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Course Structures & Syllabus

FOR THE SESSION


2016-2017

B.Sc. (Hons.) GEOLOGY


AND
M.Sc. (APPLIED GEOLOGY)

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY
ALIGARH.

1
Department of Geology, A.M.U. Aligarh
Course Structure of B.Sc. (Hons.)
For Session 2016-2017
First Year
First Semester
Type of Course C. No. Course Title Marks distribution Credit Contact hours

Sessional Mid End Total L T P


Semester Semester
Core B1 Earth System & Mineral 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Science
Core GL1 Lab work for Geology paper 10 30 60 100 2 0 1 2
6

Second Semester
Type of Course C. No. Course Title Marks distribution Credit Contact hours
Sessional Mid End Total L T P
Semester Semester
Core B2 Elements of Petrology 10 30 60 100 4 48 8 0
Core BL2 Lab work for Geology paper 10 30 60 100 2 0 1 2
6
Second Year
Third Semester
Type of Course C. No. Course Title Marks distribution Credit Contact hours
Sessional Mid End Total L T P
Semester Semester
Core B3 Paleobiology and Stratigraphy 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Core BL 3 Lab work for B3 & BAE1 Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
AE (DC) BAE 1 Choose 01 of the following 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
a) Geological Field Techniques
b) Geo statistics
Total 8

Fourth Semester
Type of Course C. No. Course Title Marks distribution Credit Contact hours
Sessional Mid End Total L T P
Semester Semester
Core B4 Earhs Processes and Resources 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Core BL 4 Lab work for B4 & BAE2 Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
AE (DC) BAE 2 Choose 01 of the following 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
a) Geological Lab Techniques
b) Oceanography 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Open Elective BOE Fundamental of Geology 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
(GL)
(To be opted by other then
Geology Main Students)
Total 10
L= Lecture period, T= Tutorial, P= Practical Period

2
Paper/Code No. Title Max.Marks Credit
Sessional Exam. Total
B.Sc. (Hons.) Geology Part-III

Fifth Semester
Theory
5 GLB-001 Igneous Petrology & Dynamics of the Earth 20 80 100 4
5 GLB-002 Structural Geology 20 80 100 4
5 GLB-003 Natural Environment 20 80 100 4

Lab. Work
5 GLB-0L1 Lab work on papers V and VII 20 30 50 2
5 GLB-0L2 Lab work on papers VI 20 30 50 2
5 GLB-0L3 Field Geology 20 30 50 2

Total 120 330 450 18

Paper Title Max.Marks Credits


Sessional Exam. Total
B.Sc. (Hons.) Geology Part-III
Sixth Semester

Theory
6 GLB-001 Energy Resources & Mineral Exploration 20 80 100 4
6 GLB-002 Sedimentary Petrology & Metamorphic Petrology 20 80 100 4
6 GLB-003 Applied Geology 20 80 100 4

Lab. Work
6 GLB-0L1 Lab work on papers VIII & X. 20 30 50 2
6 GLB-0L2 Lab work on papers IX 20 30 50 2
6 GLB-0L3 Project/Seminar 20 30 50 2

Total 120 330 450 18

Semester V & VI-18+18=36 Credits


Semester I to IV =32 Credit

3
Syllabus of B.Sc. (Hons.)
Session 2016-2017
First Semester

4
Core Credit 4, Period 56
Paper I

Earth System and Mineral Science


Unit I:
Introduction to various branches of Earth Sciences.
Convection in Earths core and Production of its magnetic field.
Formation of core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Concept of sea-floor spreading, plate tectonics and continental drift.
Geodynamic elements of Earth-Mid Oceanic Ridges, trenches, transform faults and island arcs.
Earthquake and earthquake belts
Volcanoes types, products and their distribution.
Unit II:
Earths heat budget.
Soils-Processes of formation, soil profile and soil types.
Palaeobiology: Elementary idea about origin of life, Preservation potential of organisms, requirements of
fossilization, Fossils, processes of fossilization and different kinds of fossils.
Standard stratigraphic time scale and introduction to the concept of time in geological studies.
Introduction to geology and geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.
General concepts about geochemical cycles.
Unit III:
Elementary ideas about crystal morphology in relation to internal structures crystal parameters and indices
Crystal symmetry and classification of crystals into six systems and 32 point groups
Elements of crystal chemistry and aspects of crystal structures
Stereographic projections of symmetry elements and forms
Unit IV:
Minerals definition and classification, physical and chemical properties
Composition of common rock forming minerals
Silicate and non-silicate structures; CCP and HCP structures
Nature of light and principles of optical mineralogy
Introduction to the petrological microscope and indentification of common rock-forming minerals.

Suggested Readings:
1) Duff, P.M.D., & Duff, D. (Eds.) (1993), Holmes principles of physical geology. Taylor & Francis.
2) Emiliani, C. (1992). Planet earth: cosmology, geology, and the evolution of life and environment. Cambridge
University Press.
3) Gross, M.G. (1977). Oceanography: A view of the earth.
4) Klein, C., Dutrow, B., Dwight, J., & Klein, C. (2007). The 23rd Edition of the Manual of Mineral (after James
D.Dana). J.Wiley & Sons.
5) Kerr, P.F. (1959). Optical Mineralogy, MeGraw-Hill.
6) Verma, P.K. (2010). Optical Mineralogy (Four Colour), Ane Books Pvt. Ltd.
7) Deer, W.A., Howie, R. A., A., & Zussman. J. (1992). An introduction to the rock forming minerals (Vol. 696)
London: Longman.

Core Credit 2, Period - 36


Practicals:
A: Detailed study of topographic sheets and preparation of physographic description of an area. Laboratory
exercises for drawing geological maps. Study of some representative genera of different invertebrate phyla.
B: Observation and documentation on symmetry of crystals. Study of physical properties of minerals in hand
specimen amongst: Silicates: Olivine, Garnet, Baryl, Tourmaline, Augite, Hornblende, Serpentine, Talc,
Muscovite, Biotic, Quartz, Orthoclase, Plagioclase, Microcline, Quartz verities: Chert, Flint, Chacedony, Agate,
Jasper, Amethyst, Rose quartz, smoky quartz, Rock crystal.

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Semester II
Paper II
Elements of Petrology
Core Credit 4, Period - 56
Unit-I
Introduction to common rock forming, ore forming and industrial minerals.
Radioactive minerals, Fuel minerals, Formation and types of mineral deposits, rock association.

Unit-II
Magma: Definition, physical properties and chemical composition, origin.
Crystallization of magma: Bowens reaction series, magmatic differentiation and assismilation.
Forms and structures of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks.
Igneous textures: crystallinity, grain shape, size and mutual relationship of grains.
Bases of classification and types of igneous rocks.

Unit-III
Sediments: origin, transportation, deposition and lithofication.
Fabric and texture of sedimentary rocks.
Roundness of particles and its geological significance.
Classification of sedimentary rocks: terrigenous and chemical sedimentary rocks.
Important primary sedimentary structure-bedding, ripple marks, cross bedding and mud cracks.

Unit-IV
Introduction to Metamorphic rock and their significance.
Classification of Metamorphic rocks. Basic concepts of types of metamorphism.
Concepts of isograds and zones of metamorphism.
Relationship between matamorphism and deformation.
Physiographic subdivisions of Indian subcontinent-their physical, structural and geological features.
Brief account of constituent cratons of Indian shield.

Books Recommended:
1. Magma and Magmatic Rocks-Middlemost.
2. Igneous and Metamorphic petrology-Best.
3. Sedimentary Rocks-Pettijohn.
4. Metamorphic Petrology-Turner.
5. Basic Concepts of Historical Geology-E.H. Spencer.
6. Structural Geology-M.P. Billings.
7. Fundamentals of Historical Geology and Stratigraphy of India-Ravindra Kumar.
8. Principles of Geomorphology - Thornbury

Core
Credit 2, Period - 36

Practical

Study of megascopic and microscopic characters of selected igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

6
Syllabus of B.Sc. (Hons.)
P A R T-II
Session 2016-2017

7
Semester-III

Core Credit 4, Period - 56


Paper-III: Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy
Unit-I
Palaeobiology: Defination, branches. Fossils-defination and requirement of fossilization. Various steps involved
in the study of fossils.
Various processes of fossilization and types of fossils.
Methods of fossil identification, description and illustration.
Applciation of palaeontalogic studies in organic evolution, biostratigraphy, palaeoecology,
palaeogeography, and palaeoclimatology.
Microfossils: definition, significance and a brief account of important groups.
Brachiopoda: Morphology and geological distribution. Echinoidea Morphology and
geological distribution. Trilobita: Morphology and geological distribution.
Unit-II
Pelecypoda: Morphology and geological distribution.Gastropoda: Morphology and
geological distribution Cephalopoda: Morphology and geological distribution of
Nautiloidea and Ammonoidea. Origin of vertebrates and landmarks in vertebrate
evolution.Evolutionary history of Equidae.
Palaeobotany: Broad classification of plant kingdom and application of palaeobotanical studies. Morphology,
classification and geological range of important Lower and Upper Gondwana flora.
Unit-III
Stratigraphy and its various branches. Stratigraphic classification and correlation.
Classification, geographic distribution, lithologic characteristics, fossil content and economic importance of
Various geological divisions of Peninsular Shield: Cratons Dharwar, Baster, Singhbhum, Bundelkhand,
Aravalli, and Marwar. Mobile belts: Eastern Ghats, Pandyan and Satpura. Archean Basement Complex:
Peninsular Gneiss of Karanata, Banded Gneissic Complex of Rajasthan, Older Metamorphics of Eastern India.
Unit-IV
Greenschist belts of Karnataka: Sargurs (enclaves), Nuggihalli, Holenarsipur and Chitradurga Belts.
Aravalli Supergroup, Delhi Supergroup, Vindhyan Supergroup, Cudappah Supergroup. Classification, geographic
distribution, lithologic characteristics, fossil content and economic importance of Haimanta System, Muth
Quartzite, Permo-Carboniferous rocks of Spiti. Gondwana Supergroup, Triassic of Spiti, Jurassic of Kutch,
Cretaceous of south east coast of India and Deccan Traps. Siwalik system. Evolution of Himalayas.

Books Recommended:
1. Invertebrate Palaeontology-Woods.
2. The Elements of Palacontology-Black
3. Introduction to Paleobotany-Arnold.
4. Essential of Paleobotany-Shukla and Misra.
5. Geology of India and Burma-Krishnan.
6. Fundamentals of Historicals Geology and Stratigraphy of India-Ravindra Kumar
7. Precambrian Geology of India-Naqvi and Rogers.
8. Geology of India by M.Ramakrishnan & R.Vaidyanadhan Vol. I & II, Geological Society of India,
Bangalore, 2008/2010.

Core Credit 2, Period - 36


Practical:
a) Study of morphological characters of important fossil phyla designated in theory paper. Exercises in
showing the major stratigraphic and litho tectonic units in hand drawn map of India.

b) Exercises on elective papers BAE 1 (a) and BAE 1 (b)

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Ability Enhancement (Discipline Centric) BAE 1 Credit 2, Period - 28

(a) Geological Field Techniques


Unit-I
Introducttion to field geology, Objectives of field work, Instruments used in field. Parts, functions and use
of Compass-clinometer, GPS, Altimeter. Importance of field safety. Preparedness for field survey: base map,
toposheets, web based satellite image display systems. Study of toposheets and contour maps.

Unit-II
Observations made during field work. Recording of important field information. Establishment of relative
ages: cross-cut relations, xenoliths. Recognition of faults and unconformities. Concept of dip and strike,
Recording orientation of dipping planes, linear features, measuring thickness of inclined strata.

Unit-III
Recording features of sedimentary, igneious and metamorphic rocks. Recording structural data, transferring data
to base map, locating position in map by triangulation method, forward bearing, backward bearing, quadrant
reading azimuth reading, calculation of true dip from apparent dip.

Unit-IV
Sampling: selection, labeling, trimming, data collection, calibration of instruments, survey grids and photography.
Importance of Field photographs. Oriented samples, Data formats: Sketches, graphic logs, cross section.
Mapping techniques: traverse mapping, contact mapping, exposure mapping

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(b) Geostatistics

Unit I
What is geostatistics? Characteristics of geological information, Scales of measuring and deviations. Laws and
randomness. Main statistical laws of distribution used in geology: Normal law of distribution. Standard normal
law of distribution. Binomial law of distribution. Poissons law of distribution.
Unit-II
Probability and Random Variables,:Concept of probability and basic axioms, Conditional probability and Bayes
Theorem, Random variables, histograms, distributions. Mathematical prognosis, mode, median. Dispersion,
standard deviation. Range.
Unit-III
Uni-variate distributions: Covariance, correlation, Multi-variate distributions, Variance (one- and two-way
analysis), Kriging prediction variance, xi-square test, Coefficient of correlation: correlation coefficient for
quantitative data and its properties..
Unit-IV
Linear regressive mode: Properties, equations and geometric interpretation. Non-linear regression: Types of
non-linear regression. Interpolation, extrapolation, fitting. Principal component analysis.

Reference Books
1. Saals. E.A. and Srovastav. R.M. (1990) An Introduction to Geostatistics, Oxford University Press.
2. Pitman, J. (1993) Probability, Springer Verblag, (also Narosa Publishers).
3. Walpole, R.E. and Myers, R.H. (1982) Applied multivariate statistical analysis, Prentice Hall Inc., New
Jersey.

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Semester-IV
Core Credit 4, Period - 56

Paper-IV: Earths Processes and Resources


Unit-I
Renewable and non-renewable energy resources.
Hydroelectric power. Energy from the sun, wind, hot springs and sea waves.
Distrubution of mineral deposits in space and time.
Physiographics, mineralogical, stratigraphic, lithologic and structural guides to ore.
Mineral processing and beneficiation: methods of size reduction, screening and separation.
Environmental implications of exploration of mineral resources.
Unit-II
Rock forming minerals: Systematic classification of minerals, Chemical composition and physical properties of the
following classes of minerals.
Silicates, carbonates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates, halides.
Global tectonic and metallogeny trough geological time.
Geological setting, mineralogical characteristics and Indian distribution of metallic mineral deposits of iron and
manganese, chromium, copper, lead and zink, gold, and aluminum.
Unit-III
Ore forming minerals: metallic and non-metallic minerals.
Processes of ore formation.
Ore deposits related to magmatic activity. Hydrotheramal and skarn deposits. Ore deposits formed by
sedimentation. Weathering products and Residual deposits. Ore deposits formed by oxidation & supergene
enrichment. Ore deposits formed by replacement and biochemical activity, evaporation and metamorphism,
colloidal deposition.
Unit-IV
Geological setting, mineralogical characteristics and Indian distribution of non-metallic mineral deposits related to
and with examples from Indian stratigraphic records:
Materials for construction (building stones and cement), ceramics, refractories and fillers, organic chemicals and
synthetics, precious and decorative stones, fertilizers.

Books Recommended:
1. Economic Mineral Deposits-Jensen and Bateman.
2. Ore Deposits-Parks and Mc diarmid.
3. Indias Mineral Resources-Krishnaswami.
4. Ore Deposits of India-Gokkle and Rao.
5. Ore Petrology-Evans.
6. Industrial Mineral and Rocks-Deb.
7. Mining Geology-Arogyaswami.

Core Credit 2, Period - 36


Practical
a) Study of physical and optical properties of metallic and non-metallic minerals/resources. Preparation of
maps showing distribution of important ores and other economic minerals in India. Study of metallogenic
maps.
b) Exercises on elective papers BAE 2 (a) and BAE 2 (b)

c) Geological Lab Techniques: Geological mapping and visit to economic mineral deposits in some
appropriate area followed by laboratory processing of rock samples, ores and fossils collected during the
field work and preparation of report thereon.

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Ability Enhancement (Discipline Centric) BAE 2 Credit 2, Period - 36

(a) Geological Lab Techniques


Unit 1
Measurement of interfacial angle, Contact Goniometer, Reflection Goniometer, Crystal projections,
Determination of Mohs
scale of Hardness, streak, piezoelectricity
Unit 2
Determination of Specific Gravity, Kraus Jolly balance, Barman Density Torsion Balance, Top pan Balance,
Pycnometer, Heavy
Liquids
Unit 3
Petrological Microscopes: Petrographic and Ore microscopes, Thin section preparation, impregnation of porous
and friable rock,
Adhesives, Sawing and Grinding, Refractrometer
Unit 4
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence analysis, Chatoyancy and asterism, Thermal analysis and Thermogram,
Determination of common ions, Calorimetry, Flame photometry

Books Recommended:

1.Klein, C. and Hurlbut, Jr. C.S., 1993: Manual of Mineralogy-John Wiley


2.Putnis, Andrew, 1992: Introduction to Mineral Sciences-Cambridge University Press
3.Phillips, Wm, R. and Griffen, D.T., 1996: Optical Mineralogy-CBS Edition
4.Hutchinson, C.S., 1974: Laboratory Handbook of Petrographic Techniques-John Wiley

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(b) Oceanograpy
Unit-I
Physical Oceanography: TS diagrams; mixing processes in the oceans; characteristics of important water masses.
Wind generated waves in the oceans; their characteristics; shallow and deep water waves. Propagation,
refraction, and reflection of waves. Wave spectrum, principles of wave forecasting.

Unit -II
Tide producing forces and their magnitudes; prediction of tides by the harmonic method; tides and tidal currents in
shallow seas, estuaries and rivers. Factors influencing coastal processes; transformation of waves in shallow water;
effects of stratification; effect of bottom friction.

Unit-III
Phenomena of wave reflection, refraction and diffraction: breakers and surf; littoral currents; wave action
on sediments-movement to beach material; rip currents; beach stability, ocean beach nourishment;
harbour,
resonance; seiches; tsunami; interaction of waves and structure.

Unit -IV
Estuaries: Classification and nomenclature: tides in estuaries; estuarine circulation and mixing; depth- averaged
and breadth-averaged models; sedimentation in estuaries; salinity intrusion in estuaries; effect of stratification;
coastal pollution; mixing and dispersal of pollutants in estuaries and nearshore areas; coastal zone management

13
(Open Elective) Credit 2, Period - 36

BOE (GL) - Fundamentals of Geology


Unit-I
The Science of Geology, Scope and different disciplines of geology. Earth in relation to solar system. Origin of
earth. Geological time scale. Internal structure of earth. Different layers of earth :Crust Mantle, Core. Lithosphere
and Asthenosphere. Major discontinuities within the earth.

