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Air

Pollution
TYPICAL AIR POLLUTION SCENARIO
Air & Its Pollution
A person needs per
day about
0.7 kg of food
1.4 kg of water
14 kg of air
Air Pollution
Air pollution may be defined as the presence
in the air (outdoor atmosphere) of one or
more contaminants or combinations there
of in such quantities and of such durations
as may be or tend to be injurious to
human, animal or plant life, or property,
or which unreasonably interferes with
the comfortable enjoyment of life or
property or conduct of business.
Air Pollutants
A pollutant can be solid (large or sub-molecular),
liquid or gas .
It may originate from a natural or anthropogenic
sources or both.
It is estimated that anthropogenic sources have
changed the composition of global air by less
than 0.01%.
However, it is widely accepted that even a small
change can have a significant adverse effect
on the climate, ecosystem and species on the
planet.
Examples of these are CO, SOx, NOx, SPM,
PM10, PM2.5, CO2, ozone in the lower
atmosphere, and photochemical smog.
Air Pollution and Public Opinion
Not a new phenomena: Smoke from Burning of
Coal
Problems in many urban areas in late 1800s and
early 1900 due to coal use
1000s of deaths attributed to air pollution
episodes in London
large number of pollution sources
restricted air volume
failure to recognize problem
CO presence: lethal
Photochemical smog
Sources of Air Pollution
Why Air Quality?
1.Point sources
Stacks of thermal power plants, brick kilns, lime kilns, boilers etc.

2. Area sources
Cluster of point sources, spill of chemicals, crude/product spills in ocean etc.

3. Line sources
Car, scooter, train, aircraft: white line in sky behind a jet plane?
Types of Pollutants
Why Air Quality?
1. Primary pollutants
Pollutants which are being emitted into the air directly by point/area/line
sources.
Examples: CO, NOx, SOx, Pb, PM, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs etc.

2. Secondary pollutants
Pollutants which are getting formed from primary pollutants in the
atmosphere. Some of the reactions are catalyzed by sun light.
Examples: acid rains, smog, O3, H2O2, formaldehyde,
peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) etc.
Why Air Pollution?
Main cause: Combustion
Fuel (C,H,S,N,Pb,Hg,ash) + Air (N2 + O2)
CO2, CO, NOx, SOx, Pb, Hg, SPM,
PM10,PM2.5, VOCs
Fuel consumption (Annual)
Coal: 450 MT
Crude based products: 120 MT
Natural gas: 60 NBCM
Biomass: 350-400 MT
Why Air Pollution contd..
Usage/handling of Chemicals: paint,
varnishes, perfumes, CFCs, petrol
pumps, etc.

Cement handling, insulation on winding


of motors/alternators/transformers etc.
Combustion processes
1. Electricity generation
Total generation capacity: 2,75,912 MW

2. Transport : 18 % of total energy


Liquid fuels : 97.5% of total in sector
(petroleum products)

Electricity : 1.0% of total in sector

3. Industry : coal, petroleum products, electricity


4. Domestic sector : biomass, petroleum products, electricity
5. Agriculture : electricity, petroleum products
Total Installed Capacity: as on 31.07.2015)

Fuel MW %age
Total Thermal 1,91,664 69.5
Coal 167,708 60.8

Sector Gas MW
22,962 %age8.3
State Sector Oil 96,015
994 34.80.4
Central Sector 73,671 26.7
Hydro 41,997 15.2
Private Sector 1,06,226 38.5
Nuclear 5,780 2.1
Total 2,75,912
RES 36,471 13.2
Total 2,75,912
Pollutants generation
Fuel Combustion
PM10
23%

S in coals:0.5-2.5%
Sox
43%
Sox
CO
VOC Pb
1%
Nox
VOC
PM10

Nox
25%

N2+O2=NOx
Pb CO
5% 3%
Transport
PM10 Sox
10% 1%

Sox
VOC
17% CO
Pb
CO Nox
36%
VOC
PM10

Nox
21%

Octane number enhancer:


