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Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Measurement
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/measurement

Experimental investigations on machinability aspects in nish hard


turning of AISI 4340 steel using uncoated and multilayer coated
carbide inserts
Ashok Kumar Sahoo a,, Bidyadhar Sahoo b
a
School of Mechanical Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 024, India
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang, Odisha, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The present work deals with some machinability studies on ank wear, surface roughness,
Received 1 March 2012 chip morphology and cutting forces in nish hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using uncoated
Received in revised form 17 April 2012 and multilayer TiN and ZrCN coated carbide inserts at higher cutting speed range. The pro-
Accepted 29 May 2012
cess has also been justied economically for its effective application in hard turning. Exper-
Available online 7 June 2012
imental results revealed that multilayer TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN coated insert performed better
than uncoated and TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN coated carbide insert being steady growth of ank
Keywords:
wear and surface roughness. The tool life for TiN and ZrCN coated carbide inserts was found
Finish hard turning
Coated carbide
to be approximately 19 min and 8 min at the extreme cutting conditions tested. Uncoated
Tool wear carbide insert used to cut hardened steel fractured prematurely. Abrasion, chipping and
Surface roughness catastrophic failure are the principal wear mechanisms observed during machining. The
Chip morphology turning forces (cutting force, thrust force and feed force) are observed to be lower using
Cutting force multilayer coated carbide insert in hard turning compared to uncoated carbide insert. From
Economic analysis 1st and 2nd order regression model, 2nd order model explains about 98.3% and 86.3% of
the variability of responses (ank wear and surface roughness) in predicting new observa-
tions compared to 1st order model and indicates the better tting of the model with the
data for multilayer TiN coated carbide insert. For ZrCN coated carbide insert, 2nd order
ank wear model ts well compared to surface roughness model as observed from ANOVA
study. The savings in machining costs using multilayer TiN coated insert is 93.4% compared
to uncoated carbide and 40% to ZrCN coated carbide inserts respectively in hard machining
taking ank wear criteria of 0.3 mm. This shows the economical feasibility of utilizing mul-
tilayer TiN coated carbide insert in nish hard turning.
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction operations are performed with coated carbide cutting tools


reported by Grzesik [1]. Trends towards hard machining,
The aim of machining is to manufacture product with high-speed machining, machining hard-to-cut materials
less cost of high dimensional accuracy and nish. At the and dry machining are cause behind the development of
same time, machining operations should be targeted to- high-performance thin layer coatings. Titanium based hard
wards dry or near dry machining to avoid environmental thin lms are mostly used due to higher wear resistance,
problems associated with the use of cutting uids. To cope thermal shock and corrosion property and also imparts
up with above situations, now-a-days, 80% of all machining lubricity at the chip tool interface to reduce friction. Low
cost coated carbide tools are seen as a possible replace-
Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 674 6540805. ment to uncoated carbide inserts and they are processed
E-mail address: aklala72@gmail.com (A.K. Sahoo). mainly by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical

0263-2241/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2012.05.015
2154 A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165

Nomenclature

d depth of cut (mm) co rake angle


f feed (mm/rev) k inclination angle
v cutting speed (m/min) r nose radius
Ra arithmetic surface roughness average Tc machining time per part
VBc ank wear (mm) Td down time
Fx axial (feed) force L machining length
Fy radial (thrust) force T tool life
Fz tangential (cutting) force C total machining cost per part
ao clearance angle