Unit-II
Erath materials: Minerals and rocks. Types of minerals: silicate and non-silicate minerals. Magmatism and
formation of igneous rocks. Weathering, erosion and formation of sedimentary rocks. Formation of metamorphic
rocks. Fossils and fossilization processes.

Unit-III
Plate tectonic theory. Mantle convection and motion of plates. Types of plate boundaries: divergent, convergent
and transform boundaries. Mid oceanic ridges. Subduction zone. Plate motion and earthquakes. Continental drift
theory.

Unit-IV
Economic resources of Earth. Conditions and suitability of formation of coal and petroleum. Ore forming
processes. Metallic and non-metallic deposits. Formation of uranium deposits. Groundwater resources.

Books Recommended:
1. Physical Geology-S.Judson, M.E.Kauffman and L.D.Leet.
2. Physical Geology-Arthur Holmes.
3. Basic Concepts of Historical Geology-E.H. Spencer.
4. Structural Geology-M.P. Billings.
5. Fundamentals of Historical Geology and Stratigraphy of India-Ravindra Kumar.
6. Rutleys Elements of Mineralogy-H.H. Read.
7. Igneous and Metamorphic petrology-Best.
8. Sedimentary Rocks-Pettijohn.
9. Metamorphic Petrology-Turner.
10. Coal Petrology-Gebruder Borntraeger, Stuttgart.
11. Petroleum formation and occurrence-Tisot and Welte.
12. Radioactivity in Geology-Principles and Application-Durrance.
13. Mineral Economics-Husain.
14. Mineral Economics-Chatterjee

14
Syllabus of B.Sc. (Hons.)
P A R T III
Session 2016-2017

15
Semester-V
Paper-V- Igneous Petrology and Dynamics of the Earth
(5GLB-001)
Unit-I
Mantle petrology: mineralogy and chemistry.
Physical properties of magma, volatile contents.
Magmatic processes: fractional crystallization, magma mixing, crystal setting, liquid immiscibility, assimilation,
differentation. Trace elements and their significance in igneous petrology.
Classification of igneous rocks, basis of IUGS classification.
General characteristics of the following Precambrian igneous rock assemblages:
(a) Komatiites (b) Anorthosites (c) Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG)
Unit-II
Basic principles of equilibrium thermodynamics.
Concept of system, phase and component.
Chemical potential and phase rule.
Phase equilibria of the following two and three component silicate systems:
Binary system-Albite-Anorthite, Diopside-anorthite, Nepheline-silica. Forsterite - Silica
Rock association in space and time.
Concept of Rock Series.
Mineralogical characteristics and origin of the following rock types:
(I) Granite, granodiorite, diorite, rhyolite, (II) Basalt, dolerite, gabbro
(III)Syenite, nepheline-syenite, trachyte, (IV) Peridotites.
Unit-III
Internal structure constitution and chemical composition of various layers of the earth.
Geochemical evolution of the earth.
Geophysical conditions of the earth: gravity, magnetism, heat flow.
Concept and theories of isostasy.
Movements of the earths curst: orogenic and epeirogenic phases.
Plate tectonics theory-the mechanism of plate tectonics.
Nature and types of plate margins.
Geometry and driving mechanism of plate motion.
Unit-IV
Evolution of continents and oceans.
Magnetic anomaly patterns in the ocean basins and sea-floor spreading.
Origin, significance and distribution of divergent margins, mid-oceanic ridges.
Island arcs and trenches.
Tectonics of continental rifts, continental margins, shelves, marginal basins and intracratonic basins.
Relationship of magmatism, metamorphism and metallogeny with orogeny.
Neotectonics: Active fault systems.
Indicators of recent tectonic activity.
Causes of natural and man-made geohazards and their prevention.
Books Recommended:
1. Principles of igneous and Metamorphic Petrology-Philpots
2. Magma and Magmatic Rocks-Middlemost.
3. Igneous and metamorphic petrology-Best.
4. Plate Tectonics and Crustal evaluation-Condie.
5. Aspects of Tectonics-Valdiya.
6. Global Tectonics-Kearey and Vine

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Paper-VI-Structural Geology
(5GLB-002)
Unit-I
Mechanical Principles: Definition of force, stress and strain, stages of rock deformation, stress-strain diagram.
Effects of geological factors on mechanical behavior of rocks-confining pressures, temperature, time, solutions,
pore pressure, anisotropy and inhomogeneity.

Unit-II
Unconformities, their types and recognition in the fields and on geological maps. Geological significance of
unconformities.Criteria for distinguishing faults from unconformities. Description and nomenclature of folds.
Geometric and genetic classification of folds.Recognition and interpretation of folds in field and geological maps.

Unit-III
Description and classification of faults.
Normal faults, horst and graben, rifts, strike-slip-faults.
Reverse faults, thrusts, thrusts and overthrusts. Nappe, Klippe, Window. Criteria for recognition of faults, in the
field and on geological maps. Joints, their classification and significance.

Unit-IV
Planar structures, their identification and description. Type of cleavage and schistosity and their origin, relation of
cleavage and schistosity to major structures. Types of lineations, their origin and their relation to major
structures.Geological criteria for determination of stratigraphic superposition, on the basis of biostratigraphy, fossil
disposition, volcanogenic structures, cleavage bedding relationship and external form and internal organization of
sediments.

Books Recommended:
1. Structural analysis of metamorphic Tectonics-Turner and Weiss.
2. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions-Davis
3. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks-Ramsay.
4. An outline of Structural Goelogy-Rubbs, Mears and William.
5. A manual of problems in Structural Geology-Gokhle.

17
Paper-VII-Natural Environment
(5GLB-003)

Unit-I
Definition of Environmental Geology. The interdisciplinary approach to environmental geology.
Fundamental Concept: The earth as closed system, understanding hazardous earth processes.
Concept of natural ecosystems on the earth and their mutual relations and interactions (atmosphere, hydrosphere,
lithosphere
and biosphere): Cycles in earth system: carbon energy cycle, biogeochemical cycle, rock cycle,geochemical
cycle

Unit-II
Soil: process of soil formation, classification of soil, soil degradation and mitigation.
Landslides: slope stability, causes of land slides, prevention and mitigation.
Floods: causes, impact and mitigation. Earthquakes: causes, impact and mitigation.

Unit-III
Environmental and Geological consideration in site selection of dams, and tunnels.
Dams: foundation materials, structures causes of failure, siesmicity.
Tunnels: geology, structures, role of water table and seismicity.
Introduction to hydrogeology. Hydrologic cycle and its component.
Rock properties affecting groundwater. Vertical distribution of ground water.
Classification of aquifers. Darcys Law and its validity. Permeability and methods of its measurement.
Impact of mining activity on groundwater.

Unit-IV
Basics of remote sensing, EMR, platforms, sensors. Types of aerial photographs, Framing and scanning systems.
Types of satellites and images. Spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. Sensors and their characteristics on
board IRS,
Landsat and SPOT satellites
EMR interaction with atmosphere and earth surface.
Elements of image interpretation (photographic and geotechnical). Basic drainage pattern and their
characteristics.
Application of remote sensing in natural hazards. Examples from India.

Books Recommended:
1. Environmental Geology-Keller
2. Groundwater Hydrogeology-Todd.
3. Principles of Engg. Geology and Geotectonics-Krynine and Judd.
4. Engineering Geology-Kesavulu.
5. Remote Sensing-Principles and Interpretation-Sabins.
6. Environmental Geology-Montgomery.
7. Groundwater Assessment, Development and Management Karanth
8. Remote Sensing and image interpretation Lillesand and Keifer
9. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing by George Joseph
10. Remote Sensing of Environment by A.R. Jensen
11. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System by Anji Reddy

18
Practical Semester-V
(5GLB-0L1): croscopic study of major igneous rocks. Model mineralogy of some Plutonic and hypabassal rocks
and their nomenclature using Streckeisens approach. Study of sections across continental margins, island arcs
and plate tectonics
models. Study of geohazard maps and introduction to basic geophysical instruments used for understanding the
dynamics of the Earth.Morphometic analysis using sample watershades. Scale determination and conversion.
Exercises related to river basin water availability, drought assessment and flood prone regions. Spatial analysis
using multiple data sets. Exercise on land degradation and resource depletion. Drawing of hydrogeological cycle,
depth to water table map, measurement and presentation of rainfall data-arithmetic mean, isohytal map, isocones
and other methods of representation of chemical data . Preparation and interpretation of water table maps.
Identification and uses of water on the basis of quality (drinking, irrigation and industrial purpose).
(5GLB-0L2): Exercises on structural geology problems. Stereographic projections of structural data.
Geometrical problems
on folds and faults. Drawing and the interpretation of profile sections across the geological maps.
(5GLB-0L3): Geological Field Training: Field work including geological mapping of structurally complex
area. The field report should be based on the mapping as well as laboratory work on the rock samples collected
during the fieldwork

19
Semester-VI

Paper-VIII-Energy Resources and Mineral Exploration


(6GLB-001)
Unit-I
Petrology of coal. Peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal.
Gondwana and Tertiary coalfields of India. Geothermal energy provinces in India.
Source and reservoir rocks of hydrocarbons.Structural, stratigraphic and mixed oil
traps. Hydrocarbon exploration techniques-geological and geophysical methods.
Onshore and off-shore distribution of petroliferous basins in India.
Unit-II
Radioactive minerals: mineralogy, geochemistry, origin and distribution of uranium and thorium deposits in India.
Detection and measurement of radioactivity. Methods of prospecting for radioactive minerals.
Radioactive well logging. Nuclear waste disposal: problems and solutions.Surface and subsurface methods of
mineral exploration. Application of remote sensing techniques in mineral exploration.
Unit-III
Geophysical methods of mineral exploration-airborne versus ground surveys.
Gravity, electrical, magnetic and seismic methods.Prospecting for economic
minerals. Methods of drilling, sampling, assaying and reserve estimation.
Fundamentals of geobotanical and Geochemical methods of exploration.
Unit-IV
Principles of mineral economics. Bore-hole logging and deviation testing.
Strategic, critical and essential minerals.Mineral production in India.
Changing pattern of mineral consumption. National mineral policy of India including hydrocarbon
Mineral concession rules.Mineral resources of the sea and law of sea.

Books Recommended:
1. Coal Petrology-Gebruder Borntraeger, Stuttgart.
2. Text Book of Coal-Chandra, Singh and Singh.
3. Petroleum formation and occurrence-Tisot and Welte.
4. Radioactivity in Geology-Principles and Application-Durrance.
5. Courses in Mining Geology-Arogyaswami.
6. Mineral Economics-Husain.
7. Mineral Economics-Chatterjee.
8. Techniques in Mineral exploration-Readman.
9. A text book of Petroleum Geology Leverson

20
Paper-IX-Sedimentary Petrology and Metamorphic Petrology
(6GLB-002)
Unit-I
Significance of grain size distribution in relation to
environments. Particle size of detrital rocks-grade scale
in mm and phi scales.
Shape and sphericity of clastic particles.
Zinggs and Folks shape classes. Chemistry of weathering processes.
Concept of sedimentary facies. Basic principles of paleoenvironment and
paleoclimate analysis. Basic ideas about depositional environments and their
classification.
Morphology and occurrence of bedding plane structures, internal structures, soft sediment deformational
structures, biogenic structures and significance of ichno fossils.

Unit-II
Sandstone: classification and origin. Petrography and geological significance of quartz arenite, arkose and
greywacke.
Conglomerates: origin and classification.
Heavy minerals and their geological significance. Diagenesis of terriginous and chemical
sediments. Petrography and geological significance of diamictite and tillite.
.Shale, types, their bedding characteristics and mineralogy.
Classification and origin of carbonates with special reference of Folks
classification. Tectonics and sedimentation. Cratonic and plateform basins
and facies.
Geosyncline basins and facies. Krynines cycle.

Unit-III
Metamorphic processes and a detailed account of agents and their role in
metamorphism. Types of metamorphism-contact, regional, cataclastic and
metasomatism.
Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks and their significance.
Barrovian zones of regional metamorphism and principles of isograd
mapping. Rosenbuschs zones of thermal metamorphism

Unit-IV
Metamorphism in relation to plate tectonics. Paired metamorphic belts.
Cataclastic metamorphism and its products. Contact metamorphism of carbonate
rocks. Regional metamorphism of pelitic rocks.
Metasomatism: types mass transfer and products, anatexis and granitisation.
Petrology, origin and distribution (in India) of charnockites, khondalites and granulites.

Books Recommended:
1. Sedimentary Rocks-Pettijohn
2. Palaeo current and Basin Analysis-Potter and Pettijohn.
3. Origin of Sedimentary Rocks-Baltt, Mid delton, Murray.
4. Metamorphic Petrology-Turner.
5. Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks-Mason.
6. Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology-Philpots

21
Paper-X Applied Geology
(6GLB-003)
Unit-I
Introduction of Urban geology, geological and hydrogeological constrains in urban planning. Foundation problem,
Impact of
urbanization on landuse. Impact of urban waste disposal, liquid waste disposal their management and
control.Environmental legislation in India. Introduction to Medical geology and its future scope: geologic factors
of environmental health.
Trace elements and human health, chronic diseases. Water borne diseases-cause and remedies. Food intake as
sources of trace metals in humans.

Unit-II
Maps: elements, scale of map.Concept of datum and coordinate system. Map projections: Conical, cylindrical and
azimuthal
projection. Basic concepts and applications of GIS in geosciences, functions of GIS, data structure, data input and
analysis in GIS.Global positioning system (GPS): components, operating principle, applications and limitations.
GIS applications in geosciences.

Unit-III
Geochemical sampling: stream sediments, lake sediments, soil and water samples.Pathfinder elements in
exploration.
Geobotanical survey and biogeochemistry.Geochemical analysis: precision and accuracy. Introductory
knowledge about the principle andfunctioning of flame photometer, spectrometer, AAS (single beam & double
beam), XRF, XRD and ICP.
Ores and rock processing industries and their impact on human health.

Unit-IV
Formation of minerals, basic qualities (beauty, durability, rarity), classification of gem materials, weight and
measures,
Physical character of gem stones: hardness, cleavage, fracture, parting, specific gravity optical characteristics.
Nature of light: electromagnetic spectrum, transparency, light reflection and refractive index and its
measurement.Colour and its causes, pleochroism, dispersion, absorption spectroscopy luminescence phenomenal
effects, chatoyancy, asterism, sheen, aventurescence, play of colour, change of colour etc.
Description and identification of precious, semi-precious gem stones. Description and identification of organic
gem stones. Gemstone cuts: basic and simple style of cut.

Books Recommended:
1. Environmental Geology-Montgomery.
2. Environmental Sciences-Miller.
3. Manual on environmental and Urban Geology of fast growing cities-ESCAE, United Nations Publications.
4. Techniques in Mineral Exploration-Readman.
5. Geochemical Exploration-Bjorklund.
6. Practical Gemmology-Webster.
7. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System-M.Anji Reddy.
8. Fundamentals of GIS- M. Demers
9. Datum Map Projection and Coordinate System Survey of India (lecture notes)
10. Lecture notes on remote sensing GIS and map protection (reference Copy)
11. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System by A.M. Chandra

22
Practical
(6GLB-0L1) Semester-VI

Hand specimen study of different types of coals, selected radioactive minerals and their host rocks. Exercises
in showing distribution of various mineral deposits, fuel resources and hydrocarbon resources on map of India.
Laboratory exercises in solving exploration related problems. Data representation & analysis of field resources.
Description and identification of rough and cut precious and semi-precious stones. Determination of R.I.,
specific gravity and optical properties. Grading of Gem stones. Industrial mineralogy: industrial
specifications of various minerals used in the refractory and ceramic industry, glass industry, cement industry,
Abrassive and fertilizer industry. Minerals used in various industries around Aligarh.
Case studies of environment related problems. Introduction to modern analytical techniques of geological,
geophysical
and geobotanical survey for environmental studies. Evaluation and interpretation of geochemical data for
exploration.

