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Question Paper 1

1. Which Swedish standard relates to surface preparation

A SS 05 59 00 page - 12

2. List the grades of blast finish to the Swedish standard / BS 7079

A SA1, Light blast cleaning, SA2, Thorough blast cleaning
SA21/2, Very thorough blast cleaning, SA3, Blast cleaning to visually clean
steel. page - 12

3. What is meant by the terms surface profile and amplitude

A Surface profile, is the shape of a cross sectioned area of the blast finish
Amplitude, is the size of the profile as measured from the troughs to peaks
page - 10

4. Can sand be used as an abrasive in dry blast cleaning operations

A No, use of sand containing free silica is not allowed due to the danger of silicosis
page - 9

5. Identify three abrasives used in blast cleaning and state their use, advantages
and disadvantages
A 1, - Synthetic slags, open blasting systems, A, expendable, cheap, no silicosis
hazards, D, breaks down quickly, fine particles embed into surface profile.
2, - Chilled iron grit, enclosed blast mills, open blasting with recovery systems,
A, cheap, efficient, D, excessive wear, larger quantities of fines need extracting
3, - cast steel shot, enclosed recovery systems, A, surface peening, work
hardening, D, tendency to impress impurities into surface pages 8 & 9

6 How are the Swedish standards of wire brushing defined

A St 2 Thorough hand and power tool cleaning general hand wire brushing
St3 Very thorough hand and power tool cleaning mechanical wire brushing

7 What are the disadvantages associated with wire brushing

A Not as effective as blast cleaning, used for short term protection coating systems,
heavy rust, oil, grease must be removed prior to wire brushing, over brushing can
cause burnishing, (over polishing resulting in poor coating adhesion). page - 15

8 What is a Jasons hammer. Where could it be used and what restrictions are
associated with its use.
A A needle gun, used for cleaning difficult surfaces, rivet heads, welds, etc.
Effective for peening, stress relieves surface. Disadvantage of leaving sharp
edged craters and pushing impurities into the surface. page - 16

9 Explain the Footner process and list the sequence of operations

A Chemical cleaning, sequence, Degrease, Pickle, Wash, Phosphate. Page - 16/17

10 What is millscale
A millscale is an oxide of iron, on the steels surface, produced when the steel is
Manufactured page - 4

11 Describe two methods of measuring the amplitude of a blasted substrate

A Surface profile needle gauge, - relying upon the needle touching the bottom of
the troughs of the surface profile it is necessary to take 10 20 readings and
average them out. The gauge must be zeroed on a flat piece of glass.
Surface replica tape, - used in conjunction with a dial micrometer, as follows.
Zero micrometer, take Testex tape and remove backing, stick tape to surface to
be measured, rub tape into surface with blunt instrument until peaks can be seen
on tape surface, remove tape and measure thickness of tape overall, deduct 50m
as the tape is 50m thick. page - 11

12 What is the meaning of B Sa2 in relation to surface preparation

A B rust grade steel surface has begun to rust and millscale is starting to flake
Sa2 surface preparation thorough blast cleaning page - 12

13 What are rogue peaks

A Rogue peaks are those that stand out/above the required profile page - 11

14 Describe a test for the detection of millscale residues on a blast cleaned surface
A Copper sulphate spray a fine mist of the solution onto an are of approx 100mm
dia. The steel turns bright copper colour and any millscale particles show as black
spots page - 19

15 What is 1m in relation to a millimetre

A A one thousandth part of a millimetre

16 How thick is the plastic backing of testex. Give the answer in imperial and metric
A The plastic backing (Mylar) is 50m or 0.002 thick page - 11

17 Give five safety requirements for abrasive blasting on site

A 1, use of PPE, air fed helmet, leather jacket, apron, gloves, 2, carbon impregnated
hose reduces chance of static shock, 3, dead-mans handle, 4, reinforced hoses
with external couplings, 5, restrict air pressure to 0.7Mpa page - 14

18 Describe the action and purpose of a dead mans handle

A Abrasive will only flow when the dead-mans handle is depressed, as this is
attached close to the nozzle the abrasive will stop if the operator drops or lets go
of the handle page - 14

19 How is the air pressure determined during blasting

A May be measured using a hypodermic needle gauge, placed into the hose near the
nozzle with the needle facing the nozzle page - 13

20 Identify two blasting nozzles by shape and state advantages of each

A Venturi, - these nozzles produce a larger blast pattern, with the whole area
receiving a relatively equal amount of abrasive, more efficient, higher velocity
Straight bore, - concentrates most of the abrasive in the central area of the blast
pattern, lower velocity, 350km/h page - 13/14

21 Name two test methods that are able to determine the presence of hygroscopic
salts on a substrate
A Potassium ferricynaide test,
Merckoquant test page - 18

22 Why do uncoated steel structures corrode

A The iron in the steel was converted from iron ore, which is an oxide of iron,
resulting in the chemical balance being changed. Contact with the environment,
the iron tries to convert back to its natural inert state page - 4
23 What are the abbreviations N.A.C.E. and S.S.P.C.
A N.A.C.E. National Association of Corrosion Engineers
S.S.P.C. Steel Structures Paint Council page - 12

24 What governs the amplitude of a blasted substrate

A Primarily governed by the size and characteristics of the abrasive, but also, angle
of impingement, hardness of surface page - 10

25 What governs the grade of finish during the blasting operation

A Primarily governed by the blasting time, velocity of abrasive particles and
specification requirements page - 12
Question paper 2

1 What is a polymer
A Chemical compound made up of elements of low molecular weight, i.e.
hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen. A paint binder forms polymers when drying
page - 20

2 What is polymerisation
A The joining together of hundreds or thousands of atoms in the polymer molecule
page - 20

3 What is the difference between convertible and non-convertible coatings

A Non-Convertible means that if the paints solvent is reapplied to a cured coating
the coating will re-soften
Convertible means that the paint cures by chemical reaction/oxidation, re-
application of the solvent will not dissolve the coating because of the permanent
chemical change page 25

4 List six basic ingredients of an oil based paint

A Binder, Resin, Pigment, Plasticizer, Drier, Anti-settling agents page - 23/24

5 What is the function of the paint binder

A To provide the necessary mechanical and physical properties of the paint. It
forms the relatively hard continuous film with adhesion, cohesion and flexibility.
Paints are normally identified by their type of binder page - 19

6 What are the characteristics of MIO pigmented paint

A excellent resistance to water, higher tensile strength due to leafing effect, higher
resistance to UV light page - 22

7 Name eight binders

A Acrylic, Alkyd, Cellulose, Epoxy, Phenolic, Polyurethane, PVC/PVA emulsion,
Chlorinated rubber page - 19/20

8 Name five opaque inert pigments with their respective colours

A Carbon, Calcium, Cobalt, Chromium, Iron page - 21

9 What are inhibitive pigments

A Added to primers for the purpose of rust prevention, work by anodic and/or
cathodic polarisation of the metal substrate page - 21

10 Name four extenders and state their use

A Kaolin, slate dust, Chalk, Talc, used for increasing viscosity, reducing gloss,
aiding inter-coat adhesion, and to improve cohesive strength of the paint film
page - 22

11 What is the function of a solvent

A To provide the paint with the ability to spread over a surface evenly and leave a
viscous film upon evaporating page - 23

12 Name four solvent/binder combinations

A Epoxy - Acetone
Chloro - xylene
Alkyd resin white spirit
Emulsion - water
13 Explain the abbreviations o.e.s., m.e.l. amd p.p.m.
A O.E.S. Occupational Exposure Standard, M.E.L. Maximum Exposure Limit,
P.P.M. Parts per Million page 23/56/57

