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Bensen Notes

Jericho High School
United States History and Government

Social Studies: Colonial America to the Articles of Confederation

I. Early British Colonial Settlements
A. Jamestown
1. Facts Land= Power= Wealth
- Found by men
- Successful 1615-1617
- Southern colony
- Financed (London company of Virginia)
2. Social
- Wanted to leave England in search of opportunity
- Harsh winter 1609-1610 (starving time) > tobacco
- Head right system- settlers who paid their own passage were given 50 acres for
every person they brought over the age of 15
- Indentured servants
- Contract labor
- 1619- First Africans brought to North America
3. Economic
- Wool trade In England boomed; merchants looking for more markets wanted to
establish colonies in the new world
- Joint stock companies formed
- 1606- King James I granted a charter to the Virginia company giving stockholders
permission to start a colony
- Tobacco saved the colony as a large cash crop
4. Political
- Virginia company granted the Jamestown colonists the right to elect a law-
making body
- Virginia house of burgesses; example of early colonial self-government
B. Plymouth
1. Social
- Practice religion freely
- Fled England because of religious persecution
- Very religious- colony as a religious sample of the world
- First thanksgiving plague wiped out many colonists squant0 helped
- No religious tolerance- did not tolerate the expression of different religious
2. Economic
- Small farms; had trouble in cool weather
- Local natives taught them how to use fish as fertilizer
- Eventually will develop into a major fishing & whaling community
- Timber and shipbuilding

3. Political
- May flower compact (signed by 41 men on the ship)
- Civil
- Body } Government by the People
- Politic
- Majority rule
C. Aim: What was life like in the thirteen English colonies?
1. New England Colonies
- New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
- Social
- Family Groups- Hard work and obedience will get you far in life


United States History and Government

- Separatists- Hard work and obedience will get you far in life
- Political
- Town meetings- open discussions to manage town affairs
- Belief in democracy set the stage for the Revolution and democracy
- Economic
- Subsistence farming
- Fishing, whaling (blubber for oil lamps)
- Lumber for shipbuilding
2. Middle Colonies
- New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware
- Social
- Religious diversity (Quakers in PA and DE/ Anglican in NY, NJ)
- Wealthy merchants, artisans, farmers = grain, corn, wheat, oats
- Political
- Colonial legislatures
- Self-government (limited to landholding males)
- Economic
- Commercial (harbors) cities (NY and Philadelphia)
- Social classes based on wealth
- bread basket colonies- longer growing season with fertile soil
3. Southern Colonies
- Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
- Social
- Social system made distinct social classes
- Wealthy landowners lived different lives than poor backcountry
subsistence farmers
- Indentured servants became landless people
- Males dominated society
- Political
- Headright system- granted 50 acres to anyone who brought an
indentured servant to Virginia
- Bacons rebellion (1676)- backcountry revolt due to lack of security
against Native American attacks, showed class tension between elite
and poor
- Economic
- Very few wealthy plantation owners with slave labor
- Many tenant farmers rented land
- Relied on Cash crops- crops grown specifically for export (cotton,
tobacco, rice, indigo)
II. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) (Seven Years War)
A. Brain Pop
1. The French and Indian War was a conflict between English and French over territory in
Ohio River Valley.
2. The war lasted from 1754 to 1763.
3. In North America, the French economy revolved around Trade with the American
4. What happened in the Ohio River Valley?
- English trade with Indians
5. What did the French build to keep the British out of their territory?
- Military bases (fort system)
6. What did George Washington do in 1754?
- General for team that attack French marched into Ohio River Valley, though
they were unsuccessful


United States History and Government

7.Most Indians sided with the French at first.

8.What did William Pitt do in 1758?
- Raised support for the war
9. What did the British navy do on the coast? Was this effective?
- Naval Blockade, Yes
10. By 1759, the British captured the French city of Qubec and Montreal the next year.
- Guerilla Warfare- natural surroundings, camouflage
11. What did the French give up in the Treaty of Paris?
- All of North America except half of an Island
12. What did the British do to the colonists to pay for the war? What was a long-term
result of this?
- British taxed American colonist which led to American War
B. Salutatory Neglect
1. So longsee you later- prior to the French and Indian war, Great Britain did not
always enforce its tax or trade laws on the colonists; this allowed the colonists to
develop a sense of self after the French and Indian war, this salutary neglect ends.
- Very active British involvement on colonial, economic, political, and social life.
C. Proclamation of 1763
1. King and parliament ban the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
- Control colonies
D. Summary Hip History Video
1. Which Indian group sided with the British and Colonists?
- Iroquois
2. Which Indian group sided with the French?
- Huron
3. What did the French do in what is modern-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania?
- Built forts as in Duquesne
4. What happened when George Washington and his militia went to Fort Duquesne?
- The French attacked George Washington and his troops
5. The Albany Plan of Union (1754) was the first time the colonists tried to meet as one
Unit without the British.
6. Was the Albany Plan of Union successful? Why is it important?
- On July 10, 1754, representatives from seven of the British North American
colonies adopted the plan. Although never carried out, the Albany Plan was the
first important proposal to conceive of the colonies as a collective whole united
under one government.
7. Effects of the French and Indian War:
- How did the Colonists start to view the British after the war?
- Dangerous
- How did the British treat the natives?
- Horribly, brought them blankets full of small pox
- The Proclamation of 1763 tried to halt expansion west of the Appalachian
- What did the British do to pay for the war?
- Raise taxes
8. What is the big lesson of the French and Indian war?
- Conception of the republic
- Colonists see themselves as a separate entity

III. Causes of the American Revolution
A. Brain pop video- Causes of the American Revolution


United States History and Government

1. Who ruled the original 13 colonies?

- King George III
2. The colonists had no representation in Parliament the British version of congress
3. Parliament could pass laws on the colonies even though none of the colonists voted
4. 1765- What was the quartering act?
- British soldiers in colonies could stay in whatever private house they wanted
5. James Otis said, Taxation without Representation is tyranny
6. The Stamp Act of 1765 taxed all legal documents including contracts, newspapers, and
Playing cards
7. How did the colonists respond to all of these taxes?
- Boycott
8. What was taxed under the Townshend Acts?
- Glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
9. The Townshend Acts also allowed British officials to search any home they wanted
without a warrant of assistance
10. 1770- Boston Massacre- 5 colonists were killed
11. How did the colonists respond to the Tea Act?
- Boston Tea party
12. Coercive Acts- naval blockade of Boston harbor. The coercive Acts were known to the
colonists as the Intolerable Acts.
13. What did the first continental congress do?
- Decided to ban all trade with England
14. Where did the fighting begin in 1775?
- April 19 beginning of Revolutionary war
IV. Road to the American Revolution: a timeline
A. Introduction
1. 1754-1763- French Indian war
- Fought over control of Ohio River Valley
- French and Huron vs. British and Iroquois
B. Big Ideas
1. France lose most of their North American territory (Haiti)
2. Salutary Neglect ends; this means that the British govt./ parliament enforcing their
laws and taxing on the colonists
3. Proclamation of 1763- bans the colonists from moving west of the Appalachian
4. 1754- Albany Plan of Union
- Inter- colonial governments meet for recruiting troops, collecting taxes etc.
- Plan fails
5. 1763- Proclamation of 1763
- British prohibit colonists from settling lands west of Appalachian Mountains
6. 1763- George Grenville becomes British Prime Minister
7. 1764- Sugar Act
- Lowers duty (tax) on imported molasses
- Enforces smuggling laws
8. 1764-Quatering Act
- Colonists responsible for accommodating British troops in their homes
9. 1765- Stamp Act
- Required stamp on all actual material to show payment of tax
- Patrick Henry- No taxation without representation
- Stamp Act congress (NY)- calls for repeal of act
- Creation of Sons and Daughters of Liberty
- Colonial legislatures want to make their own taxes
10. 1766- Repeal of Stamp Act but.