(6GLB-0L2)
Study of important primary sedimentary structures in hand specimens. Microscope study of sedimentary
textures, mineralogy and diagenetic features in sedimentary rocks. Microscopic study textures and mineralogy
of metamorphic rocks. Laboratory exercises in graphic plots for petrochemistry and interpretation of paragenetic
diagrams.
(6GLB-0L3) Project / Seminar

23
Course Structure
&
Syllabus

M. Sc. (Applied Geology)

For
Session 2016-2017

Department of Geology
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh

24
Department of Geology
A.M.U., Aligarh
Programme: M.Sc. (Applied Geology), Semester System (Total Four Semesters)
Session 2016-2017
Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)
Types of Courses: Core, Elective (Discipline Centric), Ability Enhancement (Discipline Centric) and
Open Elective (Ability Enhancement)
First Semester
Type of Course Course Marks distribution Credit Contact Hours
Course No. Title Sessional Mid End Total L T P
Semester Semester
Core M 1 Ore Geology and Mining Geology 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Core M2 Mineralogy, Instrumentation and Analytical 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Techniques
Core M3 Structural Geology 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M4 Geotectonics 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M5 Hydrogeology - I 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core ML1 Lab work: Ore Geology, Mining Geology, Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Structural Geology, Geotectonics and Survey
Core ML2 Lab Work: Mineralogy, Instrumentation and Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Analytical Techniques and Hydrogeology-I
Elective(DC) ME 1 Choose 01 course amongst the following 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0

a) Coal Petrology
b) Oceanography
c) Glaciology
AE (DE) MAE 1 Field Geology/Industrial/ Laboratory Training- 40 60 100 2
I Total 24

Second Semester
Type of Course Course Title Marks distribution Credit Contact Hours
Course No.
Sessional Mid End Total L T P
Semester Semester
Core M6 Paleobiology and Indian Stratigraphy 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Core M7 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Core M8 Remote Sensing in Geosciences 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Core M9 Geophysical Exploration 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M10 Hydrogeology - II 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Elective ME 2 Choose 01 course amongst the following 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
(DC)
a)Geodynamic Processes and Crustal Evolution
b)Global Climate Change
AE (DE) MAE 2 Lab work: Paleobiology, Indian Stratigraphy , Continuous evaluation -40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
AE (DE) MAE 3 Lab work: Remote Sensing in Geosciences Continuous evaluation -40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Geophysical Exploration and Hydrogeology
Total 24

25
Third Semester
Type of Course Course Title Marks distribution Credit Contact Hours
Course No. Sessional Mid End Total L T P
Semester Semester
Core M11 Fuel Geology (Coal, Petroleum and Atomic 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
Minerals)
Core M12 Engineering Geology 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M13 Geochemistry and Radiogenic Isotopes 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M14 Sedimentology 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M15 Environmental Geology- I 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core ML3 Lab work: Coal, Petroleum and Atomic Continuous evaluation -40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Minerals, Engineering Geology and
Environmental Geology
Core ML4 Lab work: Geochemistry and Radiogenic Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Isotopes, Sedimentology and Computer
Applications
Elective ME 3 Choose 01 course of the following: 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
(DC) a) Advance Remote Sensing in Geosciences - I
b) Exploration Geochemistry - I
c) Sedimentary Environments and Sedimentary
Basins- I
d) Micropalentology I
e) Advance Ore Geology I
f) Advance Hydrogeology I
g) Impact of Geology on Environment I
h) Petroleum Exploration I
i) Gemmology I
j) Engineering Geology and Geotechnics - I
k) Rock Deformation and Structural Analysis-I
l) Galciology - I
AE(DC) MAE 3 Field Geology/ Industrial/ Laboratory Training- IContinuous evaluation - 40 60 100 4
Total 24

26
Fourth Semester
Type of Course Course Marks distribution Credit Contact Hours
course No. Title Sessional Mid End Total L T P
Semester Semester
Core M16 Geochemistry and Stable Isotopes 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M17 Applied Sedimentation 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core M18 Environmental Geology- II 10 30 60 100 2 2 0 0
Core ML 5 Lab work: Geochemistry, and Computer Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Applications
Core ML 6 Lab work: Applied Sedimentation and Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
Environmental Geology
Core ML 7 Project Oriented Dissertation (To be allotted Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 2 0 1 2
after second semester exam or at the
beginning of third semester)
Core ML 8 Presentation and Viva Voce on Project Continuous evaluation - 40 60 100 4
Oriented Dissertation
Electi ME4 Choose 01 course of the following: 10 30 60 100 4 4 1 0
ve
(D a) Advance Remote Sensing in Geosciences -
C) II
b) Exploration Geochemistry - 11
c) Sedimentary Environments and Sedimentary
Basins- II
d) Micropalentology II
e) Advance Ore Geology II
f) Advance Hydrogeology II
g) Impact of Geology on Environment II
h) Petroleum Exploration II
i) Gemology II
j) Engineering Geology and Geotechnics-II
k) Rock Deformation and Structural Analysis-
II
l) Galciology- II
Op OE(AE) Choose 01 course of the following: 10 3 60 100 4 4 1 0
en (For non Geology PG Students of the 0
Electi Faculty)
a) Global Change
ve
b) Earth Systems
Total 24
st nd rd th
Grand Total ( I +II +III +IV ) Semesters 96
L= Lecture period, T= Tutorial, P= Practical Period

27
M. Sc. (Applied Geology): Part - I
Semester - I
Core Credit 4, Period - 56
Paper M 1: Ore Geology and Mining Geology
Unit-I
Modern concepts of ore genesis.
Spatial and temporal distribution of ore deposits- a global perspective.
Comparison between Earths evolutionary history and evolutionary trends in ore deposits. Ore deposits and
Plate Tectonics.
Mode of occurrence of ore bodies-morphology and relationship of host rocks.
Textures of ores and their genetic significance.
Ore bearing fluids, their origin and migration. Wall-rock alteration. Structural,
physico-chemical and stratigraphic controls of ore localization. Petrological
Ore associations with Indian examples wherever feasible:
Unit II
Geothermometry of ore deposits. Fluid inclusion in ores: Principles, assumptions, limitations and
applications.
Inversion points, exsolution textures and stable isotopes as indicators of depositional temperatures.
Geochemistry of ores- major, trace elements, REE and isotopic studies
Ores of mafic-ultramafic association- diamonds in kimberlite; REE in carbonatites; Ti-V ores; chromite and
PGE; Ni ores; Cu, Pb-Zn.
Ores of silicic igneous rocks with special reference to disseminated and stock work deposits, porphyry
associations.
Unit III
Ores of sedimentary affiliation-chemical and clastic sedimentation, stratiform and stratabound ore
deposits (Mn, Fe, non-ferrous ores), placers and palaeoplacers.
Ores of metamorphic affiliations-metamorphism of ores, Ores related to weathering and weathered
surfaces laterite, bauxite. Contemporary ore-forming systems e.g., black smokers, mineralized crusts, Mn
nodules. Mineralogy, genesis and important Indian distribution of ore minerals related to: Mn, Au, Sn, W
and U.
Unit IV
Application of rock mechanics in mining.
Planning, exploration and exploratory mining of surface and underground mineral deposits involving
diamond drilling, shaft sinking, drifting, cross cutting, winzing, stoping, room and pillaring, top-slicing, sub-
level caving and block caving.
Cycles of surface and underground mining operations. Exploration for placer deposits. Open pit mining.
Ocean bottom mining.
Types of drilling methods. Mining hazards: mine inundation, fire and rock burst.

Books Recommended:
1.Craig, J.M. & Vaughan, D.J., 1981: Ore Petrography and Mineralogy-John wiley
2.Evans, A.M., 1993: Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals-Blackwell
3.Sawkins, F.J., 1984: Metal deposits in relation to plate tectonics-Springer Verlag
4.Stanton, R.L., 1972: Ore Petrography-McGraw Hill
5.Torling, D.H., 1981: Economic Geology and Geotectonics-blackwell Sci publ.
6.Barnes, H.L., 1979: Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits-John Wiley
7.Klemm, D.D. and Schneider, H.J., 1977: Time and Strata Bound Ore Deposits-Springer Verlag
8.Guibert, J.M. and Park, Jr. C.F., 1986: The Geology of Ore Deposits-Freeman
9.Mookherjee, A., 2000: Ore genesis-a Holistic Approach-Allied Publisher
10.Mckinstry, H.E., 1962: Mining Geology. II Ed.-Asia Publishing House
11.Clark, G.B., 1967: Elements of Mining.III Ed.-John Wiley
12.Arogyaswami R.P.N., 1996: Courses in Mining Geology.IV Ed.-Oxford IBH

28
Core Credit 4, Period - 56

Paper M 2: Mineralogy, Instrumentation and Analytical Techniques


Unit-I
Indicatrix- concept and application.
Orthoscopy- pleochroisom and absorption schemes, Interference colours, dispersion
Conoscopy- interference figures (uni- and biaxial)
Determinative mineralogy Refractive index, axiality, optic sign, and optic axial ange (2V) by
microscope
Description and function of microscopic aids- compensation plates and wedges, Universal stage. Sample -
Definition, field samples, sampling methods. Sample preparation for geochemical analysis. Thin Section
Studies-Etching and Staining techniques particularly for feldspars, carbonates, dolomite, paragonite and
quartz
Model analysis and techniques, Polished Section Studies-Reflectance (specular and diffusive) and
reflactance spectrometry
Bireflactance and reflection pleochroism, Colour of opaques, Microhardness and determination
Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM & TEM) :Principle, parts, function and
application. Diffraction and imaging
Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) :Principle, parts, operation and application
Principles, instruments and geological applications of Cathodeluminescence and thermoluminescence .
Unit-II
Properties associated with bond types( ionic size, radius ratio, coordination principle, coordination
number)
Polymorphism, polytypism, pseudomorphism
Atomic structure, mineral chemistry, and mode of occurrence of following mineral groups
(a) Nesosilicates-Garnet, Olivine, (b) Sorosilicates- Epidote
(c) Ionosilicates Pyroxene, Amphibole (d) Phyllosilicates - Mica, Clay minerals
(e) Tectosilicates-Quartz, Feldspar, Feldspathoids, Zeolites, Spinel. P.T.
stability diagrams and their significance with suitable examples Unit-
III
Chemical composition, crystal structure and mode of occurrence of following groups of non-silicate
minerals.
Native elements: Gold, Silver, Copper, Platinum, Iron, Sulfides- Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn sulfides.
Sulfosalts-Ag, Cu and Pb sulfosalts , Oxides-simple and multiple oxides excluding SiO2
Hydroxides- Brucite, Gibbsite, Goethite, Limonite, Psilomelane, Carbonates-Calcite, Magnesite,
Rhodochrosite, Dolomite, Siderite
Mineral assemblages- Assemblages and phase rule, Assemblages and rock types
Gem and Semi-precious minerals identification, diagnostic properties, classification, important
deposits of India
Unit-IV
Powdering Methods and tools-Conventional and Modern
Contaminations (precautious and measures)
Concept in analytical Chemistry-Terms & definitions, Units of measurement., Accuracy and precision.
Statistical tests of reliability. Detection limits. Contamination (analytical)
Calibration of Instruments, Elements and analytical techniques, Presentation of geochemical data
X-rays: Nature, generation and spectra of X-ray , Diffraction, Braggs law, X
rays and Crystal structure
X-ray Diffractrometry , X-ray diffractrometer (XRD) :Principle, parts, operation
X-rays and Petrochemistry
XRF (wave length dispersive and Energy Dispersive): Principle, parts and function
Rock digestion through acid treatment, Rock digestion through fusion with alkali salts, Soil samples
digestion, Water samples.
Conventional analytical methods and Instruments:
Classical, Photometric, Flame photometric and Titration (EDTA)
Rapid methods and Instruments:
Determination of ferrous iron, Determination of water & CO2
29
Optical spectrometry- Principles, Nature of light, Absorption and emission of light
Instrumentation for optical spectrometry, Monochromaters, optical filter, slits, photon detectors etc
Principles, parts, operation mechanism, advantages and limitations of the following:
Atomic Absorption Spectrometer- Single and double beam (AAS)
Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES)
HPLC ( for water analysis)
Mass Spectrometry & Instruments: Principles and Types
Theoretical working knowledge of the following instruments:
(a) ICP-Mass, (b) Thermal Ionization-Mass, (c) Gas Source-Mass

Books Recommended:
1.Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A. and Zussman, J., 1996: The Rock forming Minerals-Longman
2.Klein, C. and Hurlbut, Jr. C.S., 1993: Manual of Mineralogy-John Wiley
3.Putnis, Andrew, 1992: Introduction to Mineral Sciences-Cambridge University Press
4.Spear, F.S. 1993: Mineralogical Phase Equilibria and Pressure-Temperature-Time paths-Mineralogical
5.Society of America Publ.
6.Phillips, Wm, R. and Griffen, D.T., 1996: Optical Mineralogy-CBS Edition
7.Hutchinson, C.S., 1974: Laboratory Handbook of Petrographic Techniques-John Wiley

30
Core Credit 2, Period - 28

Paper M 3: Structural Geology


Unit-I
Mechanical principles and properties of rocks and their controlling factors. (confining pressure,
temperature, time, pore fluid pressure etc). Concept of stress.
Stress analyses of deformed objects in structural geology.

Unit-II
Concept of strain. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous strain. The fundamental strain equation. Two
dimensional strain analysis. Types of strain ellipses and ellipsoids, their properties and geological
significance. Strain marker in naturally deformed rocks.

Unit - III
Description of componental parts of Folds. Mechanics of folding and buckling, Flexure folds; flexure
flow folds. Distribution of strains in folds.

Unit - IV
Genetic and geometric classification of faults. Casues and dynamics of faulting. Strike slip faults, Normal
faults, Thrust fault.

Books Recommended:
1.Badgley, R.C. 1965: Structure and Tectonics-Harper and Row
2.Ramsay, J.G. 1967: Folding and Fracturing of Rocks-McGraw Hill
3.Hobbs, B.E., Means, W.D. and Williams, P.F. 1976: An Outline of Structural Geology-John wiley
4.Davis, G.R., 1984: Structural Geology of Rocks and Region-John Wiley
5.Ramsay, J.G. and Huber, M.I. 1987: Modern structural Geology, Vol. I & II Academic Press
6.Price, N.J. and Cosgrove, J.W. 1990: Analysis of Geological Structure-Cambridge University Press
7.Bayly B., 1992: Mechanics in Structural Geology: Springer Verlag
8.Ghosh S.K., 1995: Structural Geology Fundamentals of Modern Developments-Pergamon Press
9.Moores, E. and Twiss, R.J. 1995: Tectonics-Freeman
10.Keary, P. and Vine, F.J. 1990: Global Tectonics-Balckwell
11.Storetvedt, K.N. 1997: Our Evolving Planet: Earths History in New Perspective-Bergen (Norway),
Alma Mater Fortag
12.Valdiya, K.S., 1998: Dynamic Himalaya-Universal Press, Hyderabad
13.Summerfield, M.A., 2000: Geomorphology and Global Tectonics-Springer Verlag

31
Core Credit 2, Period - 28

Paper M 4: Geotectonics
Unit-I
Historical perspective of the theory of plate tectonics: Continental drift, Sea-floor spreading and the birth of plate
tectonics, Impact of plate tectonics. The framework of plate tectonics: plates and plate margins,
Distribution of earthquakes, Relative and absolute plate motions, Hotspots, Polar wander.
Unit-II
Sea-floor spreading, Marine magnetic anomalies, geomagnetic reversals, Magnetostratigraphy, Dating the sea-
dloor.
Oceanic ridges: Ridge topography, structure of the upper mantle beneath ridges, Heat-flow and hydrothermal
circulation, transform faults and oceanic fracture zones.
Unit-III
Continental rifts and rifted margins: Characteristics of narrow and wide rifts, Rift initiation and volcanic activity
along rifts, Transition from rift to rifted margin, The Wilson Cycle. Continental transform and strike slip faults.
Unit-IV
Subduction zones: Oceanic trenches, Morphology of island arc systems, Structure deciphered from earthquakes,
Volcanic and
plutonic activity, Metamorphism, Gravity anomalies of sunduction zones.
Orogenic belts:Ocean-continent convergence, Compressional sedimentary basins, Continent-continent collision,
Arc-continent collision

32
Core Credit 2, Period - 28

Paper M 5: Hydrogeology-I
Unit-I
Hydrologic cycle and its components
Ground water origin, types, importance, occurrence, renewable and non-renewable ground water
resources .Sub surface movement and vertical distribution of groundwater
Hydrologic properties of rocks : porosity, permeability, specific yield, specific retention, hydraulic
conductivity, transmissivity, storage coefficient and methods of their measurements Hydrographs.

Unit-II
Hydraulic properties of aquifer and aquitard and their controlling factors, transmissivity, storavity and
specific yield, Well Hydraulics, Darcys law and its validity, confined, unconfined steady, unsteady and
radial flow, Determination of permeability in the lab and field. Ground water flow equations

Unit-III
Water table contour maps, hydrostratigraphic units of India. Artificial recharge of ground water, rain
water harvesting. Water balance methods, water level fluctuations : causitive factors and their
measurement, Problem of over exploitation.
Ground water legislation.

Unit-IV
Surface and subsurface geophysical and geological methods of ground water exploration.
Hydrogeomorphic mapping using various remote sensing techniques.
Surface geophysical methods: resistivity, seismic, gravity and magenetic methods. Well logging for
delineation of aquifers and estimation of water quality, electrical resistivity and SP, radiation logging,
Gamma, Gamma Gamma, Neutron Caliper and temperature logging

Books Recommended:
1.Todd, D.K., 1980: Groundwater Hydrology-John Wiley
2.Davies, S.N. & De Wiest, R.J.M., 1966: Hydrogeology-John Wiley
3.Freeze, R.A. & Cherry, J.A., 1979: Ground Water-Prentice Hall
4.Fetter, C.W., 1990: Applied Hydrogeology-Merill Publishing
5.Raghunath, N.M., 1982: Ground Water-Wiley Eastern
6.Karanth, K.R., 1987: Groundwater Assessment-Development and Management-Tata McGraw Hall
7.Alley, W.M., 1993: Regional Ground Water Quality-VNR, New York
8.Subramaniam, V., 2000: Water-Kingston Publ. London

33
Core Credit 2, Period 36

ML 1: Lab Work (Exercise related to Ore Geology, Mining Geology, Structural Geology, Geotectonics and
Survey)

(a) Megascopic study of structures and fabrics of different ores and their associations. Mineralogical
and textural studies of common ore minerals under ore-microscope and petrological study of other
industrial and non-metallic minerals. Exercises in the determination of relative hardness of common
ore minerals. (b) Diagrammatic representation of open cast and underground mining. Methods
of mining survey. Exercises on mine sampling and determination of tenor, cut-off grades and ore
reserves.
(c) Preparation and interpretation of geological maps and sections. Structural problems concerning
economic deposits. Recording and plotting of field data. Plotting and interpretation petrofabric data
and resultant diagrams.
(d) Study of large scale tectonic features of the
Earth.
(e) various methods and instruments of surveying including plane table, prismatic and theodolite
and
Telescopic
Aledade.