14 How is the toxicity of a solvent measured

A Use of a Draeger tube works on same principle as breathalyser page - 23

15 What layers are present in a multi-coat paint system. What is the function of each
A Primer to provide maximum and lasting adhesion to a substrate, provide a key
to the next layer and to retard corrosion by addition of inhibitive pigment
Midcoat provide a barrier to the passage of water, build up film thickness
Finish provide surface finish, colour, gloss, solar protection page 26/27

16 What are sacrificial primers

A Coatings that contain pigments that cathodically protect the steel substrate by
corroding in preference to the substrate, i.e. zinc rich primers, page - 28

17 Define four types of drying mechanisms

A Solvent dry solely by solvent evaporation
Oxidation dry first by solvent evaporation, then by chemical reaction with the
oxygen in the air
Chemical curing cure by chemical reaction between the ingredients in the paint,
Coalescence dry by water evaporation, allowing the polymers to physically join
page 25/26

18 What is meant by the pot life of a paint

A The maximum period of time after mixing of the paint in which it can be used
page - 26

19 How do chlorinated rubber paints dry

A By solvent evaporation and oxidation

20 What are the possible units for dynamic viscosity

A Pascal second PaS, Newton-second per square metre N.s/m2, or the poise
page - 37

21 Name three rotation viscometers

A Krebs-stormer, Rotathinner, Cone and plate page - 37

21 Name four main properties of a paint solvent

A Solvent power, Rate of evaporation, Flash point, Toxicity, page - 23

22 What is a varnish
A Varnish - an undigested paint composed of oil and resin oleoresinous varnishes
page 19/20

23 What is a Thixotropic paint

A Bentones and waxes, used to keep the solids in dispersion, Thixotropes are gel
Formers page - 24

24 What is the meaning of C.P.V.C.

A Critical Pigment Volume Concentration page - 22
Question paper 3

1 Describe the procedure for using a Ford flow cup No 4

A a, bring paint to 20C, b, level apparatus, one finger over orifice fill cup rapidly,
c, allow moment for bubbles to rise, use flat edge across top of cup, wipe off paint
level with edges, d, remove finger and start stopwatch immediately, stop watch
when first distinctive break in paint stream occurs, e, time is seconds is taken as
the viscosity page - 38

2 What are the formula for density and specific gravity

A Density = weight SG = density of x
Volume density of water page 38/39

3 Give two alternative names for a density cup

A ISO, Ford, Zahn page - 37

4 What is the difference between the density of a paint and the specific gravity of a
A Density is the weight per unit volume, Specific gravity is the density of any
substance compared to the density of water page - 38/39

5 What information can be obtained from paint product information sheets


6 What is a P.I.G. and how is it used

A Paint Inspection Gauge, is a destructive test gauge. Cut a Vee shaped channel in
the coating, with the cutter fixed into the gauge. The width of the channel is then
measured on a graticule scale, by means of a microscope also built into the
instrument page - 42

7 Describe two pieces of equipment for checking the w.f.t. of a paint

A Comb gauge a series of teeth of varying heights in m
Eccentric wheel - page - 40

8 Name four non-destructive d.f.t. gauges

A Magnetic film thickness gauge (banana gauge), Pull-off gauge (Tinsley pencil),
Magnetic horseshoe gauge, Eddy current/electromagnetic gauge page - 40

9 Describe the use of an eccentric wheel

A Used for taking w.f.t. readings, the wheel is placed on the wet paint surface and
rotated. Where the paint touches the inner wheel surface the reading from the
scale on the outer wheel taken in m

10 Name five artificial weather devices

A 1. Tropical box, 2. Salt spray box, 3. Water soak painted, 4. Temperature
cycling, 5. Cold check testing page - 43

11 What is the difference between a solution and a dispersion

A Solution a substance known as the solute is dissolved in a liquid known as the
Dispersion there is no solubility, one component, which could be either liquid or
solid, is surrounded and wetted by the liquid page 24
12 What are aggregates
A Groups of pigment particles page - 33

13 What is flocculation
A Tendency of the dispersed pigment particles to come together to reform
Aggregates page - 33

14 What is a thermit reaction. How is it caused

A A reaction where heat is given off, it is caused by a chemical reaction when
certain compounds are mixed together

15 What are plasticizers used for in paint

A To reduce the brittleness of the dried coating, by allowing the molecules of the
paint to move more easily, it may also improve the application properties of the
paint page - 23

16 What is meant by permeability

A The ability of water or moisture to pass through a coating. A coating with low
permeability would not allow water/moisture to pass through it page - 26

17 Why are driers added to oil based paints

A To accelerate the drying process, either through thickness or surface drying

18 What is the problem associated with degreasing hot surfaces with trichlorethylene
A Highly toxic and the possibility of phosgene gas being released page -

19 Is a brittle paint composed of long or short chain oils

A Brittle paint contains more resin than oil and is therefore referred to as short oil
paint page - 20

20 What is cross-linking. Name two paints that achieve this

A Cross-linking is a term for polymerisation that occurs during the drying or curing
of the paint by oxidation or chemical reaction, these paints are convertible or
non-reversible paints, page - 25

21 Is a paint a solution or a dispersion

A A paint is a dispersion as the pigments in the paint are in dispersion with the
solvent and binders, page - 24

22 What is an oleoresinous paint

A Oleoresinous paint or varnishes are binders comprised of oil and resin

23 Is a two-pack paint convertible or non-convertible

A Two-pack paints are convertible paints

24 Is an epoxy powder coating thermo-setting or thermo-plastic

A Epoxy powders are thermo-setting compounds produced in a partially cured state,
with the reaction stopped and re-initiated during application onto a heated surface
page - 58

25 What is a stripe coat

A A coat applied to build-up the thickness to an individual paint layer
Question paper 4

1 Describe a test for detecting millscale on a blast cleaned surface

A Copper Sulphate test A fine mist of slightly acidic copper sulphate is sprayed
onto a localised area, approx 100mm dia, the steel turns a bright copper colour
with the millscale showing up as black spots page - 19

2 How many cubic centimetres in a litre

A 1000 cubic centimetres in a litre

3 What is a tropical box used for

A Artificial weathering of painted samples, simulating a high humidity environment

4 Explain the water soak test

A Painted samples immersed in water typical temperature 25C for a specified
number of hours, i.e. 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000. The samples are weighed accurately
both before and after immersion to determined the quantity of water absorbed
page - 43

5 Explain the purpose and use of the pendulum (Koenig Albert) test
A The purpose of the pendulum test is to determine the hardness of the paint film.
The apparatus consists of a pendulum supported by two ball points, which rest on
the painted surface. the pendulum is set in motion and the number of swings
counted. The softer the paint film, the greater the damping action, the lower the
number of swings and vice-versa page - 44

6 Name two tests for determining drying rates for paint films
A Ballotini test, glass balls falling onto a fresh coated slow moving test panel.
Mechanical thumb test, motor driven mechanical thumb is pressed into a painted
Surface page - 44

7 What is opacity
A Opacity is the hiding power that a paint film possesses page - 45

8 How is the degree of gloss of a coating assessed

A By use of a glossmeter. A light source set at a specific incident angle, a photo-
electric cell set at the same angle of incidence, measures the reflected light
page - 45

9 Describe three adhesion tests

A 1, Vee cut test, using a sharp knife, cut a vee approx 12mm, the cuts forming a
30 angle through the paint film down to the substrate. Insert the knife blade
under the tip of the vee and attempt to lever the paint away from the substrate
2, Cross-cut test, using a sharp knife, cut 6 lines vertically and horizontally
2.0mm apart to form a 25 square. Cover with adhesive tape and snatch off, count
the remaining amount of segments on the tape, the number can be multiplied by
4 to give a percentage or a value dependant upon the specification.
3. Dolly test, clean and degrease both the dolly and surface to be tested, roughen
both surfaces with fine/medium grade emery cloth, mix regular araldite and stick
dolly to surface, leave for 24hrs at 25C, cut paint around dolly with special
cutter, attach pull-off instrument and apply full force, take reading from position
of cursor when dolly detaches itself page 46/47
10 Explain how flash points of solvents are determined
A Flash points of solvents may be carried out to BS 3900 A, using a closed cup of
the Abel type. Procedure is fix Abel cup containing substance for assessment
into a water bath. Apply heat source to water bath and monitor temperature,
activate source of ignition for every C rise in temperature, flashpoint
temperature is determined when a blue flame flashes over the substance being
assessed page - 36

