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Professional Education

Focus: Social Dimensions in Educational/Developments in Education

by: Rene C. Romeo and Rita Bumanglag-Ruscoe


1. Determine the roles of the teachers are active members of the community and as global
citizens responsible for the outcomes of their actions and for developing other citizens.
(Intercultural Communication, Gender and Development, Globalization and Education)
2. Apply the Four Pillars of Learning/Education in understanding the relation between or
among the individual, school and society (Four Pillars of Learning)




A. Global and National Development Trends and Directions in the 21st Century

Changing Environmental/Political and Cultural Landscapes
Cultural Homogeneity (The Global Village)
The information and Communications Technology (ICT) Revolution and High
The Changing World of Work
Changing the Values and Morality Concern for Human Dignity/Human Development

B. Characteristics of Education for the 21st Century

Quality (Excellence, Effectiveness)

Equity (Democratization of Access, Inclusive Education)
Relevance (Functionality, Meaningfulness)
Sustainability (Education for the future)

C. Major Paradigm Shift in Education

1. Learner-centered and learning-oriented curriculum

Change in the role of the teacher as sole purveyor of knowledge to facilitator and
motivator of learning
From rigid selection of students based on single and fixed criteria to more open and
multiple standards taking into account the learners multiple intelligence, aptitudes, and
interests; and
From prescribed pedagogy to more flexible teaching styles that respect the uniqueness
of the learners intelligence, motivations, needs and situations.

2. Contextualized learning
Pre-organized subject, matter to contextualized themes generated from the global
realities and the culture relevant, meaningful and useful to the leaner.
Knowledge limited to the local scene to the globalized knowledge, values, aptitudes,
and skills interfaced with local wisdom; and
From traditional pedagonies to more modern strategies of teaching and learning with
the freedom to use mixed modes of instruction and more interactive technology

3. A holistic and integrated approach to education

From knowledge as the only learning outcome sought to the development of values and
attitudes, skills and competencies, not through classroom instruction alone but the
entire school culture and atmosphere; its vision and mission, co-curricular activities, the
human climate established by relationship existing therein;
Form knowledge-dominated curriculum to more attention being given to values
education and emotional learning. The heart of Education is the education of the heart;
From rigid subject matter boundaries to more interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary
approaches to problems and issues.

4. Lifelong education for all form limited access to limited time-bound and space limited
education, to borderless education, lifelong learning for all in a learning society.

D. Current Trends in Social Science Education

Global Education involves learning about those problems and issues which cut
across national boundaries and about the interconnected of systems cultural,
ecological, economic, political, and technological
Peace Education affirms personal and global responsibilities for the promotion of
peace, cooperation, disarmament, justice, non-violent resolution of conflict, respect of
human rights, and environment care
Multi-cultural Education emphasizes oneself and others through the exploration of
concepts of cultural diversity, similarities, prejudices, and cultural understanding.
Developing tolerance is a key value in learning to live together in harmony
Human Rights Education promotes understanding of human rights concepts and
values to enable learners to comprehend and transform conditions which give rise to
human rights violation and exalts dignity and worth of the human person.
Development Education strives for quality of economic, social, and political
development in all countries; fairness in relationship between and within countries;
equitable and meaningful linkages between developed and developing countries
Population Education relates population growth, distribution and immigration
patterns to issues of food, housing, transport and delivery of basic resources, sees the
interconnection in the environment and development
Civic/Citizenship Education focuses on the study of basic concepts, beliefs and
values underlying our democratic political community and constitutional order draws
its content chiefly from four disciplines; political science. jurisprudence, history, and
Environmental Education rethinks human-earth relationships, fosters a vision of
education for sustainable development, promotes care for the environment and builds a
global culture of ecological responsibility
Gender Studies promotes gender equality and harnessing the role of women in
Future Studies anticipates the future and cope with its challenges and imagines
possible and probable futures. Students are encouraged to envision a preferred future
that will help shape their present action
Transformative Education an educational process that brings about deep and
significant changes (for the better) in an individual and ultimately culminates in similar
changes at the societal level, principally brought about through innovative and creative
teaching ad learning, curriculum reform and appropriate policy at the school level

E. Education Global Citizenship: Implications to Teacher Education

Education for Global Citizenship is developing the capability for thoughtful and responsible
participation in political, economic, social and cultural life.

Civic Education learning for effective participation in democratic and development

processes at both local and national levels. It is an important means for capacity development
on the societal level by empowering people for effective civic engagement

Components of Civic Education for Democracy

1. Civic Knowledge and Understanding

Understand their political and civic context
Know their social and economic right as well as their political and civil rights
Understand the roles, rights and responsibilities of citizenship

2. Civic Skills (intellectual and participatory skills)

Acquiring the ability to explain, analyze, interact, evaluate, defend a position, and
monitor processes and outcomes
Using knowledge for informed participation in civic and political processes

3. Civic Values and Disposition of Citizenship

Developing confidence to be able to participate in civil life
Participating in civic life
Assuming roles, rights and responsibilities usually associated with citizenship in
democratic systems
Being open, tolerant, and responsible in exercising their rights and responsibilities

4. Civic Engagement
Individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public
Can take many forms , from individual volunteerism to organizational involvement to
electoral participation. It can include efforts to directly address an issue, work with
others in a community to solve a problem or interact with the institutions of
representative democracy
Working to make a difference in the civic life of our communities and developing the
combination of knowledge, skills, values, and motivation to make the difference. It
means promoting the quality of life in a community through both political and non-
political processes
Implies meaningful connections among citizens, issues, institutions, and the political
system. It implies voice and agency, a feeling of power and effectiveness, with real
opportunities to have a say. it implies active participation, with real opportunities to
make a difference