Core Credit 2, Period - 36


ML 2: Lab Work (Exercise related to Mineralogy, Instrumentation and Analytical Techniques, and
Hydrogeology)

(a) Microscopic study of rock forming minerals using optical accessories. Exercises on thin section
and polished section making, etching and staining.
(b) Exercises in sample dissolution, determination of elemental composition of minerals and rocks
by flame photometer and AAS, sample preparation for powder diffraction by XRD and
interpretation of X- ray diffractograms of common minerals and components of the bulk rocks.
(c) Delineation of hydrological boundaries on water-table contour maps and estimation of
permeability
Analysis of hydrographs and estimation of infiltration capacity. Chemical analysis of water

34
Elective (Discipline Centric) ME 1 Credit 4, Period - 56

(a): Coal Petrology


Unit I
Coal Petrology- Definition, Formation of coal, varieties of coal.
Coal rank - physico-chemical coalification, processes associated with rank change
Maturation concept: physico-chemical coalification rank change
Origin and Indian distribution of coal, stratigraphy of coal measures. Methods of coal exploration

Unit II
Petrographic composition of organic matter and types, Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis
Biochemical coalification : The maceral concept, Mceral groups and sub-groups, Vitrinite group and sub-
groups, Inertinite macerals, Liptinite macerals, Telovitrinite
Detrovitrinite subgroup, Gelovitrinite subgroup, Liptinite group, Sporinite
Chemical affinities of the Liptinite macerals: cutinite , suberinite, resinite , liptodetrinite, alginite, bituminite,
exsudatinite. The inertinite group: fusinite, semifusinite, inertodetrinite, macrinite, micrinite, funginite,
secretinite, microlithotypes Organic petrological methods: vitrinite reflectance, optical properties of vitrinite
and their influence on measurements, relationship of reflectance to other optical properties Techniques for
measuring vitrinite reflectance: use of various immersion media, mean maximum reflectance, Random
measurements but with polar, Random reflectance carbonization: mesophase development in natural bitumen,
natural coke. little limestone coal, visean, meta-exsudatinite

Unit III
Industrial application of coal- Coal carbonization, Hydrogenation, Liquification and gasification,
underground coal gasification, Coal bed Methane, coal mining methods

Unit IV
Coal hazards and mitigation measures- Environmental impact of coal mining, acid mine drainage, mine
subsidence,
groundwater inundation, spontaneous combustion of coal, environmental impact of coal based power plants,
disposal of coal ash, carbon sequestration.

Books recommended
1.Taylor, G.H., Teichmuller, M., Davis, A., Diessel, C.F.K., Littke, R. and Robert, P., 1998: Organic
2. Petrology-Gebruder Borntraeger, Stuttgart
3. Chandra, D., Singh, R.M. and Singh, M.P., 2000: Textbook of Coal (Indian Context)-Tara
Book Agency, Varanasi.
4. Singh, M.P., (Ed.), 1998: Coal and Organic Petrology-Hindustan Publ. Corp., New Delhi
5. Stach, E., Mackowsky, M.T.H., Taylor, G.H., Chandra, D., Teichmuller, M. and Teichmuller, R., 1982:
7.Stachs Text Book of Coal Petrology- Gebruder Borntraeger, Stuttgart

35
(b): Oceanography

Unit I
General Circulation and climate Modelling:Observed zonally symmetric circulations, meridional circulation
models, mean meridional and eddy transport of momentum and energy, angular momentum and energy
budgets; zonally asymmetric features of general circulation; standing eddies; eastwest circulations in tropics:
climate variability and forcings; feedback processes, low frequency variability, MJO (Madden Julian
oscillation), and sunsport cycles.

Unit II
Basic principles of general circulation modeling; gridpoint and spectral GCMs; role of the ocean in climate
modeling; interannual variability of ocean fields and its relationship with monsoon, concept of ocean-
atmosphere coupled models.

Unit-III
The global wind system; action of wind on ocean surfaceEkmans theory; Sverdrup, Stommel and Munks
theories; upwelling and sinking with special reference to the Indian ocean. Inertial currents; divergences
and convergences; geostrophic relationship between density, pressure and dynamic topography; relative
and slope currents. Wind driven coastal currents; typical scales of motion in the ocean.

Unit IV
Characteristics of the global conveyor belt circulation and its causes. Formation of subtropical gyres;
western boundary currents; equatorial current systems; El Nino; monsoonal winds and currents over the
North Indian
Ocean; Somali current; southern ocean

36
(c): Glaciology

Unit -I
Climatic and glacier: Snowline altitude in different mountains and continents, effect of precipitation effect of
latitude, effect of solar radiation, terminal altitude of glaciers, Cirque and glacier development

Unit -II
Spatial snow, ice and glaciers: Physical and Chemical Properties of Ice, Global Hydrological Cycle and
snow and ice component, Water Inventory and snow and ice on earth, snow covered areas covered on the Globe

Unit- III
Glacial Geomorphology : ice scoured basins , roche mountonnees , meltwater valleys cirque, arete , horn ,
hanging valley, glacial trough , truncated spur , glacial drift, till, outwash , glacio-lacturine sediments , glacio-
tectonic drifto , moraines, eskers, kame , valley train and outwash plain

Unit -IV
Climate change and glaciers: Snow cover evolution and glacier evolution, Causes of ice ages, Orbital
parameters, Milutin
Milankovitch cycle, role of CO2 and other green house gases, weathering, mountain building etc., Impact of
Climate change on
Himalayan glaciers: The records of glacier retreat and advancement in centuries with spatial distribution

Readings:
Field Techniques in Glaciology and Glacial Geomorphology by Bryn Hubbard and Neil F. Glasser, willey
International
The Physics of Glaciers, Fourth Edition Hardcover, 2010, Kurt M. Cuffey and W.
S. B. Paterson Holmes' Principles of Physical Geology Paperback 1993, P. McL.
D. Duff and Arthur Holmes Himalayan Glaciers, 1999, Syed Iqbal Hasnain,
Allied Publishers
Himalayan Glaciers, 1999, Naseeuddin Ahmad and Sarwar Rais, Allied Publishers
Snow and Glacier Hydrology, 2000, P. Singh, Vijay P. Sin

37
Ability Enhancement (Discipline Centric) MAE 1 Credit 2

Field Geology/Industrial/Laboratory Training-I

38
M. Sc. (Applied Geology): Part I
Semester II
Core Credit 4, Period 56

Paper M 6: Paleobiology and Indian Stratigraphy


Unit I
Origin of life, Pre-Cambrian fossil record and major events in the history of life.
Organic evolution: evidence, causes, mechanism, and patterns; determining phylogenetic relationship. Species
concept in palaeontology: definition, origin, biologic and palaeontologic methods of species determination
species problem in palaeontology.
Ontogeny and growth of organisms: types of growth, isometric and anisometric growth, rates and causes,
interpretation of growth curves. Functional morphology: methods of functional morphologic analysis with
examples from the fossil record.
Taphonomy: taphonomic processes, types of fossil assemblages and their application.

Unit II
Application of fossils in palaeoclimatic interpretations, climatic bioindicators, use of stable isotopes in
palaeoclimatic studies.
Major groups of microfossils with special reference to morphology and geological applications of foraminifera.
Origin and evolution of early vertebrates: fishes and amphibians, major groups, general characters and geological
distribution.
Reptiles: general characters, major groups, their geological distribution, evolution and extinction of dinosaurs.
Aves and mammals: evolution, general features and geological distribution, adaptive radiation of Cenozoic
mammals.
Evolutionary histories of Proboscideans and Homonidae.

Unit-III
Lithostratigraphy, Codes units, correlation and contacts. Biostratigorphy- units, biogeographical acme
zone provinces, controlling factors,zonation and their time significance. Basic principles of seismic
staratigraphy and sequence Stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, event Stratigraphy.
Origin and composition of primitive crust, atmosphere & hydrosphere.
Tectonic and crustal evolution, lithostratigraphy, age constraints of the following cratonic blocks:
Dharwar, Aravalli-Bundelkhand, Singhbhum and Bhandara-Bastar.

Unit IV
Basin configuration, stratigraphy and sedimentary evolution of the following basins. Vindhyan,
Chattisgarh and Cuddappah.
Paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions prevailing in Indian subcontinent during Paleozoic, Mesozoic and
Cenozoic eras. Igneous activity in Indian subcontinent in relation to break up of Gondwanaland.
Mountain building activities in Indian subcontinent during Cenozoic Era.
Archean-Proterozoic; Proterozoic-Cambrian,
Permian- Triassic and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary problems in Indian subcontinent.

Books Recommended:
1.Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998: Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution.IV Ed.-Blackwell
2.Stearn, C.W. & Carroll, R.L, 1989: Palaeontology-the Record of Life-John Wiley
3. Principles of Paleontology by David M. Raup and Steven M. Stanley. CBS Publishers and Distributers.
4. Evolution of Vertebrates by E.H. Colbert. Wiely Eastern Ltd.
5.Pomerol, C., 1982: The Cenozoic Era: Tertiary and Quaternary-Ellis Harwood Ltd

39
Core Credit 4 Period-56

Paper M 7: Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology


Unit- I
Mineralogy and chemistry of earth s mantle.
Physics of magma generation in the mantle, their nature. Physical properties of magma: temperature,
density, viscosity, volatile components their nature,
Factors affecting magma and evolution of magma. Norms - CIPW
Criteria for classification of igneous rocks and IUGS classification.
Introduction to igneous rock series. Rock suite: petrographic provinces and associations. Magmatism in
relation to plate tectonics.
Mantle plumes and associated magmatism.

Unit-II
Phase equilibrium of the following silicate systems, its relation to magma genesis and crystallization in
the light of modern experimental work:
Ternary Systems: Nepheline Kalsilite - Silica, Forsterite Anorthite - Silica, Diopside- Forsterite -
Silica. Quaternary system: Diopside- Nepheline-Forsterite Silica.
Physico-chemical interpretation of igneous textures including spinifex, rapakivi, intergrowths, reaction
rims.
Petrogenesis of the following igneous rock types:
Ultramafic (Peridotite and Picrite, Komatiite), Basalts, Andesites, Granites, Syenite, Carbonatite,
Anorthosite

Unit-III
Mineralogical Phase rule of closed and open systems. Factors and processes of matamorphism, diffusion,
nucleation. Fabric of metamorphic rocks, mylonite.
Metasonatism-types, principle of polarity.
Metamorphic facies, detailed description of each facies of low pressure, medium to high pressures and very
high pressure with special reference to characteristic metamorphic zones and subfacies: albite- epidote
hornfels, hornblende - hornfels, pyroxene hornfels, sanidinite, greenschist, amphibolite, granulite, prehenite
- pumpellite, glaucophane-lawsonite (blue-schist), eclogite.

Unit-IV
Nature of metamorphic reactions and pressure-temperature. Conditions of metamorphism.
Isoreactiongrad, Schreinmakers rule and construction of petrogenetic grids. Graphical representation:
ACF, AKF, AFM.
Metamorphic differentiation.Anatexis and origin of migmatites in the light of experimental studies.
Regional metamorphism and paired metamorphic belts.
Metamorphism and Tectonics. Metamorphic facies series. P-T-t paths and their implications.
Ultra high temperature, ultra-high pressure and ocean-floor metamorphism. Partial melting during
granulite metamorphism.
Chemical zoning and its relation to tectonism.

Books Recommended:
1.Turner, F.J., 1990: Metamorphic Petrology, McGraw Hill, New York
2.Yardley, B.W. 1989: An Introduction to Metamorphic Petrology-Longman, 3.Bucher, K. and Frey,
M.1994: Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks-Springer Verlag
4.Philipotts, A., 1992: Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology-Prentice Hall
5.Best, M.G., 1986: Igneous Petrology-CBS Publ.
6.McBirney, A.R., 1993: Igneous Petrology-John & Bartlet Publ.
7.Kretz, R., 1994: Metamorphic Crystallization-John Wiley
8.Bose, M.K., 1997: Igneous Petrology-World Press
9.Perchuk, L.L. and Kushiro, I.1991: Physical Chemistry of Magmas-Springer Verlag

40
Core Credit 4, Period 56

Paper M 8: Remote Sensing in Geosciences


unit-I
Spectral Characteristics of solar radiation.
Transmittance of the atmosphere.
Spectral reflectance of land covers.
RS Satellite characteristics-orbits and swaths.
Sensors used in remote sensing.
Types of satellite remote sensing data used in earth system studies.
Image interpretation and analysis.
Applications of Remote Sensing techniques in geological investigations-Mapping lithology, lineaments
and minerals.

Unit-II
Photogrammetry: and applications recent advances.
Aerial photographs and their geometry. Errors in aerial photographs and their correction, swing, tilt,
ortho photographs. Classification of aerial photographs and aerial mosaics. Photomosaics and its types.
Stereoscopes: mirror and pocket stereoscope. Photogrammetric techniques
Parallaxes: parallaxe bar, Prallax formula, height and slope determination.
Scale determination of photographs on uniform and variable terrain.

Unit-III
Geological studies: image characters and their relations with ground objects based on recognition
elements (photographic and geotechnical elements). Convergence of evidence in interpretations of
lithology (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks)
Interpretation of topography and tectonic features and evaluation of ground water potential.

Unit-IV
Geomorphological studies: geomorphic processes and resulting landorms. Morphometric analysis.
Characteristics of various lansdforms in satellite images and aerial photographs. Terrain evaluation for
selection of dam, reservoir, industrial sites. Digital processing techniques, image registration and
correction, basic concept of geocoding, digital image classification and image enhancement, spatial
filtering, band ratioing, FCCs, principal component analysis, IHS and NDVI images, supervised and
unsupervised classification and its utility in land-cover mapping. Principles and application of GIS and
RS in geohazards monitoring (landslides, floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes). Examples and case
studies from India.

Books Recommended:
1.Millor, V.C., 1961 Photogeology. Mc Graw Hill
2.Sabbins, F.F.,1985 Remote Sensing-Principles and Applications. Freeman
3.Moffitt, F.H. and Mikhail, E.M., 1980 Photogrammetry-Harper and Row
4.Lillesand, T.M. and Kieffer, R.W., 1987: Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation-John wiley
5.Pandey, S.N., 1987: Princdiples and Applications of Photogeology-Wiley Eastern
6. Thornbury, W.D. Principles of Geomorphology
7. Craig, R.G. and Craft, J.L Applied Geomorphology
8. Fundamentals of GIS M. Demers
9. Encyclopedia of Applied Geology - Finkiel
10. Remote Sensing of Environment by A.R. Jensen
11. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing by George Joseph
12. Geomorphology by Bloom

41
Core Credit 2, Period 28

Paper M 9: Geophysical Exploration

Unit-I
Variations of gravity over the earth, Rock density, Gravity surveys. Corrections applied to gravity data.
Derivation of Free-Air
and Bouguer Gravity anomaly maps. Geological interpretation of gravity maps. Gravity signature of mineral
deposits. Recent development in gravity surveys.

Unit-II
Rock magnetism, the geomagnetic field, Magnetic anomalies. Magnetic surveying instruments- Fluxgate
magnetometer, Proton
magnetometer, Optically pumped magnetometer, Magnetic gradiometers. Ground magnetic surveys.
Aeromagnetic and marine surveys. Reduction of magnetic observations-Diurnal variation correction,
Geomagnetic correction, Elevation and terrain corrections. Interpretation of magnetic anomalies-Direct
interpretation, Indirect interpretation. Applications of magnetic surveying.

Unit-III
Resistivity methods: Basic principles, Various types of electrode configurations. Field procedures:Profiling and
Sounding.
Applications of electrical methods in groundwater prospecting and civil engineering problems.
Description of borehole environment, Brief outline of various well-logging techniques. Principles of electrical
logging and its applications in petroleum, groundwater and mineral exploration.

Unit-IV
Seismic methods: Fundamental principles of wave propagation, Refraction and reflection surveys of single
interface,
Horizontal and dipping cases, Concept of seismic channel and multi-channel recording of seismic data, End-on
and split spread shooting techniques, CDP method of data acquisition, soring, gather stacking and record section.

Books Recommended:
1. Lowrie, W. (2007)-Fundamentals of Geophysics (Second Ed.) Cambridge University Press, 381p.
2. Keary, P., Brooks, M. and Hill, I. (2002)-An introduction to Geophysical Exploration (Third Ed.), Balckwell
Science, Oxford, 262 p.
3. Lowe, C. Thomas, M.D. and Morris, W.A. (Eds.) (1999)-Geophysics in Mineral Exploaration:
Fundamentals and Case Histories. Geological Association of Canada, Ontario-175P

42
Core Credit 2, Period 28

Paper M 10: Hydrogeology-II


Unit I
Methods of pumping test and analysis of test data.
Evaluation of aquifer parameters using Theim, Theis, Jacobs and Walton equations. Flow Net
Analyses.Interpretation of pumping test data for hydrogeologic boundaries : positive and negative
boundaries

Unit-II
Water well technology, well types drilling methods, (cable tool, direct rotary, and reverse rotary), yield
tests, construction and design, development and maintenance of wells. Salt water intrusion in coastal
aquifers and their remedial measures.Electrical and Mathematical modeling, data requirement and
application of model; Finite difference and finite element method.

Unit-III
Chemistry of natural water. Mineral stability in Eh-pH diagram. Types of chemical reaction in water,
chemical activities, carbonate equilibrium, oxidation potential, SAR, CEC, major ionic species,
hydrochemical facies, major constituents, minor constituents, trace elements of natural waters.
Isotope hydrology: tritium, radio carbon dating of ground water.
REE in sea and river water.
Ground Water quality, estimation and methods of treatment for various uses.

Unit IV
Representations of hydrochemical data, Piper Trilinear diagram, Ground water facies analysis quality
criteria for different uses, drinking, irrigation and industrial uses, Use of Water quality in mineral
assessment. Ground Water contaminants and pollutants. Dispersion of pollutants.Evaluation of pollution
potential and monitoring of ground water quality.
Hydrochemical provinces of India.
Problem of arsenic and fluoride, radioisotopes in hydrogeological studies.

Books Recommended:
1.Todd, D.K., 1980: Groundwater Hydrology-John Wiley
2.Davies, S.N. & De Wiest, R.J.M., 1966: Hydrogeology-John Wiley
3.Freeze, R.A. & Cherry, J.A., 1979: Ground Water-Prentice Hall
4.Fetter, C.W., 1990: Applied Hydrogeology-Merill Publishing
5.Raghunath, N.M., 1982: Ground Water-Wiley Eastern
6.Karanth, K.R., 1987: Groundwater Assessment-Development and Management-Tata McGraw Hall
7.Alley, W.M., 1993: Regional Ground Water Quality-VNR, New York
8.Subramaniam, V., 2000: Water-Kingston Publ. London

43
Elective (Discipline Centric) ME 2 Credit 4, Period 56

(a) Geodynamic Processes and Crustal Evolution


Unit-I
Condensation of the Solar System: Evidence from astronomical observations, Cosmochemistry,
meteorites. Chondrites and achondrites, Early Earth Systems, Nature of early Geological records,
Archaean geological records, Geodynamic processes of Archaean Greenstone belts, Archaean
granitegneiss terrains, oldest terrestrial material.