vapor deposition (PVD) techniques. Hard turning has been work tool steel with ceramic inserts. Lima et al. [8] inves-
applied now-a-days in many areas like production of bear- tigated the machinability of AISI D2 cold work tool steel
ings, gears, shafts and other mechanical components and (50 HRC) and AISI 4340 steel (42 HRC) using ceramic and
offers an attractive alternative to grinding. Hard turning coated carbide inserts. The results indicated that mixed
is generally performed by superior hard tools like CBN alumina inserts produced the surface nish comparable
and ceramic. The benets of hard turning are; reduction and close to cylindrical grinding. The principal wear mech-
of cost per product, good surface nish closer to grinding, anism is abrasion when turning the 42 HRC steel, whereas
high productivity, the ability to machine complex parts diffusion wear is predominant when machining the 50 HRC
by single setup thereby reducing setup times, less costly steel. Asiltrk and Akkus [9] carried out hard turning
equipment and environment friendly dry cutting. Due to experiment on hardened AISI 4140 steel (51 HRC) with
the development of PCBN cutting tools (commercially coated carbide insert using Taguchi orthogonal array for
available in the mid-1970s) and advanced ceramic grades, surface roughness. Results of this study indicate that the
the turning of steels with hardness values exceeding feed rate has the most signicant effect on Ra and Rz. In
50 HRC has been extensively investigated and successively addition, the effects of two factor interactions of the feed
replaces costly grinding operations reported by Lalwani rate-cutting speed and depth of cut-cutting speed appear
et al. [2]. to be important. However, other machinability characteris-
Park [3] observed that the radial force is the largest tics like tool wear and tool life, cutting force, chip morphol-
force component regardless the type of tool used, i.e. PCBN ogy and cutting temperature have not been considered for
or ceramic during turning hardened steel in dry conditions. study which is essential for hard turning. Sahoo and Sahoo
The specic cutting energy for the hard turning is found to [10] conducted hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (47 HRC)
be smaller than the specic grinding energy. Cutting force using multilayer ZrCN coated carbide insert and developed
and surface roughness is found to be smaller with the mathematical model for surface roughness and ank wear.
PCBN tools compared to ceramic tools under similar cut- The optimized process parameter for multiple perfor-
ting conditions. Ozel et al. [4] observed that surface rough- mance characteristics has been obtained using gray based
ness (Ra) values is as low as 0.180.20 lm with wiper Taguchi method and greatly improved. Mathematical mod-
ceramic inserts during hard turning of AISI D2 steel el output concluded that the RSM models proposed are sta-
(60 HRC). Tool ank wear reaches around 15 min consider- tistically signicant and adequate because of higher R2
ing ank wear criteria of 0.3 mm at high cutting speeds value. Rech [11] performed experiments on the character-
due to elevated temperatures. Sahin and Motorcu [5] ization of the frictional behavior of a reference coating
developed the surface roughness model using response such as TiN, and of new coatings such as (Ti, Al)N and
surface methodology in turning AISI 1050 hardened steels (Ti, Al)N + MoS2, deposited on a WCCo carbide substrate
by CBN cutting tools under different conditions. Feed rate during the machining of steels. It is observed that, the slid-
was found out to be the most signicant factor on the sur- ing ability of the TiN coating is a key parameter leading to a
face roughness. Singh and Venkateswara Rao [6] reported better wear resistance, compared to a (Ti, Al)N coating.
that the feed is the dominant factor determining the sur- Vikram Kumar and Ramamoorthy [12] compared the per-
face nish followed by nose radius and cutting velocity formance of different coated carbide tools in conventional
in nish hard turning of bearing steel (AISI 52100) using dry turning and wet turning processes with minimal uid
mixed ceramic inserts having different nose radius and dif- application method by varying speed and feed keeping
ferent effective rake angles. The effect of the effective rake depth of cut constant. More Abhijeet et al. [13] investi-
angle on the surface nish is less. But, the interaction ef- gated cBN plus TiN (cBNTiN) composite-coated carbide
fects of nose radius and effective rake angle are found to inserts for hard turning applications. The ank wear is pri-
be also signicant. Gaitonde et al. [7] revealed that, wiper marily due to abrasive actions of the martensite present
insert performed better with reference to surface rough- in the hardened AISI 4340 alloy. The crater wear of the
ness and tool wear, while the conventional insert is useful cBNTiN coated inserts is less than that of the PCBN inserts
in reducing the machining force, power and specic cut- because of the lubricity of TiN coating layer on the cBNTiN
ting force during turning of high chromium AISI D2 cold coating. The coated carbide inserts produce a good surface
A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165 2155