Learning to Know

This type of learning implies the mastering of the instruments of knowledge

themselves. Acquiring knowledge is a never-ending process and can be enriched by
all forms of experience. It includes the development of the facilities of memory,
imagination, reasoning, problem-solving, and the ability to think in a coherent and
critical way. It is a process of discovery, which takes time and involves going more
deeply into the information/knowledge delivered through subject teaching

Learning to know presupposes learning to learn, calling upon the power of

concentration, memory and thought, so as to benefit from ongoing educational
opportunities continuously arising (formally and non-formally) throughout life

Learning to do

This pillar of learning implies application of what learners have learned or known into
practices; it is closely linked to vocational-technical education and work skills
training. However it goes beyond narrowly defined skills development for doing
specific things or practical tasks in traditional or industrial economies. The emerging
knowledge-based economy is making human work increasingly immaterial

It calls for new types of skills which is more behavioral than intellectual. the material
and the technology are becoming secondary to human qualities and interpersonal
relationship. Learning to do thus implies a shift from skill to competence, or a mix of
higher-order skills specific to each individual. Thus learning to do means, among
other things, ability to communicate effectively with others; aptitude toward team
work; social skills in building meaningful interpersonal relations; adaptability to
change in the world of work and in social life; competency in transforming knowledge
into innovations and job-creation; and a readiness take risks and resolve or manage

Learning to live together

It implies an education taking two complementary paths; on one level, discovery of

others and on another, experience of shared purposes throughout life. Specifically it
implies the developments such qualities as: knowledge and understanding of self
and others; appreciation of the diversity of the human race and an awareness of the
similarities between, and the interdependence of, all hums; empathy and cooperative
social behavior in caring and sharing; respect of other people and their cultures and
value systems; capability of encountering others and resolving conflicts through
dialogue; and competency in working towards common objectives

Learning to be

This type of learning is based on the principle that the aim of development is the
complete fulfillment of man, in all richness of his personality, the complexity of his
forms of expression and his various commitments as individuals, member of a
family and a community, citizen, producer inventor of techniques and creative

Learning to be may be interpreted in one way as learning to be human, through

acquisition of knowledge, skills and values conducive to personality development in
its intellectual, moral, cultural and physical dimensions. This implies a curriculum
aiming at cultivating qualities of imagination and creativity; acquiring universally
shared human values; developing aspects of a persons potential: memory,
reasoning, aesthetic sense, physical capacity and communication/social skills;
developing critical thinking and exercising independent judgment; and developing
personal commitment and responsibility.

The four pillars of learning relate to all phases and areas of education. They support and
interpenetrate one another and should therefore be applied as basic principles, cross-cutting
themes and generic competencies for integration in and across subject areas or learning

Pillars of Learning for Reorienting Curriculum Objectives

Firstly, the pillar of learning to be reflects a shift from an instrumental view of

education, as a process once submits to achieve aims (e.g. economic productivity),
to a humanistic view of education that emphasized the development of the complete
person, in short, learning to be (Delors, p. 86). They imply an educational aimed at
all-rounded development and full flowering of the human potential of individual
learners. Thus school curriculum should e more balanced, taking into account not
only the cognitive-intellectual dimension of personality but its spiritual, moral, social
skills and values aspects

Secondly the pillars of learning stresses an important educational goal in contributing

to social cohesion, inter cultural and inter-national understanding, peaceful
interchange, and, indeed, harmony. This goal implies a radically new curriculum
domain, in which relevant knowledge and a range of skills and values should be
taught and caught to resolve and manage conflicts for peace in family, at school, in
community and in the world at large

Thirdly, the pillars of learning imply an educational goal in developing a learning

society in a new century. The concept of learning throughout life emerges as one of
the keys to the twenty-first century and the only way of satisfying it is for each
individual to learn how to learn. The shift from schooling to learning throughout life
implies that school education is only part or a phase of the learning continuum and
curriculum should therefore not attempt to teach or cram the young minds with
discipline-based details, apart from the fundamental knowledge, basic skills and
universal values which will prepare the pupils for further learning.

Fourthly, the pillars of learning points to a goal for much closer linkage between
education and the world of work. This not only concerns learning to be but other
three pillars of learning as one central function of education is to prepare young
learners to be successful workers and responsible citizens in their adulthood. School
curriculum can no longer be purely academic and college-bound; it has to impart
employable skills, and positive attitudes toward work, and to develop competency in
adapting to change, which is the only thing which will not change


Multiculturalism, Peace and Human Rights Education, Gender Education, Environmental


Globalization are process of change which underpin a transformation in the organization

of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and
continents (Held, McGrew, Goldblatt, Perraton, 1999:15).

Globalization is a broadening, deepening and speeding up of world-wide

interconnectedness in all aspects of life, from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to
the environmental.

Globalization Involves

First, a stretching of social, political and economic activities across political

frontiers, regions and continents.
Second, the intensification, or the growing magnitude, of interconnectedness,
and flows of trade, investment, finance, migration, culture.

Implications of globalization to the practice and experience of education:

Commodification and the corporate takeover of education

The threat to the autonomy of national educational systems by globalization.
De-localization and changing technologies and orientations in education.
Branding, globalization and learning to be consumers
Movement of higher education toward supporting the nations wealth growth
as opposed to focusing on the liberal education of undergraduates
More protection and regulation of intellectual property rights
increase and close partnership of higher education with industry and
government-sponsored techno science initiatives
Reduction of state and government support and subsidy for education
The question we are facing now is, To what extent is the educational endeavor affected
by processes of globalization that are threatening the autonomy of national educational
systems and the sovereignty of the nation-state as the ultimate ruler in democratic
societies? At the same time, how is globalization changing the fundamental conditions of
an educational system premised on fitting into a community, a community characterized
by proximity and familiarity? (Burbules and Torres 2000)

Banks and Banks (1995) define multicultural education:

Multicultural education is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is
to create equal educational opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, social-
class, and cultural groups. One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire the
knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic
society and to interact, negotiate, and community that works for the common good.

