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Why perform a Drive test ?

Every alive Network needs to be under continues control to maintain/improve the


performance.
Optimization is basically the only way to keep track of the network by looking deep into
statistics and collecting/analyzing drive test data.
Drive test helps operation and maintenance for troubleshooting purposes.

GSM Parameters :
RxLevel
RxQuality
Frame Erasure Rate ( FER )
Bit Error Rate ( BER )
Carrier to Interferer ( C/I )
Speech Quality Index ( SQI )

RxLevel
The power level corresponding to the average received signal level of the downlink as
measured by the mobile station.
Normal Range is from -30 to 70.
Level lower than -70 shows low signal levels.
Amplifiers, New site proposal, Hardware check could alter the low signal level.

RxQuality
The level corresponding to the mobile stations perceived quality of the downlink signal.
Normal range is from 0 to 4.
Quality higher than 4 can result in Call drops, Call blocks, Muted calls, Handover failures,
Interference.
Numerous alternatives could be used to make the quality normal, which can include setting
RF parameters from OMC.

Frame Erasure Rate ( FER )


A speech quality degrade factor that indicates fading and interference.
Normally should be less than 4%.
FER greater than 4% that degrades RxLevel, RxQuality, BER, SQI and C/I indicates fading
that leads to Call drops, Call blocks, Muted calls and Handover failures.
FER plays a major role in troubleshooting of Interference.

Bit Error Rate ( BER )


The number of received bits that have been altered due to noise, interference and distortion,
divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval.
For a perfect system, no bits are to be lost.
Loss of bits can result in fading and interference that leads to Call drops, Call blocks, Muted
calls and Handover failures.

Carrier to Interferer ( C/ I )
Cochannel interference is the term used for interference in a cell caused by carriers with the
same frequency present in other cells.
Normal Range of C/I should be greater than 12 dB.
Value lower than 12 dB indicates interference with a certain frequency that could be co-
channel or adjacent channel interference.
Neighbor sites should be properly planned to overcome interference problems.

Speech Quality Index ( SQI )


SQI is an estimate of the perceived speech quality as experienced by the mobile user, is
based on handover events and on the bit error and frame erasure distributions.
SQI should be greater than 18.
Low SQI indicates degraded speech quality and interference.
RF parameter tuning could level the SQI back to its normal value.

CDMA Parameters :
RxLevel
TxPower
Carrier Energy to Interference( Ec/Io )
Carrier to Interferer ( C/I )
Signal to Noise Ratio ( SNR )

RxLevel
The power level corresponding to the average received signal level of the downlink as
measured by the mobile station.
Normal Range is from -30 to 80.
Level lower than -80 shows low signal levels.
New site proposal, Hardware check could alter the low signal level.

TxPower
Tx Power Control determines how the transmit power of the receiving base station will vary.
TxPower should be upto -20.
Value less than -20 will indicate Interference that can result in Call drops, Call blocks, Voice
breaks.

Carrier Energy to Interference ( Ec/Io)


The ratio of received pilot energy, Ec, to total received energy or the total power spectral
density, Io.
Ec/Io should be upto -13dB.
Values less than -13dB could be due to bad terrain, interference or increased number of
users.

Carrier to Interferer ( C/ I )
Cochannel interference is the term used for interference in a cell caused by carriers with
the same frequency present in other cells.
Normal Range of C/I should be less than 12dB.
Value greater than 12 dB indicates interference with a certain frequency that results in a
low throughput.
Neighbor sites should be properly planned to overcome interference problems.

Signal to Noise Ratio ( SNR )

Signal to Noise ratio of the carrier.

SNR should be less than 6%.

Values higher than that will result in low throughput, voice quality breaks.