United States History and Government

11. 1766- Declaratory Acts

- British government could make laws for colonies in all cases whatsoever
12. 1767- Townshend Acts
- Tax on tea, paper, glass, paint, etc.
- British only needed writs of assistance to search colonial homes for smuggled
- Invasion of Privacy
13. 1770- Townshend Acts repealed
- Boycott
Rule of Law
14. March 1770- Boston Massacre
15. 1773- Tea Act
- lowered duty on tea from East India Company
- Hated because it recognized right of parliament to tax
16. Dec. 1773- Boston Tea Party
17. 1774- Intolerable or Coercive -Acts
- Port Act- closed Boston Harbor
- Reduced power of Massachusetts Legislature
- Martial law
- Justice Act- royal officials to be tried in England for crimes
- Stricter quartering acts- troops quartered in colonial homes
18. 1774- Quebec Act
- Redistributes land in Canada
- Colonists see it as taking away their land in the north
19. Sept. 1774- First Continental Congress
- Radicals- P. Henry, S. Adams, J. Adams
- Moderates- G. Washington, J. Dickinson
- Conservatives- J. Jay, J. Galloway
- Suffolk Resolves- rejected intolerable acts; urged colonists to resist
until repeal
- Dec. of Rights and grievances
- Association- creation of comities in every town to enforce sanctions
- Committees of correspondence
- If needs are not met- agree to have 2 CC (continental congress) in
May 1775
- April 1775- Battles of Lexington and Concord
- Shot heard around the world
- May 1775- Meeting of Second Continental Congress
- Philadelphia, PA
- Provide for colonies to have troops
- Appt. G. Washington as head of colonial army
i. Militia
- Olive Branch Petition sent to King George- rejected!
- June 1775- Battle of Bunker Hill
- January 1776- Pamphlet- Thomas Paine- Common Sense
C. Do now videoThe history Channel Lexington and Concord
1. Who Fired the 1 shot at Lexington? What is the nickname given to this shot?
- No one knows who fired the first shot at Lex and Concord
- Shot heard around the world
- First time colonies are fighting the mother country
2. The British (red coats) fired at four times the rate of the militia (minutemen)
3. Within minute of the first shots, how many casualties were there on the American
(patriots) side?
- 8 Patriots dead, 10 Patriots wounded


United States History and Government

4. What do the militia do while the Red Coats search for their hidden weapons?
- Spread the word
5. The American version was written on April 15 in 1775, the British version was written
on June 10 in 1775.
V. Conflicting Versions of the Outbreak of War (Lexington & Concord) (1775)
A. Questions:
1. How do the colonists describe the Battle of Lexington and Concord?
- The British had shot first.
2. How did the British describe the Battle of Lexington and Concord?
- The Rebels had shot first.
3. Why are these accounts different through they describe the same event? What might
cause a different point of view?
- They describe the situation in whatever way the other person reading it will feel
pity for them.
VI. Common Sense by Thomas Paine
A. Questions
1. What are his explicit arguments?
- That America deserves the right to have their own government.
- Britain was only interested in making money off the colonies and protecting
their land, they didnt really care about the individual people.
2. Why he Title it Common Sense?
- Its Common Sense that America should have a government of their own, and
it is their natural right.
- Its common sense that a continent should not be controlled by an island, three
thousand miles away
3. What logic, reason, and emotion are used to persuade?
- it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool
deliberate manner, while we have it in our power, than to trust such an
interesting event to time and chance.
- The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature, cries tis time to part.
4. Why was this essay so popular with the people?
- It separates America from England by stating it is evident they belong to
different systems. England to Europe, America to itself
- Logical and reasonable and easy to understand
VII. John Dickinson, July 1, 1776
A. Questions
1. What are John Dickinsons explicit arguments?
- We the colonies are not ready for independence
- Their unity will be weakened for war makes them harsh
2. What logic, reason, emotion is used to persuade?
- we should have waited to settle our problems before we declared our
- They were not ready they had no army
3. Why did members of the Second Continental Congress vote for the Declaration of
- Because it would make the colonies stronger
- They thought they needed independence to flourish as a nation. King of
parliament violated natural right
VIII. What Actions were taken by the King to anger the colonists?
A. Social
1. Coercive or intolerable acts
- Mass. Legislature 1774
2. Proclamation of 1763


United States History and Government

- Prevented people from moving west

3. Quartering act
4. Intolerable acts/ closing Boston harbor
- Cutting off trade with every other part of the world
- Tea act/ Stamp Act/ Sugar act ****
B. Political
1. Dissolved representatives house repeatedly
C. Economic
1. Not enough funding for the new colonies
IX. The Declaration of Independence (1776)
A. Purpose of the Declaration
B. Three parts of the declaration
C. The declarations key ideas of government
X. Chalkboard Notes:
A. The Important/ Significant battles of the American Revolutionary War
1. 1775-
- May, Battles of Lexington and Concord
- June, Battle of Bunker Hill/Breeds hill
2. 1776-
- Declaration of Independence
- Aug + Sept- Battles of Long Island and NYC > For entire War
3. 1777-
- Battle of Saratoga, NYturning point
- USA Victory
- British have to change their strategy
- Northern States= USA (except for NYC and LI)
- War moves South
- Men
- Money
- Military Leadership
- French Navy
- French provide help because we didnt have money
4. 1781 -
- Battle of Yorktown, VA
- British general Cornwallis Surrenders to George Washington

XI. The Effects of the Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris
A. Social
1. Loyalists Barred from returning to their homes
- T of P- USA will pay war reparations
2. Native Americans lost territory to new settlers and expanding territories of the
- Proclamations of 1763 is null and void
3. African Americans were often emancipated in northern states
B. Economic
1. Loyalists had to be paid for lost/ damaged property
- Reparations
2. Americans now free to trade with any country of their choice (not just Great Britain)
C. Political
1. Land area more than doubled; extended to the Mississippi river
- Boundaries


United States History and Government

- N= Great lakes
- S= North Florida
- W=Mississippi River
- E= Atlantic
2. Inspired other revolutions around the world (IE: French Revolution)
3. Created a new Confederate form of government giving the states more power than the
central government (articles of confederation)


United States History and Government

Social Studies: The Constitution

I. Constitution Unit Outline and Vocabulary
A. Preamble
1. We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish
justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the
general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
B. Article I The Legislative Branch
1. Section 1 The Legislature
2. Section 2 The House
3. Section 3 The Senate
4. Section 4 Elections & Meetings
5. Section 5 Membership, rules, journals, adjournment
6. Section 6 Compensation
7. Section 7 Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto
8. Section 8 Powers of Congress
9. Section 9 Limits on Congress
10. Section 10 Powers prohibited of the States

C. Article II The Executive Branch
1. Section 1 the President
2. Section 2 Civilian Power over the Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments
3. Section 3 State of the Union, Convening Congress
4. Section 4 Disqualification
D. Article III The Judicial Branch
1. Section 1 Judicial Powers
2. Section 2 Trial by jury, Original jurisdiction, Jury trials
3. Section 3 Treason
E. Article IV The States
1. Section 1 Each state to honor all others
2. Section 2 State citizens, extradition
3. Section 3 New states
4. Section 4 republican government
F. Article V Amendment
G. Article VI Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
H. Article VII Ratification
I. Foundations of Our Government
1. Mayflower Compact
2. Enlightenment
3. John Locke
4. Natural Rights
5. Consent of The Governed
6. Social Contract
7. Montesquieu
8. Separation of Powers
9. Checks and Balances
10. Limited Government
11. Popular Sovereignty
12. Articles of Confederation
J. The Constitutional Convention
1. Delegates
2. New Jersey Plan


