Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

Metallurgy and New Materials Researches, Vol. XXIII, No.

4/2015

CERCETRI PRIVIND RESEARCHES REGARDING


CRIUIREA CU PLASM PLASMA GOUGING,
CU APLICAII WITH APPLICATIONS
PENTRU OEL I ALUMINIU FOR STEEL AND ALUMINUM

B. FAZAKAS, M.A. BODEANU, T. MACHEDON PISU

Universitatea Transilvania din Braov, Romnia

Person contact: barna_fazakas@yahoo.com

REZUMAT / ABSTRACT

n acest articol vrem s prezentm suprafeele criuite cu plasm manual i mecanizat i caracterizarea
P suprafeelor prin rugozitate, microstructur, macrostructur i duritate. n urma procesului de criuire s-au
msurat noxele.
La experimente s-au folosit dou materiale de baz, primul este un oel S355J2, cu caracteristicile mecanice de
rezistenta cele mai nalte i este recomandat pentru a fi utilizat pentru construciile foarte intens solicitate.
Al doilea material de baz este un aliaj de aliminiu AlMg3 (EN AW-5754, EN 10204/3.1), foarte sudabil, rezistent
la coroziune n special la mediul marin i n atmosfer industrial.

n this article, we show some aspects of the gouged surfaces, both with manual and with mechanized plasma;
TI as well as the surface characterization, by microstructure, macrostructure and hardness. During the
experiments, two basic materials were used.
The former is a steel S355J2, with the highest resistance, in terms of mechanical characteristics, which is
recommended for intensely solicited constructions.
The latter is an aluminum alloy AlMg3 (EN AW-5754, EN 10204/3.1), which is easily weldable, resistant to
corrosion, especially in the marine environment and in the industrial atmosphere.

Key words: gouging, roughness, hardness, AlMg3, Steel S355J2

1. MOD DE LUCRU 1. WORKING METHOD

n cadrul cercetrii au fost folosite 2 procedee de In the framework of the research, two gouging
criuire, criuire manual cu plasm i respectiv procedures, namely manual plasma gouges and,
criuire mecanizat cu plasm. Plasma este un gaz respectively, mechanized plasma gouging, were used.
ionizat. La tierea i criuirea cu plasm se folosete Plasma is an ionized gas; for plasma gouging
ca gaz plasmagen, aer comprimat, O2, N2 sau argon. and cutting, either O2, or N2, or argon is used as
La oelurile de construcie i la piesele cu cerin de plasmagen gas. For construction steels and pieces
calitate sczut, de obicei se folosete ca gaz with low quality requirements, the compressed air is
plasmagen i ca gaz de protecie aerul comprimat. usually used as plasmagen gas and as protection gas.
Aerul comprimat este cel mai utilizat i cel mai ieftin The compressed air is the most frequently used and
gaz plasmagen folosit la criuire cu plasm. the least expensive plasmagen gas, for plasma
Principalele componente din aer sunt azotul (aproxi- gouging. The main components of the air are nitrogen
mativ 70%) i oxigenul (proximativ 21%). Utilizarea (approximately 70%) and oxygen (approximately
aerului comprimat pentru criuirea cu plasm, permite 21%).
combinarea proprietilor din cele dou gaze, The use of compressed air for plasma gouging allows
obinndu-se caliti i viteze bune la cruirea the combination of the properties specific to the two
oelurilor de construcie i la aluminiu. gases, obtaining thereby good qualities and speeds for
Criuirea cu plasm este un procedeu neconvenional. gouging construction steels and aluminum.
Este folosit un aparat de tiere/criuire cu plasm. Plasma gouging is an unconventional procedure, for
Metallurgical Research Institute & Transilvania University
B. Fazakas, M.A. Bodeanu, T. Machedon Pisu

Arcul de plasm are rolul de a topi materialul de baz whose purposes, a plasma cutter / gouger was used.
i cu ajutorul unui jet de aer comprimat metalul topit The plasma arc is designed to melt the basic material
este ndeprtat din canal. La criuirea mecanizat cu and, with the aid of a compressed air jet, the molten
plasm s-a folosit un dispozitiv linear de sudare i material is pushed out from the channel. For
tiere la care prinderea pistoletului de sudare a fost mechanized plasma gouging, a linear welding and
adaptat n aa fel nct pistoletul s poat fi nclinat cutting device has been used, in whose case the grip
la unghiuri de 30-45, ceea ce este necesar la procesul of the welding pistol has been adapted so that the
de criuire pistol be inclined at angles of 30-45, which is
necessary, in the gouging process
n Figura 1 este prezentat schema de principiu de In Figure 1 the schematic diagram for the operation
functionare a procedeului de criuire cu plasm of the manual plasma gouging procedure is show.
manual.