nish (<1.6 lm) and yield a tool life of about 18 min per uncoated carbide inserts and multilayer coated carbide in-
cutting edge. Noordin et al. [14] investigated on tool life serts (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN and TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN) in dry
and surface nish during hard turning of AISI 420 stainless environment under higher parametric range. For econom-
steel (4748 HRC) using wiper carbide insert. Maximum ical feasibility of above carbide inserts in hard turning, a
tool life is found to be 18 min and the tool life decreased comparison between both inserts were made based on to-
at higher cutting speeds and feeds. Wear occurred at both tal machining cost per part. Therefore an attempt has been
the rake and ank faces with crater formation exposing made to know whether the newer generation coated car-
the carbide substrate indicating more severe wear on the bide tools can be effectively used for the hard turning
rake face. The wiper coated carbide tool resulted in very applications or not under dry environment at higher cut-
ne surface nish, much better than the theoretical values. ting speed.
Sharma et al. [15] studied machining variables such as cut-
ting forces and surface roughness which are measured dur- 2. Experimental conditions and procedures
ing turning at different cutting parameters such as
approaching angle, speed, feed and depth of cut. The data Experiments were carried out to study the growth of
obtained by experimentation is analyzed and used to con- ank wear, surface roughness and chip morphology (shape
struct model using neural networks. Vikram Kumar et al. and color) with respect to machining time for coated and
[16] compared the performance of TiCN and TiAlN coated uncoated inserts in hard turning of AISI 4340 steel
tools in machining AISI 4340 hardened steel under dry, (47 1 HRC) in dry environment under extreme parametric
wet and minimum uid application conditions. Minimum conditions. The chip morphology study has been done to
uid application yields better result compared to wet and identify the nature of chiptool interaction inuenced by
dry machining. However, the performance of the TiAlN using coated and uncoated carbide inserts. In this investi-
coated tool performed better with reference to wear resis- gation, higher parametric range (v = 150 m/min, f = 0.15
tance and surface nish on the components. Jiang et al. m/min and d = 0.4 mm) was taken to judge its performance
[17] presented the development of a nanocomposite cBN in hard turning and also assesses the tool life of both inserts.
TiN coating especially for hard turning. Aspects of the coat- The turning forces were measured and compared. The tool
ing on chip-breaker inserts, repeatability, and process opti- life criteria [20,21] were set based on a maximum ank
mization for the given application are discussed. wear width of VBc = 0.3 mm measured at tool nose radius
Encouraging tool life and work piece surface roughness corner and surface roughness criteria was taken as
have been achieved in machining of hardened steels (50 1.6 lm, i.e. comparable to cylindrical grinding. Cutting
53 HRC) using the coated inserts. de Lima et al. [18] per- was stopped when the tool ank wear width reached
formed turning operation of AISI 4340 steel hardened from 0.3 mm. The details of experimental conditions, instrumen-
250 to 525 HV using coated carbide tools to investigate its tations and measurements and the procedure used for the
potentials of applications in hard turning. It is observed study are discussed.
that, the machining force component increases with the
work material hardness. However, the cutting force de-
2.1. Test specimen
creases slightly as the work hardness increased from 250
to 345 HV. Tool wear was lower when machining the
The material used in the test for hard turning was AISI
345 HV workpiece compared with cutting the 250 HV steel
4340 steel of a 100 mm long and 45 mm diameter. The
and abrasion was the principal wear mechanism. Cata-
chemical composition of workpiece measured by Spectro
strophic failure takes place when attempting to machine
Metal Analyzer (Spectro Max) in weight% is as follows:
the 525 HV steel. Basak et al. [19] optimized process param-
0.397C, 0.389Si, 0.77Mn, 0.052P, 1.1Cr, 0.175Mo, 1.55Ni,
eters for surface roughness and tool wear in nish hard
0.64 W and 0.285Cu. The hardness of workpiece material
turning of D2 steel with ceramic tools using radial basis
after heat treatment was found to be 47 1 HRC.
function neural network model and found suitable in
selecting appropriate process parameters.
The current literature reports many investigations using
PCBN and ceramic tool on hardened steel, but the research
work carried out by multilayer coated carbide inserts on
hard turning are very limited. Thus, there is a need to inves-
tigate the machinability of hardened steel using low cost
coated carbide insert in details to explore its feasibility in
application in hard turning under dry environment. Usu-
ally, machinability of any combination of work-tool pair is
judged by (i) cutting temperature (ii) types and nature
of chips produced; (iii) cutting forces that affect power
consumption, dimensional accuracy and vibration, (iv) sur-
face nish, and (v) tool wear and tool life of insert. In the
present work, tool wear, tool life, surface roughness, chip
morphology and cutting forces are considered for study.
Thus, the current paper deals with some machinability
studies in nish hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using Fig. 1. Photograph of CNC Lathe.
2156 A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165

2.2. Machine tool

Machining experiment has been performed on a high


rigid CNC lathe (JOBBER XL, AMS, India) equipped with var-
iable spindle speed from 50 to 3500 rpm and 16KW maxi-
mum spindle power with Sinumeric controller (shown in
Fig. 1) under dry environment.

2.3. Cutting inserts

In tests, commercially available one uncoated and two


coated carbide inserts (manufactured by WIDIA-Kenna-
metal) of ISO designation CNMG 120408 (800 diamond
shaped insert) have been used for experimentation. The
details of cutting tools are: one uncoated carbide (TTS
grade), one MTCVD (medium temperature chemical vapor
Fig. 2. Surface roughness tester, Taylor Hobson (Surtronic 25).
deposition) multilayer coated carbide inserts coated with
four layers of (TiN, TiCN, Al2O3 and TiN), the outermost
being TiN designated as TN 2000 grade and other is CVD 2.5. Surface roughness measurements
coated (TiN, TiCN, Al2O3 and ZrCN), the outer most being
ZrCN designated as TN 7015 grade respectively. Grade TN The arithmetic average surface roughness (Ra) of the
2000, a CVD coated cobalt enriched substrate has required workpiece is measured by Taylor Hobson (Surtronic 25,
bulk toughness added with multilayer MT CVD coating UK) surface roughness tester (shown in Fig. 2), where the
which gives the wear resistance and crater resistance re- cutoff length and assessment length was xed as 0.8 mm
quired in steel machining. It provides required chip impact and 4 mm respectively. The instrument was calibrated
resistance and well balanced toughness and wear resis- using a standard calibration block prior to the measure-
tance properties. Grade TN 7015, a CVD coated with tough ments. The measurement was taken at four locations (90
surface zone and thick TiCN and ZrCN coating gives excel- apart) around the circumference of the workpieces and re-
lent wear and heat resistant properties. Grade TTS is ide- peated twice at each point on the face of the machined sur-
ally considered as universal uncoated grade for steel face and the average values reported for the response.
machining. Inserts are mounted on a tool holder desig-
nated by ISO as PCLNR2525 M12. 2.6. Flank wear measurements

