allowable Intake Restriction


Clean Air Filter Element....................254 mm H2O [10 in H2O]
Dirty Air Filter Element....................635 mm H2O [25 in H2O

Maximum Allowable Exhaust Restriction at Rated Speed and Loaded


1991 to 1993 EPA Certified....................114.3 mm Hg [4.5 in Hg]
1994 to 1998 EPA Certified (with oxidation
catalyst)....................152.4 mm Hg
troubleshooting

Nearly all engine symptoms concerning the air system are related to Low
Power complaints, Black Smoke, or both.

One possible source of a low power or black smoke symptom is a restriction


in the air cleaner.

If a problem is suspected with the air system, a boost pressure check verifies
the problem since most air system problems reduce the boost pressure.

A leak test measures how well the Charge Air Cooler retains pressure in the
cooler core.

check the pressure drop across the Charge Air Cooler


troubleshooting

Confirm the efficiency of the Charge Air Cooler by measuring the difference
between ambient air temperature and intake air temperature in the intake
manifold.

If the boost pressure is out of range, whether too high or too low, the waste
gate may be malfunctioning and should be checked for proper operation

Back pressure in the exhaust system can also cause air system related
problems.
crank shaft

Use a soft hammer to install the gear alignment dowel into the crankshaft.
Heat the gear in an oven for a minimum of 45 minutes, but not more than 2
hours at 177C
Use assembly lube, Part Number 3163087 or equivalent, to lubricate the
outside diameter of the crankshaft gear journal.
Remove the gear from the oven. engines the timing mark and part number
on the gear must be facing away from the crankshaft after the gear is
installed
crank shaft

align the keyway of the gear with the alignment dowel pin in the crankshaft.
Install the crankshaft gear within 30 seconds of removing it from the oven.

Make sure the gear is seated against the crankshaft shoulder. Use a 0.02 mm
[0.001 in] feeler gauge to check to see if the feeler gauge can be inserted
between the crankshaft gear and the shoulder on the crankshaft. If the feeler
gauge can be inserted, the crankshaft gear is not properly seated and must
be removed and installed again.
crank shaft

Install saddle jet piston cooling nozzles


Make sure the backsides of the bearings are clean and free of debris before
installing the upper main bearings into the block.
Make sure to align the tangs of the bearings with tangs on the main bearing
block saddles.
Install the upper crankshaft thrust bearing.
4 cylinder engines - The number 4 main bearing position.
6 cylinder engines - The number 6 main bearing position.
crank shaft

Apply a coat of assembly lube, Part Number 3163087, to the crankshaft side
of the main bearings and thrust bearing surfaces.
Check the main bearing caps to make sure the ring dowels are installed.
Install the crankshaft.
Make sure the backsides of the bearings are clean and free of debris before
installing the lower main bearings into the main bearing caps.
Make sure to align the tangs of the bearings with tangs on the main bearing
caps.
crank shaft

The main bearing caps are/were numbered during the removal process for
their location. Number 1 starts with the front of the block.
Lubricate the main bearing capscrew threads and underside of the head with
clean engine oil.
Gently tap the main bearing cap into position with a plastic or rubber mallet.
When seated, install the main bearing capscrews and tighten. Torque Value:
50 nm
Do not tighten to the final torque value at this time. Final torque should be
applied after all main bearing caps are installed.
crank shaft

Tighten the capscrews evenly and in sequence. Perform each step to all
capscrews before performing the next step.
Step 1 60 nm
Step 2 90 nm
Step 3 Turn all capscrews through 90 degrees.
The finish torque:176nm
The crankshaft must rotate freely after installing the main bearing caps.
Measure the crankshaft end play with a dial indicator assembly, Part
Number 3824564 and magnetic base, Part Number 3377399. Crankshaft
End Play :0.102-0.432mm
piston and connecting rod

Be sure FRONT and/or arrow marking on the top of the piston and the
numbers on the connecting rod and cap are positioned at the right
Install the retaining ring in the pin groove on the front side of the piston.
Lubricate the pin and pin bores with clean 15W-40 engine lubricating oil.
Install the connecting rod.
Install the piston pin.
Install the second retaining ring.
Using piston ring expander, Part Number 3823137, install the rings on the
piston.
piston and connecting rod assembly

Install the bearing shells into both the connecting rod and the connecting
rod cap.
Lubricate the connecting rod bearings with a light film of assembly lubricant,
Part Number 3163087.
Lubricate the rings and piston skirts with clean engine lubricating oil.
Position the rings so that the ring gaps are 120 degrees apart.
Lubricate the cylinder bore with clean 15W-40 lubricating engine oil.
piston and connecting rod assembly

Position the connecting rod journal for the piston to be installed to bottom
dead center (BDC).
Align the front marking and/or arrow on the top of the piston so that it
points towards the front of the engine.
Insert the connecting rod through the cylinder bore until the ring
compressor contacts the top of the cylinder block.
The long end of the connecting rod (1) will be on the exhaust side of the
engine. If not, verify the piston is installed correctly onto the connecting rod.
piston and connecting rod assembly

Hold the ring compressor against the cylinder block.