United States History and Government

3. Virginia Plan
4. Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
5. Bicameral Legislature
6. Senate
7. House of Representatives
8. Congress
9. Three-Fifths Compromise
10. Proportional Representation
11. Federalism
K. Constitution
1. Preamble
2. Article I, Section 8
3. Bills
4. Committees, Subcommittees
5. Article II
6. Cabinet
7. Commander in Chief
8. Electoral College
9. Impeachment
10. Veto
11. State of The Union Address
12. Article III
13. Supreme Court
14. Judicial Review
15. Elastic Clause
16. Amendments
17. Delegated Powers
18. Enumerated Powers
19. Implied Powers
20. Concurrent Powers
21. Reserved Powers
22. Living Document
23. Unwritten Constitution
24. Supremacy Clause
L. Ratification of The Constitution
1. Federalists
2. Anti-Federalists
3. Federalists Papers
4. Bill of Rights
II. Brain Pop The Constitutional Convention
1. Philadelphia, New Jersey. Discuss changes to the articles of confederation.
1. Declare war and levy peace.
1. America goes into debt.
1. Nothing.
1. Instability, making the country unstable and vulnerable.

1. George Washington


United States History and Government

1. Three Branches of Government, and called for two houses, and branches
1. SKIP States by the people with proportional representation
1. Thought they would lose power.
1. Unicameral (one house legislature). Each state had one vote.
1. Each state has two senators. House is proportional.
1. Northern states would abolish statements
1. For every five slaves, they are counted as three representatives.
1. Keep argument going on how to run the country.
1. Change or Amend the constitution
1. We had skipped eight
III. Was there a need for a Constitutional Convention?
A. Do you think there was a need to address the articles of Confederation with a Constitutional
Convention? Recall some of the problems that existed under the articles.
1. Yes, because they were the original rules of the old Untied States
B. Why might it have been difficult to design a government in the new Untied States?
1. They may not agree on the same topics, and its difficult to appeal everyone
IV. The Delegates Who was there?
A. Why is it important to note who was and who was not in attendance at the constitutional
1. To know who was in support of the new United States
B. How did the professional backgrounds off the men attending the meetings at Independence
Hall in Philadelphia in May 1787 from the majority of the population?
1. It affected point of views of those who are making the laws.
C. Why did patriots like Patrick Henry refuse to attend the Convention?
1. Because they suspected that the convention would try to create a strong national
D. Why do some people view the Constitutional Convention as undemocratic?
1. It does not support the women, Native Americans, African Americans, or poorer white
V. The Constitution: Our plan of Government
A. Reading
B. Comprehension Questions
1. Define Constitution
- Written plan of Government
2. The constitution has been amended _______
- 27 times
3. The first _______ amendments to the constitution make up the bill of rights
- 10
4. The three parts of the constitution are _______, _______, and _______.
- Preamble, Seven Articles, and Bill of Rights
5. Why was it necessary for the framers of the constitution to provide a way for the
document to be amended?
- Society is always changing and it provides a way to accommodate change


United States History and Government

- Constitution can be improved

- To keep up to date and make the constitution a living document
C. Constitution was written through compromise
1. A bundle of Compromises
D. The Constitutional Convention
1. May 1787- Sept 1787
VI. Aim: Why is the United States Constitution considered a Bundle of Compromises?
A. Great Compromise
1. Issue: Representation in Legislature
- Virginia Plan (large states):
- Bicameral (Two house legislature)
- representation based on population
James Madison
- New Jersey Plan (small states):
- unicameral (one house) legislature
- Equal representation for all states
William Patterson
- Great compromise (Connecticut Plan):
- Two separate houses (Bicameral)
- House of Representatives based on state population
i. Census- Every Ten Years
- Senate has Equal representation for each state
Robert Sherman

- In 1911 the final number of Representatives was 411 with 50 states we have 435
B. Three Fifths Compromise
1. Issue: Representation of Slaves
- Southern States:
- Slaves should count for representation in the House of Representatives
- Slaves should not be counted for taxation
i. House of Representation
- Northern States:
- Slaves are considered property, not population
- Slaves should be taxed, not counted towards representation
- Three-Fifths Compromise:
- Three-fifths: (3/5) of all slaves would count for representation and
i. 5 people
1. three counted for representation
- Legislated slavery
- People of slavery were considered property
C. Commerce Compromise
1. Issue: Trade
- Northern States:
- Slave trade must be ended
- must have a protective tariff, a tax on imports to protect American
- Southern States:
- opposed any regulation of slaves
- opposed an export tariff, tax on goods sold to other nations
- Commerce Compromise:
- Slavery could exist but the slave trade was forbidden after 1808


United States History and Government

- Congress could only tax on imports

- What a tariff does is make foreign goods more expensive
D. Presidency Compromise
1. Issue: Election of Executive
- Large States
- Wanted a strong central (national) government
- Direct election of the president
- Small states
- Wanted a small central government, favored states rights
- State legislatures to select the president
- President would answer to the states
- Presidency Compromise-
- Indirect election of the president through the Electoral College
- 4-year Term
VII. Compromise to the Constitution
A. Issue: Representation
1. How would the legislature be chosen?
- Larger states wanted representation based in population; smaller states wanted
all states represented equally
B. Issue: Slavery
1. How would slaves be counted?
- The North wanted slaves counted for tax purposed the South wanted slaves
counted for the Purpose of Representation in Congress
2. Would Slavery Continue?
C. Issue: The Presidency
1. How would the president be elected?
2. How long a term would he serve?
D. Issue: Power of the Federal Government
1. How would the powers of the states be protected?
- Most colonists at the time felt more like New Yorkers or Pennsylvanians than
2. How would the central governments powers be limited so that it could not take away
peoples rights?
VIII. Principles of the Constitution
A. Popular Sovereignty = People Power > Preamble
B. Separation of Powers= 3 branches of government, legislative, executive, judicial
C. Federalism= National government and individual state governments divide and Share some
D. Checks and Balances= Balance of 3 Branches

E. Republicanism= Elect our Representatives
F. Limited Government} Bill of Rights
G. Flexibility} Amending Process- Article 5
IX. How do we know that the constitution is a living document?
A. Flexibility
B. Bill of Rights
C. Amending Process
X. Aim: What are the roles and powers of the different branches of government?
A. Legislative Branch
1. Powers defines in Article I of the constitution
2. Congress:
- Bicameral legislature


United States History and Government

- House of Representatives (435 members)

- Senate (100 members)
3. Lawmaking body of government
- Requires majority vote in both houses and presidential signature
- Can override presidential veto with 2/3 vote in each house
4. Necessary and Proper or Elastic clause:
- Allows government to adapt to changing times
- Article I: Section 8: Clause 18
- The elastic clause stretched the power of congress
- FAA Federal Aviation Administration
- FCC Federal Communication Commission
XI. Separation of Powers Worksheet
A. Three branches of the US Government
1. How many branches of Government are there?
- 3
2. What is the primary role of the Legislative Branch?
- Make Laws
3. What is the primary role of the Executive Branch?
- Enforces Laws and treaties
4. What is the primary role of the Judicial Branch?
- Explains and interprets laws
5. Which branch can approve treaties, declare war, and regulate money?
- Legislature
6. Which branch can recommend bills to Congress and veto laws?
- Executive
7. Which branch can settle disputes between states?
- Judicial
B. Federal Officeholders
1. Legislative Branch (House of Reps.)
- 25 years or over
- citizen for 7 years
- resident of state in which elected
2. Legislative Branch (Senate)
- 30 years or over
- citizen for 9 years
- resident of state in which elected
3. Executive Branch (President and Vice President)
- Age 35 or over
- Natural born citizen
- Resident of U.S. for 14 years
4. Judicial Branch (Supreme Court & Federal Courts)
- No requirements
XII. Powers of Legislative Branch
A. Section I:
1. List the two chambers of Congress:
- Senate and House of Representatives
2. What is the function of Congress?
- Make and Pass laws
B. Section II:
1. How long is a term of a representative before he/she is up for re-election?
- 2
2. How many years must be a U.S. citizen in order to become a representative?
- 7