2.4. Cutting conditions The ank wear (VBc) were measured using Nikon
Prole Projector, model V10AD with a magnication of
The cutting condition for nish hard turning under 2050. The maximum ank wear land measured at
higher parametric condition is shown in Table 1. the tool corner (VBc) and taken as criteria of 0.3 mm. As
small depth of cut (0.4 mm) is chosen compared to tool
nose radius (0.8 mm), the tool wear occurs in the vicinity
of tool nose radius corner only. The visualization of images
Table 1
of ank surface of inserts was taken by stereo zoom micro-
Cutting conditions for hard turning.
scope (model RSM-8, Radical instrument, India) shown in
Cutting Descriptions Fig. 3. The experiment was stopped to measure the width
conditions
of ank wear land and surface roughness at each succes-
Workpiece AISI 4340 sive time.
Cutting time 0.46, 0.66, 0.9, 1.77, 3.44, 5.65, 8, 10.1, 15.63 and
19.48
Hardness 47 1 HRC 2.7. Study of chip pattern
Cutting speed 150 m/min
Feed 0.15 mm/rev The chip morphology (shape and color) is an important
Depth of cut 0.4 mm index of machinability study in metal machining. From the
Cutting environment
Dry
experiment, the chips were collected with successive
Cutting tools Uncoated carbide (TTS) [P2030] Tool 1 machining time and examined its shapes and colors by dig-
MTCVD TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN coated carbide (TN ital camera to identify the nature of chiptool interaction
2000) [P1530] Tool 2 inuenced by using coated and uncoated carbide inserts
CVD TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN coated carbide (TN
under dry environment.
7015) [P1020] Tool 3
Tool geometry CNMG120408
Tool holder PCLNR 2525 M12 2.8. Cutting force measurements
Overhang 30 mm
length
The experiment for turning forces were carried out on a
Responses Flank wear, surface roughness, chip morphology
capstan precision lathe (7KW spindle power, 1400 rpm
A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165 2157

time have been shown in Figs. 11 and 12. Variations of cut-


ting forces have been shown in Figs. 1315.
The summary of experimental ndings is presented
below:

1. Just after 0.46 min of machining from Fig. 5, it is clear that


the uncoated carbide tool suffer severe ank wear of the order
of 0.263 mm. However, the life of the tool is nished at
0.66 min well before 1 min of machining reaching a value of
ank wear 0.44 mm within 0.66 min. On the other hand from
the Figs. 6 and 7, it is clear that the coated tools hardly suffer
from such high rate of wear. The level of wear is only of the
order of 0.029 mm and 0.016 mm for TiN and ZrCN coated
tools respectively within 0.9 min. The uncoated tool primarily
failed by chipping due to lack of strength to sustain the high
stresses arising during hard turning and extreme cutting condi-
Fig. 3. Stereo zoom microscope. tions. The chipping occurred due to high cutting temperature
and the pressure on the tool tip. Besides, formation of serrated
saw tooth prole on outer surface of chip with blunt blue color
maximum rotational speed and manufactured by (Fig. 8 and Table 3) indicates the rise of temperature and
Gottwaldov, ZPS, Chekoslovakia). Three different compo- thermo-mechanical failure. So uncoated carbide insert used to
nents of forces, namely, cutting force (Fz), feed force (Fx) cut hardened AISI 4340 steel at extreme cutting conditions,
and thrust force (Fy) were measured through a Kistler i.e. at higher cutting speed (150 m/min) fractured prematurely
3-component piezoelectric dynamometer (model 9257B) due to excessive thrust force noticed during the experiment
mounted on a specially designed xture shown in Fig. 4. (Fig. 13).
The charge generated at the dynamometer was amplied 2. All 3-components of turning forces for multilayer
using three multi channel charge amplier (manufactured coated tools are lower than those of uncoated tool in
by Kistler, CH-8408). The amplied signal was acquired hard turning under identical cutting parameters and
and sampled using data acquisition system and stored in geometrical conditions. The thrust force (Fy) is higher
computer using LAB VIEW software (National Instrument, (950 N) for uncoated carbide insert than other two
9234). The RS-232C interface is a point to point connection coated carbide inserts shown in Fig. 13. The higher
between amplier and the PC. thrust force for uncoated carbide insert is responsible
for chipping which leads to catastrophic failure of the
tool. It implies severe abrasion and friction between
3. Results and discussion
tool and workpiece during hard turning using uncoated
carbide insert. It is also evident that turning forces for
The experimental results of growth of ank wear and
ZrCN coated carbide insert were slightly lower than
surface roughness at different intervals during machining
TiN coated carbide insert during 10sec of machining
for both uncoated and coated carbide inserts are presented
noticed in Figs. 14 and 15. It was probably due to the
in Table 2 and Figs. 57 respectively. Images of chips pro-
growth of initial wear being slightly larger for TiN
duced during machining and its shape and color are shown
coated insert than ZrCN coated insert observed in
in Table 3 and Figs. 810 respectively. The growth of ank
Fig. 11. Due to the presence of lubricious TiN coating,
wear vs. cutting time and surface roughness vs. cutting
it reduces the friction and interface temperature [1].
So, temperature generation is not so high enough for
softening of the workpiece and consequently higher
forces induced during machining. As ZrCN is a heat
resistant coating, mostly the heat is concentrated at
the interface which softens the workpiece material
and reduces the material shear strength and conse-
quently reduces the forces.
3. Fig. 11 indicates the growth of ank wear with machin-
ing time for both coated and uncoated carbide inserts in
hard machining. Both coated tools exhibited lower wear
than the uncoated tools. This could be due to decreased
friction between the chip and tool, chip and workpiece
and also the effect of coatings acting as a thermal bar-
rier [1]. This barrier prevents heat from entering the
tool and hence most of the heat is removed by the chip.
It clearly depicts the higher tool life for multilayer TiN
coated carbide insert due to its lubricity layer which
Fig. 4. Kistler dynamometer. lowers the heat generation at chip tool interface [22],
2158 A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165

Table 2
Flank wear and surface roughness data for hard machining of AISI 4340 steel.