11 What is cathodic disbondment

A Occurs when a defect in a coating system on an excessive cathodically protected
structure leads to the formation and release of hydrogen gas bubbles resulting in
the stripping away of the coating system page - 47

12 What is the fineness of dispersion of a paint

A The degree to which the paint is ground down to achieve a high gloss finish

13 What is the procedure if cracks or surface laminations (slivers) are discovered in

a substrate after blasting
A The paint inspector must report to the client or supervisor, it is not the paint
inspectors responsibility to make decisions on a suitable course of action
page - 60

14 Explain relative humidity and dew point

A Relative humidity is the amount of water vapour in the air expressed as a
percentage, compared to the amount vapour which could be in the air at the same
temperature. The higher the temperature the greater the amount of water vapours
that can be held in it.
Dew point is the temperature at which water vapour in the atmosphere would
form condensation page 49/50

15 What equipment and procedures are used to determine R.H.% and D.P.
A 1, Screen hygrometer and Masons hygrometer static type relying on a natural
airflow over a wet wick
2, Assman and psychrodyne hygrometers work by fan driven air supply over a
wet wick
3, Whirling hygrometer portable and dynamic type, operates by moving a wet
wick through the air page - 50

16 Paint mills fall into two categories, what are they. Give two examples of each
A Direct charge Ball mill, Attritor mill
Pre-mixes or slurries Bead mill, Colloidal mill

17 What is the primary function of a paint mill

A To break down and disperse groups of pigment particles known as aggregates, to
create a stable dispersion page - 33

18 Name five methods of paint application, briefly describe each

A 1, Brush works the paint into the substrates surface giving optimum coverage
and mixing in any dust particles
2, Roller application roller may be dipped into the paint or be fed by a tube
connected to the handle, lack of uniformity in film thickness. Useful for large
flat areas
3, Spray application paint is atomised either by restrictive nozzles or
introduction of air at the nozzle,
4, Electro-static spray introduction of an electric charge to the paint, with the
article to be painted earthed in order that the charged paint particles are attracted
towards it, uniform coating thicknesses
5, Dip coating, the article is just dipped into the paint and the excess paint allowed
to drop off page 51/52

19 At what pressure ranges do conventional and airless spray systems operate at

A Conventional - 40 75 psi
Airless 2000 - 4000 psi page - 51

20 State typical tip sizes for chlorinated rubber and zinc rich paints
A Chlorinated rubber 13 21 thou
Zinc rich - 17 23 thou page - 52

21 What are thermo-plastic and thermo-setting coatings

A Powder coatings, basically solvent free paints, cure by the application of a heat
source page - 28

22 How is pinholing caused

A Formed during application and drying, due to air or gas bubbles which burst,
giving rise to small craters that fail to coalesce before the film has set page - 55

23 What is saponification. How is it caused

A The formation of a soap by the reaction between a fatty ester and an alkali
page - 55

24 What is a psychrometer used for

A Whirling hygrometer, used to determine relative humidity and dew point
page - 50

25 What is a conical mandrel used for in paint testing

A Used for the measurement of flexibility for resistance to cracking
Question paper 5

1 What do you understand by the term induction period

A The period in which mixed components are left to stand before use page - 26

2 How do epoxy ester paints dry

A First by solvent evaporation then by oxidation, a reaction with the oxygen in the
air page 25/26

3 What c.g.s. unit is used to denote the viscosity/density ratio

A The poise

4 How many litres in an imperial gallon

A 4.54 litres to the Imperial gallon

5 How can opacity be measured

A With the use of a cryptometer, pfund cryptometer, made in two forms, recess
type and black and white type page - 45

6 Is millscale noble or ignoble with reference to the surface being coated

A Dependant upon the surface to be coated, if steel then yes page - 5

7 What problems can rogue peaks cause on a blasted surface

A Rogue peaks, possibly higher than the coating to be applied they would cause
spot or flash rusting page - 11

8 How many micrometers are there in one thousandth of an inch

A 25m in a thousandth of an inch page - 11

9 Are sacrificial primers noble or ignoble with reference to the surface being
A Sacrificial primers, notably those containing zinc or aluminium can be stated as
being ignoble when a steel surface is being coated page - 26

10 Name five rust inhibitive pigments

A Zinc phosphate, Boro-silicates, Zinc phospho-oxide, Barium metaniobate,
Aluminium page 21

11 Name two plasticizers

A castor oil, coconut oil page - 23

12 What test may be used to measure fineness of dispersion

A fineness of grind gauge, Hegman grind gauge.

13 How can pinholes in a dried paint film be detected

A With paint film thicknesses of 500m or less a wet sponge pinhole detector
would be used page - 49

14 What is meant by the following terms

a. chalking
b. bleeding
c. flaking
d. orange peel effect
e. grinning
A a, chalking the formation of a friable powdery layer on the surface of a coating
Material, caused by the break down of the binding medium
b, bleeding diffusion of a soluble coloured substance into the coasting material
from beneath
c, flaking lifting off of the coating materials from the substrate, in the form of
flakes or scales
d, orange peel effect uniform pock marked appearance, particular of a sprayed
film, due to failure of the film to flow out to a level surface
e, grinning the showing through of the substrate due to inadequate hiding
power of the coating material page - 54/55

15 Describe a test for locating hygroscopic salts on a blasted substrate

A Potassium ferricyanide test spray fine mist of distilled water on to small area of
blasted surface, wait a moment for any water droplets to evaporate, then apply a
potassium cyanide test paper, pressing down for 2 5 secs, remove paper and
check to see of salts are present by showing as Prussian blue spots page - 18

16 List ten contractor malpractices

A 1, re-using expendable abrasives
2, use of un-skilled operators
3, insufficient blasting
4, missing out a coat
5, use of or excessive solvent
6, insufficient paint coverage, under thickness
7, painting before inspection of substrate
8, painting during inclement weather
9, using expired paint
10, use of unsuitable equipment page - 64

17 List eight pieces of information required on a daily report

A 1, weather conditions, 2, relative humidity and dew point, 2, temperature,
ambient and substrate, 3, surface preparation, 4, paint type, primer, midcoat,
finish, 5, w.f.t. and d.f.t measurements, 6, type of instruments used, 7, abrasive
type, 8, paint application method

18 Why might you suspect that a paint is out of date, how would you check to make
sure and what action would you then take
A Appearance of paint on a fresh opened container may have the following, heavy
skin on top, paint has segregated, pigment binder separation, paint has solidified,

19 What is meant by cohesion and adhesion

A Cohesion the ability to bond together, Adhesion

20 What is a Pfund Cryptometer used for

A Used to measure the opacity, (hiding power of a coating)

21 What is another name for a sand mill and how does it differ in operation from a
ball mill.
A A bead mill, also known as the pearl or sand mill, differs by that the ball mill is a
horizontally mounted cylinder which uses steel or porcelain balls which cascade
down onto the ingredients as the cylinder rotates
With a sand mill the paint slurry forced through the cylinder, inside which are
rotating discs and between these are ballotini or similar beads page - 34
22 State two methods used to determine the d.f.t. of M.I.O. paints
A By the use of destructive test gauges, as MIO is ferromagnetic standard gauges to
measure the d.f.t. cannot be used. Also the d.f.t. can be assessed by calculation
providing the v.s.% content of the paint is known.
d.f.t. = v.s. x w.f.t.