United States History and Government

C. Section III:
1. How many senators does each state have?
- 2
2. How long is the term of a senator before he/she must run again for re-election?
- 6
1913- 17 amendment
Changes constitution with direct election of senators
D. Section VIII:
1. List the Powers that Congress has been given by the Constitution.
- The Congress will have power to make and collect taxes; to provide for an army;
to borrow money for the united states; to regulate foreign trade; to control
immigration; to coin money; to control weights and measures; to create post
offices and roads; to declare war
Article 1 Section 8- where youre going to find most of the
powers of congress
2. Why do you think that the national Congress was given these powers and not the
- To do the opposite of the Articles of Confederation
Implied powers are powers that are decided to meet the needs of the
Elastic Clause
XIII. Brain pop: How a Bill becomes a law
A. Questions
1. What is a bill?
- Document he explains how such a law would work
2. True or False: A bill can only be introduced by the senate
- False
3. For a bill to become a law it must first pass through
- A committee
4. What is a committee?
- Groups of congress man who specialize in certain types of laws
5. Where does the bill go after committee?
- Full House of Congress
6. Where does it go if approve it?
- Another House
7. How many must vote yay in the house? In the senate?
- 218 in the House of Representatives
- 51 in the Senate
- Where does the bill go if it passes both the House and Senate?
- It goes to the president
8. What happens If the president signs the bill?
- Becomes a law
9. If _______ of both houses override the presidents veto, the bill becomes a law
- 2/3rds of each house
10. How many votes are needed in the House to override? The Senate?
- House of Representatives 290/435
- Senate67/100
XIV. Executive Branch
A. Comprehension Questions:
1. List one powers the President has in each of the following categories:
- Executive
- Legislative
- Diplomatic


United States History and Government

- Military
2. List and three ceremonial duties performs by the president
3. What happens in the president can no longer perform his or her duties?
B. Powers of Executive Branch
1. Section 1:
- How long owes the president hold power before he/she is up for re-election?
- Four years
- What are some of the requirements before someone can be eligible to be the
XV. Electoral College & The Presidential Election
A. Indirect Election
B. Questions
1. Do Americans directly elect the president of the United States?
- No
2. Why did the Framers of the constitution create the Electoral College?
- They didnt trust the American people
- Illiterate
- Only white men could vote
3. California has 55 Electoral College votes. Where does this number 55 come from?
- 53 House of rep and 2 senates
4. Do electors have to cast their vote for their partys nominee?
- No
5. Do you think we should have a winner-take-all Electoral College system, or do you
support what Maine and Nebraska does?
- I support what Maine and Nebraska does because we get a more accurate vote
6. Do you think we should have an Electoral College System? Why or Why not?
- Yes, because its been very helpful to us
7. A national census (survey) is taken every ten years to determine the number of people
living in each state. How would a significant change in a states population affect its
number of Electoral College votes for President? Explain.
- If the states population doubles then they double the amount of people who
are in Electoral College
XVI. Judicial Branch
A. Questions
1. The constitution established only the
- Supreme court
2. There are 94
- District courts
3. Each state and territory has at least one
- District courts
4. U.S. courts of appeals
- Rule on cases from district courts
5. The only judges known as justices are those who sit on the
- Supreme court
6. What is a court that has only appellate jurisdiction able to do? What can it not do?
- U.S. courts, they cant try cases.
B. Brain Pop: Supreme Court
1. What does the Supreme Court do?
- Highest court in the US/ decides on legal cases that deal with federal cases/
interprets laws/ determines if laws and acts are constitutional
2. How many justices are there?
- 9
- John G. Roberts, Jr., Chief Justice of the United States


United States History and Government

- Anthony M. Kennedy, Associate Justice

- Clarence Thomas, Associate Justice
- Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Associate Justice
- Stephen G. Breyer, Associate Justice
- Samuel A. Alito, Jr., Associate Justice
- Sonia Sotomayor, Associate Justice
- Elena Kagan, Associate Justice
- Neil M. Gorsuch, Associate Justice
3. How does a justice get appointed?
- Nominated by the President and approved by the senate
4. How long can a justice be on Supreme Court?
- Life term
5. What is judicial review?
- Right to declare laws unconstitutional/ see next page
6. What kind of cases get to the Supreme Court
- When some cases are appealed they go to a supreme court
C. The power of judicial review
1. What is judicial review?
- Deciding if cases involving local, state, state, and federal laws or government
actions violate the constitution
2. What power of the Supreme Court is a part of the Unwritten Constitution?
- If the supreme court finds them in violation, it will declare these laws or actions
null and void unconstitutional
3. Identify the Supreme Court Case that established the principle of judicial review:
- Mulberry vs. Madison
D. Principles of the Constitution
1. Popular sovereignty
- Preamble
2. Republicanism
- Vote
- Elect representatives
3. Separation of powers
- 3 branches
- legislative
i. vote for our representatives
ii. vote for our senate
- judicial
i. appointed by president
- executive
i. indirectly vote for president or vice president
4. Checks and balances
5. Federalism
6. Flexibility
7. Limited government
XVII. Checks and Balances
A. Questions:
1. How does the executive branch check or limit the power of the legislative branch?
- May adjourn Congress in certain situations
- May veto bills
2. How does the executive branch check or limit the power of the judicial branch?
- Appoint judges


United States History and Government

- Grant Pardons
3. How does the legislative branch check or limit the power the power of the Executive
- May reject appointments
- May reject treaties
- May withhold funding for presidential initiatives
- May impeach (formerly excuse) president
- May override a veto
4. How does the legislative branch check or limit the power of the judicial branch?
- May propose constitutional amendments to overrule judicial decisions
- May impeach Supreme Court justices
- May reject appointments to the Supreme Court
5. How does the Judicial Branch check or limit the power of the executive branch?
- May declare executive actions unconstitutional
6. How does the Judicial branch check or limit the power of the legislative Branch?
- May declare laws unconstitutional
7. Do you think any one branch has more power that the others? How so? Explain.
- At different times, we feel like one branch has more power than others
XVIII. Federalism
A. In their attempt to balance order with liberty, the founders identified several reasons for
creating a government based on federalism
B. Definition:
1. Division of power between the central and state governments and the sharing of some
powers -- > Ratify Treaties -- > Immigration
- Delegated -- > Coin Money -- > Nationalization
- Enumerated } Powers -- > Declare Wars -- > Post offices
- Expressed -- > Regulate Trade
- Article 1; Section 8
- Find a list of powers of congress
C. Federal Powers:
1. Central/ National government powers
- Ratify Treaties
- Immigration
- Coin Money
- Nationalization
- Declare Wars
- Post offices
- Regulate Trade
D. Concurrent Powers:
1. Shared Powers
- Concurrent powers
- Build roads and highways
- Maintaining roads
- Taxes
- Education
- Court systems
- Health care
E. State Powers:
1. Reserved powers
- Amendments 9 + 10; says that anything that is not reserved for the constitution,
is left to the people and the state
- Drivers License
- Birth Certificate


