Sunteți pe pagina 1din 749

AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1

GP DAUSTRALIE McLaren MP4-24

THE F1-FORECAST.COM AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL


TECHNICAL FILES UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1

F1 Cars 2013 Presentation


Winter tests

F1 Season 2013 Volume 1 | Dominique Madier


www.f1-forecast.com
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 1
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
The F1-Forecast Technical Files F1 Season 2013

In the same category, you can download the following F1-Forecast Technical Files in the Section
F1-Technology of www.f1-forecast.com :

The F1-Forecast Technical Files

F1 Season 2011 - Aerodynamic & Mechanical Updates


by Dominique Madier
700 pages

F1 Season 2010 - Aerodynamic & Mechanical Updates


by Dominique Madier
632 pages

F1 Season 2009 - Aerodynamic & Mechanical Updates


by Dominique Madier
453 pages

L'Arodynamique d'une Formule 1


by Dominique Madier
2006
252 pages

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 2


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
The F1-Forecast Technical Files F1 Season 2013

Other References
Composite Materials Technology in Formula 1 Motor Racing
Gary Savage, Honda Racing F1 Team, July 2008

Enhancing the Exploitation and Efficiency of FRC Structures


Gary Savage, BAR F1 Team

Formula 1 Racer Gears Up with Carbon Fiber


High-Performance Composites, March 2006

Crash Simulation of an F1 Racing Car Front Impact Structure


7th European LS-DYNA Conference, DYNAmore GmhH, 2009

Full-Toroidal Variable Drive Transmission Systems in Mechanical Hybrid Systems


Chris Brockbank & Chris Greenwood, Torotrak Development Ltd

Sub-Critical Crack Growth in Highly Stressed F 1 Race Car Composite Suspension Components
Gary Savage, Honda Racing F1 Team, 2007

Manufacturing and Ultimate Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy


Composite Suspension Push-Rods for a Formula 1 Racing Car
M.D.Gichrist & L.Curley, Mechanical Engineering Department, University College Dublin, Ireland,
1999

Design of a Formula Student Race Car Spring-Damper System


Paul Van Den Bos, University racing Eindhoven, March 2010

The Influence of Aerodynamics on the Design of High-Performance Road Vehicles


Guido Buresti, Depatment of Aerospace Engineering, University of Pisa (Italy), 2004

Supercomputing in F1 - Unlocking the Power of CFD


Larsson, Sato, Ullbrand, Sauber Petronas Engineering AG, Switzerland, June 2005

Investigation of Turbulence Created by Formula 1 Cars with the Aid of Numerical Fluid
Dynamics and Optimization of Overtaking Potential
Milad Mafi, Competence Centre, transtec AG, ANSYS Conference 2007, Tubingen Germany

The Front Wing


Florent Mortel - Cranfield University - 2003

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 3


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
Table of Contents F1 Season 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 9

2. 2013 F1 RULES & TRENDS 10

2.1 OVERVIEW - 2013 RULE CHANGES AT A GLANCE 10


2.2 ANALYSIS - 2013 F1 RULES AND TRENDS 11
2.2.1 STEPPED NOSES 12
2.2.2 2014 NOSES 16
2.2.3 DRS SECONDARY EFFECTS 17
2.2.4 F-DUCT FRONT WINGS 18
2.2.5 FLOOR FLATNESS TOLERANCE 19
2.2.6 TYRES 20
2.2.7 SECU 21
2.2.8 FRONT WING DEFLECTION TEST 22
2.2.9 DRS USE 23
2.2.10 FRONT ROLL STRUCTURE 23
2.2.11 TRENDS: LAYOUT 24
2.2.12 TRENDS: NOSE SHAPE 25
2.2.13 TRENDS: FRONT WING 28
2.2.14 TRENDS: PULLROD FRONT SUSPENSION 29
2.2.15 TRENDS: FRONT BRAKE DUCTS 31
2.2.16 TRENDS: REAR BRAKE DUCTS 32
2.2.17 TRENDS: WHEEL RETENTION 33
2.2.18 TRENDS: COANDA EFFECT EXHAUST BLOWN DIFFUSERS (EBDS) 34
2.2.19 TRENDS: GEARBOX 41
2.2.20 TRENDS: REAR WING DRAG REDUCTION DEVICES 42
2.2.21 SEASON 2013 A GOODBYE TO STEPPED NOSES 43
2.2.22 F1 CARS 2013 NOSE FAIRING PATTERNS 48
2.3 THE 2013 PIRELLI TIRES EXPLAINED 52
2.3.1 THE 2013 PIRELLI TIRES 52
2.3.2 THE TYRE CHANGES IN DETAIL 55
2.3.3 THE COMPOUNDS EXPLAINED 58

