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# Solids And Structures (UES010)

## Civil/Mechanical Engineering Department

Project -A
Project Report

UES010-Project
Group Id: 1 Project Id:A
Submitted To: Dr.Shruti Sharma

## S. No Name Roll No.

1. Praveen Kaleerana 101602098
2. Pushpendra Gill 101602099
3. Pushpinder Singh 101602100
4. Raghav Chaturvedi 101602101
5. Rahul Sehgal 101602102

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Index

Introduction
Formula used
Observations
Graph
Snapshots of the specimen
Result
Numerical Problem
Sources of Error

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Introduction
Project Focus:- Axial stresses and Deformations

Objectives of Project:-

## To understand the methodology of tensile testing.

To plot stress-strain curves for metallic (Mild steel and Aluminium) samples.

Tensile Strength:-

The maximum load that a material can support without fracture when being stretched, divided
by the original cross-sectional area of the material. Tensile strengths have dimensions of
force per unit area and in the English system of measurements are commonly expressed in
units of pounds per square inch, often abbreviated to PSI. When stresses less than the tensile
strength are removed, a material returns either completely or partially to its original shape
and size. As the stress reaches the value of the tensile strength, however a material if ductile
that has already begun to flow plastically rapidly forms a constricted region called a neck,
where it fractures.

Machines:-

To conduct the experiments for the given project, we have used Tensile Testing Machine.

## Tensile Testing Machine:-

The machine used to measure the tensile strength universally, is the tensile test machine. It
has one crosshead; to apply tension to the test specimen. The machine must have proper
capabilities for the test specimen being tested.

There are four main parameters: force capacity, speed, precision and accuracy. Force capacity
refers to fact that the machine must be able to generate enough force to fracture the specimen.
The machine must be able to apply the force quickly or slowly enough to properly mimic the
actual application. Finally, the machine must be able to accurately and precisely measure the
gauge length and forces applied; for instance, a large machine that is designed to measure
long elongations may not work with a brittle material that experiences short elongations prior
to fracturing. Alignment of the test specimen in the testing machine is critical, because if the
specimen is misaligned, either at an angle or offset to one side, the machine will exert to one

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side, the machine will exert a bending force on the specimen. This is especially bad for brittle
materials because of it will dramatically skew the results.

The strain measurements were measure with an extensometer. Newer test machines have
digital time, force, and elongation measurement systems consisting of electronic sensors
connected to a data collection device (often a computer) and software to manipulate and
output the data.

Equipment Used:-

## Tensile Testing Machine

Extensometer
Mild Steel Specimen
Aluminium Specimen

Formula used:-

## Stress = (Force) / (Area)

Strain = (Extension) / (Length)
Factor of safety = (Ultimate Stress) / (Allowable Stress)
Change in length ( ) = P*L/A*E

Observations:-

1. The dimensions of the specimen used for the experiment are given below:

Mild Steel

## Initial Length = 24.6 cm

Final Length = 86.66 mm
Gauge Length = 60 mm
Least Count of Extensometer=0.01mm
Width
Width (mm) Average(mm)
22.5 22.813
22.7
23.24

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Thickness

3.27 3.0634
2.96
2.96

Aluminium

## Initial Length =24.67cm

Final Length =70.26cm
Gauge Length =60mm
Least Count of Extensometer =0.01mm
Width

## Width (mm) Average(mm)

23.2 22.8
22.62
22.58

Thickness

Thickness(mm) Average(mm)
3.6 3.506
3.45
3.47

## Cross-Sectional Area = 79.936mm

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2. Tensile Strength

(ALUMINIUM)

## Area of cross section=79.93 mm2

Gauge length=60 mm
Extension Load (N) Stress (N/mm) Strain
0.01 667.5 8.350430344 0.000166667
0.02 1735.5 21.7111189 0.000333333
0.03 2136 26.7213771 0.0005
0.04 2670 33.40172138 0.000666667
0.05 3026 37.85528423 0.000833333
0.06 3382 42.30884708 0.001
0.07 3649 45.64901922 0.001166667
0.08 3827 47.87580064 0.001333333
0.09 4005 50.10258207 0.0015
0.1 4094 51.21597278 0.001666667
0.12 4450 55.66953563 0.002
0.14 4539 56.78292634 0.002333333
0.16 4761.5 59.56640312 0.002666667
0.18 4895 61.23648919 0.003
0.2 5073 63.46327062 0.003333333
0.25 5340 66.80344275 0.004166667
0.3 5785 72.37039632 0.005
0.35 6052 75.71056845 0.005833333
0.4 6230 77.93734988 0.006666667
0.45 6319 79.05074059 0.0075
0.5 6586 82.39091273 0.008333333
0.6 6764 84.61769416 0.01
0.7 7120 89.07125701 0.011666667
0.8 7298 91.29803843 0.013333333

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(MILD STEEL):

## Area of cross section=69.88 mm2

Gauge length=60 mm

## Extension Load (N) Stress (N/mm) Strain

0.01 4094 59.04239977 0.000166667
0.02 7120 102.6824344 0.000333333
0.03 14240 205.3648688 0.0005
0.04 15308 220.7672339 0.000666667
0.05 15575 224.6178252 0.000833333
0.06 15664 225.9013556 0.001
0.07 15486 223.3342948 0.001166667
0.08 15575 224.6178252 0.001333333
0.09 15575 224.6178252 0.0015
0.1 15797.5 227.8266513 0.001666667
0.12 16020 231.0354774 0.002
0.14 16198 233.6025382 0.002333333
0.16 16109 232.3190078 0.002666667
0.18 16109 232.3190078 0.003
0.2 16376 236.1695991 0.003333333
0.25 16376 236.1695991 0.004166667
0.3 16643 240.0201904 0.005
0.35 16643 240.0201904 0.005833333
0.4 16732 241.3037208 0.006666667
0.45 16732 241.3037208 0.0075
0.5 16732 241.3037208 0.008333333
0.6 16643 240.0201904 0.01
0.7 16554 238.7366599 0.011666667
0.8 16821 242.5872512 0.013333333

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Graphs:-

Aluminium:

STRESS vs STRAIN
100

90

80

70
Stress (N/mm)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014
Strain

Mild Steel:

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STRESS vs STRAIN
300

250
stress (N/mm)

200

150

100

50

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014
Strain

## Specimen before and after testing:

Aluminium:

Mild Steel:

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Extensometer:

Vernier Calipper:

Result:

## Youngs Modulus of Aluminium =78.334 GPa

It can be clearly seen that Mild Steel has more tensile strength than Aluminium.

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Numerical Problem :-

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P=50 KN

## Length of Aluminium rod (L2) = 800 mm;

ltotal= 5 mm;

l = P[(L1/A1*E1) + (L2/A2*E2)]

## A2 = Area of Aluminium Rod

= 138.4896 mm2
Diameter of Aluminium rod = 13.27 mm

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Sources of Error:-

## The thickness of specimen might not be uniform.

Parallax Error.
Extensometer might not be working properly.
Extensometer might not be aligned properly along the specimen.
Tensile testing machine might not be locked properly.

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Extensometer

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Result:

## Youngs Modulus of Aluminium =78.334 GPa

It can be clearly seen that Mild Steel has more tensile strength than Aluminium.

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