United States History and Government

- Death Certificate
- Marriage Certificate
- Divorce Decree
- School Year and curriculum
F. Federalism:
Power Delegated Concurrent Reserved
Controlling Public Education -
Borrowing money -
Declaring war -
Establishing post office -
Selling bonds (IOU) -
Governing the national capital -
Setting up voting requirements -
Creating a national bank -
Regulating televisions -
Establishing a navy -
Licensing dentists -
Controlling marriages and divorces -
Coining money -
Providing health services -
Controlling U.S. citizenship -
Collecting taxes -
XIX. The Amending Process
A. Amending the Constitution Bill of Rights
1. Article V (five) Limits the power of the congress
2. Questions
- Why is the Amendment process to the Constitution important?
- It is to ensure that the government meets the nations changing needs
- Who is involved in amending the constitution (Hint: think about federalism!)
- Both national and state governments
- Identify the most common method of amending the Constitution:
- Two- thirds vote in each house of Congress
XX. Bill of Rights
A. Number 1-10 are the Bill of Rights
B. 1-8 are our amendments
C. Know Amendment 1
D. Freedom of Religion
1. Establishment Clause
2. Congress can make no law about establishing religion
E. Due Process
1. Legal procedure
F. 9 and 10
1. reserved powers
2. they are left to the states and the states of the people
XXI. Amendments that deal with
A. The President
1. 12
2. 20
3. 22
4. 23
5. 25


United States History and Government

B. Voting
1. 12
2. 15
3. 17
4. 19
5. 26
XXII. Bill of rights Practice
A. Scenario 1
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Right to retain counsel
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 6
B. Scenario 2
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Prohibiting cruel and unusual punishments
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 8
C. Scenario 3
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Declares that the government may not require people to house soldiers during
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 3
D. Scenario 4
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Freedom of speech
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 1
E. Scenario 5
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Unreasonable search
- Not a violation of our rights
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 4
F. Scenario 6
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Right to an attorney
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 6
G. Scenario 7
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- None
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- TLL vs New Jersey
H. Scenario 8
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Freedom of religion
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 1
XXIII. Constitution Ratification Debate
A. The Federalists vs. The Anti-Federalists
B. Questions
1. How did the Anti- federalists feel about the proposed Constitution?


United States History and Government

- They believed it would create a strong central government that would threaten
individual freedom and that government leaders might build a string army and
use it to collect unpopular taxes, also they thought that there was no bill of
rights in the new constitution to protect individual liberties.
2. How did the Federalists feel about the Articles of Confederation? What changes would
they want in the new constitution?
- They pointed out that government under the Articles of Confederation had
broken down because it was too weak to enforce its laws. They argued that a
stronger central government was needed to the new United States.
XXIV. Views on the Constitution Federalists vs. Antifederalists
A. Federalists
B. Questions
1. Who were typical Federalists? What did they want?
- Northern citizens
- In favor of business and industry
- Supported import tariffs to reduce competition with foreign imports
2. Who were typical Anti-Federalists? What did they want?
- Supported the Articles of Confederation
- Southern citizens
- Interests in agriculture and exports
- Opposed export tariff
3. How did the Federalists and Anti-Federalists differ on their views of state power and a
bill of right?
- Federalists
- Federal power
i. Wanted a strong central government
- Antifederalists
- Federal Power
i. Constitution gave too much power to the federal


United States History and Government

Social Studies: President

I. Board Notes
A. President George Washington
1. Precedents
- An Example
- So, Help Me God
II. George Washington Handout
A. Questions
1. According to Washington, what was the job of the newly formed government?
- To address the problems of the people
2. Why did Washington choose not to retire after the end of the revolutionary war?
- He realized he still had more jobs to deal with and more things to do
3. Why can it be argued that Washington had the most difficult job of any president?
- He was the first president, so he had to establish to basis for all other presidents
III. Washingtons Cabinet Handout
A. Board Notes
1. Cabinet= unwritten Constitution
2. Executive Branch Worksheet from unit 2
3. President powers
- Chief Executive
- Enforce Laws
i. Big Boss
ii. The Nations CEO
- Commander in Chief
- Civilian Leader of the military
- Chief Legislator
- Can veto and propose (suggest) laws
- Chief Diplomat
- International organizations
- Chief of State
- Watch over the states
B. Questions
1. Why do you think Washington established a cabinet?
- Because he knew that he couldnt make all the decisions of the executive branch
by himself
2. Is who the president chooses to be in his cabinet as important as the policy decisions a
president makes? Your Opinion.
- Both are equally important because they are the people who makes the
decisions for us
3. Do you think Washington did a good job creating his cabinet? Why?
- Yes, he created many positions that were very helpful to dividing the powers of
the president. And he also chooses many influential leaders in his cabinet to
provide help and guidance.
4. Can you name any cabinet positions today? Can you think of new cabinet positions that
should be created?
IV. Alexander Hamiltons Financial Plan
A. #1: The National Bank
1. What financial responsibilities would the Bank of the United States have?
- Provide Credit
- Issue paper money


United States History and Government

- Public and private investment

- Lend the government money and safely hold its deposits
- Uniform currency
- promote business and industry by expanding credit
2. How would the Bank of the United States provide support to Hamiltons financial
- It would help place the United States on an equal financial footing with Europe
B. #2: The Assumption Plan
1. What was the Assumption Plan?
- The government assume, or take over owing, the entire debt of the federal
government and of the states, and use tax money collected from the states and
sell bonds to pay off the debts
2. Why did the southern states not approve of Hamiltons plans for the National
Government to pay off state debts?
- States like Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Virginia, which has
already paid off their debts, saw no reason why they should be taxed by the
federal government to pay off the debts of other states like Massachusetts and
South Carolina
3. How was a compromise reached?
- In exchange for southern votes on his financial plan, Hamilton promised to
support locating the national capital on the banks of the Potomac River, the
border between two southern states, Virginia and Maryland
C. #3: Tariffs, Bonds, and Excise Taxes
1. Why would the Tariff of 1789 be a good source of revenue for the federal government?
- It set tax rates on certain imported items such as steel, indigo, salt, cloth and
2. What is a bond?
- Paper notes promising to repay money with interest after a certain length of
time. Basically, a wealthy person in the U.S. would buy a $100 bind from the
Federal Government
3. Why did many believe the U.S. wasnt good with its credit?
- Few people believed the bonds would ever be repaid in full. Many of the bonds
were also sold at a fraction of their face value. Meaning you could get a $100
bond for $1 and still be repaid the $100 after a certain period of time. Seems
like a great deal! But, what would it eventually mean for the federal
government to pay people back $100 plus interest when the government never
even got the $100 to begin with| stability, credit, posterity
4. Why did Hamilton believe it was essential to pay back bond purchasers in full?
- Because if you pay them back in full now they would lend money to the
government later in the future
5. Why did Hamilton believe excise taxes would be particularly useful?
- Are taxes on certain products, usually considered luxuries. Could be used to help
repay bond holders
6. Why were excise taxes unpopular?
- Farmers who used their leftover grain and corn to make whiskey and the used
this whiskey as a form of exchange for other products were forced to pay this
new tax
V. The Whiskey Rebellion
A. Questions
1. Why did farmers in western Pennsylvania rebel in 1791?
- The tax effectively eliminates any profit by the farmers from the sale or barter of
whiskey and became a lightning rod for a wide variety of grievances by the
settlers of the region against the federal government.