Unit-II
Earth differentiation-the first earth system. Constraints on core formation: thermal constraints,
geochemical constrants. Accretion history of the Earth. Evolution of the Earths mantle: evidence from
seismology, mantle xenoliths. Mantle convection, mantle plumes. Archaean mantle models: evidence
from Archaean basalts, komatiites, boninites.

Unit-III
Origin of the continental crust: Crustal growth at destructive plate boundaries, arc magma sources,
Conditions of slab melting processes. Crustal growth through intraplate magmatism, Crustal growth
through time. Geochemical evidence for the secular evolution of the continental crust. Formation of
TTGs, adakites, sanukitoids. Accretionary orogens.

Unit-IV
Origin of Earths atmosphere and oceans. The rise of atmospheric oxygen: evidence from redox-sensitive
detrital sediments, Fe-mobility in paleosols. Geological evidence for an early Co2-rich atmosphere:
Archaean weathering profiles. Controls on CO2 drawdown. Proxies for the nature of early oceans:
Archaean limestones, BIF.

Books Recommended:

1. Plate Tectonics and Crustal evaluation-Condie.


2. Aspects of Tectonics-Valdiya.
3. Global Tectonics-Kearey and Vine.

44
(b) Global Climate Change
Unit I
Components of Earth Systems Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Parameters of climate
regime. Arid, semi-arid, polar, humid and sub-humid climatic regimes. Thronwaite system of climate
classification.

Unit II
Composition and structure of the atmosphere, Importance of atmosphere to human life, Change in atmospheric
composition in the recent time. Burning of fossil fuel, deforestation, global land use/land cover changes. Green
house gases and their effects.

Unit III
Earths climate and its components. Change of climatic regimes in the earths history. Global climatic changes-
causes, effects and adaptation measures. Impact of climate change on water resources, agriculture, forests and
land use/land cover. Case studies and examples.

Unit IV
Sea level rise- causes, impacts and adaptation measures. UNCCC-role, summits, declarations, and protocols on
climate change
and its mitigation. Role of IPCC in policy making.

Suggested books:
1. Kent Condie-Earth as an Evolving Planetary System-Academic Press (2004).
2. Lee R. Kump,James F. Kasting,Robert G. Crane-The Earth System-Pearson (2009).
3. Trewartha, G.T. , & Horn, L.A. , Introduction to climate, International Studies, 1990.
4. Hussain, Majid., Fundamentals of Physical Geography, Rawat Pub., Jaipur, 2001

45
Ability Enhancement (Discipline Centric) Credit 2, Period 36
MAE 2: Exercise related to
(a) Recognition of fossil groups in an assorted assemblage and identification of their
classes.Study of important fossils from Indian stratigraphic horizons. Measurement of
dimensional parameters and preparation of elementary growth-curves and scatter-plots.
(b) Exercises on stratigraphic classification and correlation. Exercises on interpretation of
seismic records for staratigraphy study of palaeogeographic maps of all geological periods
(c) Megascopic and microscopic study of igneous lithotypes. Calculation of CIPW
Norms, Preparation of variation diagrams.
(d) Megascopic and microscopic study of metamorphic rocks of different facies. Time
relationship between deformation and recrystallisation. Graphic construction of ACF, AKF and
AFM diagrams. Estimation of pressure and temperature from important models of
geothermobarometry. Interpretation of reaction textures.

Ability Enhancement (Discipline Centric) Credit 2, Period 36


MAE 3: Exercise related to
(a) Delineation of gulley erosion and drainage pattern. Photointerpretation and identification of major
lithounits in aerial photographs. Morphometric analysis using aerial photographs based on
watershed and water divide. Scene identification of IRS and Landsat data using NRSA website.
Cultural details on images, landuse and land cover mapping using IRS data. Mapping of
geomorphological features in remote sensing data.
Display and inspection of multispectral data in individual bands and various FCCs. Calculating
image statistics. Combining separate image bands into a single multispectral image file.
Subsetting image data. Querying spectral reflectance and geographic coordinates of pixels in
georeferenced images. Image enhancement for increased interpretability of landcoverfeatures-
linear contrast stretch. Classifying imagery using supervised and unsupervised methods. Ground
truth verification using GPS navigation. Integrating ground truth with results of classification.
Viewing satellite imagery in 3D. Mapping structural, geological and geomorphological features
using satellite imagery.
Drainage analysis of basin watershed on linear, aerial and shape aspect. Slope suitability
analysis based on SOI toposheet, characterization and prioretisation of watershed on the basis of
standard methods. Profiles of water valleys and their interpretation. Geomorphological mapping
based on remote sensing data. Study and interpretation of varios types of drainage pattern.
(b) Study of gravimeter, magnetometer and seismographs. Resistivity survey. Interpretation
of underground structure on the basis of seismic data.
(c) Pumping test: time-drawn down and time-recovery tests and evaluation of aquifer parameters.
Step drawn down tests, Electric resistivity sounding for delineation of fresh and saline aquifers.
Study of geophysical well logs resistivity and SP logs. Estimation of TDS. Exercises on
groundwater exploration using remote sensing techniques

46
M. Sc. (Applied Geology): Part - II
Semester - III
Core Credit 4, Period 56
Paper M 11: Fuel Geology (Coal, Petroleum and Atomic Minerals)
Unit-I
Definition, origin, rank, and types of coal.
Classification: Indian and International.
Physical and petrographic characters: concept of Lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals.
Chemical characterization: proximate and ultimate analyses.
Utilization of coal: preparation of coal, carbonization, gasification and hydrogenation. Application of coal
petrology in solving geological problems and in hydrocarbon exploration. Sedimentology of coal bearing
strata, coal forming epochs in geological past, coal deposits of India and their distribution
Case study of some coal fields of India, prospecting and reserves estimation, and production
Coalbed Methane: generation and exploration, coal as reservoir of methane.

Unit-II
Nature of petroleum: chemical composition and physical properties of organic matters and hydrocarbon.
Origin of petroleum: organic and inorganic theories.
Migration of oil and gas: evidence of migration, primary and secondary migration. Transformation
of organic matter into Kerogen, organic maturation, thermal cracking of kerogen. Diagenesis,
ketagenesis and metagenesis.
Formation of petroleum in relation to geological processes: temperature, time, and pressure.
Timing of oil and gas generation.
Petroleum exploration- surface indication of oil and gas, sequence of exploratory steps, wellsite geology.
Role of sedimentology in oil exploration, subsurface interpretation of sedimentary environments from
curves, cutting and well log.

Unit III
Methods of subsurface geological mapping.
Reservoir rocks: sandstone reservoirs, carbonate reservoirs and fractured reservoirs.
Trapping mechanism for oil and gas, characteristic of structural, stratigraphic and combination traps.
Oil fields- water, oil and gas occurrence.
Formation evaluation: well-logging, types of well logs, interpretation of lithology, quality and quantity of
formation fluids from well logs.
Sedimentary basins: mechanism of sedimentary basin formation, oil bearing basins of India and the
world.
Geology of productive oil fields of India, position of oil and gas in India, future prospects and the
economic scenario.

Unit-IV
Physico chemical behaviour of U and Th, classification of radioactive minerals.
Mode of occurrence and association of atomic minerals in nature, atomic minerals as source of energy.
Methods of prospecting and productive geological horizons of India.
Geology, geochemistry and origin of hydrothermal, syngenetic, pegmatitic and carbonatitic deposits of U
and Th
Placer deposits of Th : origin and distribution.
Nuclear power stations of the country and future prospects.

Books Recommended:
1.Taylor, G.H., Teichmuller, M., Davis, A., Diessel, C.F.K., Littke, R. and Robert, P., 1998: Organic
2.Petrology-Gebruder Borntraeger, Stuttgart
4.Chandra, D., Singh, R.M. and Singh, M.P., 2000: Textbook of Coal (Indian Context)-Tara Book
Agency, Varanasi.

47
5.Singh, M.P., (Ed.), 1998: Coal and Organic Petrology-Hindustan Publ. Corp., New Delhi
6.Stach, E., Mackowsky, M.T.H., Taylor, G.H., Chandra, D., Teichmuller, M. and Teichmuller, R., 1982:
7.Stachs Text Book of Coal Petrology- Gebruder Borntraeger, Stuttgart
8.Holson, G.D. and Tiratsoo, E.N., 1985: Introduction to Petroleum Geology-Gulf Publ. Houston, Texas
9.Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984: Petroleum Formation and Occurrence-Springer Verlag
10.Selley, R.C., 1998: Elements of Petroleum Geology-Academic Press
11.Durrance, E.M., 1986: Radioactivity in Geology. Principles and Application-Ellis Hoorwool
12.Dahlkamp, F.J., 1993: Uranium Ore Depostis-Springer Verlag
13.Boyle, R.W., 1982: Geochemical Prospecting for Thorium and Uranium Deposits-Elsevier

48
Core Credit 2, Period 28

Paper M 12: Engineering Geology


Unit I
Development of Engineering Geology, Important Geo-engineering failures. Engineering
Geology vs
Geology, Role of engineering geology in civil construction and mining industry, various
stages of engineering geological investigation for civil engineering projects. Surface and sub-surface
investigations for site selection. Geological causes for mishaps and failures of engineering
structures. Engineering properties of rocks, rock discontinuities.

Unit II
RQD, engineering classification of rock
mass.
Terzaghis rock mass classification, coates, C-factor, Q-system and geochemical
classification. Improvements of properties of rock mass: grouting, gnuting, rock bolting,
cable anchorage.
Active faults, features of active faults, Earthquakes and seismicity, seismic zones of India,
Paleoseismic indicators.

Unit III
Engineering properties of soil, Atterberg limits, cohesive and noncohesive soils. Soil
classification:
textural classification, unified soil classification systems, American Association of State Highway
and Transport Officials (AASHTO) classification system. Quick clay, quick sand, thixotrophy, soil
liquefaction, Physical characters of building stone, metal and concrete aggregates, size and
gradation, shape, surface fearures and coating of aggregates.
Alkali aggregate reactions, artificial
aggregate.

Unit IV
Mass movements with special emphasis on landslides and causes of hill slope
instability.
Geological consideration for evaluation of dams and reservoir sites, dam foundation rock problems.
Geotechnical evaluation of tunnel alignments and transportation routes, methods of
tunneling, classification of ground for tunneling purposes, various types of support. Geotechnical
investigations for bridges and coastal barriers. Case history of the following engineering projects:
(a) Sardar Sarovar hydroelectric project (b) Tehri hydroelectric
project

Books
Recommended:

1. Sharma, P.V. (1986)-Geophysical Methods in Geology-elsevier


2. Sharma, P.V. (1997)-Environmental and Engineering Geophysics-Cambridge University Press.
3. Vogelsang, D. (1995)-Environmental Geophysics-A Practical Guide-Springer Verlag.
4. Dobrin, M.B. (1976)-Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting-McGraw Hill
5. Parasnis, D.S. (1975)-Principles of Applied Geophysics-Chapman and Hall
6. Stanislave, M. (1984)-Introduction to Applied Geophysics-Reidel Publ.
7. Krynine, D.H. and Judd. W.R. (1998)-Principles of Engineering Geology-CBS Edition

49
Core Credit 2, Period 28

Paper M 13: Geochemistry and Radiogenic Isotopes


Unit-I
Origin and abundance of elements in the solar system and in the Earth, and its constituents.
Nucleosynthesis, Meteorites.
Atomic structures and properties of elements in the periodic table. Special properties of transition and
rare earth elements.
Geochemical classification of elements, major elements trace elements, compatible, incompatible, HFSE,
LILE, Low field strength elements, PGE.

Unit-II
Behaviour of trace elements including REE in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
Distribution of elements during crystallization of magma.
Partition coefficient : general principle and determination in natural and experimental systems.
Trace elements modeling of partial melting, crystal fractionation.

Unit-III
Radioactive decay law, radiogenic isotopes.
Radioactive decay schemes of U-Th-Pb.
Geochemistry of U and Th, their decay series, growth of daughter isotopes U, Th, Pb methods of dating, U-
Pb concordia, analytical methods of zircon dating, dating of individual zircons.
Decay scheme of Sm-Nd, growth of daughter isotopes, geochemistry of Sm and Nd, age determination,
CHUR, epsilon and model dates.

Unit-IV
Geochemistry of Rb, Sr, decay scheme and growth of daughter isotopes. Dating of minerals and whole
rock, isochron dates, errorchrons, initial ratio.
Principles and methodology of K-Ar dating.

Books Recommended:
1.Mason, B. and Moore, C.B., 1991: Introduction to Geochemistry-Wiley Eastern
2.Krauskopf, K.B., 1967: Introduction to Geochemistry-McGraw Hill
3.Faure, G., 1986: Principles of Isotope Geology-John Wiley
4.Hoefs, J., 1980: Stable isotope Geochemistry Springer Verlag
5.Marshal, C.P. and Fairbridge, R.W., 1999: Encyclopaedia of Geochemistry-Kluwer Academic
6.Govett, G.J.S. (Ed.), 1983: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry-Elsevier
7.Nordstrorm, D.K. and Munoz, J.L., 1986: Geochemical Thermodynamics-Blackwell
8.Henderson, P., 1987: Inorganic Geochemistry-Pergamon Press

50
Core Credit 2, Period 28

Paper M 14: Sedimentology


Unit-I
Earth surface systems: Liberation and flux of sediments.
Fundamentals of fluids laminar and turbulent flow.
Reynodls number, Froude number, velocity profiles and bed roughness.
Flow regimes- Idealized sequence of structures in lower and upper flow regimes. Hyulstroms diagram.
Particle transport by sediment gravity flow. Boumas ideal sequence.

Unit-II
Processes of transport and generation of sedimentary structures,
Controls on the sedimentary rock records, Geometry and significance of sedimentary bodies.
Facies definition, Facies association, Walthers law of Facies and Application.
Sedimentary cycles and cyclotherms

Unit-III
Classification of sedimentary environments.
Facies Models of alluvial-fluvial, lacustrine, desert-aeolian and glacial sedimentary systems.
Shallow coastal clastics, Marine and continental evaporates

Unit-IV
Deep sea basins.
Modern carbonate sediments- shallow water carbonates, deep sea carbonates, fresh water carbonates,
evaporitic carbonates, Eolian carbonates, Mineralogy and chemical composition of carbonate minerals.
Genetic concept of classification of limestone. Petrography and genesis of carbonate rocks.
Dolomite: mineralogy, occurrence and mechanism of formation.
Limestone Facies: stromatolitic (Tidal Flat), biohermal, cross-bedded winnowed shelf, nodular limestone,
chalk (Pelagic) and evaporitic carbonatic facies.

Books Recommended:
1.Allen, J.R.L., 1985: Principles of Physical Sedimentation-George Allen & Unwin
2.Allen, P., 1997: Earth Surface Processes-Blackwell
3,Nichols, G., 1999: Sedimentology and Stratigraphy-Blackwell
4.Reading, H.G., 1996: Sedimentary Environment-Blackwell
5.Davis, R.A. Jr., 1992: Depositional System-Prentice Hall
6.Einsele, G., 1992: Sedimentary Basins-Springer Verlag
7.Relneck, H.E. and Singh, I.B., 1980: Depositional Sedimentary Environments-Springer Verlag
8.Miall , A.D., 2000: Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis-Springer Verlag
9.Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E. and Siever, R., 1990: Sand and Sandstone-Springer Verlag
10.Bhattacharya, A. and Chakraborti, C., 2000: Analysis of Sedimentary Successions-Oxford-IBH
14.Boggs Sam Jr., 1995: Principles of Sedimentary and Stratigraphy-Prentice Hall

51
Core Credit 2, Period 28

Paper M 15: Environmental Geology - I


Unit-I
Spectrum of environmental geology, global changes in the Earth system and climate Anthropogenic
impacts on the atmosphere, local impacts changing the landscape, role of geology in understanding
atmospheric changes

Unit-II
Thermal inversion, suspended particulate matter, heavy metals, carbon mono oxide, sulfur dioxide,
nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds, ground level ozone, natural sources, smog and tropospheric
ozone.
Impact of circulation in atmosphere and oceans on climate, rainfall and agriculture, wind system, global
circulation, Coriolis effect
Thermal interactions between oceans and atmosphere, advective and convective processess, Heat budget
of ocean, ocean ecosystem, ocean currents, general pattern of oceanic circulation.

Unit -III
Structure and evolution of atmosphere, recent structure, chemical evolution of atmosphere, role of
volcanism, volcanism and recent atmospheric changes,
Global warming in present atmosphere due to indiscrete exploitation of fossil fuel, volcanic eruptions and
deforestation. Global climatic changes, causes impacts, assessment. Examples and case studies. Climate
change impacts on water resources and agriculture.

Unit IV
Nitrogen oxide and ozone layer, cycling of carbon, records of paleotemperature in ice cores of glaciers,
palaeo-temperature changes during the glacial ages, glacial ages, last ice age, causes of glaciation,
limestone deposits in geological sequence.
Cenozoic climate extremes, evolution of life especially the impact on human evolution.