Pb
15% Tetraethyl lead, GM 1922
Industrial
SOx

VOC
51%
Agencies responsible for monitoring
state of air pollution in India

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)


Act, 1981

Centre-Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change

Central pollution control board (CPCB)

State pollution control boards (SPCB)/committees

Set procedure : ambient air, industry wise norms


FIR against the firm/sealing of the industry
Pollutants Time- Concentration in ambient air
weighted Industrial Residential, Sensitive
National Ambient average Areas Rural & Areas
other Areas
Air Quality SulphurDioxide (SO2) Annual 80 g/m3 60 g/m3 15 g/m3
Average*
Standards 24 120 80 g/m3 30 g/m3
g/m3
(NAAQS) hours**
Oxides of Annual 80 g/m3 60 g/m3 15 g/m3
in India, 1994 Nitrogen as
(NO2)
Average*
24 120 80 g/m3 30 g/m3
hours** g/m3
Suspended Particulate Annual 360 140 g/m3 70 g/m3
Environmentally Matter (SPM) Average* g/m3
Sensitive areas (ESA): 24 500 200 g/m3 100
landscape, wild life & hours** g/m3 g/m3
Respirable Particulate Annual 120 60 g/m3 50 g/m3
historical importance Matter (RPM) (size less than Average* g/m3
10 microns) 24 150 100 g/m3 75 g/m3
hours** g/m3
Lead (Pb) Annual 1.0 g/m3 0.75 g/m3 0.50
Now industrial, Average* g/m3

residential, rural and 24 1.5 g/m3 1.00 g/m3 0.75


hours** g/m3
other areas have been Ammonia1 Annual 0.1 mg/ 0.1 mg/ m3 0.1
merged Average* m3 mg/m3
24 0.4 mg/ 0.4 mg/m3 0.4
hours** m3 mg/m3
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8 5.0 2.0 mg/m3 1.0 mg/
hours** mg/m3 m3
* annual mean of 104 measurements in a year
1 hour 10.0 4.0 mg/m3 2.0
** 24/8 h values should be met 98% of time in a year mg/m3 mg/m3
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS:2009

18.11.2009
Particulate Matter
Suspended Particulate Matter
Fine Particulate Matter
What is Particulate Matter?
Particulate matter, or PM, is
the term for particles found
in the air, including dust, dirt,
soot, smoke, and liquid
droplets.
These small particles can
remain suspended in the air
for long periods of time.
Some particles are large or
dark enough to be seen as
soot or smoke. Others are
so small that individually
they can only be detected
with an electron microscope.
Types of Fine Particulate Matter
Primary Particles
These particles are emitted directly
from air pollution sources such as
power plants, factories, automobile
exhaust, construction sites, unpaved
roads, wood burning etc.

Secondary Particles
Formed in the atmosphere indirectly
when gases from burning fuels react
with sunlight and water vapor and
are chemically transformed into
particles, secondary pollutants:
solid/liquid
A few definitions
Solid or liquid particles with sizes from
0.001 100 m may be in air
General term for these is aerosols
Dust originates from grinding or crushing
Fumes are solid particles formed when
vapors condense
Smoke describes particles released in
combustion processes
Smog is used to describe air pollution and
is a combination of smoke+fog
Hukka
Stokes Law

Aerodynamic diameter: Diameter of the sphere having the same settling


velocity as that of the particle

Given by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851

Where,

acceleration of gravity (g), m/s2


particle diameter (d), m

density of particle (p), kg/m3

density of medium (m), kg/m3

viscosity of medium (), kg/m s


What are PM10 and PM2.5 ?
PM10 is used to describe particles of 10 micrometers or less
and PM2.5 represents particles of 2.5 micrometers or less
in aerodynamic diameter
Hair cross section (70 mm)

Human Hair (70 m diameter) PM10 PM2.5


(10m) (2.5 m)
Sources of Particulate Matter PM10
and PM2.5
India
Hukka
Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles)
Standard Reference Date Region