23 List ten duties of a painting inspector

A 1, Determine the extent of duties and responsibilities
2, Ensure access to relevant specifications and data sheets
3, Read all applicable specifications, procedures, work instructions to establish
the code and contract requirements
4, Check all equipment, blasting, painting,
5, Check surface preparation, inter layer cleaning, d.f.t., w.f.t. record results
6, Check ambient conditions
7, Check paint materials and additives, solvents, two packs, rotation, mixing etc.
8, Check all test instruments for calibration and accuracy
9, Liaison between contractor and client
10, Attend appropriate meetings

24 What is an osmotic blister

A Water penetration of the coating causing corrosion with the substrate and the
resultant swelling or blistering of the coating
Question paper 6

1 What was the volume solid content of the paint if it was applied with a w.f.t. of
50m and a d.f.t. of 25m was obtained
A v.s.% = d.f.t. / w.f.t. x 100
v.s. = 25 x 100
v.s. = 50%

2 What was the v.s.% of a paint with a d.f.t. of 43m, if the paint was originally
applied with a 72m w.f.t.
A v.s.% = d.f.t. / w.f.t. x 100
v.s. = 43 x 100
v.s. = 60%

3 What w.f.t. would be applied to leave a d.f.t. of 140m using a paint with 58%
volume solids
A w.f. t. = 100 x d.f.t.
w.f.t. = 100 x 140
w.f.t. = 241um

4 What d.f.t. would result if a paint with 39% volume solids had a w.f. t. of 70m
A d.f.t. = v.s. x w.f.t.
d.f.t. = 39 x 70
d.f.t. = 26um

5 What would be the w.f.t. if 19 litres of paint was used to cover an area of 9m *
A w.f.t. = volume
w.f.t. = 19lts
9m x 9m
w.f.t = 19 x 1000cm3
900cm x 900cm
w.f.t. = 19 x 10,000 convert to um (10,000um = 1cm)
w.f.t. = 235um

6 What d.f.t. would be obtained if a paint with 48% volume solids was applied
140m thick
A d.f.t. = v.s. x w.f.t.
d.f.t. = 48 x 140
d.f.t. = 67um
7 What was the v.s.% of a paint if it was applied with a w.f.t. of 120m and a d.f.t.
of 72m was obtained.
A v.s.% = d.f.t / w.f.t x 100
v.s. = 72 x 100
v.s. = 60%

8 What w.f.t. would be applied to leave a d.f.t. of 65m using a paint with 49%
volume solids.
A w.f.t. = 100 x d.f.t.
w.f.t. = 100 x 65
w.f.t. = 132um

9 What w.f.t. would be applied to leave a d.f.t. of 138m using a paint with 56%
volume solids
A w.f.t. = 100 x d.f.t.
w.f.t. = 100 x 138
w.f.t. = 246um

10 What was the w.f.t. if 24 litres of paint was used to cover a circular area of 5
metre radius
A w.f.t. = volume
w.f.t. = 24
w.f.t. = 24
x 5m2
w.f.t. = 24 x 1000cm cancel out by 1000
500cm x 500cm x
w.f.t. = 24 x 10,000 convert to um (10,000um = cm)
w.f.t. = 305um

11 What would be the d.f.t. if 15 litres of paint with a volume solids content of 44%
covered an area of 12m * 7m
A d.f.t. = v.s. x w.f.t.
d.f.t. = 44 x ?
w.f.t. = volume
w.f.t. = 15 convert all to cm
12m x 7m
w.f.t = 15 x 1000cm3 cancel out by 1000
1200cm x 700cm
w.f.t. = 15 convert to um (10,000um = 1cm)
w.f.t. = 15 x 10,000
w.f.t. = 179um
d.f.t = 44 x 179um
d.f.t. = 79um

12 What would be the d.f.t. if 14 litres of paint with a volume solids content of 49%
covered an area of 14m * 8m
A w.f.t. = volume
w.f.t = 14 x 1000cm3 convert to cm
1400cm x 800cm
w.f.t = 14
w.f.t. = 125um

d.f.t. = v.s.% x w.f.t.

d.f.t. = 49 x 125
d.f.t. = 61um

13 What volume of paint would be required to cover an area of 290m2 if the volume
solids content is 43% and a minimum d.f.t. of 65m is specified

14 What volume of paint would be required to cover an area of 300m2 if the volume
solids content is 49% and a minimum d.f.t. of 70m is specified.

15 What would be the d.f.t. if 3 gallons of paint with a volume solids content of
49% covered a circular area 9metres in diameter
A w.f.t. = volume
w.f.t. = 3 x 4.55 convert to cm
w.f.t. = 13.65 x 1000cm3
45002 x
w.f.t. = 13650
w.f.t. = 215um

d.f.t. = 49 x 215
d.f.t. = 105um

16 What d.f.t. would be achieved if 4.5 gallons of paint is used to cover a circular
area 14 m in diameter. The volume solid content of the paint is 43%
A w.f.t. = volume
w.f.t. = 4.5 x 4.55 x 1000cm3 convert to cm units
70002 x
w.f.t = 20475
w.f.t = 133um
d.f.t. = 43 x 133
d.f.t. = 57um

17 What d.f.t. would be achieved if 22 litres of paint is used to cover a circular area
23 yards in diameter. The volume solid content of the paint is 56%
A w.f.t. = volume
w.f.t. = 22 x 1000cm3 convert to cm units 23yards = 23 x 0.914
105002 x = 21.m
w.f.t = 22000
w.f.t. = 64
d.f.t = 56 x 64
d.f.t. = 36um

18 How much paint would be required to paint the external surface of a 4metre
diameter circular cylinder standing 7m in height. The flat circular top of the
cylinder must also be coated. The paint to be used is solvent free and the surface
of the cylinder has been wire brushed. The d.f.t. required is 130m
A Area of cylinder = D x H
= 4x7
= 88m2
Area of roof = r2
= 12.6m2

19 What d.f.t. would be achieved if 5.2 gallons of paint is used to cover a circular
area 27.5 yards in diameter. The volume solid content of the paint is 67%

20 How many cubic centimetres are there in a gallon

A 1 Litre = 1000cc
1 Gallon = 4.564 litres
1 Gallon = 4.546 * 1000
1 Gallon = 4546cc
Question paper 7 All questions relate to BG PS PA 10

1 What is the procedure for removing algae

A Area treated with a biocidal agent and left for 24 hours. Removal by scrubbing
with stiff bristle brush and clean water or high pressure water wash.

2 What action is taken if a wet paint film gets contaminated with grit
A Reblast and recoat.

3 What paint system is applied for steel surfaces operating at less than 65C

4 When must paint bestirred mechanically

A All paints must be mechanically stirred, for 5 litre containers hand mixing may
be considered.

5 How is a damaged paint film on steel prepared prior to repair

A Dependant upon area, surface to be prepared in accordance with BS 7079 St3,
mechanical cleaning, all edges feathered before paint application

6 Describe the operations for preparing and painting surfaces for hot duties
between 66-99C.
A SPA 1 Surface preparation to BS 7079 Sa21/2, surface profile of 30 - 75m,
application of high solids solvent based epoxy primer to 75 m followed by
Epoxy MIO coat to 75 m. A High build epoxy undercoat of 75 m and a top
coat of epoxy or polyester acrylic finish of 40 m.

7 How are galvanised surfaces prepared prior to painting

A New surfaces Sweep blast or hand abrade or apply an etch primer (T-wash)
Old weathered surfaces Stiff bristle brush, patch primer with zinc rich epoxy

8 Which paint system is specified for a galvanised substrate


9 Under what conditions is it compulsory to seal an inorganic zinc silicate coating

A high temperature service at or above 340C where a sealer shall be applied.

