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Original Russian Text D.A. Polyakov, G.A. Koshchuk, K.I. Nikitin, 2017, published in Elektrotekhnika, 2017, No. 5, pp. 3134.

with Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulation

D. A. Polyakov*, G. A. Koshchuk, and K. I. Nikitin

Omsk State Technical University, Omsk, Russia

*e-mail: journal-elektrotechnika@mail.ru

Received April 14, 2016

AbstractXLPE-insulated cables and wires are becoming more widespread. For this reason, it is becoming

necessary to control the state of insulation over its total operating life. Online monitoring of the effects on the

insulation and determination of its remaining life becomes possible using modern equipment. In this paper,

a method of determining the remaining lifetime of the cross-linked polyethylene insulation of the power-

transmission line is presented. An insulation-aging model developed at the previous stage of the research was

used. It is proposed to control the destructive effects on the insulation and calculate the remaining life based

on the obtained data. The results of the research showed that the probability of failure is subject to the normal

character of distribution (Gaussian distribution) as the insulation in the process of operation is exposed to a

large number of effects (partial discharges, thermal actions, effect of the environmental factors, etc.). The

remaining lifetime is defined as a function of inverse failure probability. The proposed method can be used to

develop a set of devices for determining the remaining life of polyethylene insulation.

Keywords: cable power line, polyethylene insulation, remaining life, statistical calculation, insulation aging,

insulation failure

DOI: 10.3103/S1068371217050091

In the course of operation of the power-transmis- tive effect on insulation, and thus calculating the

sion lines (PTL) its insulation is exposed to aging pro- remaining lifetime.

cesses, under the effect of which the insulation mate- A number of microcontrolling sensors (of insula-

rial is breaks at the molecular level. Defects called tion temperature, partial discharges, humidity of the

fatigue effects are concentrated and accumulated. environment, mechanical effects, ultraviolet radia-

Aging of the dielectric material can occur for different tion, radiation and chemical effects) will be installed

reasons: on the power line to control destructive factors. Each

electrical aging; sensor will measure the necessary parameter, perform

temperature aging; the primary calculations (for example, determine the

mechanical aging; average temperature within a certain time interval),

insulation damping; and supply these data to the predictive-protection

device, which will calculate the remaining life of the

radioactive aging; insulation and determine its prefailure state.

solar radiation; and The number and type of sensors installed on the

chemical effects. controller power line can differ depending on the

Power-transmission lines are exposed to the effect operation conditions (for example, in the absence of

of the aforementioned aging factors during operation an effect of ultraviolet radiation, the corresponding

in various settings, and controlling them during the sensor is not required).

period of operation will allow measures to be taken in It is advisable to install a predictive-protection sys-

time to prevent insulation failure. tem on the controller power line from the moment of

It has been proposed to use for this purpose a set of its commissioning. In the case of installation of such a

hardware and software for equipment capable of con- system on an existing power line, some time is

trolling automatically the state of insulation and deter- required to collect statistical data on the negative

mining the remaining lifetime. effects on the line. Thereafter, calculation based on

It has been suggested that the remaining lifetime of data from previous years will be carried out on the

insulation be determined using predictive protection basis of the average values of the parameters or on data

[1, 2] (Fig. 1), monitoring factors that have a destruc- that have been entered into the device manually.

271

272 POLYAKOV et al.

Radiation

Failure-probability density

Partial-discharge Chemical sensor

sensor sensor 0.007

0.006

0.005

Insulation- Environmental-

temperature Predictive protection

0.004

humidity

sensor sensor

0.003

0.002

Mechanical-action Solar-radiation

0.001

sensor sensor 0

0.001

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Percent of destroyed molecules

Fig. 2. Dependence of failure-probability density on per-

cent of destroyed molecules: ( ) modeled dependence,

Fig. 1. Structural diagram of predictive protection. (----) approximated curve.

Probability of failure

1.2

1.0

Remaining lifetime, %

0.8

120

0.6

100

0.4 80

0.2 60

0 40

0.2 20

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Percent of destroyed molecules 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Percent of destroyed molecules

Fig. 3. Function of dependence of failure-probability den-

sity on percent of destroyed molecules: ( ) modeled Fig. 4. Dependence of remaining lifetime on percent of

dependence, (----) approximated curve. destroyed molecules.