Multiculturalism is a philosophy that recognizes ethnic diversity within a society and that
encourages others to be enlightened by worthwhile contributions to society by those of
diverse ethnic backgrounds

Liberal multiculturalism focuses on cultural diversity, celebrating ethnic variety and

teaching tolerance. It assumes the existence of pre-existing cultures, which relate to,
and interact with each other, but does not examine the hierarchies of power
underpinning these interactions. This approach has been criticized for Disneyfying,
commodifying, and depoliticizing difference (Mitchell, Antipode 25).

Critical multiculturalism sees multiculturalism as concerning majorities as much as

minorities, and is concerned with the institutions and practices forming the whole
society. It advocates the multiculturalization of society (Jackson, Geography 87).

Schools are expected to serve the human needs of cultural socialization, transmission,
and self perpetuation, and teach academic skills. Every action that they take is,
unavoidably, culture bound. Effective understanding of the educational process in a
pluralistic society requires that teaching and learning be viewed as aspects of various
cultural milieus (Kimball, 1978.)

Multiculturalists describe the most salient personality traits of multicultural education as


A personally empowering, socially transformative, and pedagogically humanistic process

Correcting and rehabilitating some of the mistakes that schools have made in educating
culturally different children, especially those of color and poverty
A search for scholarly honesty and truth by giving due recognition to the contributions of
diverse groups and cultures to the collective accomplishments of humankind
Both content and process, structure and substance, action and reflection, knowledge and
values, philosophy and methodology, an educational means and an end
A means of achieving parity in educational opportunities for diverse students
A confluence of diverse cultural heritages, experiences, perspectives, and contributions
A bridge for making meaningful connections between the abstractions of schooling and
the actual life experiences of ethnically and culturally different students
A vehicle for and conduit of relevance, equity, excellence, and personal meaningfulness
in education for culturally diverse students
An acceptance and celebration of diversity as a normal fact of human life and schooling

How does students culture affect teaching learning?

Schools have their own culture
The particular symbols used, the knowledge made accessible to others and the preferred
method of imparting that knowledge have been agreed upon by a particular dominant
cultural group/ mainstream culture
There is cultural mismatch or cultural incompatibility between minority/ethnic students and
their school culture

Difference between Gender and Sex

Sex- actual biological differences between males and females; a distinction between the
physical and biological characteristics of males and females. The sexual differences
between females and males include different chromosomes (genetic material), the sex
glands, hormones and sex organ.

Gender- the different roles, responsibilities and expectations of women and men in
societies and cultures; the socially assigned label and personal definitions as male or female
including the corresponding socially defined rights and responsibility.

o Gender is a matter of cultural/social definition as to what is considered masculine

and feminine
o Gender relations describe the social meaning of female and male thus what is
considered appropriate and inappropriate behavior or activity for men and women
o Gender roles which are learned , may change over time and vary widely within and
between cultures
o The social meaning of being female or male is the result of the history of that society,
influenced by the nature of economy that evolved over time, religious beliefs and
political system

Patriarchy is a set of beliefs and values which lay down the supposedly proper relations
between men and women, between women and women, between men and men. It is a
deeply entrenched and integrated system of male dominance and that it has built itself
into the structures of society and the consciousness of men and women. It is integrated in
the value system, world view and socialization process, reproduced in the family, school
and church as well as in media and political exercises.

Gender equality means that males and females have equal opportunities to realize their
full human rights and contribute to and benefit from economic, social, cultural, and
political development. Parity and equity are the building blocks of equality in education.


There are four main dimensions of gender equality:

1) Equality of access means that girls and boys are offered equitable opportunities to gain
admission to formal, non-formal, or alternative approaches to basic education. Actual
attendance, rather than enrollment, is a better indicator of whether access has been
2) Equality in the learning process means that girls and boys receive equitable treatment
and attention and have equal opportunities to learn. This means that girls and boys are
exposed to the same curricula, although the coursework may be taught differently to
accommodate the different learning styles of girls and boys. Equality in the learning
process also means that all learners should be exposed to teaching methods and
materials that are free of stereotypes and gender bias. In addition, it means boys and
girls should have the freedom to learn, explore, and develop skills in all academic and
extracurricular offerings.

3) Equality of educational outcomes means that girls and boys enjoy equal opportunities
to achieve and outcomes are based on their individual talents and efforts. To ensure fair
chances for achievement, the length of school careers, academic qualifications, and
diplomas should not differ based on a persons sex. Mechanisms for evaluating
individual achievement should also be free of any gender bias.

4) Equality of external results occurs when the status of men and women, their access to
goods and resources, and their ability to contribute to, participate in, and benefit from
economic, social, cultural, and political activities are equal. This implies that career
opportunities, the time needed to secure employment after leaving full-time education,
and the earnings of men and women with similar qualifications and experience are

The four dimensions of gender equality are related, but that relationship is complex and
not necessarily linear. Parity in enrollment and greater gender equality in schooling can,
and often do, coexist with inequalities outside of education.


Human Rights Education Understanding Human Rights

Human Rights are legal rights, safely enshrined in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights, various human rights covenants, conventions, treaties, and declarations,
regional charters, national constitutions, and laws. However, human rights are much more
than legal rights. They define our existence and work to protect it from inequality and harm.

Human rights provide the values, principles, and standards that are essential to
safeguard our most precious- the right to be human.