10 State the requirements for preparing and painting steel surfaces attaining
temperatures between 150-340C.

11 By how much should new paint overlap existing paint on repairs

A By 100mm

12 State the preparation and paint system required for aluminium cladding.
A Paint system I accordance with SPA6. The surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned
of dust, chemicals, oil & moisture. Lightly abraded to provide an adequate key

13 When is a Permit to work required

A On any site where painting operations are to be carried out

14 What precautions should be taken prior to blasting on an A.G.I

15 What are the two coats of paint applied at works on steel structures and pipework
which is to attain temperatures not exceeding 65C

16 Is it permissible to apply chlorinated rubber paints if the air temperature is 12C


17 What is meant by long term protection

A Typically lasting ten years

18 What type of primer must be applied to unweathered galvanised surfaces

A An etchant type primer, e.g. T-Wash .

19 What action should the painting inspector take if he discovers surface

laminations on the substrate to be coated
A Inform the site engineer and await instructions

20 Is it permissible to flame clean in accordance with BG PS PA 10

A No

21 Is it permissible to thin the paint in accordance with BG PS PA 10

A No

22 What safety equipment should a blast clean operator have.

A Air fed enclosed helmet, leather gloves, apron, spats, dead mans handle

23 Is it permissible to apply chlorinated rubber paints at 85% relative humidity


24 What is meant by hot duty service

A Metal surfaces on the assembly that will attain a temperature of 100C or above
during use.

25 List the relevant information that may be found on a paint container

Question paper 8

1 What is the title of BS 2451

A Specification for Chilled Iron shot and Grit

2 What is an attritor
A Type of paint mill, of the direct charge type

3 What is meant by the density of a paint

A the weight per unit volume

4 What is meant by the viscosity of a paint

A the ability of the paint to flow. The measure of a fluids resistance to flow

5 In what type of paint are you likely to find driers

A Varnishes

6 What is the difference between chalking and blooming

A Chalking Paint breakdown due to disintegration of binder by UV attacke
Blooming the appearance of rust on the surface of a newly blasted surface

7 What is cross-linking
A Cross-linking is a term for polymerisation that occurs during the drying or curing
of the paint by oxidation or chemical reaction, these paints are convertible or
non-reversible paints, page - 25

8 Name a paint type which cross-links

A Epoxy 2 pack paint

9 What is grade B steel in accordance with BS 7079

A A mixture of millscale and rust on the steel surface before preparation

10 What is a tie coat

A An intermediate coat between two different/incompatible painting systems

11 What are the abbreviations L.E.L. and U.E.L.


12 How many N.s/m2 in 1 poise

A 1

13 What are the three chief qualities a colour possess

A Hue, Greyness & Weight

14 What is the difference between the term thinner and the term solvent

15 Name three possible curing agents for epoxies


16 List the main advantages and disadvantages of a water based paint for use on steel

17 Describe the methods for detecting oil contamination on the surface of steel
18 Why is distilled water or clean rain water used in a whirling hygrometer

19 What is an electrolyte

20 What is the purpose of a shop primer


21 Describe the use of a whirling hygrometer


22 What is bi-metallic corrosion


23 What are the advantages of using wet blasting instead of dry blasting

24 What is the purpose of a certificate of calibration for a test instrument


25 Name four methods of applying metal coatings

British Gas Specific questions & Answers
Direct questions from examination

Describe why and how corrosion occurs.

Corrosion occurs as a result of a reaction between the iron and the environment, whereby
the iron reverts to its natural neutral state of iron oxide. It is a naturally occurring process
and the speed of corrosion is influenced by air, water and temperature. An electrolytic cell
comprising a cathode, an anode and an electrolyte is set up, with the anode corroding and
the cathode being protected.

Describe what is meant by Bi-metallic corrosion.

Where a reaction is set up between two closely attached differing metals, the less noble
one will act as the anode, sacrificing itself to the more noble cathode. I.e. millscale
(cathode) to steel (anode).

Describe the following

a) The Galvanic series.
The order of nobility of metals determining their ability to corrode or not.
Gold - Noble

b) Millscale
A thin blak flaky layer of oxidised iron, formed during steel manufacture or forming
operations of around 1000C, contact with air causes millscale to form.

c) Rust grades to SIS 05-59-00

A Covered in millscale, little or no rust
B A mixture of millscale and rust
C Millscale is gone, rusted with slight surface pitting
D Heavily rusted and pitted

d) Blast cleaning grades to SIS 05-59-00

SA 1 Light blast cleaning
SA 2 Thorough blast cleaning
SA21/2 Very thorough blast cleaning
SA 3 Blast cleaning to visually clean steel

Describe the difference between water blasting and pressure washing

Water blasting with or without abrasion injection, operates at pressures from 100psi to
60,000psi and can cut a profile into the steel.
Pressure washing low pressure, typically 100psi applied with or without detergent,
useful for removing salt and chloride contamination.
Name two tests used to determine the presence of hygroscopic salts left on a blast cleaned

Potassium Ferricyanide Soluble iron salts

Silver nitrate Soluble chlorides

Name four expendable abrasives and state the difference between expendable and
reusable abrasive

Copper oxide, Coal slag, Garnet, Walnut shell, Aluminium oxide

Expendable - used only once, shatters on impact
Re-usable iron or steel shot and grit, used in closed blast systems up to twenty times
with cleaning never used on site.

Name the three basic constituents of a solvent carrying paint and the functions each
performs in the paint.

1) Binder Binds the particles together, holds them in suspension. Gives the paint its
finish, achieves adhesion to the surface, gives flexibility. Resistance to water,
chemicals and abrasion.
2) Pigment Gives colour to the paint and opacity. Resistance to acids, alkali and light
3) Solvent Forms the evaporative part of the drying process. Thins the paint for ease
of application.

Name six pigments and their respective colours

Calcium plumbate White

Red lead Red
Coal tar black
Zinc chromate Yellow
Red iron oxide Red
Zinc phosphate White

Describe what qualities a laminar pigment gives to a paint and name four laminar pigments.

Laminar pigments have a shape like small leafs that overlap and interweave on drying. Form
a coating that has a low permeability to water and solvents
M.I.O. Mica, Graphite, Glass flake.

Describe a) A barrier paint system

Isolates the substrate from the environment by the means of a low permeability
coating system. Usually 4 coats of which one will be an M.I.O.
b) A sacrificial paint coating.
Containing metallic pigment particles (zinc or aluminium) less noble than the
steel, will sacrifice themselves to the more noble steel.

Describe what a tie-coat is and give three reasons why we may require one.

An intermediate coat between two incompatible coating systems. Used to prevent problems of
lack of adhesion, bleeding out, solvent stripping.

Describe a typical paint manufacturing process and give two types of paint mill which could
be used.
Process, select and assemble paint components, mill the paint, carry out QC checks, density,
opacity, viscosity etc, tin the paint, warehouse and distribute.

Paint mills pre-mix mills such as Pearl, Sand, Colloidal.

Describe what you know of viscosity and outline one method of testing.

Viscosity the measure of a fluids resistance to flow. Free flowing paint use of a Ford flow
cup No4. Put finger over hole and fill cup with paint, scrape off excess and allow a small time
for bubbles to escape. With stopwatch at hand, release paint, start watch simultaneously. Stop
watch at first noticeable break in paint stream. Time is in seconds. All type of paint measured
at same temperature 20C + - 0.5C

Describe what you know of density.

Density is weight per unit volume, calculated by weight over volume with the unit of g/cm3.
Used to test how much solvent has been added or if a two pack paint has been correctly mixed

Can you use a Banana gauge over?

a) an M.I.O. coating No the coating is ferrous

b) an aluminium substrate No the substrate is non-ferrous
c) a galvanised surface Yes as long as the substrate is ferrous

Describe a destructive test for determining the DFT of a paint

P.I.G. Paint Inspectors Gauge

A small vee shape channel is cut into the coating at a fixed angle. The channel is measured on
a graticule scale by means of a microscope built into the instrument. The DFT is determined
and individual layers can be measured.