India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide


Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04 NCR*, 10 Cities
2005.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 10 Cities
2010.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 10 Cities
* National Capital Region (Delhi)

Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad,


Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra
Emission norms (PM) for Heavy Diesel Vehicles
Norms CO( g/km) HC (g/km) NOx (g/km) PM(g/km)

1991Norms 14 3.5 18

1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4

India stage 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36


2000 norms

Bharat
4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
stage-II

Bharat
2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10
Stage-III

Bharat
1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02
Stage-IV
Data of 1014
TREND OF PM10 LEVELS IN DELHI
Reason: CNG
40
20
Health Effects of Particulate Matter
Impact depends on particle size, shape
and composition
Large particles trapped in nose
Particles >10 m removed in
tracheobronchial system
Particles <0.5 m reach lungs but are
exhaled with air
Particles 2 4 m most effectively get
deposited in lungs
Health Effects from Particulate Matter
Many scientific studies have
linked breathing PM to a
series of significant health
problems, including:
aggravated asthma
increase in respiratory symptoms
like coughing and difficult or
painful breathing
chronic bronchitis
decreased lung function
premature death
Other Effects of PM
Visibility Impairment
PM is the major cause of
reduced visibility (haze).
Aesthetic Damage
Soot, a type of PM, stains and
damages stone and other
materials, including objects
such as monuments and
statues.
Plant Damage
PM can form a film on plant
leaves interfering with
photosynthesis and plant
growth
Particulate Matter and Taj
The deposition of
PM on the
shimmering
white marble of
the Taj Mahal
imparts yellow
tinge to the
marble surface
Carbon Monoxide
Most abundant air
pollutant
Produced by incomplete
combustion
insufficient O2
low temperature
short residence time
poor mixing
Major source (~ 77%) is
motor vehicle exhaust
Carbon Monoxide
Misc
10%

Industrial
7%

Fuel Combustion
6%

Misc
Industrial
Fuel Combustion
Transport

Transport
77%
Carbon Monoxide
Colorless and odorless
When inhaled, binds to hemoglobin in blood to form
carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the oxygen carrying capacity
brain function reduced, heart rate increased at lower levels
asphyxiation occurs at higher levels

% COHb = (1- e-t) (CO)

% COHb = Carboxyhemoglobin as % saturation


CO = Carbon monoxide conc. in ppm
= 0.402 h-1
= 0.15 %/ ppm CO
t = exposure time in hours
Carbon Monoxide - impact
TYPICAL LEVELS OF CO

Concentration Source
0.1 ppm Natural atmosphere level
0.5 to 5 ppm Average level in homes

5 to 15 ppm Near gas stoves in homes

Exhaust from automobiles with catalytic


100 to 200 ppm
converters

5,000 ppm Exhaust from a home wood fire

Undiluted warm car exhaust without


7,000 ppm
a catalytic converters
Emission norms (CO) for Heavy Diesel
Vehicles
Norms CO( g/km) HC (g/km) NOx (g/km) PM(g/km)

1991Norms 14 3.5 18

1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4

India stage 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36


2000 norms
Bharat
4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
stage-II
Bharat
2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10
Stage-III
Bharat
1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02
Stage-IV
Sulfur Oxides (SOx)
SO2, SO3, SO4-2
formed during
combustion of fuel
containing sulfur
H2S released is
converted to SO2
10 Tg/yr natural
sources
75 Tg/yr
anthropogenic
sources
Sulfur Dioxide Sources
Sulfur Dioxide: Health Effects
High concentrations of SO2 can result in
temporary breathing impairment.
Longer-term exposures to high concentrations of
SO2, in conjunction with high levels of PM,
include respiratory illness, alterations in the
lungs' defenses, and aggravation of existing
cardiovascular disease
Short-term exposures of asthmatic individuals to
elevated SO2 levels may result in reduced lung
function.
Sulfur Dioxide: Environmental Effects
Acid Rain Decreased Visibility
Trends of SO2 levels in World, China and India
In India increasing
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
Primarily NO and NO2
NO3, N2O, N2O3, N2O4,
N2O5 are also known
to occur
Thermal NOx created
by oxidation of
atmospheric N2 when
T > 1000 K
Fuel NOx from
oxidation of N in fuel
Oxides of nitrogen - sources
Industrial
Misc 4%
1%