Fig. 1. Schema de principiu a criuirii cu plasm / Schematic diagram of plasma gouging

In Figura 1 este prezentat schema de principiu a Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the plasma
criuirii cu plasm. Piesa de lucru (1) este fixat pe un gouging. The work piece (1) is fastened on a work
banc de lucru i este legat la borna de mas a bench and is connected to the terminal of the cutter /
aparatului de tiere/criuire Powermax 45. Pistoletul gouger Powermax 45. The gouging pistol is bent at
de criuire este nclinat la 45 fa de piesa de lucru. 45 as against the work piece. The advancement of the
Micarea de avans a pistoletului este dat de micarea pistol is given movement of the operators hand. This
minii operatorului. Aceasta poate s oscileze puin one may slightly oscillate, so that we might obtain a
pentru a obine un canal mai lat. larger channel.
Capul de criuire are n componena sa urmatoarele The gouging head consists in the following elements:
elemente:
- electrodul ecranat (5) care este legat la generatorul - the electrode (5) which is screened and connected
de plasm, to the plasma generator,
- duza (4) de constrngere a arcului de plasm, - the nozzle (4) for the restraint of the plasma-arc,
- duza de protecie (3) care are rolul de a proteja - the protection nozzle (3) which is designed to
electrodul, protect the electrode and
- duza de cmp electromagnetic care dirijeaz fluxul - the electromagnetic-field nozzle, which orients the
de aer comprimat (6) ctre piesa de lucru. compressed-air jet (6) towards the work piece.
Amorsarea arcului de plasm (7) se realizeaz prin The plasma arc (7) is ignited by approaching the
apropierea pistoletului de criuire ctre piesa de lucru gouging pistol to the work piece (1). Then, the pistol
(1). Apoi pistoletul se deplaseaz cu vitez constant advances at constant speed. The basic material is
ctre direcia de naintare. Arcul de plasm topete melted with the plasma arc; and the compressed air
materialul de baz, iar aerul comprimat expulzeaz expels the molten material. Behind the advancing
materialul topit. n urma pistoletului care se deplaseaz pistol, one can see the gouged channel (2).
se poate observa canalul criuit (2). The startup is made as follows. Prior to the ignition,
Punerea n funciune este fcut astfel. nainte de the pistol is kept so that the nozzle to be at 1.5 mm to
aprindere, pistoletul se ine astfel nct duza s se afle the work piece. The pistol is kept at an angle of 45
la 1,5 mm fa de piesa de lucru. Se ine pistoletul against the work piece, with a small slit between the
ntr-un unghi de 45 fa de piesa de lucru, cu o fant pistol point and the work piece. The lock is pressed, so
mic ntre vrful pistoletului i piesa de lucru. Se apas as to obtain a pilot arc. The arc is transferred to the
piedica pentru a obine un arc pilor. Se transfer arcul work piece and an angle of approximately 45-60 is
la piesa de lucru i se menine un unghi de aproximativ kept against the work piece, while the gouging is
42
Cercetri privind criuirea cu plasm cu aplicaii pentru oel i aluminiu

45-60 fa de pies n timp ce se efectueaz criuirea. being achieved. In other words, the plasma arc
Cu alte cuvinte, arcul de plasm se deplaseaz n advances in the direction of the gouging to be
direcia de ciuirie pe care dorim s o realizm. Se achieved. A small distance will be maintained between
menine o distan mic ntre pistolet i metalul topit the pistol and the molten material, in order to avoid a
pentru a evita reducerea duratei de via a consuma- reduction in the lifecycle of the consumables (for
bilelor (de exemplu lipirea metalului topit pe pistolet) instance, the molten metal sticking to the pistol) or the
sau deterioarea pistoletului. Pentru a obine o canelur deterioration of the pistol. With a view to obtaining a
mai adnc se modific unghiul pistoletului. Se poate deeper slot, the pistol angle will be modified. The
varia adncimea de criuire prin modificarea gouging depth may be varied, by the modification of
unghiului pistoletului fa de piesa de lucru. [3, 5, 6] the pistol angle to the work piece.