Give four artificial weather devices and describe what they simulate.

a) Topical box Humidity

b) Salt spray Marine environment
c) Water soak Permeability
d) Temperature cycling Flexibility

What is the name of any instrument that measures opacity and give two types.

Cryptometer Pfund cryptometer

Hiding power charts

Describe a dolly test for adhesion

Degrease and roughen test surface, stick down dolly with regular araldite (standardises test),
wait 24hrs at 25C, cut around dolly down to substrate. Apply pulling force until failure.
Record pull-off force in PSI and mode of failure, cohesive or adhesive.

How do the following work

a) Conventional spray set-up comprised either gravity cup, suction cup or pressure
feed, operate at relatively low pressure, only suitable for thin materials. Paint is
atomised at the nozzle with the operator making adjustments.
b) Airless spray system paint from non-pressurised container is sucked in using a
fluid pump. The fluid pump pressurises the paint at up to a rate of 67:1, the pump
operating pressure is about 100psi. high volume and high build paints can be
applied, with little overspray. Manufacturer sets pressure at pump with the paint
atomising only when the gun is operating. Dangerous due to high velocity.
c) Electrostatic spray system a special spray gun applies a charge to the paint
particles. The substrate positively earthed attracts the negatively charges paint
particles. The particles are drawn to the substrate in a wrap around effect,
resulting in a very even coating and very little wastage.

How is BS 4800 used in the construction industry

1) To specify colours to new construction

2) Identify existing colours for paint maintenance
3) Manufacturers can produce the same colours

What are the essential differences between a blister and an Osmatic blister

Blister Usually dry, caused by expansion and contraction of the paint film away from the
Osmatic blister Caused by the entrapment of water or solvent or by hygroscopic salts, left
on a blast cleaned surface.

What shall painting equipment comply with when being used on a BGAS site.

To the manufacturers recommendations

How do the following display their characteristics

a) Bleeding Colour coming through from the underlying coating, staining the new
b) Blooming Loss of gloss, milky like in appearance, caused by a wet paint film
coming into contact with moisture, cold damp air.
c) Chalking The disintegration of the binder caused by UV light.
d) Cissing Failure of the paint to form a complete film due to the presence of oil
& grease
e) Grinning The showing through of the underlying coat due to poor opacity of
the new coating
f) Flocculation Separation of the paint in the tin and its refusal to mix back together
g) Lifting up applying a coat of paint before the previous one has cured, causing
part of it to be lifted up into the new coating
h) Ropiness Heavy lines in a brush painted surface
i) Solvent stripping The absorption of the solvent of a new coat into the existing coat,
causing the removal of the existing coat
j) Oxidation the curing reaction of a one pack paint, between the binder and
oxygen to bring about the drying process
k) Chemical curing The curing reaction of a 2 pack epoxy paint and catalyst during the
curing period
l) Overspray Loss of paint onto other surfaces and into the atmosphere.

Define the following:

a) Dewpoint The temperature at which moisture will form on a substrate surface

b) Relative humidity The amount of water vapour in the air, expressed as a percentage
c) Induction period The period in which a 2 pack paint os left to stand after mixing, for
air bubbles to escape and chemical reactions to complete
d) Pot life The time after the induction period in which the paint remains in an
applicable state
e) Flash point The lowest temperature at which a liquids vapours will ignite when
introduced to a source of ignition
f) Shelf life The maximum time a paint can be stored before it must be used,
discarded or recycled.
g) Batch number The manufacturers identification code
h) Masking out The covering off of plant/equipment prior to blasting/painting
i) A.G.I. Above ground installation
j) Rust blooming The first stage of the corrosion process, with the appearance of rust
on a newly blasted surface
k) Water borne A coating in which water is the solvent part of the paint
l) B-SA21/2 Rust grade B, mixture of millscale and rust to which very thorough
blast cleaning must be applied
m) Feathering The preparation of the coating edges, tapering down.
n) A ST3 Not possible
o) PA9 BG Property and Performance of paints
p) PA10 BG Paint specifications
British Gas Course Revision questions

What kind of process is corrosion P1

Corrosion is an electrochemical process called Electrolosis

What factors influence the rate of corrosion P1

a) Variations in oxygen content on the steel surface (wet/dry)

b) Relative humidity (above 60% critical) air temperature
c) Presence of impurities, salts alkalis, acids
d) Presence of higher nobility metals in contact with the steel

What is Millscale and why is it a particular problem when attempting to protect steel P2

Millscale is oxidised iron, formed on the steel during manufacture or forming operations,
(steel temp, typical 1000C). Millscale is more noble than steel, when the underlying steel is
exposed, the steel will corrode in preference to the millscale. Over painting of loosely
adhering will cause an early failure of the paint system, by bringing the paint away due to
lack of adhesion to the substrate steel.

What is the number of the Swedish standard contained within BS7079 and list the rust and
blasting grades with their relevant brief titles. P9

a) Swedish pictorial standard SIS 05-59-00

b) A covered in millscale little or no rust
B A mixture of millscale and rust
C Millscale gone, rusted with slight surface pitting
D Heavily rusted and pitted
SA1 Light blast cleaning,
SA2 Thorough blast cleaning
SA21/2 Very thorough blast cleaning
SA3 Blast cleaning to visually clean steel

Name 3 tests for locating hygroscopic salts and millscale on a blast cleaned surface P10

Soluble Iron Slats Potassium ferricyanide

Soluble Chlorides Silver nitrate
Millscale Copper sulphate

What factors influence how clean and how rough the surface becomes after blast cleaning P6

Abrasive Size, Hardness, Density, Shape.

Human speed, Angle, Distance, Time.

Regarding hand and power tool cleaning, state what always precludes this process and to what
standards. P8/9

The method and tools agreed before work commences.

ST2 Thorough Hand and Power tool cleaning (Manual)
ST3 Very thorough Hand and Power tool cleaning (Mechanical)
What 3 basic ingredients make up a traditional solvent carrying paint P15

1) Binder
2) Pigment
3) Solvent

What are the functions of each of these three in a solvent carrying paint P15

Binder Binds the particles together and holds them in suspension, gives the paint its
finish, coating adherence, flexibility, resistance to chemicals, water, abrasion.

Pigment Gives colour, opacity, resistance to acids, alkalis and light (UV)

Solvent Forms the evaporative part of the drying process, thins the paint for easy
application, primers and mid-coats only, washing out of equipment, brushes.

Name five items that can be included in a paint to improve its performance or suitability P16

1) Drier/Catalyst Speeds up drying or curing process

2) Extenders Added to increase opacity, to make it flow more easily, cut costs
3) Plasticiser Increases flexibility, added to paint to prevent brittle film
4) Thixotropic agent Gives paint high build and anti sag properties
5) Stabiliser Holds film formers together and helps to prevent flocculation

Identify six paints by their binder names P19

Epoxy, Alkyd, Acrylic Emulsion, Cellulose, Chlorinated Rubber.

Name four binder solvent combinations P17

a) Epoxy Acetone
b) Chlorinated Rubber Xylene
c) Alkyd resin White spirit
d) Emulsion Water

Name six opaque pigments, together with their respective colours. P18

1 Calcium Plumbate - White

2 Coal tar Black
3 Red Iron oxide Red
4 Red Lead Red
5 Zinc Chromate White
6 Zinc Plumbate White

Describe what a laminar paint is P18

Laminar pigment are composed of small flakes, leaf like in appearance, they overlap and
inter-weave on drying, forming a highly resistant, low permeability film, resistant to water,
and solvent. M.I.O., Mica, Graphite, are examples.