Books Recommended:
1.Valdiya, K.S., 1987: Environmental Geology-Indian Context-Tata McGraw Hill
2.Keller, E.A., 1978: Environmental Geology-Bell and Howell, USA
3.Bryant, E., 1985: Natural Hazards-Cambridge University Press
4.Patwardhan, A.M., 1999: The Dynamic Earth System-Prentice Hall
5.Subramaniam, V., 2001: Textbook in Environmental Science-Narosa International
6.Bell, F.G., 1999: Geological Hazards-Routledge, London
7.Smith, K., 1992: Environmental Hazards-Routledge, London

52
Core Credit 2, Period - 36

ML 3 (Exercise related to Coal, Petroleum and Atomic Minerals, Engineering Geology, Environmental Geology
and Computer Applications)
(a) Maps and exercises related to coal geology .
Study of geological maps and sections of important oilfields of India.
Exercises and maps related to petroleum geology.
Study of geological sections of U-Th bearing rocks of the country.
Megascopic study of some uranium and thorium bearing minerals and rocks.
(b) Study of properties of common rocks with reference to their utility in
engineering projects. Study of maps and models of important engineering structures as dam sites and
tunnels. Interpretation of geological maps for landslide problems.
(c) Study of seismic and flood-prone areas in India. Analyses for alkalinity, acidity, pH and
conductivity (electrical) in water samples. Classification of ground water for use in drinking, irrigation
and industrial purposes. Presentation of chemical analyses data and plotting chemical classification
diagram.
(d) Computer applications in petrology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, structural analysis and other
branches of geology using different software packages

Core Credit 2, Period 36


ML 4 (Exercise related to Geochemistry and Radiogenic Isotopes, Sedimentology)
(a) Rock/Soil/sediments/water analysis. Calculation of mineral formulae from concentration of various
oxides in minerals.
(b) Study of Primary, secondary and biogenic sedimentary structures in hand specimens, in
photographic atlases, field photographs and wherever possible on the outcrops. Exercises related to
palaeocurrent data from different environments. Tilt corrections of palaeocurrent data.

53
Elective (Discipline Centric) ME 3 Credit 4, Period - 56

a. Advance Remote Sensing in Geosciences I


Unit-I
Types and geometry of aerial photograph, tilt and relief distortion, elements of photogrammetry, digital photogrammetry, types
of mosaics and its uses, scale variation on aerial photographs, vertical exaggeration, height and slope rectification of aerial
photographs.

Unit-II
Aerial photo-interpretation techniques, recognition of photo-elements and terrain elements like tone, texture, pattern, size,
shape, terrain elements like drainage pattern, density, type, landform characteristics, erosion behaviour of rocks and soil
material, vegetation characteristics, landuse and land cover classification.

Unit III
Photo-interpretation of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks. Photo-interpretation of structural, denudational, Aeolian
and volcanic landforms. Hydrogeomorphic mapping for ground water potential zones. Geomorphologic mapping and terrain
evaluation.

Unit-IV
Hyperspectral remote sensing-Imaging spectrometry, Characteristics of hyperspectral data, reflection and absorption
processes, causes of absorption, spectral signatures and spectral libraries, atmospheric corrections applied to hyperspectral data,
Data analysis software, Methodology, Availability of data, Application of hyperspectral remote sensing for geological mapping
and exploration.

Books Recommended:
1.Millor, V.C., 1961 Photogeology. Mc Graw Hill
2.Sabbins, F.F.,1985 Remote Sensing-Principles and Applications. Freeman
3.Moffitt, F.H. and Mikhail, E.M., 1980 Photogrammetry-Harper and Row
4.Lillesand, T.M. and Kieffer, R.W., 1987: Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation- John wiley
5.Pandey, S.N., 1987: Princdiples and Applications of Photogeology-Wiley Eastern
6. Fundamentals of GIS M. Demers
7. Encyclopedia of Applied Geology Finkiel
8. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System-M.Anji Reddy.
9. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System by A.M. Chandra
10.Remote Sensing of Environment by A.R. Jensen
11.Fundamentals of Remote Sensing by George Joseph

54
b. Applied Geochemistry - I

Unit-I
Historical background and developments.
Geochemical cycle, planning- oriented surveys.
Geochemical data analysis- evaluation of quality of data, presentation and statistical treatment of data.
Interpretation of data
Advanced analytical methods- AAS, XRF, ICP-ES, ICP-MS, NAA, IDMS, SSMS, Ion microprobe,
EPMA.

Unit-II
Distribution of elements, primary dispersion, secondary dispersion.
Geochemical exploration methods-lithogeochemical, hydrogeochemical, atmogeochemistry.
Formation of soil, soil types, soil survey, pedochemical methods, overburden geochemistry.
Drainage survey, stream sediment survey-bed sediments, flood plain geochemistry, lake sediments.

Unit-III
Geochemistry of petroleum- paraffins, napthenes, aromatics, heterocomponnds.
Chemical composition of crude oil, chemistry of kerogen.
Sulfur, carbon and nitrogen and their isotopes in petroleum.

Unit-IV
Geochemistry of coal.
Cellulose and lignocellulose, resins, fats, salts, organic, acids, paraffins, sulfur, phosphorus, silica. Sulfur
carbon and nitrogen and their isotopes in coal.

Books Recommended:
1.Pacal, Z. (ed), 1977: Geochemical Prospecting Methods-Ustrendi
2.Brooks, A.R., 1972 : Geobotany and Biogeochemistry in Mineral Exploration-Harper & Row
3.Rose, A.W., Hawkes, H.E. and Webb, J.A. 1979: Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration-Academic Press

55
c. Sedimentary Environment and Sedimentary Basins I
Unit I
Silisiclastic sediments-classification, description of major types and their analysis in relation toprovenance. Volacniclastics-
formation and general characteristics, types of pyroclastics, transportation and deposition, ignimbrite, tuffs, epiclastic deposits,
methods used in studying modern pyroclastic deposits.

Unit II
Carbonate grains-sketal and nonskeletal, mineralogy and chemical composition of carbonate minerals. Dolomite-mineralogy,
control of dolomitization, occurrence and mechanism of formation.

Unit-III
Clay deposits-physical properties, mineralogy, chemistry and genesis. Evaporites-mineralogy, physico-chemical controls on
precipitation and dissolution. Phosphorites- mineralogy, occurrence. origin of various types of cement.

Unit- IV
Trace fossils- occurrence, association and petrographic characteristics, use of trace fossils, stromatolites,thrombolites and
related structures in paleoenvironment analysis, methods of paleocurrent determination and basin analysis. Sedimentation and
plate tectonics-basic model concept, basin classification, basin models, clastic petrofacies.

Books Recommended:
1.Allen, J.R.L., 1985: Principles of Physical Sedimentation-George Allen & Unwin
2.Allen, P., 1997: Earth Surface Processes-Blackwell
3,Nichols, G., 1999: Sedimentology and Stratigraphy-Blackwell
4.Reading, H.G., 1996: Sedimentary Environment-Blackwell
5.Davis, R.A. Jr., 1992: Depositional System-Prentice Hall
6.Einsele, G., 1992: Sedimentary Basins-Springer Verlag
7.Relneck, H.E. and Singh, I.B., 1980: Depositional Sedimentary Environments-Springer Verlag
8.Miall , A.D., 2000: Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis-Springer Verlag
9.Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E. and Siever, R., 1990: Sand and Sandstone-Springer Verlag
10.Bhattacharya, A. and Chakraborti, C., 2000: Analysis of Sedimentary Successions-Oxford-IBH
14.Boggs Sam Jr., 1995: Principles of Sedimentary and Stratigraphy-Prentice Hall

56
d. Micropalaeontology - I

Unit-I
History of micropalaeontological research with special reference to India
Surface and subsurface collection of samples for micropaleontological analysis
Treatment of samples, separation of microfossils, picking, mounting and preparation of microfuanal slide,
sectioning storage & repository of microfossils

Unit II
Illustration of microfossils: use of Camera lucida microphotography and scanning electron microscope
Environmental significances of microfossils and their use in interpretation of paleoenvironments
Applied micropaleontology: use of microfossils in exploration of petroleum.

Unit-III
Foraminifera: living animal, life cycle and dimorphism
Test morphology of smaller foraminifera: composition, evolution of different test types, sutures, apertures
and their modifications
Test ultrastructures: Lamellar characters, pores and canals
Significance of variation studies in foraminiferal taxonomy with reference to Jurassic nodosariids
Ecology and palacoecology of foraminifera
Stratigraphic distribution of foraminifera
Use of foraminifera as indicators of marine pollution

Unit-IV
Outline of modern foraminiferal classification
Larger foraminifera: living cell and test morphology, brief classification
Major groups of larger foraminifera their morphological features and geological distribution
Ecology paleoecology and evolutionary trends larger foraminifera
Biometrics of important larger foraminifera and their significance

Books Recommended
1.Haq, B.V. and Boersma, A., 1998: Introduction to Marine Micropalaeontology- Elsevier
2.Haynes, J.R., 1981: Foraminifera-John Wiley
3.Bignot, G., 1985: Elements of Micropalaeontology-Graham and Trotman

57
e. Advance Ore Geology I

Unit- I
Ore-genesis: Ore bearing fluids. Depositional environment. Control of Mineralization.
Detailed Study of Principal Mineral groups: Sulfide group of minerals. Oxide group of minerals.
Carbonates group of minerals.
Textures and structures of ores:

Unit II
Physiographic divisions of the ocean and their potential mineral deposits. Mineral deposits in the
continental shelf regions-phosphorite, shell, placer and sand & gravel deposits.
Subsurface sea-bed deposits-petroleum, methane hydrate.
Heavy metal deposits on the deep-seafloor-ferromanganese nodules.
Exploitable mineral and petroleum resources of the Indian Ocean.
Ore mineral assemblages in extraterrestrial environments-meteorites and lunar rocks.

Unit III
Paragenesis and zoning of ores and their significance.
Textures of ore minerals and their significance.
Textures formed due to deposition in open spaces.
Textures formed due to crystallization from melts.
Textures formed due to replacement.

Unit-IV
Ore deposits related to mafic intrusives
Ore deposits related to intermediate intrusives
Ore deposits related to felsic intrusives
Ore deposits related to submarine volcanism
Ores of vein association-Origin, kinds of veins, zoning in veins.

Books recommended:
1. Wolf, K.H., 1976-81. Hand book of strabound and stratiform ore deposits, Elsevier.
2. Klemm, D.D. and Schneider, H.J. , 1977. Time and strata bound deposits Springer Verlag.
3. Ramdhor, P., 1969. The ore minerals and their intergrowths-Pergamon Press.
and books given in Paper I.
4. Park, Jr. C.F. and MacDiarmid, R.A., 1975: Ore deposits-Freeman
5. Klein, C. and Hurlbut, Jr. C.S., 1999,: Manual of Mineralogy (after James D. Dana) Revised 21st Edition-John
Wiley.

58
f. Advanced Hydrogeology - I
Unit-I
Hydrologic cycle: precipitation, infiltration, runoff, evaporation and evapotranspiration and their
measurement. Ground water in hydrologic cycle. Distribution of water in the earth crust. Hydrographic
analyses: hydrograph separation, baseflow recession, storm hydrograph. Gaining and losing streams.
Water balance studies. Spring (including thermal): type, origin and movement of water. Methods of
identification of groundwater reservoir properties.

Unit-II
Forces and laws of groundwater movement: Forces acting on groundwater, Water table, infiltration, soil
moisture, theory of unsaturated flow water Table recharge, aquifer characteristics, homogeneity and
isotropy. Principle of groundwater flow: mechanical energy, hydraulic head, force potential and
hydraulic head, Darcy Law in terms of force potential.

Unit III
Step draw down test (SDT) and its application in evaluation of well performance. Aquifer performance
test (APT), determination of aquifer parameters using Theis recovery, Boultons and distance draw down
methods. Hydrogeological boundaries; recharge boundary condition and barrier boundary. Determination
of aquifer boundaries.
Environmental impact of ground water extraction: Lowering of water table, compaction and surface
subsidence

Unit-IV
Geology of groundwater occurrence with special reference to India: crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks,
lithified clastic sediments, limestone terrain including karst terrain, fluvial deposit, eolian deposit, coastal
deposit and lacustrine deposits, their hydraulic characteristics, aquifer distribution and yield.

Books Recommended:
1.Chow, V.T., 1988: Advances in Hydroscience-McGraw Hill
2.Walton, W.C., 1988: Ground Water Resource Evolution-McGraw Hill
3.Black, W. and Others (Ed.), 1989: Hydrogeology-Geol. Soc. Of America Publ.
4.Mahajan, G., 1990: Evolution and Development of Ground Water-D.K. Publisher
5.Singhal, B.B.S., 1986: Engineering Geosciences-Savita Prakashan

59
g. Impact of Geology on Environment- I
Unit-I
Concept of Ecosystem; Ecology, Ecological perspective of Environment, Biotic communities, Biological
Diversity. Values of Indian Biodiversity, Indian Biodiversity under serious threat. Concept of
sustainable development- sustainable living and non-living resources. Environmental priorities in India
and sustainable development. Mineral Resources and Environment.

Unit-II
Environmental impact on mineral development, remedial measures. Impacts of mining activities on the
Environment and remedial measures. Dumping of ore, fly ash and mine waste, source of hazardous waste,
waste disposal, radioactive waste management

Unit - III
The nature of earth resources.
Renewable and non renewable resources, alternative sources of energy. Energy from solar radiation,
geothermal energy, tapping geothermal energy, Energy from Biomass, Alternative fuel, Nuclear energy
options.

Unit-IV
Impact of Human settlement, population, urbanization, global warming and climatic changes,
Anthropogenic Impact of Environment, Depletion of Stratospheric ozone, ozone layer, chemistry of
ozone layer, ozone hole, effects of ozone depletion.

Books Recommended:
As given for Paper-XIII

60
h. Petroleum Exploration- I

Unit-I
Physico-chemical properties of natural hydrocarbon
Important factors controlling petroleum occurrence
Identification and characterization of petroleum source rocks
Formation of petroleum in relation to geological processes-temperature, time and pressure
Timing of oil and gas generation
Amount and type and maturation of organic matter

Unit-II
Oil and source rock correlation- correlation parameters, oil-oil correlation, oil and source rock correlation
Locating petroleum prospects based on principles of petroleum generation and migration-Geological
modeling

Unit III
Quantitative evaluation of oil and gas prospects through geochemical studies
Reconstruction of the ancient geothermal gradient
Migration modeling
Geological setting of oil and gas reserves, age distribution of petroleum reserves

Unit-IV
Direct oil finding methods
Geological exploration methods
Elements of geophysical methods of exploration: magnetic, gravity and seismic
Interpretation of seismic data in basin analysis and preparation of subsurface geological maps
Application of Remote Sensing techniques in basin analysis

Books Recommended:
1.North, F.K., 1985: Petroleum Geology-Allen and Unwin
2.Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984: Petroleum Formation and Occurrence-Springer Verlag
3.Selley, R.C., 1998: Elements of Petroleum Geology-Academic Press

61
i. Gemology-I
Unit-I
Historical background and scope of gems and gemstones. Formation of minerals, basic qualities and
classification of gemstones, nature of light, electromagnetic spectrum) units of measurement.

Unit-II
Nature of crystals: distinction between crystalline and amorphous material, crystal symmetry, Twinning,
parallel growth, crystal form, crystal habit, seven crystal system. Identification of rough stones.

Unit-III
Physical properties including optical properties
Hardness, cleavage, Fracture, parting, specific gravity, Estimation of Hell of a gem material.

Unit IV
Optical properties: laws of reflection importance in gemology; lusture, sheen chatoyancy, asterism.
Laws of refraction, Refractive Index and measurement of R.I; colour and its causes pleochroism and
dichroism singly and doubly refractive gems. Absorption spectroscope, luminescence aventure scence,
play of colour, change of colour etc. use of Chelsea filter, Infra-red ultraviolet and x-rays in gem
identification.

Books Recommended:
1. Gemmology 2nd Ed.-Peter Read (1991) Butter worth-Heinemanu Ltd.Lundu.
2. Gems 5th Ed. Peter Read. Buurerworth, London
3. Hand book of gem idendification-Richard Laddicoat (1987), G.I.A. Santa Monica.
4. Photo Atlas of Including in Gem Stones-Edward Gubelin 1986 ABC Edition Zurich.
5. Gem Testing 10th Ed. B.W. Anderson (1990) Butterworth Scientific London.
6. Gemstone Enhancement 2nd Edition, K.Nassan. 1994 Butterworths London.
7. Gems 5th Ed. Webster Butterworths London.

62
j. Engineering Geology and Geotechniques-I
Unit-I
Site Investigation and exploration. Geotechnical Investigations-targets and techniques. Surface and sub-
surface Investigations.
Geophysical techniques for near surface studies.
Gravity survey-acquisition and correction analysis and interpretation of gravity data, Geological
applications.
Magnetic Survey-data acquisition and interpretation, engineering applications.

Unit II
Seismic Survey-Reflection and Refraction, application in mapping fracture zones, shallow faults and
cavities, depth to bed rock, dam site investigations.
Resistivity Survey-Profiling and sounding, Apparent resistivity, electrode configurations, applications in
engineering geology.
Ground Probing Rader-basic principles and engineering application. Tomography in geophysical
geotechnical applications.

Unit-III
Seismicity- Active faults, Fractal distribution of faults and earthquakes, Gutenberg-Richter Relationship,
Seismic Investigations, Dynamic analysis, concept of seismic factor, Induced seismicity, Engineering use
of accelerogram, spectrum of an earthquake, aseismic design. Compaction and Liquifaction.
Slope Stability-Stability analysis, Terzaghis theory, critical slope, slope control, stabilization,
Reinforcement.

Unit IV
Failure of Rock-Griffiths theory of fracture initiation in rock mass, failure propagation of jointed rock
mass.
Discontinuities-Geometry, surface features, roughness, JRC, Rock Quality Indices, RQD, fracture
frequency, C-factor, mass factor, velocity ratio, strength of discontinuity.

Book Recommended:
1. Environmental and engineering geophysics-P.V. Sharma.
2. Principles of Engineering Geology and Geotechnics-D.P. Krynine and W.R.Judd
3. Fundamentals of Engineering Geology-F.G. Bell.
4. Engineering Geology and Geotechnics-F.G. Bell.
5.Rock Mechanics-W.Wittke
6. Rock Mechanics and Engineering-C.Jeger

63
k. Rock Deformation and Structural Analysis-I
Unit-I
Dynamic analysis. Concept of stress analysis. Computing axial stress. Stress vector and its computation. Computation of total
state of stress. The Mohr stress diagram. Role of confining pressure temperature, time, solutions in rock deformation.
Microstructural behavior of rocks.

Unit-II
Kinematic analysis. Concept of Kinematic analysis and strain. Ground rules for strain analysis. Computing changes in line
lengths, changes in angles between lines, Shear strain. Strain ellipse and its calculation. Calculating the variations in strain. The
Mohr circle strain diagram. The strain ellipsoid and its application. Some practical constraints in strain analysis. Finite and
infinitesimal strain.