Runs Machining time (Tc) in Flank wear land (VBc) in mm Surface roughness (Ra) in lm
min
Uncoated TiN coated ZrCN coated Uncoated TiN coated ZrCN coated
carbide carbide carbide carbide carbide carbide
1 0.46 0.263 0.025 0.015 0.765 0.987 1.065
2 0.66 0.44 - - 0.37 - -
3 0.9 0.6 0.029 0.016 0.42 1.19 1.195
4 1.77 0.71 0.039 0.028 0.505 0.95 0.605
5 3.44 - 0.12 0.15 - 0.987 0.755
6 5.65 - 0.169 0.28 - 0.86 0.945
7 8 - 0.211 0.324 - 1.007 1.147
8 10.1 - 0.221 - - 1.07 -
9 15.63 - 0.275 - - 1.205 -
10 19.48 - 0.315 - - 1.57 -

Fig. 5. Tool tips of uncoated carbide insert after machining times (a) 0.46 min, (b) 0.66 min, (c) 0.9 min and (d) 1.77 min.

oxidation resistance and thermal barrier property due steady wear and nally rapid stage of wear. Abrasion
to Al2O3 coating and adds wear resistance due to TiCN was found to be the major mechanism of ank wear in
coating. hard turning within studied range. When abrasive wear
4. The gradual growth of VBc for multilayer TiN coated dominates, scars on ank face are observed which is
insert indicates steady machining without any seen in TiN coated insert after 15.63 and 19.48 min of
premature tool failure by chipping or fracturing. The cut. At the rake surface, crater wear occurred due to high
machining time recorded to reach the wear limit for pressure and temperature at higher cutting speed
TiN coated carbide inserts was signicantly longer (150 m/min) and was closer to the cutting edge. The
(nearly about 19 min to reach 0.3 mm of ank wear edge under such condition is prone to catastrophic
limit) than that using ZrCN coated and uncoated carbide failure. This crater wear is observed due to sliding of
insert under extreme machining parameters. The three rough saw tooth chips on rake surface and brutal
zones of wear have been observed for TiN coated insert collapse of the auxiliary cutting edge is noticed at the
shown in Fig. 11, i.e. initial wear followed by gradual or 19.48 min of cut at higher cutting speed (150 m/min).
A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165 2159

Fig. 6. Tool tips of TiN coated carbide insert after machining times (a) 0.9 min, (b) 1.77 min, (c) 3.44 min, (d) 5.65 min, (e) 8 min, (f) 10.1 min, (g) 15.63 min
and (h) 19.48 min.

Till 10.1 min using TiN coated carbide inserts, helical to blue by the time ank wear reached the limiting value
chips with golden color have been obtained. However, (Fig. 9 and Table 3). This indicates a reduced rate of
during machining at 3.44 min, continuous spiral or rib- temperature rise during machining by TiN coated
bon type curling chip is observed (Fig. 9). This may be carbide insert. The surface roughness grows steadily
attributed that, during machining operation, a tempera- with time (Fig. 12) and within the recommended range
ture rise occurs near the tool tip due to rubbing action using multilayer TiN coated carbide insert than other
between the ank surface and workpiece particularly two inserts.
at break-in-wear period, where wearing phenomenon 5. For multilayer ZrCN coated carbide insert the tool life is
is comparatively faster. The ank wear at this stage is approximately 8 min at extreme cutting conditions as
increased from 0.039 mm to 0.12 mm. This causes the compared to uncoated carbide inserts (less than
localized thermal softening and increases the material 1 min). The extended tool life of ZrCN coated carbide
ductility that helps to produce continuous spiral curling tools may be due to its heat resistant layer and wear
chips. Due to low thermal conductivity property of TiN resistance due to TiCN coating. The surface roughness
coating, temperature in the lower side of chip increases of TiN and ZrCN coated carbide inserts were within
and causes a thermal bi-metallic effect between lower the recommended range of hard turning, i.e. within
and upper side of the chip that forces the chip to curl 1.6 lm. The magnitude of deterioration noted in ZrCN
also. Color of chip gradually changed from golden to coated tool is larger compared to TiN coated insert. Fail-
metallic by the end of 15.63 min. Color further changes ure of cutting ability of the ZrCN coated insert is
2160 A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165

Fig. 7. Tool tips of ZrCN coated carbide insert after machining times (a) 0.9 min, (b) 1.77 min, (c) 3.44 min, (d) 5.65 min and (e) 8 min.

Table 3
Shape and color of chips obtained at different machining time for uncoated and coated carbide inserts.