La criuirea mecanizat a fost folosit dispozitivul de For the mechanized gouging, linear advancement
avans liniar prezentat n Figura 2. device was used, which is shown in Figure 2.

Fig. 2. Dispozitivul de avans liniar pentru tiere / criuire


Linear-advancement device for cutting / gouging

2. CERCETARE EXPERIMENTAL 2. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

La partea experimental s-a folosit ca material de baz As regards the experimental side, the basic material
oel S355J2 (SR EN 10025/2) cu compoziia chimic consisted in steel S355J2 (SR EN 10025/2) whose
prezentat n Tabelul 1 i proprietile mecanice chemical composition is shown in Table 1 and whose
prezentate n Tabelul 2 i aliaj de aluminiu AlMg3 mechanical properties are shown in Table 2, as well
cu compoziia chimic prezentat n Tabelul 3 i as in aluminum alloy AlMg3 whose chemical
proprietile mecanice n Tabelul 4. [4, 6, 7] composition is shown in Table 3 and the mechanical
properties are shown in Table 4.

Tabelul 1. Compoziia chimic a materialului de baz


Table 1. Chemical composition of basic material

Material C Si Mn P S Cu
S355J2 0.22 0.55 1.60 0.035 0.035 0.55

Tabelul 2. Proprietile mecanice


Table 2. Mechanical properties

Flow limit Resistance to traction Elongation


Material
Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] [%]
S355J2 355 510 - 630 13

43
B. Fazakas, M.A. Bodeanu, T. Machedon Pisu

Tabelul 3. Compoziia chimic a materialul de baz


Table 3. Chemical composition of basic material

Material Mn Fe Mg Si Cr Cu Zn Ti others Al
AlMg3 0.1-0.6 0.4 2.6-3.6 0.4 0.3 0.10 0.15 0.15 0.05 Rest

Tabelul 4. Proprieti mecanice


Table 4. Mechanical properties

Flow limit Resistance to traction Elongation


Material
Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] [%]
AlMg3 80 190 17

Acest material de baz este un oel cu coninut sczut This basic material is a steel with low-carbon content,
de carbon care este folosit n general pentru structuri which is generally used for the welded structures.
sudate. In the case of the manual and mechanized plasma
La criuirea cu plasm (manual i mecanizat) s-au gouging, the technical data shown in Table 5 for the
folosit datele tehnice prezentate n Tabelul 5 pentru steel S355J2 and for the allow AlMg3, were used.
oelul S355J2 i pentru aliajul de AlMg3.

Tabelul 5. Date tehnice despre procesul de criuire


Table 5. Technical data regarding the gouging process

Manual plasma Mechanized plasma Manual plasma Mechanized plasma


S355J2 S355J2 AlMg3 AlMg3
Ic [A] 45 45 40 40
Qc [MPa] 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
vc [mm/m] 780 1150 750 950
Gouging angle [] 45 45 45 45
Gouged width [mm] 2.2 2.4 5.5 3.5
Gouged length [mm] 50 50 50 50
Gouged depth [mm] 2.3 2.5 4.5 3

3. REZULTATE I CONCLUZII 3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

A. Macrostructuri A. Macrostructures

a b c d

Fig. 4. Macrostructuri criuite cu plasm:


a) manual S355J2, b) mecanizat S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mecanizat AlMg3
Plasma-gouged macrostructures:
a) manual S355J2, b) mechanized S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mechanized AlMg3

Grosimea zonei criuit este aproximativ 884 m n The thickness of the gouged layer is of approximately
cazul criuirii manuale cu plasm i 704 m n cazul 884 m in the case of the manual gouging, and of
criuirii mecanizate. 704 m, for the mechanized gouging.

44
Cercetri privind criuirea cu plasm cu aplicaii pentru oel i aluminiu

B. Microstructuri B. Microstructures
La analizarea microscopic a suprafeelor criuite s-a With a view to microscopically analyzing the gouged
folosit microscopul Nikon Eclipse MA 100 cu mrire surfaces, the microscope Nikon Eclipse MA 100 for
de x 500. magnification 500X.
n Figura 5 se poate observa, c structura materialului One can see, in Figure 5, that the material structure
este finisat i are loc o durificare superficial. is finished and that a superficial hardness occurs.