Misc
Transport
45% Industrial
Fuel Combustion
Transport

Fuel Combustion
50%
Emission norms (NOx) for Heavy Diesel Vehicles
Norms CO( g/km) HC (g/km) NOx (g/km) PM(g/km)

1991Norms 14 3.5 18

1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4

India stage 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36


2000 norms

Bharat
4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
stage-II

Bharat
2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10
Stage-III

Bharat
1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02
Stage-IV
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

NO has few health effects, but is oxidized


to NO2
NO2 irritates lungs and promotes
respiratory infections
NO2 reacts with hydrocarbons in presence
of sunlight to produce smog
NO2 reacts with hydroxyl radicals to
produce nitric acid acid precipitation
Lead
Sources:
gasoline (historical)
metals processing
Highest air Pb
concentrations
in the vicinity of
nonferrous and ferrous
smelters, and battery
manufacturers.
Lead
Lead: Health Effects
Accumulates in the blood, bones, and soft
tissues.
Adversely affects the kidneys, liver, nervous
system, and other organs.
Excessive exposure to Pb may cause
neurological impairments, such as seizures,
mental retardation, and behavioral disorders.
May be a factor in high blood pressure and
subsequent heart disease.
Photochemical Smog
hydrocarbons + NOx + sunlight
photochemical smog (oxidants)

primary
oxidants
produced:
ozone (O3)
formaldehyde
peroxyacetyl
nitrate (PAN)
Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)
Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) high energy electromagnetic wave emitted from the
sun. It is made up of wavelengths ranging from 100nm to 400nm.
UV radiation includes UV-A, the least dangerous form of UV radiation, with a
wavelength range between 315nm to 400nm, UV-B with a wavelength range
between 280nm to 315nm, and UV-C which is the most dangerous between 100nm
to 280nm. UV-C is unable to reach Earths surface due to stratospheric ozones
ability to absorb it.
Sun Protection Factor
Sunscreens: 4, 8, 15, 30, 45

The SPF of a sunscreen indicates the time period you can stay in the sun without burning based on your skin complexion.

Recommended SPF

Skin Type 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5+ hr

Very Fair /
15 30 30 45 45
Extremely Sensitive
Fair / Sensitive 15 15 30 30 45
Fair 15 15 15 30 30
Medium 8 8 15 15 30
Dark 4 8 8 15 15

Note: Reapply sunscreen often, especially after swimming or sweating.