Machining time Uncoated carbide ZrCN coated carbide TiN coated carbide
(min)
Shape Color VBc Shape Color VBc Shape Color VBc
(mm) (min) (min)
0.46 Helical (Saw Burnt 0.263 - - 0.015 - - 0.025
tooth) blue
0.66 Ribbon (Saw Burnt 0.44 - - - - - -
tooth) blue
0.9 Ribbon (Saw Burnt 0.6 Helical Golden 0.016 Helical/ Golden 0.029
tooth) blue tubular
1.77 Ribbon (Saw Burnt 0.71 Helical/ Golden 0.028 Helical Golden 0.039
tooth) blue tubular
3.44 - - - Helical Blue 0.15 Ribbon Golden 0.12
5.65 - - - Helical Burnt 0.28 Helical Golden 0.169
blue
8 - - - Helical Burnt 0.324 Helical Golden 0.211
blue
10.1 - - - - - - Helical Golden 0.221
15.63 - - - - - - Helical Metallic 0.275
19.48 - - - - - - Helical Blue 0.315

Fig. 8. Chips produced by uncoated carbide tool at v = 150 m/min, f = 0.15 mm/ rev and d = 0.4 mm during machining times (a) 0.46, (b) 0.66, (c) 0.9, (d)
1.77 min.
A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165 2161

Fig. 9. Chips produced by TiN coated carbide tool at v = 150 m/min, f = 0.15 mm/ rev and d = 0.4 mm during machining times (a) 0.9, (b) 1.77, (c) 3.44, (d)
5.46,(e) 8,(f) 10.1, (g) 15.63, (h) 19.48 min.

Fig. 10. Chips produced by ZrCN coated carbide tool at v = 150 m/min, f = 0.15 mm/ rev and d = 0.4 mm during machining times (a) 0.9, (b) 1.77, (c) 3.44, (d)
5.65, (e) 8 min.

0.7 v = 150 m/min TiN coated carbide 2.4


f = 0.15 mm/rev ZrCN coated carbide v = 150 m/min TiN coated carbide
Surface roughness, Ra (m)

0.6 d = 0.4 mm Uncoated carbide f = 0.15 mm/rev ZrCN coated carbide


Flank wear, VBc (mm)

2.0
d = 0.4 mm Uncoated carbide
0.5
1.6
0.4
1.2
0.3

0.2 0.8

0.1
0.4
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0.0
Machining Time, Tc (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Machining Time, Tc (min)
Fig. 11. Growth of ank wear with machining time.
Fig. 12. Growth of surface roughness with machining time.

strongly evident by abrasion and chipping. The ank


wear of ZrCN coated insert has been obtained at 8 min the limit, i.e. 0.324 mm at 8 min of cut. For these inserts,
of cut from photomicrograph and inability to cut fur- helical chip with golden color was obtained till machin-
ther at higher cutting speed (150 m/min). The ank ing time of 1.77 min. The color of the chip rapidly chan-
wear limit of ZrCN coated carbide insert has exceeded ged to blue and burnt blue by the end of 8 min and
2162 A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165

1400 Uncoated carbide machining was stopped as it exceeded the ank wear
v = 150 m/min limit (Fig. 10 and Table 3). The burnt blue color chip
1200 f = 0.18 mm/rev indicates the excessive temperature involved in
d = 0.2 mm machining process and rapid deterioration of sharpness
Turning Forces (N)

1000 of the cutting edge of the tool [23].


Fy
6. Thus, the tool life for multilayer TiN and ZrCN coated
800
carbide inserts are found to be approximately 19 min
600 and 8 min respectively considering wear criteria of
0.3 mm. For uncoated carbide, ank wear and cata-
400 strophic failure are the dominant failure modes,
whereas for multilayer coated carbide, it was ank wear
200 FZ in the vicinity of nose. Flank wear probably occur by
FX
both abrasive and adhesive wear mechanisms with
0
abrasive wear being the major source of material
2 4 6 8 10
removal.
Machining Time, Tc (sec) 7. The results suggest that dry turning of hardened AISI
4340 steel could be performed using multilayer TiN
Fig. 13. Turning forces for uncoated carbide insert at extreme cutting
conditions. and ZrCN coated carbide cutting tools at high cutting
speed of the order of 150 m/min.

4. Regression model
TiN coated carbide
320 v = 150 m/min From the previous investigation, it is revealed that the
f = 0.18 mm/rev multilayer TiN coated carbide insert performed better
280 d = 0.2 mm compared to multilayer ZrCN coated carbide and uncoated
Fy
Turning Forces (N)

240 carbide insert in hard turning. Therefore, regression model


(1st order and 2nd order) of ank wear and surface rough-
200
ness have been developed for multilayer TiN coated car-
160 bide insert at 95% condence level using input parameter
FZ as machining time (Tc). The equations are furnished below:
120
FX
1st order model (TiN coated):
80
VBc 0:0431 0:01553Tc; R2 91:8%;
40
R2 adj 90:6%Ra 0:92496 0:02295Tc;
0
2 4 6 8 10 R2 53:7%; R2 adj 47:1%
Machining Time, Tc (sec) 2nd order model (TiN coated):
Fig. 14. Turning forces for TiN coated carbide insert at extreme cutting VBc 0:00794 0:030305Tc  0:000776Tc2 ; R2 98:3%;
conditions.
R adj 97:7%Ra 1:07695  0:04092Tc 0:00336Tc2 ;
2