Myths and Misconceptions about Human Rights

Several myths and misconceptions abound about human rights:

Human rights are Western and alien to many cultures.
Economic, social, and cultural rights are not true rights.
Human rights overemphasize the individual over the community
Human rights overemphasize rights over responsibilities.
Human rights encourage adversarial and litigious approaches over one word and
Human rights favor the status quo over social change.

Concern is also raised about selectivity and double standards in regard to how human
rights are invoked by powerful states over weak or poor states.

Understanding Human Rights Education

o Human rights education (HRE) is an important field of education, both from the
perspectives set out above as well as from the objective of empowerment. But for HRE to
be empowering, it is important that HRE start again with a blank slate.

o HRE, as practices in the developed world has focused too much on international right on
law in books, rather than on law in real-life, especially for the poor, the vulnerable, and
the marginalized. HRE needs to focus much more on the responsibilities of the duty-bearers
and the right-holders, including the nature of the rights they are claiming.

o HRE needs to focus on the values, principles and standards of human rights and how
they can be translated into day-to-day actions that become a way of life and, ultimately,
a human rights culture.

Human Rights are Universal and Indivisible

Human Rights are comprehensive. Human Rights apply everywhere and to everyone
without distinction of color, sex, country, religion, wealth, or opinion they are based on universal

Which represent an ideal for humanity as well as principles
capable of governing the lives of men, women, and children.

Typology of Human Rights

1. Civil and Political Rights
Right of life
Prohibition of torture
Prohibition of slavery and forced labor
Liberty and security of person
Right to privacy
Right to marry and to found a family
Right to nationality
Right to poverty
Right to recognition as a person

2. Law
Equality before the law
Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
Freedom of opinion and expression
Freedom of assembly and association
Freedom of movement
Freedom to participate in public affairs

3. Economic
Right to an adequate standard of living
Right to social security
Right to work
Right to just and favorable conditions of works
Right to form and join trade unions

4. Cultural Rights
Right to participate in cultural life
Right to education and training
Right to information

5. Education and Right to Development and a Balanced Environment

Right to development
Right ecologically balanced environment
Right to free of access to natural and cultural patrimonies, including the common
Patrimony of humanity

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Work

Human rights standards have been established by international agreement. They are
based on universal norms, applicable to every society.

In the early part of the twentieth century, ILO set out a number of key human rights
issues. Some may be straight forward and direct, such as the protection of human and labor
rights of workers employed by a company. Other issues may be related only in part to business
but are still relevant to the environment in which they operate, such as calls on business to seek
to influence governments to improve the general human rights climate in places where they
operate. Governments, however, still retain overall responsibility for human protection.


Why Education for Sustainable?

Education for Sustainable Development (ESC) is not a matter of choice. We cannot

leave the survival of the Earth to chance. It is our moral obligation to save it for future
generations, and reverse the trend towards total disaster starting with reversing our lifestyles. It
is a matter of urgency. We live in a Planet in peril, in an era of rapid change; of contradictions,
crises and
Challenges. Time is running short.

The 21st century is an age of breakthroughs in science and technology, and in all other
fields of human endeavor, notably the dramatic revolution in information and communication
technologies (ICTs). It ushers in the era of democratization and globalization, the revolution of
rising expectations and lifestyles. On the other hand, it is also the age of breakdowns: widening
gaps in society between the powerful and the powerless, and the rich and the poor. There is an
increasing incidence of violence and terrorism, which has become a daily occurrence. The
planet is endangered by global warming, devastating floods, earthquakes and landslides, along
with pollution, poverty and disease, mostly due to human abuse or negligence. There is rise in
criminality, even with the young, an erosion of human, cultural, ethical and spiritual values.

A massive transformation, a total re-education of humankind, in our ways of thinking,

feeling and acting, and in our daily life and behavior, is called for: if we want to stop destroying
the planet. Instead, we need to save it for our children and for future generations.

If ESD is for all, it ceases to be a purely scientific concepts. It becomes a moral

It requires fundamental changes in our ways of thinking and understanding, our values and
Attitudes, in our behavior, and ways of living. We need to undergo a total transformation, a re-
Education, indeed, an inner conversion of mind and heart.
What does Education for Sustainable Development Mean?

ESD is a dynamic and collective endeavor that envisions a world where everyone has
the chance to benefit from educational opportunities and to learn the lifestyles, values and
behaviors necessary to create a sustainable future.

ESD means education that enables people to foresee, face up to and solve the
that threaten life on the planet. It is education that understands the concepts and inculcates the
values and principles that are the bases of sustainable development such as:
Intergenerational equity
Tolerance of difference
Environmental protection and restoration
Natural resources conservation
Just and peaceful societies
Gender parity and
Poverty reduction

It is education that recognizes the complexities and interdependence of the social,

Cultural, economic, and environmental dimensions of SD (UNESCO,2004)

Aims and Strategies for Education for Sustainable Development

Education for Sustainable Development aims to:

1. Promote and improve the quality of education to focus lifelong education on the acquisition
of knowledge skills and values needed by citizens to improve the quality of their lives;
2. Re-orient, re-think and reform the curriculum to be a vehicle of knowledge, thought patterns
and values needed to build a sustainable world;
3. Raises awareness, develop enlightened, responsible and committed citizens;
4. Create synergies with initiatives of other sectors to adopt sustainable and responsible
modes of production and consumption, to work together towards a common vision: a
Peaceful and sustainable future for generations to come (UNESCO, 2004a).

Seven interlinked strategies are suggested:

1. Advocacy and vision building
2. Consultation and ownership
3. Partnership and networks
4. capacity-building and training
5. Research and innovation
6. Use of appropriate and expanded ICTs
7. Monitoring and evaluation (UNESCO, 2004b)

What is Sustainable Development?