Push the piston through the ring compressor and into the cylinder bore.
Push the piston until the top ring is completely in the cylinder bore.
Carefully push the piston into the bore while guiding the connecting rod to
the crankshaft journal.
Use clean 15W-40 oil to lubricate the connecting rod capscrew threads and
underside of the connecting rod capscrew heads.
piston and connecting rod assembly

Install the connecting rod and capscrews


Use a marked socket and torque wrench to tighten the connecting rod
capscrews.
The first step: 60nm
The second step :turn 60 clockwise
Finish torque :105+_20nm
Measure the side clearance between the connecting rod and crankshaft. Side
Clearance Limits :0.1-0.33mm
Check for freedom of rotation as the connecting rod caps are installed. If the
crankshaft does not rotate freely, check the installation of the connecting rod
bearings and the bearing size.
Camshaft gear

Lubricate the camshaft nose with Lubriplate 105, or equivalent.


Install the camshaft gear locating key or dowel pin with a plastic mallet.
Heat the camshaft gear to 149C [300F] for 45 minutes.
Install the camshaft gear with the timing marks away from the camshaft.
Install the camshaft gear onto the nose of the camshaft. Align the camshaft
gear keyway with the camshaft locating key/dowel pin.
Camshaft gear

Using the camshaft gear removal and installation tool, Part Number
3823589. Install the camshaft gear onto the nose of the camshaft. Align the
camshaft gear keyway with the camshaft locating key/dowel pin.
Use a 0.025 mm [0.001 inch] feeler gauge to see if the feeler gauge can be
inserted between the camshaft gear and the shoulder on the camshaft. If the
feeler gauge can be inserted, the camshaft gear is not properly seated.
Camshaft

Apply assembly lubricant, Part Number 3163087, to the front camshaft bore.
Lubricate the camshaft lobes, journals, and thrust plate with assembly
lubricant, Part Number 3163087.
Install the camshaft. While pushing in slightly, rotate the camshaft and
carefully work the camshaft through the camshaft bushings. As each
camshaft journal passes through a bushing, the camshaft will drop slightly
and the camshaft lobes will catch on the bushings. Rotating the camshaft will
free the lobe from the bushing and allow the camshaft to be installed.
Camshaft

Before the camshaft gear engages the crankshaft gear, check the camshaft
for ease of rotation. When installed properly, the camshaft must rotate freely.
Align the timing marks as illustrated and finish installing the camshaft.
Install the thrust plate.
Install the thrust plate capscrews. Torque Value: 24 nm
Use gauge, Part Number 3824564, and magnetic base, Part Number
3377399, to verify the camshaft has proper backlash and end play. Camshaft
End Play (A) 0.12-0.47mmCamshaft Gear Backlash Limits (B) :0.33-
0.76mm
Rotate pump

Verify cylinder Number 1 is at top dead center by barring the engine slowly
while pushing in on the top dead center pin.
Install a new gasket.
Install the pump. Make sure the key does not fall into the gear housing.
Hand tighten the three mounting nuts. The pump must be free to move in the
slots.
Install the pump drive shaft nut and spring washer. The pump will rotate
slightly because of gear helix and clearance. Torque Value: 15 to 20 nm
Rotate pump

If installing the original pump, rotate the pump to align the scribe marks.
Torque Value: 24 nm
If installing a new or rebuilt pump without scribe marks, take up gear lash
by rotating the pump against the direction of drive rotation. Tighten the
flange mounting nuts. Torque Value: 24 nm
Bosch VE
Loosen the Bosch fuel pump lock timing screw and install the special
washer that is wired to the fuel pump.
Tighten the Bosch fuel pump lock timing screw.
Torque Value: 13 nm
Rotate pump

Disengage the timing pin before rotating the crankshaft.


Tighten the pump retaining nut.
Bosch VE (M14-1.5 nut): 98nm
Bosch VE (M12 nut): 65 nm
Install the access cap.
Line-in fuel pump

top dead center.