What is the difference between a convertible and non-convertible coating P19

Convertible coatings undergo a chemical change on drying and cannot be harmed or softened
by contact with own solvent.
Non-convertible dry by solvent evaporation only, no chemical change, therefore can be
softened by contact with own solvent.

Define the term Induction period P19

The length of time a two pack paint has to stand before application. Time to let the air bubbles
escape and any chemical reactions to take place. Time is stated by the manufacturer.

Define the term Pot life P19

The length of time following the induction period, where the paint remains in an applicable
state, according to the manufacturers instructions.

Define a Barrier system of coatings P4

Where a substrate is isolated from the environment by using a low permeability coating,
highly resistant to moisture and air. The coating may comprise of 4 coats one usually an
M.I.O. coat.

Define the term Tie-coat and give an example of its use P23

An intermediate coating that can tie together two normally incompatible systems, i.e. Alkyd
and chlorinated rubber. Tie coating would prevent the problems of adhesion, solvent
stripping, bleeding, etc.

What is the difference between Thermo-setting and Thermo-plastic

Thermo-setting convertible with heat, once curing completed cannot revert

Thermo-plastic non-convertible, re-softens with the application of heat.

Name two types of paint mill and give two examples of each P24

a) Direct charge - Ball and Attritor

b) Pre-Mix Mills - Pearl, Sand Colloidal

What is the title of BS 3900 P25

Method of Tests for Paints

How many test sets are in BS 3900

There are eight test sets

How are the tests identified

The tests are identified by their title and a letter from A to H

What does a fineness of grind gauge measure P28

Pigment particle size, to assess the degree of grinding of the pigment, the smaller the particle
size the finer the pigment and the higher degree of gloss.
What is a Flashpoint and in what apparatus is it determined.

The lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite when introduced to a source of ignition.
It is determined by the use of an Abel Cup.

What is viscosity and what equipment is used to measure the viscosity of A) a free flowing
paint, B) a Thixotropic paint P29

Viscosity The measure of a fluids resistance to flow.

Free flowing paint Ford flow cup No 4
Thixotropic paint Rotation Viscometer

What is a density cup and give an example of its use P30

A small cup made of aircraft alloy, usually holding 100cc. It is used to measure the density of
a paint by calculating weight over volume. It can show how much solvent has been added.

Calculate the volume solids of a paint if the WFT was 186m and the DFT was 93m

VS% = DFT * 100 = 93 * 100 = VS%50

WFT 186

Calculate the WFT of a paint of the VS% was 66% and the DFT was 88m

WFT = 100 * DFT = 100 * 88 = WFT 133.33m

VS% 66

Calculate the DFT of a paint if the VS% was 44% and the WFT was 234m

DFT = VS% * WFT = 44 * 234 = DFT 102.96m

100 100

Calculate the density of a paint if a 5ltr tin weighed 15kg.

Density = Weight = 15 * 1000 = 3g/cm3

Volume 5 * 1000

Calculate the density of a two pack material of part A (paint) was 1.5g/cm3 and part B
(catalyst) was 0.5g/cm3 (assume a mix ratio of 1 : 1)

Density = Part A 1. 5g/cm3

+ Part B 0.5g/cm3
= 2.0g/cm3

Density = 2 2.0 = 1g/cm3

Name an example of a non-destructive and a destructive DFT gauge P34

a) Banana gauge
b) P.I.G. Paint Inspection Gauge
Name four artificial weathering devices and say what they are designed to simulate

Tropical box Humidity, Salt Spray Marine, Water soak Permeability, Temperature
Cycling Flexibility.

Name two drying / curing tests and stated how they are operated P32

1) Ballotini Steel balls dropped on to a freshly painted surface moving at a

predetermined speed. Where the balls stop sticking to the paint is the curing time.
2) Stylus test A series of trailing needles passing over a wet painted panel. Set at
different tensions, can establish when the paint is tack dry, hard dry and fully

What does a Cryptometer measure and give two examples of cryptometer P31

Cryptometers measure the opacity of a paint.

a) Pfund cryptometer. b) Hiding power charts

What determines the degree of gloss a paint may possess.

The degree to which the pigment content of the paint is ground down in the paint mills. The
finer/smoother the pigment is ground the higher degree of gloss achieved. Gloss finish can be
influenced by the type and amount of binder, method of application and skill of operator.

Name three adhesion tests and describe how one of them is carried out. P36

1) Cross-cut test, 2) Cross-hatch test, 3) Dolly test.

Dolly test Clean, degrease and roughen test surface. Attach dolly with regular araldite, leave
for 24hrs at 25C. cut around dolly with circular tool provided, apply pull off force, record at
what psi failure occurred and mode of failure, cohesive or adhesive.

State the conditions under which B Gas allow painting to take place P37

1) The air and metal temperature is at least 3C above the Dew Point temperature
2) The Relative Humidity is less than 90%
3) The temperatures for application are within the manufacturers given limits

Name eight duties of a Paint inspector P38

1) Learn the specification

2) Familiarise plant and equipment use
3) Assess condition of substrate
4) Check correct materials being used, abrasives, paint
5) Check weather conditions D.P. RH%
6) Check substrate after blast cleaning
7) Check WFT DFT
8) Witness all preparation and painting procedures, complete reports

List eight contractor malpractices P39

1) Preparing and painting in unsuitable weather conditions

2) Using unqualified personnel
3) Using incorrect paint
4) Applying too much or incorrect solvent to the paint
5) Applying low thickness coating
6) Using equipment in poor condition
7) Applying a coating system in the wrong sequence
8) Not observing induction and pot life times

Name three methods of applying paint and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each
in terms of quality and cost effectiveness.

1) Brush Achieve a high quality finish, very slow application (strip coat ok)
cannot be used to apply High Build coatings
2) Roller fast application, 3 times faster than with brush, poor finish, orange peel
effect, uneven coating thickness
3) Airless spray Fast application, 30 times quicker than by brush, can apply high
build coatings, expensive equipment, parts and maintenance.

What does BS 2015 Glossary of Paint Terms refer to and give 3 examples P27

BS 2015 refers to faults in paint coatings

1) Chalking the breaking down of the paint film due to attack by UV light
2) Holidays Missed or poorly coated areas on a painted surface
3) Flocculation The separating of a paints components and refusal to be mixed
back together.

What is BS 4800 and how is it used in the construction industry P45

Used for specifying standardised colours for the construction industry. It is a range of 100
colours taken from the 237 colours identified in BS 5252.

How does B Gas define the following P2

Long term protection 10 years

Medium term protection 5 years
Short term protection 2-3 years

New Galvanising A galvanised steel surface, less than 3 months old, upon
which a cohesive layer has yet to form (bright and shiny)

Weathered galvanising A galvanised steel surface upon which a cohesive oxide layer
has formed by natural weathering (dull, no sheen)

What is the procedure for removing oil and grease from a surface before preparation
commences P12

Oil and grease shall be removed with an approved solvent, low pressure detergent may be
used on large areas, followed by rinsing with clean water and thorough drying.

What is the procedure for removing oil and grease from a surface, if found after preparation
has taken place. P12

Swab down with an approved solvent, a 2% detergent wash, wash down with clean water,
thorough drying and re-blast.

What is the procedure for removing algae and mould growth from pipework

Treat with a biocidal agent, leave for 24hrs at least to kill all spores. Use a stiff bristled brush,
scrub with water, or use a high pressure water wash.
Under what conditions must paint be stored

In a dry lockable well ventilated building at a minimum of 5C below the materials flashpoint,
away from any source of heat. Legal requirements and manufacturers recommendations to be

What is T-Wash, what is it used for, what colour is it, how do we check for a correct
reaction when using it.