Photochemical Smog
N2+O2=2NO
2NO+O2= NO2
NO2+photon= NO+O photolysis for < 0.39 m
O2+O+M = O3+M M may be N2 or O2 which are in abundant
O3+NO=NO2+O2
Photochemical smog-concentration profiles
Ozone: Health Effects Human
Increased incidents of respiratory distress.
Repeated exposures to ozone:
Increased susceptibility to respiratory
infection
Lung inflammation
Aggravation of pre-existing respiratory
diseases such as asthma.
Decrease in lung function and increased
respiratory symptoms such as chest pain and
cough.
Ozone: Environmental Effects
Ozone also affects
vegetation and ecosystems
reductions in agricultural and
commercial forest yields
($0.5 billion/yr in US alone)
reduced growth and
survivability of tree seedlings
increased plant susceptibility
to disease, pests, and other
environmental stresses (e.g.,
harsh weather).
Landmark datelines to cleaner air in capital
April 1995: Mandatory fitting of catalytic convertors
April 1996: Low sulphur Diesel introduced, 350 ppm
April 1998: Introduction of CNG buses in Delhi
Sept 1998: Complete removal of lead from petrol
Dec 1998: Restricted plying of goods vehicles during the day
Sept 1999: Amendment of Motor Vehicles Act to include
CNG
April 2000: Private vehicles to be registered only if they
conform to Euro II standards
April 2000: Eight-year-old commercial vehicles phased out
Nov 2002: Conversion of all public transport buses to CNG
April 2015: NGT bans 10 years old Diesel vehicles in Delhi
AIR QUALITY INDEX
Are we affected by poor Air Quality (AQ)?
The very young are at risk
Lungs are not fully developed
Faster breathing rate: more air volume/body weight
The very old are at risk
Undiagnosed lung or heart diseases
Pollution can exacerbate these conditions
Persons with chronic illnesses: Respiratory,
circulatory, or cardiac diseases
Yes, EVERYONE!
Even healthy persons can be affected
when they exercise outdoors, or if the
concentration of pollutants is very high
How do we know if Air Quality is poor?
AQI is an overall scheme that transforms
individual air pollutant (e.g. SO2, CO, PM10)
levels into a single number, which is a simple
and lucid description of air quality for the
citizens.

AQI relates to health impacts and citizens can


avoid the unnecessary exposure to air
pollutants;

AQI indicates compliance with National


Ambient Air Quality Standards;

AQI prompts local authorities to take quick


actions to improve air quality;

AQI guides policy makers to take broad


decisions; and

AQI encourages citizens to participate in air


quality management.
Pollutants considered for AQI and air quality
standards

Pollutant SO2 NO2 PM2.5 PM10 O3 CO (mg/m3) Pb NH3

Averaging time (hr) 24 24 24 24 1 8 1 8 24 24

Indian Standard (g/m3) 80 80 60 100 180 100 4 2 1 400


Development of Aggregate AQI
Sub-indices to AQI

AQI = Max [I1, I2,..,In]


Internationally Accepted
Scheme
Air Quality Index

AQI
AQI categories and range

Good Satisfactory Moderate Poor Very poor Severe


(0-50) (51-100) (101-200) (201-300) (301-400) (> 401)

[Colour, Category, AQI Number]


AQI categories and breakpoint concentrations with averaging times
(g/m3 unless mentioned otherwise)

AQI Category PM10 PM2.5 NO2 O3 CO SO2 NH3 Pb


(Range) 24-hr 24-hr 24-hr 8-hr 8-hr 24-hr 24-hr 24-hr
(mg/m3)
Good (0-50) 0-50 0-30 0-40 0-50 0-1.0 0-40 0-200 0-0.5
Satisfactory 51-100 31-60 41-80 51-100 1.1-2.0 41-80 201-400 0.6 1.0
(51-100)
Moderate 101-250 61-90 81-180 101-168 2.1- 10 81-380 401-800 1.1-2.0
(101-200)
Poor 251-350 91-120 181-280 169-208 10.1-17 381-800 801-1200 2.1-3.0
(201-300)
Very poor 351-430 121-250 281-400 209-748* 17.1-34 801-1600 1201-1800 3.1-3.5
(301-400)
Severe 430 + 250+ 400+ 748+* 34+ 1600+ 1800+ 3.5+
(401-500)
*One hourly monitoring (for mathematical calculation only)
AQI: Health impacts
AQI Possible Health Impacts

Good minimal impact

Satisfactory minor breathing discomfort to sensitive people

breathing discomfort to the people with lung disease such as asthma and
Moderate
discomfort to people with heart disease, children and older adults

breathing discomfort to people on prolonged exposure and discomfort to people with


Poor
heart disease with short exposure

respiratory illness to the people on prolonged exposure. Effect may be


Very Poor
more pronounced in people with lung and heart diseases

respiratory effects even on healthy people and serious health impacts on people with
Severe
lung/heart diseases

The higher the AQI, greater the air pollution and health concerns