Unit-III
Fold shape classifications and projection techniques of fold orientations. Mechanism of single layer and multilayer folds and
associated structures. Superposed folds. Pi and beta diagrams.

Unit-IV
Study of various types of fractures. Application of fracture analysis. Significance of fractures and brittle and shear zones.
Determination fabrics in deformed rocks and interpretation.

Books recommended:

1. Structural analysis of metamorphic Tectonics-Turner and Weiss.


2. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions-Davis.
3. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks-Ramsay.
4. An Outline of Structural Geology-Rubbs, Mears and William.
5. A Manual of Problems in Structural Geology-Gokhle

64
l. Glaciology - I
Unit I
Climatic regimes and glacier: Snowline altitude in different mountains and continents, effect of precipitation effect of latitude,
effect of solar radiation, terminal altitude of glaciers, Cirque and glacier development

Unit II
Spatial and temporal distribution of snow, ice and glaciers: Physical and Chemical Properties of Ice, Global Hydrological
Cycle and snow and ice component, Water Inventory and snow and ice on earth, snow covered areas covered on the Globe,
Northern Sea Ice, Southern Sea Ice, Permafrost, present ice volume, Ice Volumes in Distant Past, Present-Day Antarctica,
Present-Day Greenland, Alaskan Ice, Ice in Western USA, Distribution of the snow and ice in Himalaya.

Unit III
Glacial Geomorphology : Types of ice body: niche, cirque, alpine, piedmont, floating , ice cap, ice sheet, glacier mass
balance, equilibrium (firn) line, glacier process: abrasion plucking (quarrying) , sediment load: subglacial, englacial,
supraglacial, landforms: ice scoured basins , roche mountonnees , meltwater valleys cirque, arete , horn , hanging valley ,
glacial trough , truncated spur , glacial drift, till, outwash , glacio-lacturine sediments , glacio-tectonic drifto , moraines, eskers,
kame , valley train and outwash plain

Unit IV
Ice Ages: Causes of ice ages, Orbital parameters, Milutin Milankovitch cycle, role of CO2 and other green house gases,
weathering, mountain building etc., Reconstructions of the ice volume, inferring ice volume in the past using isotopes,
SPACEMAP ice volume in the past, Rate of change of ice volume, ice cores, Ice ages in Himalaya, ice cores study in
Himalayan glacier.

Readings:

Field Techniques in Glaciology and Glacial Geomorphology by Bryn Hubbard and Neil F. Glasser, willey International
The Physics of Glaciers, Fourth Edition Hardcover, 2010, Kurt M. Cuffey and W. S. B. Paterson
Holmes' Principles of Physical Geology Paperback 1993, P. McL. D. Duff and Arthur Holmes
Himalayan Glaciers, 1999, Syed Iqbal Hasnain, Allied Publishers
Himalayan Glaciers, 1999, Naseeuddin Ahmad and Sarwar Rais, Allied Publishers
Snow and Glacier Hydrology, 2000, P. Singh, Vijay P. Singh

65
Ability Enhancement (Discipline Centric) MAE 3 Credit 4

Field Geology 2

66
M. Sc. (Applied Geology): Part II
Semester - IV
Core Credit 2, Period - 28
Paper M 16: Geochemistry and Stable Isotopes
Unit-I
Geochemical characteristics of different mantle geochemical components: HIMU, EM 1, EM- 2,
PREMA and DUPAL.
Isotopes as petrogenetic indicators.
Stable isotopes: nature, abundance and fractionation.
Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in water and water vapour, SMOW.

Unit-II
Carbon isotopes in modern biosphere and in sediments, fossil fuels, marine and non-marine carbonates.
Nitrogen-isotopic fractionation, nitrogen isotopes of igneous, meteorite and lunar rocks, nitrogen on the
surface of the earth, fossil fuels.
Sulfur-biogenic fractionation, sulfur isotopes in recent sediments, petroleum and coal.

Unit-III
Laws of thermodynamics, concept of free energy, activity, fugacity and equilibrium constant,
thermodynamics of ideal, non-ideal and dilute solutions. Principles of ionic, substitution in minerals,
element partitioning in mineral/rock formation.
Concept of simple distribution co-efficient and exchange reaction distribution coefficients.
Elements partitioning in mineral assemblages and its use in P-T estimation.

Unit-IV
Rock weathering and soil formation.
Elementary mobility in surface environment.
Soil geochemistry, sediment geochemistry.
Concept of geochemical-biogeochemical cycling and global climate.
Identification and evaluation of geochemical anomalies.
Atmosphere composition, evolution of atmosphere and differentiation of elements through geological
times.

Books Recommended:
1.Mason, B. and Moore, C.B., 1991: Introduction to Geochemistry-Wiley Eastern
2.Krauskopf, K.B., 1967: Introduction to Geochemistry-McGraw Hill
3.Faure, G., 1986: Principles of Isotope Geology-John Wiley
4.Hoefs, J., 1980: Stable isotope Geochemistry Springer Verlag
5.Marshal, C.P. and Fairbridge, R.W., 1999: Encyclopaedia of Geochemistry-Kluwer Academic
6.Govett, G.J.S. (Ed.), 1983: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry-Elsevier
7.Nordstrorm, D.K. and Munoz, J.L., 1986: Geochemical Thermodynamics-Blackwell
8.Henderson, P., 1987: Inorganic Geochemistry-Pergamon Press

67
Core Credit 2, Period - 28
Paper M 17: Applied Sedimentation
Unit-I
Textural and mineralogical maturity of clastic rocks.
Sandstone classification.Volcaniclastic: on-land and marine.
Diagenesis and fluid flow: diagenesis of mudstones, sandstones and carbonate rocks: changes in
mineralogy, fabric and chemistry. Classification of conglomerate. Chert: occurrence and petrographic
characteristics.

Unit-II
Evaluation of sedimentary basins: tectonics and sedimentation; craton facies, geosyncline and related
facies.Sedimentary basins and plate tectonics: intraplate basins, divergent margin basins, Rifts, failed rifts
aulacogens, convergent margin basins, trench, subduction complex, fore arc, back arc, and inter arc
basins

Unit III
Clastic petrofacies: paleoclimate and paleoenvironment analysis.
Application of trace element, rare earth element and stable isotope geochemistry to sedimentological
problem.Field and laboratory techniques in sedimentology: recording of sedimentary structures,
preparation of lithologs, rocks and thin section staining, cathodoluminescence

Unit-IV
Paleocurrent and basin analysis: use of various sedimentary structures like ripple marks, cross bedding,
sole marks in reconstruction of paleocurrents, Impact of paleocurrents on size shape, roundness, fabric
and bed thickness, Distribution of paleocurrents in space and time and usefulness in paleogeographic
reconstruction and basin analysis.

Books Recommended:
1.Allen, J.R.L., 1985: Principles of Physical Sedimentation-George Allen & Unwin
2.Allen, P., 1997: Earth Surface Processes-Blackwell
3,Nichols, G., 1999: Sedimentology and Stratigraphy-Blackwell
4.Reading, H.G., 1996: Sedimentary Environment-Blackwell
5.Davis, R.A. Jr., 1992: Depositional System-Prentice Hall
6.Einsele, G., 1992: Sedimentary Basins-Springer Verlag
7.Relneck, H.E. and Singh, I.B., 1980: Depositional Sedimentary Environments-Springer Verlag
8.Prothero, D.R. and Schwab, F., 1996: Sedimentary Geology-Freeman
9.Miall , A.D., 2000: Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis-Springer Verlag
10.Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E. and Siever, R., 1990: Sand and Sandstone-Springer Verlag
11.Biatt, H., Murray, G.V. and Middleton, R.C., 1980: Origin of Sedimentary rocks
12.Bhattacharya, A. and Chakraborti, C., 2000: Analysis of Sedimentary Successions-Oxford-IBH
13.Boggs Sam Jr., 1995: Principles of Sedimentary and Stratigraphy-Prentice Hall
14.Sengupta, S., 1997: Introduction to Sedimentology-Oxford-IBH

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Core Credit 2, Period - 28

Paper M18: Environmental Geology - II


Unit-I
Pollutants and contaminants. Behaviour of contaminants in environment. Point and non-point sources.
Assessment and impact of contamination for surface and ground water quality due to industrialization and
urbanization. Induced pollution, water quality criteria for different uses.

Unit-II
Water logging, problems of water logging due to indiscrete construction of canals, reservoirs, dams,
water logging problem in India, Floods, causes of floods, flood hazarad, management of floods

Unit III
Soil formation and their classification, soil nature, soil profile, soil types of India, soil erosion by running
water, wind, soil deterioration by agricultural and engineering practices. Soil pollution and soil
amendments, effects of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides

Unit-IV
Natural hazards: Concepts of environmental security. Influence to neotectonic in seismic hazards
assessment. Significance of seismic hazard maps. Distribution, magnitude, intensity and geological
effects of earthquakes. Seismicity condition in and remedial measures in India. Sea level rise: impacts
and risks. Desertification: causes, impact and assessment. Application of remote sensing & GIS in natural
hazards. Examples & Case studies.

Books Recommended:
1.Valdiya, K.S., 1987: Environmental Geology-Indian Context-Tata McGraw Hill
2.Keller, E.A., 1978: Environmental Geology-Bell and Howell, USA
3.Bryant, E., 1985: Natural Hazards-Cambridge University Press
4.Patwardhan, A.M., 1999: The Dynamic Earth System-Prentice Hall
5.Subramaniam, V., 2001: Textbook in Environmental Science-Narosa International
6.Bell, F.G., 1999: Geological Hazards-Routledge, London
7.Smith, K., 1992: Environmental Hazards-Routledge,
London.
8. Vulnerability, threats and analysis-Case Studies from
India,TERI, The Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi.

69
Core Credit 2, Period - 36

ML 5: LAB WORK Exercise related to Geochemistry, and Computer Applications


(a) Calculation of weathering indices in soil and sediments .Presentation of analytical data.
(b) Computer applications

Core Credit 2, Period - 36

ML 6: LAB WORK Exercise related to Applied Sedimentation and Environmental Geology


(a) Exercises related to analysis and interpretation of depositional sedimentary environments using actual
case histories from the Indian stratigraphic records. Determination of porosity in clastic and carbonate
rock. Staining and mineral identification in carbonate rocks. Petrography of clastic and chemical
sedimentary rocks. Detailed study of diagenetic features in thin sections. Microscopic study of heavy
minerals. Exercises on mineralogical and geochemical data plots for environmental interpretations
(b) Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution groundwater, landslides, deforestation,
cultivation and building construction in specified areas

Core Credit 2, Period 36

ML 7: LAB WORK
Project Oriented Dissertation (To be allotted after second semester exam or at the beginning of
third semester)

Core Credit 4
ML 8: LAB WORK
Presentation and Viva-Voce on Project Oriented Dissertation.

70
Elective (Discipline Centric) ME 4 Credit 4, Period - 56

a. Advance Remote Sensing in Geosciences II


Unit-I
Remote sensing applications in geosciences: visual interpretation of satellite images for geological, geomorphological and
structural features. Techniques of image interpretation using spectral, spatial and temporal information. Spectral signatures of
natural objects, interpretation of lithology, rock types landuse/landcover under different climatic conditions and physical setup.

Unit-II
Terrain classification, terrain mapping, applications of remote sensing techniques in study of geomorphology, soil types
mapping, hydrogeology, engineering geology, land use and land cover mapping, forest types, their distribution and relationship
of vegetation to rock types. Watershed characterization and mapping. Groundwater targeting in various terrains. Case studies
from India.

Unit- III
Digital image processing. Various image processing softwares their environments and working principles of data interpretation.
Digital image processing techniques:data formats, enhancement, filtering, preparation of false colour composite image,
unsupervised and supervised classification, preparation of training sets, extraction of information, HIS, PCA and vegetation
indices and their utility in image interpretation.

Unit-IV
Digital elevation models, Types of DEMs, Methods for obtaining elevation data used to create DEMs, Use of DEMs in
topographic and geologic mapping, mineral exploration, morphometric analysis, Floodplain mapping and analysis, Watershed
management, Erosion control, Commercial applications of DEMs, Availability of global elevation data.

Books Recommended:
1.Millor, V.C., 1961 Photogeology. Mc Graw Hill
2.Sabbins, F.F.,1985 Remote Sensing-Principles and Applications. Freeman
3.Moffitt, F.H. and Mikhail, E.M., 1980 Photogrammetry-Harper and Row
4.Lillesand, T.M. and Kieffer, R.W., 1987: Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation-John wiley
5.Pandey, S.N., 1987: Princdiples and Applications of Photogeology-Wiley Eastern
6. Fundamentals of GIS M. Demers
7. Encyclopedia of Applied Geology Finkie
8. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System-M.Anji Reddy.
9. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System by A.M. Chandra
10. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing by George Joseph
11. Remote Sensing of Environment by A.R. Jensen

71
b. Applied Geochemistry - II
Unit-I
Geobotanical survey, biogeochemical survey
Radon as a geochemical exploration tool-generation, migration, radon measuring methods, applications in
exploration
Fission tract plateao dating
Thermoluminiscence dating
Marine and Lacsturine sediments dating with 210 Pb

Unit-II
Radionuclides and their use in geochemical exploration
Cosmogenic radionuclides in ground water
Production of 10Be 26Al, Residence times in ocean, Dating sediments with cosmogenic radionuclides:
marine sediments, Mn nodules, biogenic silica, continental sediments and soils

Unit-III
Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in hydrosphere and atmosphere-fractionation, applications to exploration.
Carbon isotopes in modern biosphere and sediments and their use in geochemical exploration
Carbon isotopes in hydrothermal ore deposits

Unit-IV
Nitrogen isotopes-fractionations, nitrogen on the surface of the earth and applications.
Sulfur- biogenic fractionation, sulfur in recent sediments, sulfur in the environment and its implications to
exploration
Sulfur isotopic evolution of marine sulphate
Sulfur isotpe fractionation among sulfide minerals

Books Recommended:
1.Pacal, Z. (ed), 1977: Geochemical Prospecting Methods-Ustrendi
2.Brooks, A.R., 1972 : Geobotany and Biogeochemistry in Mineral Exploration-Harper & Row
3.Rose, A.W., Hawkes, H.E. and Webb, J.A. 1979: Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration-Academic Press

72
c. Sedimentary Environment and Sedimentary Basins-II

Unit I
Sedimentary cycles, rythms and cyclothems. Analysis of sedimentary facies and preparation of facies
maps. Lithofacies, biofacies, dynamics and primary structures associated with the environments- desert,
alluvial fan, river plains, glaciers, deltas, estuaries, clastic shoreline, clastic shelves, marine evaporite
basins, carbonate platforms, deep sea and ocean bottoms, deep sea trench and rise.

Unit II
Sedimentation pattern and depositional environment of selected undeformed sedimentary basins of India
representing Precambrian, Phenerozoic and contemporary basins.

Unit-III
Sequence stratigraphy-historical perspective, concepts and principles, sequence stratigraphic tools,
application to depositional system.

Unit IV
Modern laboratory techniques in sedimentological studies. Thin section studies-types of specimen,
etching technique, staining techniques particularly for feldspar and carbonates, modal analysis and
techniques. Photomicrography-requirement, technique (choice of objective and eyepiece) scale of
photograph. Important common photographic cameras. Scanning electron microscope (principle, parts,
function and application). X-ray diffractrometer (XRD)-principle, parts operation. Mineral composition
with particular reference to clay and carbonates.

Books Recommended:
1.Allen, J.R.L., 1985: Principles of Physical Sedimentation-George Allen & Unwin
2.Allen, P., 1997: Earth Surface Processes-Blackwell
3,Nichols, G., 1999: Sedimentology and Stratigraphy-Blackwell
4.Reading, H.G., 1996: Sedimentary Environment-Blackwell
5.Davis, R.A. Jr., 1992: Depositional System-Prentice Hall
6.Einsele, G., 1992: Sedimentary Basins-Springer Verlag
7.Relneck, H.E. and Singh, I.B., 1980: Depositional Sedimentary Environments-Springer Verlag
8.Miall , A.D., 2000: Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis-Springer Verlag
9.Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E. and Siever, R., 1990: Sand and Sandstone-Springer Verlag
10.Bhattacharya, A. and Chakraborti, C., 2000: Analysis of Sedimentary Successions-Oxford-IBH
14.Boggs Sam Jr., 1995: Principles of Sedimentary and Stratigraphy-Prentice Hall

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d. Micropalaeontology-II
Unit-I
Ostracoda: Appendage and body morphology
Detailed carapace morphology of ostracoda
Ecology and Palacoecology of Ostracoda
Evolution and biostratigraphy of ostracoda
Outline classification of ostracods

Unit II
Conodonts: Soft parts, origin, morphology of skeletal elements
Brief classification of conodonts
Mode of growth and function of skeletal apparatus
Paleoecology, evolutionary trends and biostratigraphy of conodonts

Unit-III
Calcareous nanofossils: morphology of coccolithophores
Outline classification of coccoliths
Ecology and biogeography of coccolithophores
Biostratigraphy of coccolithophores
Radiolaria: morphology of hard parts and outline classification
Ecology and biostratigraphy of radiolaria

Unit-IV
Palynology: branches and application in various disciplines
Palynofossils: morphology of spores and pollens
Use of palynofossils in paleoclimatic and paleogeographic interpretation
Biostratigraphic use of palynofossils with special reference to Indian stratigraphy
Stable isotope studies on foraminifera and their paleoecologic and paleoclimatic significance

Books Recommended
1.Haq, B.V. and Boersma, A., 1998: Introduction to Marine Micropalaeontology-Elsevier
2.Haynes, J.R., 1981: Foraminifera-John Wiley
3.Bignot, G., 1985: Elements of Micropalaeontology-Graham and Trotman

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e. Advance Ore Geology- II
Unit- I
Detailed study of ore deposits formed as:
Chemical precipitates: Sedimentary Iron Ore deposits. Sedimentary Manganese deposits. Sedimentary Phosphorite deposits.
Mechanical accumulations: Placer deposits.
Ore deposits formed by weathering: Bauxite deposits, Laterite deposits.
Significance of stratiform and stara bound ore deposits of sedimentary affiliation and those of metamorphic affiliation.