Sustainable Development: An Evolving Concept

Sustainable concept means having a different vision of the world. It is a

constantly evolving concept, including the will to improve the quality of life at present and
in the future, by reconciling economic growth, social and cultural development and
environmental protection. Improving the quality of life involves a shift from our traditional
ways of learning to more holistic and integrated approaches that recognize the
interrelationships and the interconnectedness of the various dimensions of development.
The key idea is that sustainable development is for all. It can be achieved only
with the support and cooperation of all. It is based on the interdependence of the
economy. The social dimension implies an understanding of social institutions and their
role in change and the cultural, an awareness and appreciation of a peoples history,
tradition and total lifestyle. The economic dimension shows sensitivity to the limits and
potentials of economic growth while the environmental deals with the protection and care
of natural resources and the environment.

Sustainable development was first defined in 1987 by the World Commission on

Environment and Development in the Report, Our Common Future (Bruntland, 1987), as
that development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs.

In 1992, at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the main points od sustainable
development were defined by Agenda 21, its Action Program for the 21th century
adopted by governments, non- governmental organizations, and the private sector.
Education was regarded as critical form promoting sustainable development and
improving the capacity of people to address environmental and developmental and
development issues.

In 2002, Sustainable Development became an integral part of the UN Millennium

Development Goals (MDGs). Goal 7 states: Ensure Environmental Sustainability.
Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and
reverses the present trend of loss of natural resources
Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe
drinking waters and
Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by

Towards Sustainable Development: A Holistic Concept

In 2002, the Johannesburg Summit affirmed its collective determination to

promote the pillars or sustainable development economic development, social
development and safeguarding the environment as interdependent and mutually
reinforcing. This recognition of the interdependence of society, the environment and the
economy led to a more holistic concept of sustainable development as advocated by the
Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.

Education of Sustainable Development addresses the pillars of society, economy

and environment in their cultural context, advocating a harmonious and appropriate
sustainable development. Thus, the holistic concept of sustainable development places
people and the quality of life, present and future at the center of any development
strategy in the context of their particular society, economy, environment and culture, as
interdependent and interrelated dimensions, as shown in Figure A.


People are at the heart of SD

SD is for PEOPLE
To improve the quality of their lives

Figure A: A Holistic Concept of Sustainable Development

An appropriate, balance and human-centered sustainable development may be likened
to a House of Happiness where people live and work together in peace and harmony. The
house is supported by the four interrelated and interdependent pillars of society, culture,
economy, and environment, in harmony with each other.


A. Trifocalization of the Educational System

Basic Education consisting of elementary and secondary levels, is managed by the

Department of Education (DepEd) through the passage of R. A. 9155 or Governance of
Basic Education Act on August 2001;
Technical- Vocational Educational and Training is the jurisdiction of Technical
Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) as mandated by R. A. 7796
otherwise known as the TESDA Act signed into law on August 25, 1994; and
Higher Education involving community colleges, universities and specialized colleges
is the domain of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) established through the
enactment of R. A. 772 or Higher Act on May 18, 1994.

B. Philosophy of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum

The ideal Filipino learner in our rapidly changing world of one who is empowered for
lifelong learning, is an active maker of meaning, and can learn whatever he/she needs to know
in any new context. Such an empowered learner is competent in learning how to learn and has
life skills so that he/she becomes a self-developed person who is makabayan (patriotic),
makatao (mindful of humanity), makakalikasan (respectful to nature), and maka-Diyos (Godly).
This is the vision of the Philippine basic education, both formal and non-formal.

MAKABAYAN curriculum aims to cultivate a healthy personal and national self-concept

which includes adequate understanding of Philippine history and genuine appreciation of
local cultures, crafts, music and games.
MAKABAYAN hopes to promotes a constructive healthy patriotism that is appreciative of
global interdependence
MAKABAYAN aims to develop personal and social awareness, empathy and a firm
commitment to the common good

C. Alternative Education

An alternative education must envision a Philippine Society characterized by an

increasingly productive mixed economy, essentially nationalist and redistributive in character,
and by a democratic government based on the broadest possible sectoral representation at the
local, regional, and national levels.

Given the new conception of society and of the educated Filipino, an alternative
education must presuppose the following principles:
1. Education is a basic right and will therefore be free for all Filipinos at all levels.
2. Human dignity and total human development for all are inalienable rights to be
promoted and guaranteed by the state through all its agencies, including
3. Knowledge gained in this process of development must not be conceived as
private properly but as understanding, insights and competencies to be used in
the service of the greater majority. Under this principle, acquisitive achievement
will be discouraged in favor of self-fulfillment towards socially desirable
development and production (of good or knowledge) for shared purposes.
4. Human diversity in and unequal endowments of innate individual talents,
capacities, and interests are recognized and will be nurtured, but those
considerations must be balanced by the over-all requirements of the division of
labor in the Philippine society, or our nations efforts towards self-reliance and
sovereignty, and of the egalitarian principle which forms the bedrock of a
democratic state.

Characteristics of an Alternative Education

1. Nationalist- a type of education in which the thrust is the development on the part
of the student, a strong sense commitment to and identification with the interest
of the Filipinos as a nation and as a people. This sense of resistance to any form
of foreign interference. Dictation, or intervention in our domestic affairs either
politically, economically, or culturally. Education thus becomes a vehicle through
which the foundation or independence and integrity as a nation and as people is
secured and maintained.

2. Scientific a type of education that is geared towards liberating the Filipino

students and youths unfounded age old myths, beliefs, and traditions. This
means not only using scientific knowledge to demystify and debunk these myths
but more importantly, to cultivate among the students the scientific attitude, that
is, to foster in them critical and analytical thinking. It is only in developing such an
attitude that no myth can possibly survive to obscure social realities and
education thus becomes an instrument for genuine transformation.