3. FEW DEFINITIONS 61

3.1 FLOW VISUALIZATION PAINT OR FLOW-VIZ 61


3.2 COANDA EFFECT 67
3.3 ADJUSTABLE REAR WING DRAG REDUCTION SYSTEM (DRS) 74
3.4 MERCEDES DOUBLE DRS (DDRS) 85

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 4


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
Table of Contents F1 Season 2013

4. 2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 97

4.1 RED BULL RB9 97


4.1.1 PRESENTATION 97
4.1.2 RED BULL RB9: DUCTED NOSE SLOTS 103
4.1.3 RED BULL RB9 SPECIFICATIONS 106
4.2 FERRARI F138 108
4.2.1 PRESENTATION 108
4.2.2 FERRARI F138 NOSE SLOT 126
4.2.3 FERRARI F138 SPECIFICATIONS 131
4.3 MCLAREN MP4-28 132
4.3.1 PRESENTATION 132
4.3.2 MCLAREN MP4-28 SPECIFICATIONS 148
4.4 MERCEDES W04 150
4.4.1 PRESENTATION 150
4.4.2 MERCEDES W04 SPECIFICATIONS 156
4.5 LOTUS E21 157
4.5.1 PRESENTATION 157
4.5.2 LOTUS E21 SPECIFICATIONS 162
4.6 WILLIAMS FW35 164
4.6.1 PRESENTATION 164
4.7 SAUBER C32 171
4.7.1 PRESENTATION 171
4.7.2 SAUBER C32 SPECIFICATIONS 179
4.8 FORCE INDIA VJM06 180
4.8.1 PRESENTATION 180
4.8.2 SAUBER C32 SPECIFICATIONS 191
4.9 TORO ROSSO STR8 192
4.9.1 PRESENTATION 192
4.10 CATERHAM CT03 201
4.10.1 PRESENTATION 201
4.11 MARUSSIA MR02 209
4.11.1 PRESENTATION 209

5. WINTER TESTS TECHNICAL REVIEW 212

5.1 JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY 212


5.1.1 RED BULL RB9 212
5.1.1.1 General Comments 212
5.1.1.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1 223
5.1.1.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2 237
5.1.1.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3 242
5.1.1.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4 251
5.1.2 FERRARI F138 253

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 5


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
Table of Contents F1 Season 2013

5.1.2.1 General Comments 253


5.1.2.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1 265
5.1.2.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2 278
5.1.2.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3 279
5.1.3 MCLAREN MP4-28 285
5.1.3.1 General Comments 285
5.1.3.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1 288
5.1.3.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2 296
5.1.3.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3 301
5.1.3.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4 302
5.1.4 MERCEDES W04 303
5.1.4.1 General Comments 303
5.1.4.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1 308
5.1.4.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2 318
5.1.4.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3 325
5.1.4.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4 331
5.1.5 LOTUS E21 343
5.1.5.1 General Comments 343
5.1.5.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1 350
5.1.5.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2 360
5.1.5.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3 372
5.1.5.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4 377
5.1.6 WILLIAMS FW35 384
5.1.7 SAUBER C32 387
5.1.8 FORCE INDIA VJM06 392
5.1.9 TORO ROSSO STR8 394
5.1.10 CATERHAM CT03 396
5.1.11 MARUSSIA MR02 401
5.2 BARCELONA I 19 - 22 FEBRUARY 406
5.2.1 LOTUS TESTING DRD AND REAR WING COMBINATION 406
5.2.2 WILLIAMS FW35 407
5.2.3 FIA DEEMS CATERHAM AND WILLIAMS EXHAUSTS ILLEGAL 415
5.2.4 FERRARI F138 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 417
5.2.4.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1 417
5.2.4.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2 432
5.2.4.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3 442
5.2.4.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4 444
5.2.5 RED BULL RB9 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 447
5.2.5.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1 447
5.2.5.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2 458
5.2.5.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3 460
5.2.5.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4 462
5.2.6 MCLAREN MP4-28 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 467
5.2.6.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1 467
5.2.6.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2 477

