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Manufacturing Automation

M.Sc. Bui, Hoang Dung

Office: 208 - A2 Building
Division of ET Mechanical Engineering (DME)
Phone: +84 98 335 2439


2.Mains Components in an Automation System
3.Numerical Control
4. Programmable Logic Control
5.Industrial Robotics
6. Material Handling System
7.Flexible Manufacturing System


1. Discrete Process Control
2. Ladder Logic Diagrams
3. Programmable Logic Controllers
4. Personal Computer Using Soft Logic

1. Discrete Process Control
- Logic Control
- Sequencing
2. Ladder Logic Diagrams
3. Programmable Logic Controllers
4. Personal Computer Using Soft Logic


Discrete Process Control

Discrete process control?
- Deal with discrete parameters and variables in
binary form (0/1, ON/OFF, true/false, etc.)
- Associate with input signals to controller and
output signals from controller

Two categories of discrete process control:

- Logic control -> event-driven systems changes.
- Sequencing -> time-driven systems changes

Logic Control
A logic control system (combinational logic control):
- a switching system, determine outputs by values of
current inputs.
- No memory, not consider any previous values of input
signals, not a directed function of time
- Example via a Video-clip
- Some sensors (use in Discrete Process Control): Limit
switch, Photodetector, Push-button switch, Control
-Some actuators: Motor, Control, relay, Valve, Solenoid


Logic Control
Elements of Logic Control:
- 3 logic Gates: AND, OR and NOT
- The inputs and outputs of the gates is only 1(ON) or
- Truth Table for the Logical AND gate
Inputs Output
X1 X2 Y = X1 X2
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1

Logic Control
Elements of Logic Control:
Truth Table for the Logical OR and NOT gate
Inputs Output
X1 X2 Y = X1 + X2
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

Inputs Output
X1 Y = 1
0 1
1 0


Logic Control
Two others Gates NAND and XOR:

Y = 1 2 Y = 1 + 2

(a) NAND (b) NOR

Inputs Output Inputs Output
X1 X2 Y = 1 2 X1 X2 Y = 1 + 2
0 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 0

Logic Control
Some symbols for the Gates used in the logic network


Logic Control
Laws and Theorems of Boolean Algebra

Logic Control
Example: Build the truth table of the following diagram:

START = 0 is normally open contact status

START = 1 when the START button is pressed to contact
STOP = 0 is normally closed contact status
STOP = 1 when the STOP button is pressed to break contact
POWER-TO-MOTOR = 0 when the contacts are open
POWER-TO-MOTOR = 1 when the contacts are closed
MOTOR = 0 when off (not running)
MOTOR = 1 when on


Logic Control
Example: Build the truth table of the following diagram:

Start Stop Motor Power-to-

0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

Logic Control

Start Stop Motor Power-to-Motor

0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0


Sequencing Control
- Uses internal timing devices to determine when to
initiate changes in ouput variables (examle: an
induction heating coil is used to heat the workpart)
- Use a prescheduled set of ON/OFF values for the
output variables
- Often use in an open-loop system (no feedback)
- The sequence of output signals is usually cyclical; the
signals occur in the same repeated pattern within each
regular cycle.
- Two control components: timer and counter

Sequencing Control
- Timer: is a device that switches its output ON or OFF at
preset time intervals. Common timers switches on when
activated and remain on for a programmed length of time.
Some activated by depressing a button
- Two additional types of timers: (1) delay-off timers, (2)
delay-on timers.
- A delay-off timer: switches power immediately in response
to a start signal, then switches power off after a specific
time delay (light inside a car).
- A delay-on timer: waits a specific length of timer before
switching power on when it receives a start signal


Sequencing Control
- A counter: is a device used to count electrical pulses
and store the results of the counting procedure.
- Classified as up counters, down counters, and up/down
- An up counter: starts at zero and increments by one in
response to each pulse. When a preset value has been
reached, the up counter can be reset to zero. (ex.
Couting the number of bottle filled in a box)
- A down counter start with a preset value and
decrements the total by one for each pulse received
(count from 20 for a crate of beer)

Sequencing Control
- Up/down counters: combines the two counting
operations, and might be useful for keeping track of
the number of bottles remaining in a storage buffer. It
adds the number of bottles entering and subtracts the
number exiting the buffer to get a current tally of the
buffer contents.


1. Discrete Process Control
2. Ladder Logic Diagrams
3. Programmable Logic Controllers
4. Personal Computer Using Soft Logic

Ladder Logic Diagrams

- a graphical method to show the
relationaship between logic
elements as electrical circuits.
- familiar to shop personel who
must construct, test, maintain, and
repair the discrete control system.
- The elements and components are
contacts (inputs) and loads/coils
- Inputs include switches, relay
- Loads include motors, lamps,
and alarms


Ladder Logic Diagrams

- The power to the components
is provie by the two vertical
- There are two types of
contacts: normally open and
normally closed.
- A normally open contact
remains open until activated.
When activated, it closes to
allow current to flow
- A normally closed contact
remains closed, allowing
current to flow until activated

Ladder Logic Diagrams

Both types of contacts are used to represent ON/OFF inputs

to the logic circuit.
Inputs include also relays, on/off sensors, timers, and other
binary contact devices.


