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All ships to be provided with main and auxiliary steering gear, independent from each other.

Main steering gear requirementas per SOLAS :

1. Rudder stock shall be of adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at

maximum ahead speed.

2. Capable of putting rudder over from 35° one side to 35° other side at its

deepest draft and maximum ahead service speed and 35° on either side to 30°

on other side in 28 seconds.

3. Operated by power and designed so as not to incur damage at maximum

astern speed.

Auxiliary steering gear requirement as per SOLAS:

1. Capable of putting the rudder 15° one side to 15° the other side in 60 seconds,

when vessel at deepest draft and running ahead at ½ maximum ahead service

speed or 7 knots whichever is greater.

2. Adequate strength and capable of steering at a navigable speed.

3. Steering gear control from Navigation Bridge and locally.

4. Auxiliary steering gear controls from locally and if power operated also

operable from Navigation Bridge. 5. Steering capability to be regained in not more than 45 seconds after the loss of one power system.

Test is within 12 hours of departure. Emergency steering drills once every 3 months

As per SOLAS, Regulation 29

1. In every tanker, chemical tanker or gas carrier of 10,000 gross tonnage And

upwards and in every other ship of 70,000 gross tonnage and upwards, The main

steering gear shall comprise two or more identical power units Complying with the provisions.

2. Every tanker, chemical tanker or gas carrier of 10,000 gross tonnage and up

words shall, subject to para. 17, comply with the following, The main steering gear shall be so arranged that in the event of Loss of steering capability due to a single failure in any part of one Of the power actuating systems of the main steering gear, Excluding the tiller, quadrant or components serving the same Purpose, or seizure of the rudder actuators, steering capability Shall be regained in not more than 45 seconds after the loss of one Power actuating system;

The main steering gear shall comprise either:

Two independent and separate power actuating systems, each Capable of meeting the requirements , or At least two identical power actuating systems which, acting Simultaneously in normal operation, shall be capable of meeting The requirements ,Where necessary to comply With this requirement, interconnection of hydraulic power Actuating systems shall be provided. Loss of hydraulic fuid from One system shall be capable of being detected and the defective System automatically isolated so that the other actuating system Or systems shall remain partially operational, Steering gears other than of the hydraulic type shall achieve Equivalent standards.

Points to pounder for tankers :

For tankers, chemical tankers or gas carriers of 10,000 gross tonnage And upward, but of less than 100,000 tonnes deadweight, solutions other Than those set out in paragraph 16, which need not apply the single failure Criterion to the rudder actuator or actuators, may be permitted provided that An equivalent safety standard is achieved and that:

Following loss of steering capability due to a single failure of any Part of the piping system or in one of the power units, steering Capability shall be regained within 45sec ; and Where the steering gear includes only a single rudder actuator Special consideration is given to stress analysis for the design Including fatigue analysis and fracture mechanics analysis, as Appropriate, to the material used, to the installation of sealing Arrangements and to testing and inspection and to the provision Of efective maintenance. In consideration of the foregoing, the Administration shall adopt regulations which include the Provisions of the guidelines for acceptance of non-duplicated.