3. Pro-people a type of education the thrust of which is to develop among the

students a sense of social commitment, that is, for the advancement of the
interest of the majority of the Filipino people. Said commitments are grounded on
the premise that no individual get his education all by himself. Education is a
social activity and therefore its fruit should not only be oriented to the enjoyment
of the few but to the benefit of the majority of the people if not the society as a
4. Democratic a type of education that imbues the individual with a strong sense
of commitment to the respect for and observance of human rights. (economic,
civil and political, and social and cultural rights), peace based on justice and to
upholding the interest of the majority of the Filipino people against the interest of
the majority of the Filipino people as against the interest of the majority of the
Filipino people as against the interest of the few. It also means developing
among the students a strong sense of responsibility to fight against any form of
social inequity and justice and commitment to the struggle for the realization of a
just and humane society.
1. Which of the following features represents the new paradigm shift in education?
A. Traditional pedagogies
B. Lifelong education for all
C. Knowledge as the only learning outcome
E. Rigid selection of students based on single and fixed criteria

*The correct answer is Option B because all the other options (A, C, D and E) are
traditional characteristics of education. Option B: Lifelong education for All is one of the key
features of 21th Century education.

2. What is the concern of Multi-Cultural Education?

A. Anticipating the future and imagining possible and probable futures.
B. Gender equality and hamessing of the role of women in development.
C. Striving for quality of economic, social, and political development in all countries.
D. Promoting care for the environment and building a global culture of ecological
E. The exploration of concepts of cultural diversity, similarities, and prejudices to
promote cultural understanding.

3. Which of the following statements is NOT true of Philippine education?

A. Most of Asia-Pacific countries have 12 years of basic education while the Philippines
have 10
B. Philippines has high dropout rates and they are mostly women and girls.
C. In tertiary level of education, there are more student enrollees in private schools than
in state-run colleges and universities
D. The language policy of the Philippines is multilingual: English, Filipino and local
E. The percentage of private schools students transferring to public schools is higher
than the annual growth rate in school enrollment.

The correct answer is Option B because Options A, c, d, AND e ARE NOT SUPPORTED BY
EMPERICAL DATA ON Philippine education. The drop-out rates in the Philippines are mostly
men or boys who because of poverty engage in gainful employment. UNESCO programs are
literacy for women and girls in Muslim countries.

4. The 2008 education reform measures recommended by Pres. G.M. Arroyos Presidential
Task Force for Education (PTFE) are found in the book:
A. Our Common Future in Philippine Education
B. Philippine Main Education Highway: Towards a Knowledge-Based Economy
C. Learning: The Treasure Within
D. The Philippine Basic Education Reform Agenda in the Future
E. The Education of Young People and Adults in the Philippines

The correct answer is Option B because Options A and D involves the state of Education in
the future, Option C is a classical journal that tackles Four Pillars of Education, while Option E
involves the entire clientele of Education. Also Option B shifts the education system towards a
strong economic status as a new trend today.
5. Which best describes the philosophy of the present Basic Education Curriculum?
A. The promotion of transformative education for national development.
B. The development of highly competitive and competent Filipinos for a globalized world.
C. The promotion of a just and humane society through its citizens who are makabayan
and makatao.
D. Promotion of nationalists and dedicated Filipino citizens
E. The development of an empowered learner who possesses life skills for lifelong

The correct answer is Option E as stated in the document for the Basic Education Curriculum

6. The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers (R.A. 4670) defines the rights to be enjoyed
by teachers in the public sector. In a recent CSC ruling January 28, 2008 the then Chair
Karina David declared the work load of actual classroom teaching should not be more than:

A. 5 hours D. 8 hours
B. 6 hours E. 9 hours
C. 7 hours

7. The battle cry for Pres. G.M. Arroyos moral renewal program is:
A. Bayan muna bago sarili
B. Honesty in public service
C. Zero tolerance for corruption
D. Responsible citizenship for good governance
E. Live simply and creatively

8. The following are national values actively promoted by government in flag ceremonies
every Monday EXCEPT:
A. Makakalikasam D. Human solidarity
B. Maka-Diyos E. Respect for diversity
C. Makatao

9. The basic value that is central to human rights education is:

A. Sustainability of the Planet D. Environmental protection
B. Human dignity E. Food Security
C. Justice for all

10. In what social indicator is the Philippine in the Top 10 in the worlds ranking?
A. Respect for human rights D. Environmental protection
B. Good governance E. Food security
C. Gender equality

11. Republic Act 77877 signed into law February 14, 1995 declares unlawful:
A. Hazing in fraternities
B. Sexual harassment in the workplace
C. Tuition fee in basic education
D. Cutting of trees in highways
E. Political appointment of teachers

12. The UNESCO J. Delors Report identified four pillars of learning. Which pillar is given top
priority especially due to the situation in Mindanao and threats of terrorists attack?
A. Learning to live together D. Learning to know
B. Learning to be E. Learning to have
C. Learning to do
13. Which is the major obstacle / hindrance in the empowerment of Filipino teachers?
A. Local officials interference on education values
B. Authoritarian and Hierarchical system of DepEd
C. Low government priority on education and fearless
D. Culture of silence of teachers
E. Community low regard to the teaching profession

14. The main provision of R.A. 9155 signed August 2, 2001 is:
A. Instituting a new framework of governance for basic education
B. Providing the abolition of ROTC and its replacement for NSTP
C. Providing for penalties for sexual harassment in the workplace
D. Establishing the PRC Board for Professional teachers
E. Community low regard to the teaching profession

15. Who predicted the clash of civilization between the secular west and the religious
A. Samuel Huntington D. Alvin Tomer
B. George Orwell E. Howard Gardener
C. Kinichi Ohme

16. Concietization as a pedagogy and an approach to teaching is perceived to be effective in

A. Political activism D. Critical awareness of issues
B. Lack of trust in political leaders E. Ecological awareness
C. Opposition to status quo

17. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of globalization?