Remove the access plug.
Remove the timing pin. If the timing tooth is not aligned with the timing pin
hole, rotate the fuel injection pump shaft until the timing tooth aligns.
Reverse the position of the timing pin so the slot of the timing pin will fit over
the timing tooth in the pump.
Install and secure the timing pin with the access plug.
Line-in fuel pump

Use clean lubricating engine oil 15w-40, to lubricate the gear cover housing
to make certain that the fuel injection pump will slide into the gear cover
housing easily.
Make certain that the o-ring seals for the fill orifice and pilot are correctly
installed and are not damaged.
Install new pilot o-ring.
Slide the pump shaft through the drive gear and position the pump flange
onto the mounting studs.
Push the pump forward until the mounting flange and o-ring are properly
fitted into the gear housing bore.
Line-in fuel pump

Install the mounting nuts. Torque Value: 43nm


Install the support bracket (if equipped). Torque Value: 32nm
Install the retaining nut and washer. Torque Value: 10 to 15nm To prevent
damage to the timing pins, do not exceed the torque value given. This is not
the final torque value for the retaining nut.
Disengage the engine timing pin.
Remove the access plug.
Line-in fuel pump

Add the following quantity of clean lubricating engine oil:


RSV 450 mL
RQV 750 mL
RQVK 750 mL

Remove the fuel injection pump timing pin plug, reverse the position of the
timing pin, and install the timing pin, plug, and sealing washer. Torque
Value: 27 nm
Tighten the fuel injection pump drive nut.
A Pump 85 nm
P3000 and P7100 195nm
Nippondenso 123nm
Install the gear cover access cap hand-tight.
Line-in fuel pump

Install the fuel injection pump mounting bracket capscrews.


Tighten all capscrews by hand for proper alignment. Torque Value: 24 nm
Connect the external oil feed line at the inboard side of the fuel injection
pump (if applicable) and the main oil rifle.
Connect the external oil feed line at the rear of the pump or AFC latchout if
applicable.
Cylinder head assembly

Position a new cylinder head gasket over the dowels.


Carefully put the cylinder head straight down onto the cylinder block, and
seat it onto the dowels.
Position the push tubes into the valve tappets.
Lubricate the push tube sockets with clean lubricating engine oil.
Lubricate the valve stems with clean lubricating engine oil.
Completely loosen the rocker lever adjusting screws.
Install the pedestals.
Lubricate the 8-mm pedestal capscrew threads and under the capscrew
heads with clean lubricating engine oil.
Install the capscrews finger-tight.
Cylinder head assembly

Lubricate the 12-mm pedestal/head capscrew bolt threads and under the
capscrew heads with clean lubricating engine oil.
Install the capscrews finger tight.
Lubricate the threads and under the heads on the remaining cylinder head
capscrews with clean lubricating engine oil.
Install capscrews in the cylinder head and finger-tighten.

On a four cylinder engine, capscrew number 1 is located in between


cylinders 2 and 3. The numbered sequence is the same as a six cylinder, but
stops at capscrew number 18. Follow the numbered sequence for the four
cylinder engine, and tighten all 18 capscrews.
Torque Value: 90nm
Cylinder head assembly

Follow the numbered sequence for the six cylinder engine, and tighten all 26
capscrews.
Torque value:90nm
Four Cylinder
Follow the numbered sequence, and tighten the long capscrews only
(numbers 4,5,12, and 13).
Six Cylinder
Follow the numbered sequence, and tighten the long capscrews only
(numbers 4, 5,12, and 13, 20, and 21).
Torque Value: 120 nm
Cylinder head assembly

Tighten the short capscrews again (numbers 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26) because of cylinder head relaxation
and to obtain proper cylinder head torque requirements.
Torque Value: 90 nm
Tighten the long capscrews again, because of cylinder head relaxation and
to obtain proper cylinder head torque requirements.
Four Cylinder
Follow the numbered sequence, and tighten the long capscrews only
(numbers 4, 5, 12, and 13).
Six Cylinder
Follow the numbered sequence, and tighten the long capscrews only
(numbers 4, 5, 12, and 13, 20, and 21).
Torque Value: 120 nm
Cylinder head assembly

Follow the numbered sequence, and turn the capscrew 90 degrees as


indicated on the capscrew head.
After the torque has been applied, mark the cylinder head at the location of
the dot.
Tighten the 8-mm pedestal capscrews.
Torque Value: 24 nm
Cylinder head assembly

the numbered sequence