United States History and Government

2. Why did the Whiskey rebellion prove about the newly formed federal government?
- That the new federal government is going to do what need be done to make
ends meet
VI. Washingtons Diplomacy: Jays Treaty, Pinckneys Treaty, and Neutrality
A. Questions
1. In what situation did Washington declare neutrality?
- When the French declared war on England
2. Why did Washington send John Jay to Britain?
- Seek a solution
3. What did the Americans agree to in Jays Treaty?
- It forced the US to agree to many concessions with Britain in order to avoid war
with them.
4. Why was Jays Treaty criticized? Was it, in the end, a good idea for Washington to sign
- The United States agreed that the British would leave their forts on American
territory and granted Great Britain most favored nation status in the eyes of
the united states. Washington reluctantly signed the treaty, but whats more
important is that he avoided war and protected the American economy.
5. How did America benefit from Pinckneys Treaty?
- It granted the US the rights to navigate the Mississippi and deposit goods at New
Orleans (right of deposit)
VII. Washingtons Farewell Address:
A. Questions:
1. What advice does Washington share with the American people in his Farewell
- Unity of government
- Intimated to you the danger of parties
- Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world
- Pride of patriotism
2. What specific warnings does Washington state in this address?
- Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world
- Proclamation of Neutrality
- Political factions
3. In which excerpt does Washington encourage American nationalism?
- The First
4. Why did George Washington give this Farewell Address?
- To Address the people
VIII. Washington as President: His many roles
A. Chief Executive- Implement and administers Congressional laws and programs
1. How did Washington implement a Congressional idea (advisors) into a whole new
B. Commander in Chief- supervises the military forces
1. How did Washington use the military to enforce his policies?
C. Chief Legislator- proposes legislation and calls for special sessions of congress
1. How did Washington use his role as chief legislator to propose financial programs?
D. Chief Diplomat- conducts foreign affairs
1. How did Washington conduct foreign affairs?
E. Chief of State- represents the country on ceremonial occasions
1. How did Washington represent his country on a ceremonial affair?
IX. Contrasting Views of the Federal Government
A. Development of Political Parties
1. Inferencing Skill: Based on the title of this lesson, for what reason do you think the first
two political parties formed in the country?


United States History and Government

- Two Candidates
- Different types of parties
B. Comprehension questions
1. How did Jeffersons and Hamilton view of government and the economy differ?
- Hamilton believed in a strong central government led by a prosperous, educated
elite of upper-class citizens.
- Jefferson distrusted a strong central government and the rich
2. According to the chart, whose view of the federal government was a wealthy person
more likely to favor? Support your position with evidence.
C. Guiding Questions
1. When were these letters written?
- September 9 , 1792
2. Why are both Hamilton and Jefferson writing to George Washington?
- To explain their sides of the situation
3. Which author is angrier?
- Thomas Jefferson
- I will not let my retirement be ruined by the lies of a man who history if
history stoops to notice himwill remember a person who worked to destroy
4. Write one adjective about each mans personality and find a quote to support your
- In this letter, Hamilton seems to be Calm. Im basing this claim of the following
- Nevertheless, I can truly say that, besides explanations to confidential
friends, I never directly or indirectly responded to these attacks, until
very recently
- In this letter, Jefferson seems to be Angry. Im basing this claim of the following
- I will not let my retirement be ruined by the lies of a man who history
if history stoops to notice himwill remember a person who worked
to destroy liberty.
5. Who do you believe started the fight? Based on what they wrote, whom do you trust
more: Hamilton or Jefferson? Explain.
- I believe Jefferson has accused Hamilton and Hamilton was correct.
X. Adams Presidency
A. Election of 1796
1. fuel negative supplement towards the French
2. The sedition act is going to limit free speech and free press
3. Article 6 is the Supremacy Clause
- The constitution is the supreme law of the land
- If a state or an individual challenges the constitution it goes over the judicial
- Virginia and Kentucky resolutions 1788
- Challenging alien and sedition acts
- Tariff
i. South Carolina is not going to support a federal tariff on
- Nullification process 1832
- 11 states will nullify the constitution
- Civil war secessions 1860-1861
XI. Thomas Jefferson
A. 1801-1809
B. Foreign Affairs


United States History and Government

1. Election of 1800: Thomas Jefferson Vs. John Adams

2. Chief Diplomat and Chief Legislator: Jeffersons Foreign Policies
C. Questions:
1. Which two countries had gone to war in 1803?
2. Why did both the British and the French try to take over a
D. Domestic Affairs
1. Why was access to the port of New Orleans and the right of deposit so vital to the
new nation?
- Trade
E. Chief Diplomat and Chief Legislator: Jeffersons Foreign Policies
1. Why was Jefferson concerned with the transfer of the Louisiana Territory from Spain
back to France in 1800?
- They had to re-negotiate the treaty with France
- Right of deposit
2. How did her respond?
- When Napoleon decided to sell the entire Louisiana Territory, the US bought it
for $15 million
3. Why did the purchase the Louisiana Territory force Jefferson to modify his
constitutional views?
- Jefferson was forced to modify and question his constitutional interpretation
because of the importance of the purchase. With Jeffersons urging. The federal
government decided to purchase the land through the treaty-making power of
the Senate, and in 1803, the treaty was ratified.
4. How did the President Jefferson justify his deviation from strict interpretation of the
- It was necessary for the expansion of our country
5. What clause could he have used to broaden the power of the federal government to
purchase Louisiana?
- Elastic Clause or the Necessary and Proper clause
6. Did Jefferson use this clause to purchase Louisiana? Why or why not?
- No, he did not but he used the Treaty-making power of the senate to purchase
Louisiana and make it constitutional
XII. War of 1812 Second War for Independence
A. Causes:
1. Impressment of American Soldiers
2. Giving guns to the Native Americans
3. Napoleonic Wars
4. War Hawks
- Henry Clay (KY)
- John Calhoun (SC)
B. Effects:
1. Impressment ends
- European wars come to end and they didnt need more soldiers
2. British pull their forts off American soil
3. War Hawks
- Get political power or the western states exercise political power
4. Trade in the northeast was affected
5. Federalist party dies out
- Anti-war
6. US begins manufacturing in the northeast
C. Treaty of gent ends the war
D. 1814 the Star-Spangled Banner was written as a poem
E. Andrew Jackson wins the battle of New Orleans


United States History and Government

1. New military hero will be president in 1828

XIII. Monroe and the Era of Good Feelings
A. Domestic Policies
1. How would you describe the Era of Good Feelings?
- A time period under Monroes lead where political corporations wanted one
party politics and because of Americas high morale
- When Monroe took office the federalist parties almost died out and when he
run for his second run as president there was no other political parties
- No political party tension by 1820
2. How did the United States begin to modernize with President Monroe?
- Developed a system of canals
3. How did the Missouri Compromise try to solve the problem of slavery in new states?
- Missouri would be Admitted as a slave state and Maine would be free
XIV. Nationalism and the Monroe Doctrine
A. 1823
B. Foreign Policies
1. What is the main message of Monroes statement, known as the Monroe Doctrine?
- Nationalism
- Pride for your country
2. Which president established the precedent of avoiding foreign wars?
- Jefferson
3. Do you think that that the US had the right to make the doctrine? Why or Why not?
- Yes, only because they have a right to keep the peace
XV. Erie canal
A. Was an infrastructure magnificence
1. Will connect the American heartland to Europe
2. Farm to NY to Europe
3. Erie Canal 363 Miles
4. Built by the Irish
5. Took a 1/6 of the time to transport goods
XVI. Manifest Destiny
A. Kept the Balance of Free Senators and Slave Senators in the senate
B. New York was the last state to abolish slavery above Maryland
XVII. Monroe Doctrine
A. Written by secretary of state
1. John Quincy Adams
2. Wrote it as part of the presidents address
3. Foreign policy statement for Europe
- The western hemisphere is closed to colonization
- If they try to colonize America will get involved
- American continents are no longer to be considered places for future colonies
of any European power
- For 75 years Europe Adheres to the Monroe Doctrine/ Europe was fighting with
- Respected and Adhered too
XVIII. Court Systems
A. The Marshall Court
1. *The power of the federal government expands*
2. Named after the Chief Justice
3. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
- The Marshall court will support strong national government