a b c d

Fig. 5. Microstructura zonei craiuite cu plasm:


a) manual S355J2, b) mecanizat S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mecanizat AlMg3
Microstructure of the plasma-gouged area:
a) manual S355J2, b) mechanized S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mechanized AlMg3

a b c d

Fig. 6. Microstructura zonei intermediare ntre zona criuit i zona materialului de baz (plasm):
a) manual S355J2, b) mecanizat S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mecanizat AlMg3
Microstructure of the intermediate area between the gouged area and the basic material (plasma):
a) manual S355J2, b) mechanized S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mechanized AlMg3

a b c d

Fig. 7. Microstructura materialului de baz crituit cu plasm:


a) manual S355J2, b) mecanizat S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mecanizat AlMg3
Microstructure of the plasma-gouged basic material:
a) manual S355J2, b) mechanized S355J2, c) manual AlMg3, d) mechanized AlMg3

C. Duritatea C. Hardness

Pentru determinarea microduritii suprafeelor In order to determine the micro-hardness of the


criuite manual i mecanizat cu plasm s-a folosit un surfaces gouged with the manual and mechanized
microdurimetru FM 700 Ahotec, cu sarcina de 100g/ plasma procedure a micro hardness metering device
fora la scara HV10. FM 700 Ahotec, with the load of 100g/force, was
resorted to; and the scale of HV10 was used. The
Echipamentul este prevzut cu un sistem de achiziie equipment is provided with a data-acquisition system
de date i cu softul adecvat pentru msurarea automat and with the adequate software, for automatically
a microduritilor. Pentru fiecare prob s-au efectuat measuring the micro hardness. For each sample, 5
cte 5 msurri, calculndu-se apoi media aritmetic a measurements were made and the arithmetic mean of
celor cinci valori obinute. the obtained values was calculated.
45
B. Fazakas, M.A. Bodeanu, T. Machedon Pisu

Fig. 8. Zonele de determinare a duritii / Measurements areas

Tabelul 6. Valorile de duriti msurate


Table 6. Hardness values

Plasma Plasma
Plasma manual Plasma manual
Procedure mechanized mechanized
S355J2 AlMg3
S355J2 AlMg3
Average value in the
306 476 83.1 79.8
gouged area
Average value between the
248 265 78.3 79.2
gouged area and MB
Average value in MB 235 235 76.3 78.8

4. CONCLUZII 4. CONCLUSIONS
1. n cazul suprafeelor criuite mecanizat cu 1. The mechanized-plasma gouged surfaces have
plasm poate fi observat o rugozitate mai mic, lower roughness; hence this procedure offers
factor ce demonstreaz c acest procedeu ofer higher quality for welding compared with other
o calitate superioar n compraie cu restul types of technologies.
tehnologiilor de criuire.
2. Ca element general procedeul tehnologic de 2. Plasma gouging is an ecological gouging
criuire cu plasm este unul ecologic, cu un technology.
impact redus asupra mediului
3. La aliajul de aluminiu calitatea suprafeei 3. In the case of the aluminum alloy, the gouged
(rugozitatea, aspectul) criuite este mai slab n surface quality (roughness, aspect) is not smooth;
comparaie cu cea a oelului (suprafaa nu este hence it has asperities.
neted, prezint asperiti).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was partially supported by the strategic grant POSDRU/159/1.5/S/137070 (2014) of the Ministry of National
Education, Romania, co-financed by the European Social Fund - Investing in People, within the Sectoral Operational
Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013.

BIBLIOGRAFIE / REFERENCES
[1] * * * - ASM International Handbook, Casting, Volume 15, 2008.

[2] * * * - ASM International, Casting Desing and Performance, ISBN-13:978-0-87170-724-6, 2009.

[3] M. IORDACHESCU, D. IORDACHESCU, E. SCUTELNICU, J. RUIZHERVIAS, A. VALIENTE,


L. CABALLERO - Influence of heating source position and dilution rate in achieving overmatched dissimilar
welded joints, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, DOI:10.1179/136217110X12693513264259, 2010 .

[4] Michelle AVILA - Plasma gouging: Its a gash, Practical welding today July/August 2012.

[5] R. FERNICOLA - Choosing a gouging method, Advantages and disadvantages of plasma, air carbon-arc gouging,
Practical welding today May/June 2006.

[6] D. COOK, D. MORNG - Gouging: the other plasma process, Practical welding today May/June 2004.

[7] * * * - ASM Handbook: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, Volume 06, 1993.
46