T-Wash is an etch primer, that provides a key on new galvanised surfaces and its colour os
blue, after application it should turn black on drying.

What two coats of paint are applied at works P17

1) High solids, solvent based epoxy primer min m

2) Epoxy M.I.O. 75m min SPA 1

What distance must be left at areas to be welded when painting

A distance of 75mm

How much must new paint overlap on old on repairs

100mm feathered edges

What is the maximum allowed time for priming to take place, following preparation and by
what method is primer applied.

4hrs, except SPA 4 where it must be immediately after washing. Primer applied by brush or
spray as appropriate.

What does B Gas class as hot duty service

One which reaches a temperature of 99C in service

What must all pneumatically and electrically operated power tool equipment be.

Earthed to ground

What type of sheeting may and may not be used for protection against spillage and spotting.

Non-flammable sheeting, tarpaulin not allowed

What must not be used to clean out paint kettles or to dispose of rubbish

Fire or flames

Give the rules for the mixing of paints regarding sizes.

Up to 5 litres can be mixed by hand

Above 5 litres must be mechanically mixed
What are osmotic blisters and what can cause them.

Blisters containing a gas, liquid or crystals. Caused by water or solvent entrapment, or

hygroscopic salts left on a blast cleaned surface

Some metals are difficult to prepare, name three and describe how you might prepare them.

Aluminium sheeting - etch and degrease Emery cloth and white spirit. Etch primer, Zinc
Zinc sprayed Denib with emery cloth and degrease, Etch primer followed by zinc chromate
Sheradised - Denib with emery cloth and degrease, Etch primer followed by zinc chromate
Copper Emery cloth and white spirit, etch primer.

What additional information would you record when maintenance painting a pipeline, without
removing the previous coats P20

Establish existing system for surface preparation type, (may contain toxic coating).
Compatible to new system - adhesion. amount an type of contamination, extent of paint
breakdown, extent of corrosion.

Name five paints and their curing method P19

Emulsion coalesence
F.B.E. heat cured
Alkyd solvent evaporation, followed by oxidation
2 pack epoxy solvent evaporation, followed by polymerisation
Chlorinated rubber solvent evaporation only

Name a black pigment in common use apart from coal tar

Carbon black

What is a holiday and pinhole detector. What does it detect and how does it work.

Holiday missed or poorly coated area.

Pinhole a minute defect caused by escaping air bubbles
Procedure earth substrate, pass metal brush (holidays), wet sponge (pinholes) over the
surface at a preset voltage (typically 5V per m) and at a controlled speed. When defect is
found an audio or visual warning is given. Areas must be marked, repaired and retested.

If you worked on a contract where frequent stoppages occurred for poor weather, what
additional information would you record.

The contract for a statement on stand down time

Stop and start times, Wasted materials of abrasive, two pack paints, Progress of work, Record
damage to new blasted or partial painted areas.

What is important about selecting a paint system suitable for a particular environment.

Select one that is suitable to be successful in that environment

What information does B Gas require on a paint tin and what B Gas document deals with the
properties and performance of paints

B Gas PA 9
Tin identification, name, description of product, colour code, special storage requirements,
expiry date, application grade spraying or brushing, batch code, details of current

What is unusual about the preparation and paint surfaces which are dealt with under SP 4

Wash surface with clean water immediately after blasting.

State the principles of being able to use a Banana gauge for taking DFT readings.

To use a Banana gauge you must have a substrate that is ferrous and a coating that is non-

Give one advantage of using a Testex tape and disposable WFT combs

Provide a permanent record of results.

What do H.A.S.W.A and C.O.S.H.H. stand for and describe briefly what these deal with.

Health & Safety at Work Act 1974

This act deals with the duties of the employer and the employee In the workplace. The main
duty of the employer is to provide a safe working environment. The main duties of the
employee are to keep themselves and others safe at work at all times, by their actions and they
have a statutory duty to report accidents, incidents and spillages.

Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health 1988

This act deals with the use, handling, storage, transport, packaging and labelling of many
hazardous materials in our industry, it deals mostly with solvents, sand and dust.

Answer to Mandatory question in Examination

British Gas Painting systems

SPA 1 Surface operating at below 100C

Sequence of operations.
Mask out to protect plant / equipment and other surfaces. Remove contaminants, oil, grease
etc. with approved solvent. Blast clean to SA21/2 min 30m, max 75m. clean surfaces
immediately prior to painting, vacuum down or use clean dry air.
Components supplied from works shall be prepared as above and will be coated with a High
Solids solvent based Epoxy primer 75m min and an epoxy M.I.O 75m min, completion of
the coating should be within 3 months.
On-Site coating will consist of one of the following systems:
1) Compliant solvent based
2) Water borne Acrylic

1) High build epoxy aluminium 75m min, Epoxy M.I.O. 75m min, High build
epoxy u/coat 75m min, Epoxy or Polyester acrylic finish 40m. total system
thickness 265m min DFT.
2) Primer 50m min, M.I.O. 75m min, U/coat 50m min, finish coat 50m min.
total system thickness 225m min DFT. Or 250m DFT min, where primer and
1ST mid coat applied at works.
Primer in all cases to be applied to welds and edges prior to application in order to
achieve final DFT at those areas.
SPA 3 Painting of metal surfaces for hot duties
Surface temperature ranges a) 100 - 149C, b) 150 - 340C, c) above 340C.

Sequence of operations,
Mask out, Remove contamination, oil, grease, with an appropriate solvent. Blast clean to
SA21/2 for Heat Resistant Aluminium pigment epoxy or Urethane primer. SA3 for TSA or
IZS or Polysiloxane system. Clean areas immediately prior to painting.
a) 100C - 149C. H.R. Aluminium pigmented epoxy and Urethane primer,
paint shall be applied within 4hrs of preparation. Following manufacturers
times on overcoating, further coats shall be applied to achieve a minimum
DFT of 100m for Urethane and 250m for epoxy.
b) 150- 340C. Thermally Sprayed Aluminium TSA, preferred system, can
only be applied at works, due to fire hazard. Alternate systems of Inorganic
Zinc Silicate or Polysiloxane coatings applied in accordance with
manufacturers instructions. Care to be taken with IZS as over-thickness can
lead to mud cracking.
c) Above 340C. TSA is the preferred choice. But at site where not practical,
IZS or Polysiloxane primer can be used. With TSA or IZS, a high
temperature sealer should be applied, with heat to cure. Systems are applied
and cured to manufacturers recommendations. The high temperature sealer is
applied because TSA and IZS are porous coatings.

SPA 4 Painting of Damp Ferrous Surfaces

Sequence of operations
Remove surface contamination, swab with grease removing solvents, wash with a 2%
detergent solution. Blast clean to SA21/2, wash down with clean water to remove grit and dust.
Remove standing water by mopping or with squeegee. Two types of materials known to be
damp tolerant. Moisture curing polyurethanes and high solids multi-component epoxy paint.
Both must be applied in accordance with manufacturers instructions, by brush. The painting
shall be in a sequential continuous operation, (single application) Some rust blooming may be

SPA 6 Painting of non-ferrous Surfaces

Surface preparation
New Galvanising, sweep blast or hand abrade. T-Wash shall be used where these other
options are not practical. Paint system can be Water Borne Acrylic MIO 65m min DFT.
Pigmented high build epoxy 65m min. Alkyd or modified alkyd 40m min DFT primer

Weathered galvanising
Stiff bristle brush or wire brush, weathering provides its own surface. patch primer with zinc
rich epoxy optional. Paint systems as with new galvanising.

Stainless Steel
Sweep blast with aluminium oxide or garnet. Paint system Water borne Acrylic 65m min
DFT. Zinc rich paints must not be used

Coating systems shall normally be terminated with a full gloss finish of the same generic

For all above, full system when applied must be at least 120m min DFT and include an
M.I.O coat.