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 6


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
Table of Contents F1 Season 2013

5.2.6.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3 480


5.2.6.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4 489
5.2.7 MERCEDES W04 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 491
5.2.7.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1 491
5.2.7.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2 507
5.2.7.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3 509
5.2.7.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4 513
5.2.8 LOTUS E21 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 518
5.2.8.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1 518
5.2.8.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2 524
5.2.8.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3 531
5.2.8.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4 535
5.2.9 BARCELONA I - TEST ANALYSIS BY SCOTT WILLIAMS 538
5.2.9.1 Fastest Adjusted Times 539
5.2.9.2 Conclusions on speed 540
5.2.9.3 Tyre Degradation Comparison 541
5.2.9.4 Conclusions on tyre degradation 544
5.2.9.5 Overall Conclusions (five key points) 544
5.2.9.6 Constructors Report 545
5.3 BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 3 MARCH 549
5.3.1 DRD DRAG REDUCTION DEVICE - PASSIVE DRAG REDUCTION 549
5.3.2 NEW RED BULL FRONT WING FILLED WITH TWEAKS 560
5.3.3 FERRARI INTRODUCES STEEPER EXHAUST CHANNEL 561
5.3.4 FRONT WING SIMPLIFICATION ON MP4-28 563
5.3.5 LOTUS CONTINUE TO EVALUATE EXHAUST OPTIONS 564
5.3.6 NEW REAR WING FOR LOTUS E21 565
5.3.7 WILLIAMS FW35 LOW LINE TRANSMISSION 566
5.3.8 WILLIAMS FIT RED BULL STYLE EXHAUST RAMP ON FW35 567
5.3.9 THE REAR PACKAGE OF THE F138 (BY GARY ANDERSON) 568
5.3.10 FERRARI F138 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 569
5.3.10.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1 569
5.3.10.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3 580
5.3.10.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4 595
5.3.11 RED BULL RB9 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 606
5.3.11.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1 606
5.3.11.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2 609
5.3.11.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3 616
5.3.11.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4 620
5.3.12 MCLAREN MP4-28 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 625
5.3.12.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1 625
5.3.12.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2 632
5.3.12.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3 641
5.3.12.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4 655
5.3.13 MERCEDES W04 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 663
5.3.13.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1 663

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 7


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
Table of Contents F1 Season 2013

5.3.13.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2 672


5.3.13.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3 679
5.3.13.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4 686
5.3.14 LOTUS E21 HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES 696
5.3.14.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1 696
5.3.14.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2 706
5.3.14.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3 716
5.3.14.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4 724
5.3.15 PIRELLI REVIEW FINAL PRE-SEASON TEST 727
5.3.16 ANALYSIS OF THE FINAL BARCELONA F1 TEST BY JAMES ALLEN 731
5.3.17 BARCELONA II - TEST ANALYSIS BY SCOTT WILLIAMS 738
5.3.17.1 Fastest Adjusted Times 739
5.3.17.2 Tyre Degradation 741
5.3.17.3 Summary 744
5.3.17.4 Pecking Order? 744
5.3.17.5 Constructors Report 745

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 8


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
INTRODUCTION F1 Season 2013

1. INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this new report of the series The Technical Files of F1-Forecast is to present
some aerodynamic and mechanical updates of the Formula 1 of the 2013 season.
The updates are mainly presented with pictures, drawings and comments coming from:

Formula1.com web site (illustrations by Giorgio Piola)


http://www.formula1.com

Scarbsf1s Blog by Craig Scarborough


http://scarbsf1.wordpress.com/

Formula 1 Tech and Arts Blog by Michalis K [Bar555]


http://formula1techandart.wordpress.com/

F1 Technical.net web site


http://www.f1technical.net/

James Allen on F1 web site


http://www.jamesallenonf1.com/

Formula 1 Analysis Blog by Scott Williams


http://formulaoneanalysis.blogspot.co.uk

Race Car Engineering web site


http://www.racecar-engineering.com

Formula 1 Dictionary web site


http://www.formula1-dictionary.net

The Technical World of Formula 1 Explained by Andreas Mouzouris


http://technicalf1explained.blogspot.ca/

SomersF1 blog by by Matt Somerfield


http://somersf1.blogspot.co.uk

High resolution pictures are from http://www.formule1.nl & http://www.motorsport-


magazin.com/.