A. Stretching of social, political and economic activities across political frontiers, regions
and continents.
B. The growing magnitude of interconnectedness and flows of trade, investment and
C. A speeding up of Global interactions and processes through world-wide systems of
transportation and communication.
D. The deepening of impacts of global and world events on local conditions.
E. The expansion of economic protectionism and isolation on poor countries.

18. In what way can social class variations in child rearing practices affect higher achievement
in school?
A. Middle class parents tend to encourage curiosity, initiative and independence while
lower class families tend to promote obedience and subordination.
B. Both middle and lower class families emphasizes competition within the family, hence
children become competitive and higher achiever in school.
C. Middle class families tend emphasize discipline and obedience hence children tend to
be more focused in school.
D. Poor families emphasize the importance of earning livelihood hence children tend to
perform poorly in school.
E. Poor families tend to emphasize competition and creativity while middle class tend to
promote passivity and subservience.
19. How does the notion of cultural relativity and variability affect the teaching-learning
processes in school?
A. The students varied cultural background will in no way affect the way they will learn
the lesson in school.
B. The students can readily adjust to the way the teachers initiates learning in school
because children are adaptable beings no matter what culture they come from.
C. The childs cultural background influence the childrens way of interpreting and
viewing the world, hence must consider the childrens world view when teaching.
D.The teacher should be wary of differing cultural points of view and must make sure
that students will see things the same way.
E. The school should be able to integrate into the mainstream culture the students
regardless of their different cultural backgrounds.

20.A class is composed of students coming from several ethnic communities including
Muslims and Lumads. They see, to have difficulty understanding each others behavior and
points of view. What should the teacher do?
A. Introduce multiculturalism in the class and provide activities for practice.
B. Threaten the students that if there are students who do not behave and tolerant of
their classmates, she/he will be dropped from class.
C. Inform students that they will all be learning new ways of thinking and behaving in this
class, so they might as well leave their cultural idiosyncrasies at home.
D. Assign bright students to monitor and control behavior of poor students.
E. Ignore them, anyway it is not part of the course you are teaching.

21. History books used in schools are replete with events portraying defeats and weaknesses
of the Filipino as a people. How should you tackle them in the classroom?
A. Do not highlight the events in your lesson.
B. Present them as they are presented but tell the class that they not relevant
C. Do not present nor mention them in your lesson.
D. Present facts and use them as means in inspiring your class to learn from them.
E. Present them and blame those people responsible or those who have contributed to
the defeat.

22.ivan Illich in his book Deschooling Society noted that formal schooling is unnecessary and
harmful to both students and society for the following reasons:
A. Most schools are repressive and dampen creativity and imagination producing
mindless conforming students.
B. Schools are effective only in developing skills for livelihood and to solve problems in
C. there is other avenues for learning outside the formal school such as media.
D. Teachers have become ineffective teaching the children.
E. Schools are more agents of domination of the ruling class

23. Which of the following statements manifests an awareness of the principle of cultural
A. The more advanced society should determine the cultural standards of all cultures in
the world.
B. Cultures must be evaluated on the basis of some universal standards.
C. Any cultural trait is correct and incorrect depending on the values of the person
looking at.
D. Cultural behavior must be evaluated based on the normative standards of the society
in which that cultural behavior operates.
E. Since societies have their own culture, no society should not be critical of whatever is
practiced in another society.
24. Which of the following statements about Gender is correct?
A. Gender is biologically determined
B. Gender is socially and culturally constructed
C. Gender roles are the same in all societies
D. Gender is an ascribed status in society
E. Concept of gender is synonymous with sex.

25. Which grouping best describes the tri-focalized System of Philippine Education?
A. Bureau of Alternative Learning System (ALS), Department of Education (DepEd),
Commission on higher Education (CHED).
B. Basic Education (DepEd), Technical-Vocational (TESDA), and Higher Education
C. Early Childhood, Technical-Vocational, Basic Education
D. Elementary level, Secondary or High School level, Tertiary or College level
E. ETTEAP, Ladderized Education and Distance Education


1. Which among the following statement about Human Rights Education is correct?
A. HRE is more of the responsibilities of the state to implement human rights law rather
than protection of the rights holders
B. Human Rights Education should focus more on rights based on law in books, rather
than on law in real-life
C. HRE needs to focus on the value, principles, and standards of human rights and how
they can be translated into day-to-day actions
D. Human Rights Standards vary from society to society and HRE therefore should also
vary in terms of approaches and methods
E. Human rights Education is simply the exercise of legal rights of individuals.

2. The battle cry for Pres. G.M. Arroyos moral renewal program is:
A. Byan muna bago sarili
B. Honestly in public service
C. Zero tolerance for corruption
D. Responsible citizenship for good governance
E. Live Simply and creatively

3. Several non-government organizations and corporations have Advocacies on basic

education reform. What is the name of a network of institutions and individuals building a
constituently to make education work?
A. League of Foundations
B. Sa Aklat Sisikat Ka
C. Synergeia
D. People Power Foundation
E. Philippine Business for Social Progress

4. To produce globally competitive graduates, Philippine education gives major emphasis to:
A. Values Ed., Science and Social Studies
B. English Science and Mathematics
C. Science and Technology and citizenship education
D. Humanities, Social Studies and W ork Education
E.Bilingual Education and Character Education
5. What United Nation Decade are we celebrating for 2005-2014?
A. Educating for Culture of Peace
B. Educating for International Understanding
C. Promoting Human Rights and Fundamental Freedom
D. Educating for Sustainable Development
E. Promoting the Rights of the Elderly