Unit-II
Mineral economics and its concept.
Mineral legislation in India-Major and minor minerals, mineral concessions, claim system and reyalty.
Production and marketing of major minerals in India-taxes and duties, imports and exports.
Some important world resources of minerals.
Mineral conservation and evolution of National Mineral Policy.

Unit III
Quantitative methods in ore microscopy-Reflectance and microindentation hardness.
Methods of fluid inclusion studies and their applications.
Textures formed due to cooling.
Textures formed due to deformation and annealing.
Transformation Textures.
Applications of textural characteristics to ore dressing.

Unit IV
Geological modeling for mineral exploration. Geochemical modeling of ore deposits.

Books recommended:
1. Wolf, K.H., 1976-81. Hand book of strabound and stratiform ore deposits, Elsevier.
2. Klemm, D.D. and Schneider, H.J. , 1977. Time and strata bound deposits Springer Verlag.
3. Ramdhor, P., 1969. The ore minerals and their intergrowths-Pergamon Press.
and books given in Paper I.
4. Park, Jr. C.F. and MacDiarmid, R.A., 1975: Ore deposits-Freeman

75
f. Advanced Hydrogeology-II
Unit-I
Water and aqueous solutions internal structure of water molecule, structure of liquid water, isotopic
composition of water. Chemical characteristics of groundwater in relation to various uses-domestic,
industrial and irrigation purposes. Water quality standards. Groundwater contamination: septic tank and
cesspools, landfills, chemical spills and leaking underground tanks, mining and other sources of
groundwater contamination.

Unit II
Groundwater pollution and treatment. Microbiology of drinking water: Bacteriological analyses, faecal
coliform bacteria, ecological classification of water, biological factor of self purification.
Trace elements: source, trace element and health hazards. Trace elements as Nutrients: Sources and
impact on water quality.

Unit-III
Isotope hydrology: tritium, radiocarbon dating of groundwater, stable isotope of oxygen and hydrogen
and other isotope. Fossil water and its significance. Salt water intrusion, Ghyben Herzberg relation
between fresh and saline water shape of fresh and salt water interface, control of saline water intrusion

Unit-IV
Groundwater modeling: Physical scale model, analog models; their principal characteristic application
and limitations. R-C analog model Mathematical models: analytical and numerical approaches.
Numerical model: finite difference and finite element models.
Conceptualization including defining the aquifer system and its boundaries.
Discritization and data requirement.
Groundwater contamination and modeling: Principles and concepts.
Classification of groundwater contamination models.

Books Recommended:
1.Chow, V.T., 1988: Advances in Hydroscience-McGraw Hill
2.Walton, W.C., 1988: Ground Water Resource Evolution-McGraw Hill
3.Black, W. and Others (Ed.), 1989: Hydrogeology-Geol. Soc. Of America Publ.
4.Mahajan, G., 1990: Evolution and Development of Ground Water-D.K. Publisher
5.Singhal, B.B.S., 1986: Engineering Geosciences-Savita Prakashan

76
g. Impact of Geology on Environment -II
Unit-I
Sediment pollution, siltation, contamination of sediment, sources of contamination of water, ground water
contamination, pattern of marine water, urbanization and climate of cities, disposal of solid wastes.

Unit-II
Geotechnical consideration and Environmental implication of Roads and Canal construction, Dams and
Reservoirs. Landslides and related phenomeno.

Unit III
Flood and Flood Management, Causes, flood hazards in India, Management of Flood, Coastal hazards,
Hazards on Indian coasts, Cyclones and their mitigation methods.

Unit-IV
Environmental laws, Implementing the Environmental Laws. Indian Laws, Environmental Policy matters,
pollution prevention and control. Environmental Impact Assessment. Hazardous substances
management. Environment Education, Information and awareness.

Books Recommended:
As given for Paper-XXV

77
h. Petroleum Exploration-II
Unit-I
Rig and their components
Elements of well drilling-cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, directional drilling, dyna drilling and
horizontal drilling
Various types of drilling units, Types of drill bits, drag bit, tricone bit, diamond bit and reamer

Unit II
Formation with the help of geological systems, Standard geo logging system- Offline, Online
Drilling fluids-types and system,
Types of pressure surges in the well kick, blow out: causes and control, well completion

Unit-III
Applied Micropalaeontology-palaeoecologic, biostratigraphic, and palaeogeographic significance of
microfossils
A brief account of major groups of microfossils used in petroleum exploration with special reference to
Foraminifera, Ostracoda, spore & pollens, and nannoplanktons
Sampling procedure and preparation of samples in commercial micropalaeontological labs, preparation of
microfaunal slides for study, identification of microfossils and preparation of range and oscillation charts
Use of microfossils in dating and correlation, determination of paleofacies and paleotectonism,
palaeogeography and source rock maturation.
Significance of organic reefs as petroleum reservoir, types of modern fossils reefs and their hydrocarbon
potential

Unit-IV
Reservoir characterization, reserve calculation and production methods, preliminary volumetric reserve
calculation and post discovery reserve calculation, water drive gas cap device, dissolve gas device,
artificial lift and enhanced recovery
Nonconventional petroleum resources-plastic and solid hydrocarbon, tar sand, oil shale, shale gas, coal
bed methane
Further prospects and probabilities of petroleum prospects appraisal, geological and economic aspects,
assessment of basin and global aspects
Application of logs in petrophysical and facies analysis

Books Recommended:
1.North, F.K., 1985: Petroleum Geology-Allen and Unwin
2.Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984: Petroleum Formation and Occurrence-Springer Verlag
3.Selley, R.C., 1998: Elements of Petroleum Geology-Academic Press

78
i. Gemology-II

Unit-I
Synthetic, Composite and limitation Gemstones; methods of synthesis, stones synthesized, identification
techniques, characteristics, manufactures and trade name.
Gem Enhancement methods and their identification: colourless/coloured impregnation, heat treatment,
coating irradiation, Diffusion treatment Foiling and Laser drilling.

Unit-II
Description and methods of identifications of all gem varieties of the following
INORGANIC : Apatite, Beryl, Chrysoberyl, Corundum, Epidote, Enstatite, Fluorite, Feldspar group

Unit III
Diamond, Grarnet group, Jadeile, lolite, Lapis Lazuli, Opal, Peridot, Sillimanite Quartz group, Spinel,
Tanzanite Topaz, Tourmaline Turquiose, Zircon.
ORGANIC : Amber, Coral, Jet, Pearl (Natural cultured, imitation), Ivory;
Varieties, species, occurrence and recovery of the above gem materials.

Unit-IV
Fashioning of gem stones, Description of the following gemstones cuts including diagrams:
Brilliants (with proportion for diamond) Cabochons, mixed, rose, step (Emerald) cut, Scissors or cross cut
etc. Importance of Orientation and Valuation.

Books Recommended:
1.Gemmology 2nd Ed.-Peter Read (1991) Butter worth-Heinemanu Ltd.Lundu.
2.Gems 5th Ed. Peter Read. Buurerworth, London
3.Hand book of gem idendification-Richard Laddicoat (1987), G.I.A. Santa Monica.
4.Photo Atlas of Including in Gem Stones-Edward Gubelin 1986 ABC Edition
5.Gem Testing 10th Ed. B.W. Anderson (1990) Butterworth Scientific London.
6.Gemstone Enhancement 2nd Edition, K.Nassan. 1994 Butterworths London.
7.Gems 5th Ed. Webster Butterworths London.

79
j. Engineering Geology and Geotechniques-II

Unit-I
Rock mass fabric-Geotechnical description and classification of rock masses. Classifications based on
unconfined compressive strength, modulus ration, Rating concept, RMR, Total Rating, Rock mass quality
classification. Rock mass reinforcement.
Rock Mechanics-Intact rock strength, Compressive, Tensile, Shear Strenth, Safety Factor, Modulus of
elasticity, Poissons Ratio, Residual Stress, Heims hypothesis. Viscoplastic behaviour.

Unit-II
Soil- grading, consistency limits and their measurements, shear strength of soil, sessitivity of clay,
Bearing capacity, Fill stability. Foundations for Buildings-Stress distribution, foundation failure,
settlement, subsidence, Mitigation of subsidence.
Geotechnical Classification of soil.
Geotechnical issues related to foundations in problematic soils eg gravels, sands, silts, Loess, Clays, tills,
fills.
Foundation structures-footings, Rafts, Piers, Piles.
Ground treatment methods.

Unit-III
Dams-Geotechnical requirements, Forces on dam, Sliding failure, Settlement and Rebound problems.
Reservoirs- geotechnical investigations, leakage, sedimentation in reservoir.
Reiver engineering-River control, Flood Regulation.

Unit-IV
Beach engineering-Erosion, Shoreline Investigations, Protective barriers.
Bridges and pavements-abutment and Piers of a bridges, bridge foundations.
Tunnels-Technical classification, Pressure Relief phenomena, Payline and overbreak, Rock and Soft
ground tunnel.

Book Recommended:
1. Environmental and engineering geophysics-P.V. Sharma.
2. Principles of Engineering Geology and Geotechnics-D.P. Krynine and W.R.Judd
3. Fundamentals of Engineeing Geology-F.G. Bell.
4. Engineering Geology and Geotechnics-F.G. Bell.
5.Rock Mechanics-W.Wittke
6. Rock Mechanics and Engineering-C.Jeger

80
k. Rock Deformation and Structural Analysis-II
Unit-I
Stress strain relationship. Two and three dimensional strain and stress analysis and its application in deformed rocks. Brittle
failure and ductile deformation.

Unit-II
Folding mechanism and fold geometry. Classification of folds based on layer shape. Buckling, oblique shear and flow folding.
Kinking and formation of chevron folds.

Unit-III
Shear stress and brittle failure. Fault orientation in relations to stress and strain axes. Thrust systems. Strike slip fault systems.
Shear zones.

Unit-IV
Types of cleavage and lineation. Geometric relationship of cleavage to folding. Strain significance of cleavage. Tectonites and
their significance. Descriptive and geometric analysis of tectonites.

Books recommended:

1. Structural analysis of metamorphic Tectonics-Turner and Weiss.


2. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions-Davis.
3. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks-Ramsay.
4. An Outline of Structural Geology-Hubbs, Mears and William.
5. A Manual of Problems in Structural Geology-Gokhle

81
l. Glaciology - II
Unit I
Glacier variations and Climate: Response to Climate Changes; Mass Balance study of glaciers, Glacier Advance and Retreat,
Linear-Systems Model for a Glacier, Surging glacier. Impact of Climate change on Himalayan glaciers: The records of glacier
retreat and advancement in centuries with spatial distribution

Unit II
Glacial Hydrolology and Hydrochemistry: Glacial hydrological system, meltwater process, mechanism of water discharge,
characterstics of glacier runoff, diurnal and annual cycle, longterm variation, process of solute acquisition two component
mixining model, chemical weathering process, meltwater character of Himalayan glacier

Unit III
Glaciological Techniques: Reconstructing Pleistocene climate based on landforms, glacier mass balance determination, Glacier
runoff measurements, Glacier ice core studies, palynology, Lichenometry, Tree rings studies, optically stimulated
luminescence (OSL) use in glacier dating, GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) for thickness determination.

Unit IV
Application of Remote sensing and GIS and GPS in Himalayan Glaciology: Snow cover evolution, Inventory and mapping of
glaciers, glacier evolution, velocity, Snow/ice differentiation, Determination of TSL and ELA on glacier surface, Mass balance
and snowmelt runoff, Temporal change in glacier DEMs and climate change, LIDAR, and SAR technology and glacier study.

Readings:
Field Techniques in Glaciology and Glacial Geomorphology by Bryn Hubbard and Neil F. Glasser, willey International
The Physics of Glaciers, Fourth Edition Hardcover, 2010, Kurt M. Cuffey and W. S. B. Paterson
Holmes' Principles of Physical Geology Paperback 1993, P. McL. D. Duff and Arthur Holmes
Himalayan Glaciers, 1999, Syed Iqbal Hasnain, Allied Publishers
Himalayan Glaciers, 1999, Naseeuddin Ahmad and Sarwar Rais, Allied Publishers
Snow and Glacier Hydrology, 2000, P. Singh, Vijay P. Singh

82
Open Elective (Ability Enhancement) OE Credit 4, Period- 56

The Preamble: Planet Earth is undergoing a constant change through an ever increasing resource consumption, population
growth, urban sprawl development, technological advancement and consequent disturbance of the natural systems.
Human intervention has been changing the global climate and environment in an unprecedented manner over Earths
history. The greatest question for society in the 21st century is whether these changes to Earths life-support systems
sustainable?
This course, Global Change is aimed at providing a broad understanding of complex issues involved in global change
and global sustainability. It investigates the causes and potential impacts of global changes using a combination of
traditional lecture-based and modern web-based teaching methodologies. The course draws on the fundamental principles
of science to establish the sustainability of human activity on Earth. It surveys the evolution and interaction of
physical, chemical, and biological processes; how past changes on Earth help us predict the future. After the course,
students will become better equipped to contribute to the debates on global environmental change, resource management
and societal adaptation strategies. They should be able to discern sound science from biased claims and will have a
foundation for making informed decisions about sustainable practices in their own lives.The course content is also
expected to provide opportunities to students to conduct research on topics of interest in their disciplines accruing from an
understanding of the Earth systems.

83
(a) Global Change

Unit-I
Global change: An overview; Time dimension of global change; Big bang and fundamental laws; Evolution of the solar
system; Age and evolution of the Earth; Earths energy balance; Changing Earth-Sun relationship; Factors that make
Earth a habitable planet;Major components of the Earths climate system;Evolution of the Earths atmosphere,
greenhouse gases and climate; Ozone in the Atmosphere Aspect related to the dynamics of atmospheric ozone;
Unit-II
Earths magnetic field - Changing geomagnetic field and its environmental effects;The dynamics of Earths
hydrosphere; Atmosphere-hydrosphere interactions; Water cycle and global energy transfer;Ocean observation in
relation to global change; Sea level changes and global climate change; Sensitivity of inland surface waters to global
change; Water cycle information for decision making; Monitoringterrestrial snow and ice for global change studies.
Unit-III
Land-Cover and Land-Use Dynamics Land-use and land-cover mapping, Land-use Land-cover change and climate;
The biosphere processes of evolution and natural selection; Evidence of natural selection; Biogenic processes and
changing atmospheric composition; Agricultural practices and global change; Lithosphere and Plate
tectonics;Terrestrial impacts and their role in global change; Global deforestation; Human impacts on global change;
Unit-IV
Biomass Burning Role of fire in global change analysis; Fire monitoring and burn area mapping; International Efforts
on global Change Research; Global observing systems; NASA Earth observing agenda; Review of NASA EO
Missions;Role of the European Space Agency in global change observations; International collaborative programmes;
Monitoring networks and databases.
BOOKS
RECOMMENDED:
Emilio Chuvieco (2008) Earth Observation of Global Change. Springer Science
ONeill B.C., Mackellar F.L. and Lutz W. (2001) Population and climate change.
CambridgeUniversity
William L. Steffen and Susannah Eliott (2004). Global change and the earth system: a planet under pressure,
International
Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) Secretariat, 40 pages
Al Gore (2013), Six Drivers of Global Change, Random House, 554
pages.
David C Cuff and Andrew S Goudie (Eds) (2009). The Oxford Companion to Global Change. Oxford University Press,
683 pages
Frank Biermann and Bernd Siebenhuner (Eds) (2009). Managers of Global Change: The Influence of International
Environmental Bureaucracies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Turner B.L., Clark W.C., Kates R.W., Richards J.F., Matthews J.T., and Meyers W.T. (1991). The Earth as transformed by
human action: Globaland regional changes in Biosphere over the last 300 years. Cambridge University Press,New York
Parkinson C. L., Ward A., & King M. D. (Eds.) (2006).Earth science reference handbook.A guide to NASAs Earth science
program and earth observing satellite missions. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

84
b) Earth Systems

Unit 1
Origin of earth, Formation of solar system, Cosmic abundance and neucleosynthesis, Meteorites, Interior of earth (major
divisions and discontinuities), Movements of earth (Plate tectonic theory, Isostasy, Sea floor spreading). Supercontinents and
Continental drift theory, Fossils: Important landmarks of evolution of life, Major extinction events and their causes
Unit 2
Physical processes inside the earth, magmatism: mechanism and causes, Earthquakes at plate margins, Stable Continental
Region (SCR) Earthquakes, Mountain building activities, gravity and magnetic properties of earth. Magnetic polarity reversals.
Radioisotopes and age determination, Formation of various rock types (Igneous, sedimentary and Metamorphic)
Unit 3
Economic resources of earth, mineral deposits and exploration, ore forming processes, Geophysical techniques and
prospecting (Well Logging instrument and techniques), Geology of fuels (Coal and Petroleum), Hydrocarbons, Radioactive
minerals
Unit 4
Natural Hazards (floods, landslides, earthquakes, tsunami)- Preventive/ precautionary measures. Nuclear waste disposal,
Environment protection- legislative measures, Ground water chemistry, problems and management. Glacial and inter-glacial
periods. Major Ocean currents and their effects. Composition and structure of atmosphere.

Books Recommended:
1. Physical Geology-S.Judson, M.E.Kauffman and L.D.Leet.
2. Physical Geology-Arthur Holmes.
3.. Basic Concepts of Historical Geology-E.H. Spencer.
4. Structural Geology-M.P. Billings.
5. Fundamentals of Historical Geology and Stratigraphy of India-Ravindra Kumar.
6. Rutleys Elements of Mineralogy-H.H. Read.
7. Igneous and Metamorphic petrology-Best.
8. Sedimentary Rocks-Pettijohn.
9. Metamorphic Petrology-Turner.
10. Coal Petrology-Gebruder Borntraeger, Stuttgart.
11. Petroleum formation and occurrence-Tisot and Welte.
12. Radioactivity in Geology-Principles and Application-Durrance.
13. Mineral Economics-Husain.
14. Mineral Economics-Chatterjee

85