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The Project Life Cycle refers to the four-step process that is followed by nearly all project

managers when moving through stages of project completion. This is the standard project life
cycle most people are familiar with. The Project Life Cycle provides a framework for managing
any type of project within a business. Leaders in project management have conducted research
to determine the best process by which to run projects. It has been found that following a
project life cycle is critical for any services organization.

Importance of project phases

Project Phases are very important for project managers. By thinking in terms of phases, you can ensure
that the deliverables produced at the end of each phase meet their purpose, and that project team
members (or sub-teams) are properly prepared for the next phase.

Phases of Project life cycle

Phase #1: The Conceptualization Phase

This can also be referred to as the Initiation Phase and is the starting point of any project or idea. For
the Conceptualization Phase to begin, a strategic need for the project or service must be recognized by
upper management.

Phase #2: The Planning Phase

The second phase of the project management life cycle is referred to as the Planning Phase. Once
management has given the OK to launch a project, a more formal set of plansoutlining initial goalsis
established.

Phase #3: The Execution Phase

The third phase is labeled Execution. This is when the actual work of the project is performed. Required
materials, tools, and resources are transformed to reach the project goals. During this phase,
performance is continually measured to ensure the project is successful.

Phase #4: The Termination Phase

The fourth and final phase is called Termination Phase, also referred to as Project Closure. This phase
begins once the project has been completed.

Explain 4 frames of organization


The structural frame focuses on the architecture of the organization. This includes goals, structure,
technology, roles and relationships and coordination of them.

The human resource frame emphasizes understanding people and their relationships. Individuals have
needs, feelings, fears, prejudices, skills, and development opportunities.

The political frame sees organizations as jungles, arenas, or contests. This frame emphasizes power,
competition, and winning scarce resources. Diverse values, beliefs, interests, behaviors, and skills
provides the rich context for the allocation of power and resources.

The symbolic frame captures organizational life as drama and treats organizations as theatre, temples,
or carnivals. This frame focuses on meaning and faith.

Explain the relationship between stakeholders and projects.

Project relationships are those relationships that occur between the project manager and the projects
stakeholders as well as those that occur among the project stakeholders themselves.

Project managers and their project teams can enhance stakeholders perceptions of project success (or
reduce their perception of failure), by identifying and prioritising key stakeholders, and by developing
and implementing strategies for engaging and communicating with them.