6. The provision that salaries of teachers should be reviewed periodically to take into account
of cost of living indicators is found in
A. Magna Carta for Teachers
B. National Appropriation Act
C. ILO-UNSECO Recommendation on the Role of Teachers
D. Presidential Commission on Educational Reform
E. Civil Service Salary Standardization Act

7. Teachers empowerment to attain economic security can be best achieved through:

A. Social Club
B. Faculty Union
C. Teacher Professional Organization
D. Cause-oriented organization
E. SEC registered organization

8. Republic Act No. 7613 authored by Senator Jovito Salonga and approved on February 20,
1989 embodies:
A. Professional code of ethics for teachers
B. Magna Carta for Public and Private School teachers
C. State subsidy for private schools and studies
D. Creation of the Civil Service Commission
E. Code of Conduct and ethical standards for public employees

9. The provision of academic freedom is applicable for teacher in:

A All levels D. Learning to Care
B. Public schools only E. State public tertiary institutions
C. Colleges and Universities

10. Which pillar of education of J. Delors (UNESCO) focuses on the voc-tech relevant to
people-centered human development?
A. Learning to Know D. Learning to Care
B. Learning to Do E. Learning to Be
C. Learning to Live Together

11. The first woman educator to become a senator is:

A. Geronima Pecson D. Erlinda Pefianco
B. Estefania Aldava Lim E. Lourdes Quisumbing
C. Helena Benitez

12. Which of the following is the first target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
formulated by member states of the UN in September 2007?
A. reduce child morality
B. eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
C. ensure environmental sustainability
D. reduce death due to HIV/AIDS and malaria
E. achieve universal access to primary education
13. The Political and social historian who predicted the end of history after the fall of the Berlin
Wall is:
A. Francis Fukuyama D. Johan Galtung
B. Samuel Huntington E. Gabriel Almona
C. Alvin Toffler

14. An American economist and a Pulitizer Prize winning reporter of New York Times and
whose latest book The World is Flat tackles corporate globalization is:
A. Thomas L. Friedman D. Betty D. Reardon
B. Timothy M. Smeeding E. Jim A. Cummins
C. Robert J. Shapiro

15. Which of following characteristics does NOT describe contextualized learning as a major
paradigm shift in education?
A. From limited access to time-bound and space limited education, to borderless
education, lifelong learning for all in learning society.
B. From traditional pedagogies to more modern strategies of teaching and learning
C. Has the freedom to use mixed modes of instruction and more interactive technology.
D. Knowledge limited to the local scene to the globalized knowledge, values, attitudes,
and skills interfaced with local wisdom
E. Pre-organized subject matter to localized themes generated from the global realities
and the culture relevant, meaningful and useful to the learner.

16. What current trends in Social Science Education focuses on the study of the basic
concepts, beliefs and values underlying our democratic political community and constitutional
A. Civic Education D. Global Education
B. Development Education E. Multi-cultural Education
C. Peace Education

17. In what strands of the four Pillars of Education implies a shift from skill to competence, or
a mix of higher-order skills specific to each individual?
A. Learning to Know D. Learning Care
B. Learning to Do E. Multi-cultural Education
C. Learning to Live Together

18. What is the implication of globalization to the practice and experience of education?
A. Increase of state and government support and subsidy for education
B. Commodification and the corporate takeover of education
C. Greater autonomy of national educational systems
D. Delocalization of technologies and orientations in education
E. Less protection and regulation of intellectual property rights.

19. Which of the following is NOT true about the Four Pillars of Learning?
A. The Pillar of learning to be reflects a shift from an instrumental view of education to a
humanistic view that emphasize the development of the complete person
B. The pillars learning stress the goal of contributing to social cohesion, inter-cultural
and inter-national understanding, peaceful interchange, and harmony
C. The pillars of learning imply a shift from schooling to learning throughout life by
learning how to learn
D. The pillars of learning stress the importance of closer linkage between education and
the world of work
E. The pillars of learning adheres to the instrumental and purely academic view of
education that focuses on the achievement of specific aims of education such as economic

20. Which of the following can be considered a form of a civic engagement?

A. Electoral participation
B. Bribing a government official
C. Being critical a government officials
d. analyzing the strengths and weakness of the constitution
e. Patronizing Filipino products

21 Which of the following skills correspond to the Fourth Pillar of Learning learning to live
A. Empathy and cooperative social behavior
B. Personal commitment and sense of responsibility
C Adaptability to change in the world of work
D. Reasoning and problem solving skills
E. competency in transforming knowledge into innovations

22. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Multicultural Education?

A. Personally empowering D. Experimental and Reflective
B. Socially transformative E. culturally discriminating
C. Pedagogically humanistic

23. Equality of educational outcomes as one dimension of gender equality in education

A. Girls and boys are given equitable opportunities to gain admission to formal, non-
formal, or alternative approaches to basic education.
B. Girls and boys are given equal opportunity to participate in educational activities and
other learning experiences.
C. Girls and boys enjoy equal opportunities to achieve and outcomes are based on their
individual talents and efforts.
D. girls and boys receive equitable treatment and attention and have equal opportunities
to learn.
E. Girls and boys enjoy equal opportunity to contribute to, participate in, and benefit from
economic, social, cultural, and political activities based on their ability.

24. Human Rights for all peoples of the world are safely enshrined in the
A. Magna Carta for Teachers
B. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
C. Bill of Rights in the Constitution
D. Convention in the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
E. Code of Professional Ethics for Teachers

25. Which is TRUE about human rights?

A. Economic, social and cultural rights are not true rights.
B. Human rights overemphasize the individual over the community.
C. Human rights apply to everyone and are based on universal values.
D. Human rights favor the status quo over social change.
E. Human rights overemphasize rights over responsibilities.