United States History and Government

Social Studies: Presidents of the United States 2

I. The Age of Jackson
A. Jacksonian Democracy
1. Ran for office in 1824= corrupt bargain
- John Quincy Adams
- House of Representatives votes Henry Clay as speaker of the house will
encourage House of Representatives to vote for John Quincy Adams
- John Quincy Adams appoints clay as secretary of state
2. Jackson had the popular vote
- But not the majority in the electoral vote
3. Henry Clay
- Lost political credibility
- He runs 4 times, never gets elected
4. 1828- Jackson runs again and is elected as president
- Suffrage
- Right to vote
i. White Men
ii. Property or Wealth requirement is eliminated
- 60,000 people makes a state
- White men could vote without wealth or property
II. Jacksonian Democracy
A. Map Question
1. President Andrew Jackson served two terms, from 1829 to 1837. He won both the
Election of 1828 and 1832. Examine the two maps above (and on the board). What
conclusion can you draw from the maps regarding male suffrage?
2. Based on the map to the (In the notes), can you explain how the Democratic-
Republicans might have appealed to those in the south and west? What are some
issues that these people might have been concerned with?
B. Jacksonian Democracy
1. Describe Jacksonian Democracy
C. Spoils System
1. Do you agree with the concept of a Spoils system?
- In politics and government, a spoils system (also known as a patronage system)
is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives
government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward
for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party
- No, only because the people may not be fit for the said position-
III. Jacksonian Democracy- Inquiry Practice
A. Document 1
1. Why did New York State hold a convention in 1821? What was one issue brought up?
- Revise the state constitution. Dropping the requirement that voters be property
2. How does Nathan Sanford feel about the committees proposal?
- Supported the recommendation
B. Document 2
1. What Profession did James Kent have?
- Chief Justice of New York States Highest court
2. What arguments does Kent use against Sanfords proposal?
- Universal male Suffrage (white), poor should not share the power as wealthy
C. Document 3
1. What does Alexis de Tocqueville have to say about democracy in America?
- There was little amount of people in the government.


United States History and Government

- The present-day everyman was not in government

D. Document 4
1. How does Frances Trollope feel about the Election of 1828 and Jackson as a candidate?
What diction (word choice) does she choose to convey her meaning?
- She doesnt like it, it irritates her
- The electioneering madness... engrosses every conversation, it irritates every
temper, it substitutes party spirit for personal esteem

1. The Country Election is a painting by George Caleb Bingham in 1851
2. Men of Different Wealth have different hats
3. Probably voting at town hall
4. No women
5. No black people
- Except black slave serving alcohol
6. Kids playing
7. People voting
8. Men counting ballots in the corner
9. Taking an oath
- Saying that this is the only time they have voted
10. Americans will slowly add people to the voting process over time
11. What event asre going on in this painting of an election post-Jackson?
- The poorer white men are signing up to vote
12. Do you think George Caleb Bingham is in favor of Jacksonian Democracy (expanding
suffrage) or disapproves? Do you think he is just painting a scene as it was? Support
your reasoning.
- Yes, he is in favor. He was painting what his depiction of the scene was.


United States History and Government

IV. Hamiltons Financial Program

A. National Bank 1828- AJ 1 term
B. Assumption plan 1832- AJ 2 term
C. Bonds, Loans
D. Tariffs, Excise taxes (Whiskey)
V. Jacksons Economic Policies
A. The Nullification Crisis:
1. Where have we heard the term nullification before?
North= Industrial
- Virginia and Kentucky tried to nullify the alien and sedition act
South= agrarian
2. Define Nullification
- The power of the state to declare a federal law null and void
3. The tariff of Abomination showed deep sectionalism that was growing in the country.
Explain this statement.
B. National Vs. States rights:
Article 6; 1. Why do you think Webster would support the idea that no state could defy or leave
Supremacy Clause the union (secede)?
- Wanted to preserve the union
2. What was Jacksons view on the nullification crisis?
- He does not believe in nullification
3. What did Calhoun mean when he said, The Union, next to our liberties, most dear!
- Individual freedom over country
- Calhouns believe is a challenge to the constitution
- He believed in nullification
4. When Jackson wanted to enforce the tariffs, he was acting like what other president?
- Washington and the whiskey rebellion
5. What power did the Force Bill give to the president?
- Authority to take military action is South Carolina
6. What else did Jackson say to the people of South Carolina?
- Nullification and disunion is treason
7. How did Jackson solve the nullification crisis?
- Lowered tariffs
C. The Bank Veto:
1. Why did Jackson not want to renew the chart of the Bank of the United States?
- Biddles arrogance, however, contributed to the suspicion that the bank abused
its powers and served the interests of the wealthy. Jackson shared his suspicion.
He believed that the Bank of the United States was unconstitutional.
2. How did Henry Clays support of the bank backfire in the election of 1832?
- An overwhelming majority of voters approved Jacksons attack on bank
D. Pet Banks:
1. How did Jackson deal with his veto of the National Bank?
- He transferred the finds to various state banks
2. Why do you think the state banks where the money was transferred to were called
pet banks?
Land Speculators
- Friends of Andrew Jackson
- Given to all people for agriculture reasons
3. What was the immediate effect of Jacksons attack on the Second National Bank?
- An expansion of credit and speculation.
- A lot of money available
E. Specie Circular:
1. Why did inflation occur under Jackson?


United States History and Government

- As a result of Jacksons financial policies and feverish speculation in western

2. How did Jackson try to slow down inflation?
- By issuing a presidential order known as specie circular
3. Did specie circular work?
- It required that all future purchases of federal lands be made in gold and silver
rather than in paper banknotes.
4. The Panic of 1837, plunged the nations economy into a depression
5. Pet banks started going bankrupt
VI. Genocide
A. Methodical-
1. Killing a race of people
2. Extermination of a race
3. Mass killing of a certain group
VII. Indian Removal Act (1830), the Trail of Tears, and Andrew Jackson
A. Introduction
1. Why did the federal government want the Indian nations removed from the southeast
United States?
- They were standing in the way of progress and manifest destiny
2. Describe Jacksons experiences with Native Americans before coming president.
- He commanded the U.S. military that commanded a faction of the Creek nation.
3. Why did the Indians agree to the treaties between 1814 and 1824?
- Strategic reasons
- They wanted to appease in the U.S. government in hopes of retaining
some of their land and protecting themselves from white harassment
4. How did Indians try to coexist with neighboring white settlers?
- Adopt American practices
5. How did the Supreme Court impact the Cherokee nation in the early 1830s? was the
Courts decision followed?
- Gave them sovereign status
- They went to the supreme court twice, law bands whites on living on Indian land
- The Cherokee has a right to self-government, and declared Georgias extension
of state law over them to be unconstitutional.
6. Describe the Indian Removal act.
- It gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes
living east of the Mississippi
7. Describe the Trail of Tears.
- The Cherokee were tricked with an illegitimate treaty
- It was a march in which 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold (exposure), hunger,
and disease on their way to the western lands
VIII. A Revolution in Transportation
A. EQ: How did the economic differences between the North and South cause tension?
Transportation Industry
- National Road= internal Improvements - Early cloth and shoe factories
- Toll Roads and Turnpikes - Interchangeable parts
- Steam Power (river boats) - Gun making/ Clocks
- Erie Canal- Lake Erie- Hudson River- - Free Enterprise = capitalism
New York City - Early Corporation (Limited liab.)
- Railroads and Telegraphs - Technological advances
- The rise of large cities (urban)
- Population Increase
- Organized labor= Unions