Ladder Logic Diagrams

- Timer: When the input signal is received, the timer
waits the specified delay time before switching on or off
the output signal. The timer is reset (output is set back to
its initial value) by turning off the input signal.
- Counters require two inputs. The first is the pulse train
(series of on/off signal) that is counted by the counter.
The second signal is a signal to reset the counter and
restart the counting procedure.

Ladder Logic Diagrams

- What is the following circuit?


Ladder Logic Diagrams

Example: Construct the ladder Logic Diagrams of the
circuit below.

1. Discrete Process Control
2. Ladder Logic Diagrams
3. Programmable Logic Controllers
- Components of the PLC
- PLC Operating Cycle
- Additional Capabilities of the PLC
- Programming the PLC
4. Personal Computer Using Soft Logic


Programmable Logic Controllers - PLC

PLC: a microcomputer-based controller that uses stored
instructions in programmable memory to implement logic,
sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic functions
through digital or analog input/output (I/O) modules, for
controlling individual machines, machine cells, transfer
lines, material handling equipment, and automated storage

Programmable Logic Controllers - PLC

Advantages of PLC (comparing to conventional things):
(1) programming the PLC is easier than wiring the relay
control panel;
(2) can be reprogrammed, whereas conventional controls
must be rewired and are often scrapped instead;
(3) PLCs take less floor space than relay control panels;
(4) reliability is greater, and maintenance is easier;
(5) the PCL can be connected to computer systems more
easily than relays
(6) PLCs can perform a greater variety of control functions
than can relay controls.


Components of the PLC

Components of PLC: (1) processor, (2) memory unit, (3)
power supply, (4) I/O module, and (5) programming device

PLC Operating Cycle

The typical operating cycle of the PLC, called a scan,
consists of three parts: (1) input scan, (2) program scan,
and (3) output scan.
Input scan: the inputs are read by the processor then is
stored in memory.
Program scan: the control program is executed (load the
inputs from memory to calculate then return outputs
Output scan: the outputs are updated to agree with the
calculated values.
The time to perform the scan is called the scan time
(typically between 1 and 25 msec)


PLC Operating Cycle

Potential problems can occur during the scan cycle:
- The value of an input can change immediately after it
has been sampled.
- The risk is minimized by short update time
- In the processes with very fast responses, some special
PLCs can be used. Those kinds of PLC can
immediate updates of output signal when the change
of variable is faster than the scan time.

Additional Capabilities of the PLC

Analog control: PID control is available on some

programmable controllers (traditionally implemented using
analog controllers)
Arithmetic functions: addition, subtraction, multiplication,
and division (permits more complex control algorithms
than conventional logic and sequencing elements.
Matrix functions: compare the actual values of a set of
inputs and outputs with the values stored in the PLC
memory to determine if some error has occurred.
Data processing and reporting: are typically associated
with business applications of PCs make the distinction
between PCs and PLCs blurs.


1. Discrete Process Control
2. Ladder Logic Diagrams
3. Programmable Logic Controllers
4. Personal Computer Using Soft Logic

Personal Computer Using Soft Logic

PC is reaching the PLC advantages:
- can be equipped with membrane-type keyboard for
protection against factory moisture, oil, and dirt.
- can be ordered with I/O cards and related hardware to
provide the necessary devices to connect o the plants
equipment and processes.
- Its operating system designed to implement real-time
control applications can be installed in addition to
traditional office software.
-> increasing numbers of PCs used in factory control
applications where PLCs would have formerly been used.


Personal Computer Using Soft Logic

Two basic approaches used in PC-based control system:
soft logic and hard real-time control.
soft logic configuration: The PCs operating system is
Windows, and control algorithms are installed as high-
priority programs under the operating system.
-> it is possible to interrupt the control tasks in order to
service certain system functions in Windows -> the control
function is delayed, with possible negative consequences to
the process
-> a soft logic control system cannot be considered a real-
time controller in the sense of a PLC.

Personal Computer Using Soft Logic

An hard real-time control system: the PCs operating
system is the real-time operating system, and the control
software takes priority over all other software windows
tasks are executed at a lower priority under the real-time
operating system.
Windows cannot interrupt the execution of the real-time
controller. If Windows locks up, it does not affect the
controller operation. Also, the real-time operating system
resides in the PCs active memory, so a failure of the hard
disk has no effect in a hard real-time control system.


End of Chapter 4