Despite the positive effect that may result from where k = 0.0225 is the scaling factor, = 1.5 is the

some types of insulation aging (for example, improve- mean square deviation, m = 4 is the mathematical

ment of the state of insulation after thermal aging [3]), expectation, and N is the percent of destroyed mole-

it is suggested that only their negative effects be con- cules.

sidered. It is necessary to define the function of the Gauss

Before calculating the remaining lifetime of the distribution corresponding to the obtained character-

insulation, it is necessary to determine the degree of istics of the probability density to determine the prob-

degradation of the dielectric material, which will likely ability of insulation failure:

lead to failure. Based on the model of the insulation N ( N m) 2

aging [4] on the ratio of the destroyed molecules

F (N ) = 1 e

(Fig. 2). In addition, to determine the dependence of

the probability density, the curve with the maximum

2

2 2

dN . (3)

coincidence with the initial function needs to be deter- To find the function of the model, it is required to

mined. The shape of the modeled curve is given by a represent the integral in the form of the sum of values

normal distribution (Gauss distribution): obtained during modeling:

( N m) 2 N

f = 1 e 2 . F (N ) = f.

2

(1) i (4)

2 i =0

After selecting the parameters for the maximum Based on expressions (3) and (4), function graphs

coincidence of the obtained characteristics, the fol- were plotted based on the data of modeling and an

lowing dependence was achieved: approximated function (Fig. 3).

( N 4)2 The remaining lifetime of insulation depends on

f = 0.225 1 e 21.5 , the probability of failure of insulation, which can be

2

(2)

1.5 2 determined if the percent of the destroyed molecules is

DEFINITION OF THE REMAINING LIFE OF POWER-TRANSMISSION LINES 273

known. In fact, the remaining lifetime can be repre- of values of the fracture speed of the dielectric material

sented as the probability that the insulation will not within known time intervals:

break; i.e., the function of the remaining lifetime will t

be a function inverse to the probability of failure of the

percent of destroyed molecules: N 0 (t ) = v t . i i (9)

t =0

remaning ( N ) = (1 F ( N )) 100%. (5)

For example, to determine the remaining resource,

Dependence (5) is given on Fig. 4. the condition can be set that the necessary parameters

The number of molecules in a set insulation vol- be measured once per second (ti = 1 s). It is then

umefor example, 1 mm3needs to be determined in required to calculate the fracture velocity of the dielec-

practice using the method of ascertaining the remain- tric material within time interval i that will be numer-

ing lifetime. The distance between CH2 molecules is ically equal to the number of the destroyed molecules

0.1267 nm [5]; therefore, the number of CH2 mole- within the same time interval.

cules in the specified insulation volume is It is possible to determine the number of destroyed

3 molecules at this moment in time based on expression (9).

n=

10 3

= 4.92 10 20. The percent of destroyed molecules can then be deter-

9

(6)

0.267 10 mined by formula (6).

According to [6], the service life of insulation

depends on the internal service life and fracture veloc- REFERENCES

ity of the dielectric material under the influence of dif-

ferent destructive factors. Thus, the number of 1. Goryunov, V.N., Nikitin, K.I., and Sarychev, M.M.,

destroyed molecules of CH2 at moment of time t Leading automated reserve input for self needs of elec-

tric power stations and substations, Omsk. Nauchn.

comes to Vestn., 2011, no. 3 (103).

t 2. Nikitin, K.I., Sarychev, M.M., Stepanov, V.D., Ere-

N 0 (t ) = v (t ) dt,

(7) min, E.N., and Khatsevskii, K.V., Leading automated

reserve input, Omsk. Nauchn. Vestn., 2012, no. 1 (107).

0

3. Cselko, R. and Istvan, B., Challenges of partial dis-

where v (t ) is the fracture velocity under the cumula- charge diagnostics of low-voltage cables, J. Electrost.,

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moment of time t (measured in molecules per second), 4. Nikitin, K.I. and Polyakov, D.A., The way to determine

which can be determined using the formula insulation lifetime, Fundam. Issl., 2015, no. 3.

v (t ) = v q + v T + v + v h + v r + v + v c , (8) 5. Tyutnev, A.P., Saenko, V.S., Kundinat, Yu.F., Pozhi-

daev, E.D., and Vannikov, A.V., Mobility of excess

where v q ,v T ,v ,v h,v rv and v c are the speed of charge-carriers in low-density polyethylene, Khim.

degradation of the insulation due to the effects of par- Fiz., 2002, vol. 21, no. 7.

tial discharges, temperature, mechanical stresses, 6. Sobolev, D.S., System of self-bearing insulated wires,

excessive humidity, radiation, ultraviolet radiation, Sb. Nauch. Trudov Novosib. Gos. Tekhn. Univ., 2009,

and chemical effects. no. 3 (57).

It is suggested that this method of calculation be

used in predictive-protection software, but for this Translated by Yu. Bezlepkina

purpose it is required to represent the integral as a sum

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