United States History and Government

B. Article I, Section 8
1. Weights
2. Measures
3. Standard Gauge
- *think of an IPhone wire vs. an Android wire
C. 1869-
1. transcontinental railroad
D. Antebellum USA
1. The period of time prior to the civil war
IX. Chart
North South West

Economic - Citied - Good farming - Manifest destiny

info developed in weather - Expanding
the north as - Opposed bank of frontier
centers of US, protective
trade tariffs and new
- Favored the immigration
bank of the US
- Favored tariffs

Social info - Population - Population was 1/3 - Four social

Increase slaves classes
- Culture - Very few cities - Hunters
determined by - Only children of - Mixed set of
life in cities plantation owners hunter and
- Public received education farmers
education - Ambitious men
began for the - Old settlers
first time

Political info - College was - Culture - Government

reserved for determined by policies
the wealthy plantation owners supporting
- Religion and expansion
education - Opposed bank of
became US
organized - Divided on tariff
- Favored

A. Graph


United States History and Government

X. Immigration
A. Irish and Germans
1. Most immigrants end up in urban areas
B. Questions
1. Describe immigration in the 1800s
- Mass influx of immigration between 1815 and 1860
- Many fled for political reasons
- Others fled because of poverty and starvation
- Provided a large source of labor for the new factory system
- Many feared the influence of so many foreigners
2. How did the Irish immigrants differ from the German immigrants?
- Irish
- 2 million came
- fleeting from potato famine
- generally, had very few skills
- settles in northeastern towns and worked as unskilled laborers and
3. How did some Americans feel about immigration?
4. How did some church leaders hope to renew Christian faith in the 1800s
5. Define romanticism
6. Define transcendentalism
7. Name some American writers of the 1800s. Have you read any of these books? Do you
know what they are about?
1. Congregationalists
2. Quakers
3. Presbyterians
4. Baptists
5. Methodists
D. Industrialization corrupted people and cities
E. Transcendentalists
1. Hudson river school
- Art movement
- Very American
2. Ralph Waldo Emerson
3. Henry David Thoreau
4. Nature
XI. Spiritual Awakening and reform
A. Commune with nature
B. Horace Mann
C. Questions
1. What did Protestant reformers encourage people to do?
- Work hard to improve conditions for themselves and others
2. According to the chart, what was the goal of the education reform movement?
XII. Reform Movements
A. Womens Suffrage Movement
1. The Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning of what struggle
- Womens suffrage
2. How did Harriet Becher Stowe and Sojourner Truth contribute to the abolition
- Wrote novels
- And traveled the nation preaching against slavery and for womens rights


United States History and Government

3. What was a contribution of Elizabeth Cady Stanton

- Leads the Seneca Falls Convention, the first womens rights convention in U.S.
XIII. Manifest Destiny
A. Louisiana Purchase 1803-
1. TJ > Lewis and Clark go all the way to the Pacific Ocean
B. Florida 1819-
1. Adams Ois treaty purchases Florida for 10 million
C. Texas 1821-
1. Rules
- Have to live on land for ten years
- Have to become a Mexican citizen
- Have to become catholic
- Slavery will be eventually abolished
D. Texas 1836-
1. Independence
2. Texas war for independence
- From Mexico
E. Texas 1845
1. Lone Star Republic
2. James K. Polk is president and Texas is annexed
F. Oregon 1846-
1. Peacefully negotiate
2. 49 degrees north latitude
3. Oregon territory was made into the states
- Washington
- Oregon and
- Idaho
G. Mexican Cession-
1. To seed- turnover
2. Mexican American war
- 1846-1848
H. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgom1848-
1. U.S. paid 15 million in war reparations
2. American south west
- CO
- NM
- AR
- UT
- NE
I. 1848 California Gold rush
1. population increases
XIV. James K Polk.
A. Fulfill Jacksonian doctrine
1. What would Jackson do?
B. Level playing field for American people
C. Devious
D. No kidswife
E. Most accessible
F. Made available twice a week to American citizens
G. First servant of the people
H. Hardest working
I. Micro-manager


United States History and Government

J. First president to get deeply into financials

K. Americas manifest destiny
L. Goals
1. Settle controversy over Oregon with Britain
2. Bring California into us
3. Set up independent treasury to fix credit mess
4. Lower tariffs
5. 54 40 OR FIGHT
M. went to war with Mexico to settle Texas border
1. 1846-1848
XV. John OSullivan, The Great Nation of Futurity 1839
A. Questions
1. What does John OSullivan think America stands for?
- Progress
- Individual freedom
- Universal enfranchisement
2. What, according to John OSullivan, is Americas mission?
- To establish on earth the moral and dignity and salvation of man
C. Painting

The united states should reach from ocean to ocean
- from sea to shining sea
XVI. Compromise Regarding Slavery
A. Review: Missouri Compromise (1820)
1. Why did Missouris application for statehood create such a controversy?
- It asked for admittance to the union as a slave state. This threatened to destroy
the balance between slave and free states
2. How was the slavery controversy temporarily solved by the Missouri Compromise?
- It would keep a semi-permanent balance between all
B. Document 1
1. What can we conclude about the Missouri Compromise from this document? Was it
- No, it drove a deeper wedge between the north and south wings of both
national parties
- Dangerous Nation


United States History and Government

XVII. The Expansion of Slavery & the Compromise of 1850

A. California Statehood Threatens the Balance of Power
1. What issues were there regarding slavery by 1848?
- Balance of free and slave states
B. Henry clay offers a compromise (The Compromise of 1850)
1. California would be admitted as a free state
2. The people of the territories of New Mexico and Utah would decide slavery based on
popular sovereignty
3. Slave trade but not slavery would be banned in Washington DC
4. Congress would pass a stricter fugitive slave law
5. Compromise of 1850

7. How did Henry Clay try to build a compromise between the North and South over
Slavery? What did each side get out of the compromise?
- (his ideas which are 1-5 up top)
XVIII. The Fugitive Slave Law
A. Questions
1. What were the conditions of the fugitive slave law of 1850?
- Fugitive slaves often liked as free citizens in northern cities
- Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves
- Any person caught aiding a runaway slave by providing shelter, food or any form
of assistance is liable to 6 months imprisonment and a $1000 fine
2. Who is the Caution poster warning?
- Colored people
3. Why are they being warned? Who is after them?
- Everyone from the north
4. What might happen if these people are caught?
- They will be sent back and they will be rewarded
XIX. Board notes
A. Harriet Beecher Stowe
1. Uncle toms cabin- 1852
XX. Trouble in Kansas
A. 3,4,5,8,9
B. Questions
1. How did Stephen A. Douglas get the compromise of 1850 to be passed in congress?
- He presented each part separately


United States History and Government

2. Why was the area of Nebraska divided into Nebraska and Kansas?
- Keeping the balance principle
3. How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act effectively make the Missouri Compromise null and
- By allowing slavery to spread to areas that had been free for more than 30 years
- 36 30 line
4. How did john brown react to the violence caused by the Border Ruffians?
- He carried out execution of five proslavery settlers near Pottawatomie Creek
5. How did Bleeding Kansas earn its name?
- The competition to settle the territory would have a deadly consequence, hence
call for bloodshed.