R2 86:3%; R2 adj 81:7%

The quantity R2 called as coefcient of determination is


ZrCN coated carbide used to judge the adequacy of regression models devel-
v = 150 m/min oped. From 1st and 2nd order model, 2nd order model ex-
200 f = 0.18 mm/rev
plains about 98.3% and 86.3% of the variability of responses
d = 0.2 mm
in predicting new observations compared to 1st order
Turning Forces (N)

Fy model [24]. The higher of R2 indicates the better tting of


150
the model with the data. In our model the adjusted R2 va-
lue is very close to the predicted R2. To test the statistical
100 FZ signicance of 2nd order model, analysis of variance table
is constructed and shown in Tables 4 and 6 for both ank
FX wear and surface roughness respectively. F-ratio is also
50 the important index to check the adequacy of model,
where calculated F-value should be greater than F-table
value. From Tables 4 and 6, 2nd order model is found to
0
4
be statistically signicant as P-value (probability of signif-
2 6 8 10
icance) is less than 0.05 and F calculated value is greater
Machining Time, Tc (sec)
than F-table value (5.14). It is revealed that the terms men-
Fig. 15. Turning forces for ZrCN coated carbide insert at extreme cutting tioned in the model have signicant effects on the re-
conditions. sponses. Also, the predicted value and the actual value
A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165 2163

Table 4
Analysis of variance for ank wear (VBc) 2nd order model (TiN coated).

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P Remarks


Regression 2 0.0934 0.0934 0.0467 168.59 0.000 Signicant
Linear 1 0.0873 0.0873 0.024 86.86 0.000
Square 1 0.0061 0.0061 0.0061 22.26 0.003
Residual error 6 0.0016 0.0016 0.0002
Total 8 0.0951

Table 5 Table 7
Comparison of experimental and 2nd order model predicted ank wear Comparison of experimental and 2nd order model predicted surface
value (TiN coated). roughness value (TiN coated).

Observations Experimental Predicted 2nd order Residuals Observations Experimental Predicted 2nd order Residuals
value model value value model value
1 0.025 0.022 0.003 1 0.987 1.059 -0.072
2 0.029 0.035 -0.006 2 1.19 1.043 0.147
3 0.039 0.059 -0.02 3 0.95 1.015 -0.065
4 0.12 0.103 0.017 4 0.987 0.976 0.011
5 0.169 0.154 0.015 5 0.86 0.953 -0.093
6 0.211 0.201 0.01 6 1.007 0.964 0.043
7 0.221 0.235 -0.014 7 1.07 1.006 0.064
8 0.275 0.292 -0.017 8 1.205 1.257 -0.052
9 0.315 0.304 0.011 9 1.57 1.553 0.017

for both responses are very close to each other showing the
5. Economical feasibility
signicance of second order model developed (Tables 5
and 7). The maximum residuals are only 0.017 and 0.147
The basic endeavor of any production process is to pro-
for both the responses. So, second order model can be used
to predict the responses accurately in hard turning using duce an acceptable component at the minimum possible
cost. Tool life is considered as most important factor for
multilayer TiN coated carbide insert.
Similarly, using data from experiment, 2nd order model the study of economical aspect of metal cutting. The inves-
tigation reported whether a change from uncoated carbide
for multilayer ZrCN coated carbide insert have been devel-
oped and analyzed. The equations are furnished below. to coated carbide could be economically benecial for n-
2nd order model (ZrCN coated): ish hard turning operations or not. For economical justi-
cation in hard turning applying the uncoated and
VBc 0:037644 0:061877Tc  0:001897Tc2 ; R2 96:9%; multilayer TiN coated carbide inserts, a comparison be-
R2 adj 94:8% tween both inserts were made based on total machining
Ra 1:16756  0:21604 0:02748Tc2 ; cost per part according to Gilberts approach [13,25]. The
cost analysis was done for turning a cylindrical workpiece
R2 52:4%; R2 adj 20:7% with a nished diameter (D) of 40 mm and a length of cut
It is revealed that, 2nd order model explains about (L) of 100 mm. The cutting parameters (v = 150 m/min,
96.9% and 52.4% of the variability of responses in predict- f = 0.15 mm/rev and d = 0.4 mm) were the same as those
ing new observations using multilayer ZrCN coated carbide chosen for comparison of tool life taking ank wear criteria
insert. From Tables 8 and 9, it is evident that, the 2nd order VBc = 0.3 mm. The study is based on measuring tool life
model is statistically signicant for ank wear as their P- when using uncoated carbide, multilayer TiN coated and
value is less than 0.05 and F calculated value is more than ZrCN coated carbide in the nish hard turning of AISI
F-table value (9.55). Also, their predicted values are very 4340 steel and found to be approximately 0.55 min,
close to the experimental values being maximum residual 19 min and 8 min respectively.
restricted to only 0.038. However, the regression model From comparison cost Table 12, it is seen that, the total
(2nd order) for surface roughness is not that much signi- machining cost per part for TiN coated carbide insert (Rs
cant at 95% condence level from analysis of variance and 4.5) is comparatively less than uncoated (Rs 68.1) and
comparative study (Tables 10 and 11). ZrCN coated carbide tools (Rs 7.5). This indicates 15.1

Table 6
Analysis of variance for surface roughness (Ra) 2nd order model (TiN coated).

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P Remarks


Regression 2 0.3058 0.3058 0.1529 18.84 0.003 Signicant
Linear 1 0.1905 0.0439 0.0439 5.41 0.059
Square 1 0.1152 0.1152 0.1152 14.2 0.009
Residual Error 6 0.0487 0.0487 0.0081
Total 8 0.3546
2164 A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165

Table 8
Analysis of variance for ank wear (VBc) 2nd order model (ZrCN coated).

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P Remarks


Regression 2 0.0939 0.0939 0.0469 46.79 0.005 Signicant
Linear 1 0.0933 0.0094 0.0094 9.41 0.055
Square 1 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 0.64 0.481
Residual Error 3 0.003 0.003 0.001
Total 5 0.0969

and 9 times higher machining cost per part for uncoated


Table 9 carbide insert than TiN and ZrCN coated carbide insert
Comparison of experimental and 2nd order model predicted ank wear respectively. The savings in machining costs using TiN
value (ZrCN coated). coated inserts is 93.4% compared to uncoated carbide and
Observations Experimental Predicted 2nd order Residuals 40% to ZrCN coated carbide inserts respectively in hard
value model value machining. A cost analysis, based on a single cutting edge,
1 0.015 -0.01 0.025 shows that the multilayer TiN coated carbide tools are
2 0.016 0.017 -0.001 capable of reducing machining costs, and, therefore, will
3 0.028 0.066 -0.038 be an important complement to uncoated and ZrCN coated
4 0.15 0.153 -0.003 tools for nish hard turning applications.
5 0.28 0.251 0.029
6 0.324 0.336 -0.012
6. Conclusions

Based on the results and analysis of the machinability


study of nish hard turning, the following ndings were
Table 10
reached. Conclusions including aspects related to tool
Analysis of variance for surface roughness (Ra) 2nd order model (ZrCN
coated). wear, surface roughness, chip morphology, cutting forces,
regression model and economical feasibility are presented:
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P Remarks
Regression 2 0.141 0.141 0.0705 1.65 0.328 Insignicant 1. During machinability study in hard turning. It is
Linear 1 0.0056 0.1152 0.1152 2.7 0.199
observed that, the tool life for multilayer TiN coated car-
Square 1 0.1353 0.1353 0.1353 3.17 0.173
Residual Error 3 0.128 0.128 0.0426 bide insert is higher, i.e. about 19 min, 8 min for multilayer
Total 5 0.2691 ZrCN insert and less than 1 min for uncoated carbide
respectively under extreme cutting conditions of hard
turning of AISI 4340 steel (47 1 HRC). The uncoated car-
bide insert fails by chipping that leads to catastrophic fail-
ure due to higher thrust force noticed in hard turning at
Table 11 extreme parametric range selected.
Comparison of experimental and 2nd order model predicted surface 2. The study of chip morphology reveals color transforma-
roughness value (ZrCN coated).
tion from golden to burnt blue during the span of tool life.
Observations Experimental Predicted 2nd order Residuals It is revealed that the rise of cutting temperature is higher
value model value for multilayer ZrCN coated carbide insert compared to TiN
1 1.065 1.074 -0.009 coated carbide insert and wears the tool faster. The color of
2 1.195 0.995 0.2 the chips have also become golden, lighter, i.e. metallic
3 0.605 0.871 -0.266
from blue due to reduction in cutting temperature using
4 0.755 0.75 0.005
5 0.945 0.824 0.121 multilayer TiN coated carbide insert. Due to such reduction
6 1.147 1.198 -0.051 of cutting temperature, the tool life of multilayer TiN
coated carbide insert is observed to be higher (19 min) in
hard turning at higher parametric range and performs
better.

Table 12
Comparison of machining costs for inserts in nish hard machining.

No Costs Uncoated carbide TiN coated carbide ZrCN coated carbide


1 1
1 Value of machine and operator (x), Rs 250/h Rs 4.16 min Rs 4.16 min Rs 4.16 min1
2 Machining cost per part (xTc) Rs 2.29 Rs 2.29 Rs 2.29
3 Tool life for single edge (T) 0.55 min 19 min 8 min
4 Tool changing cost per part [xTd (Tc/T)] Rs 20.8 Rs 0.602 Rs 1.43
5 Mean value of single cutting edge (y) Rs 45 Rs 55 Rs 55
6 Tool cost per part [y (Tc/T)] Rs 45 Rs 1.6 Rs 3.78
7 Total machining cost per part (C), (2 + 4 + 6) Rs 68.1 Rs 4.5 Rs 7.5

Cutting conditions: v = 150 m/min, f = 0.15 mm/rev, d = 0.4 mm, L = 100 mm, VBc = 0.3 mm, Tc = 0.55 min and Td = 5 min, W/P = AISI 4340 (47 1 HRC).
A.K. Sahoo, B. Sahoo / Measurement 45 (2012) 21532165 2165

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