F1-Forecast.com wishes you a good reading.

Dominique Madier
Webmaster F1-Forecast.com
Montreal Canada March 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 9


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2. 2013 F1 RULES & TRENDS


2.1 OVERVIEW - 2013 RULE CHANGES AT A GLANCE
(by formula1.com - http://www.formula1.com)
(Illustrations by Giorgio Piola - http://www.giorgiopiola.com)

There are some small but


important changes to the F1
regulations for 2013. This
drawing of the 2012 Ferrari
F2012 highlights the key
revisions that have been made to
the FIA's technical requirements
for the coming season

1) Weight - due to changes


in their structure, Pirelli's 2013
tyres are around 2kg heavier per
set than in 2012, hence the car's
minimum weight limit has been
increased by the same amount,
from 640 to 642kg. As a consequence, the weight-distribution requirement has also been
revised to minimum figures of 292kg:343kg front to rear, leaving teams 7kg to play with.

2) Stepped noses - to mask the step in the car's nose (thought unattractive by many),
teams are now allowed to place a non-structural 'vanity panel' over this area, the shape of
which is strictly controlled by the regulations.

3) Front wing tests - to prevent them flexing, front wings now face a tougher deflection
test, with a 1,000N (100kg) load applied at two different points on both the longitudinal and
transverse axes. The amount the wing may deflect has been reduced from 20mm to 10mm.

4) Load and crash tests - more severe load tests for the roll structure have been introduced
and the crash test requirements modified.

5) Survival cell - the side load test for the survival cell is more severe too, and it must be
applied to all chassis produced by a team, rather than to a single example.

6 & 7) DRS - active 'double DRS' systems - where the DRS activation mechanism is utilised for
other purposes (the insets show Mercedes' renowned 2012 system) - are no longer allowed
(only passive solutions are now considered legal). Also, DRS usage is now limited to the DRS
zones in all sessions (previously it could be used anywhere during free practice and qualifying).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 10


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2 ANALYSIS - 2013 F1 RULES AND TRENDS


(by Craig Scarborough - http://scarbsf1.wordpress.com)

The 2013 Technical regulations have been published, with a just couple of small updates. The
first being the option to fit a simple panel over the stepped nose for aesthetic reasons, the
second being the banning of DRS having a secondary effect, as with the Mercedes Double DRS
system.

These will not be changes that will unduly effect the development of the2013 cars, which are
already well underway, but the former change will make the cars look a little different.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 11


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.1 Stepped noses

3.7.9 an optional, single piece, non-structural fairing of prescribed laminate (whose precise
lay-up may be found in the Appendix to the regulations) may not be more than 625mm above
the reference plane at any point

Teams will now be able to hide the step in the nose with a simple sacrificial panel. The
allowance to run this modesty panel over the stepped nose was initially discussed in 2011,
when the aesthetic impact of the proposed rule became apparent.

It was safety that drove the regulations to alter the nose for 2012, already long standing
regulations created a cockpit side that was a minimum of 550mm high, but the rules allowed
the nose tip to be as high as 625mm. Obviously the effect of a nose tip passing over the cockpit
side and into the driver in the event of T-bone accident doesnt bear thinking about. So in
advance of further reaching nose height regulations for 2014, this interim step was suggested.
For 2012 cars had to have the top of the nose cone under 550mm, however the rest of the
footwell of the monocoque could still be as high as 625.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 12


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

With the pre-2012 nose, the high nose tip could pass over the low cockpit side (yellow) in a T-
Bone crash
As the majority of the nose had to be as low as 550mm, this meant that even with a lot of
deformation in crash, any remaining part of the nose cone would never rise above 550mm.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 13


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

The lower 2012 made T-Bone crashes safer by the nose top being lower than the cockpit side

Teams found having the nose and the chassis as high as possible provides an aerodynamic
advantage, as this provides more airflow around the lower half of the car. The obvious result
was teams pushed the upper surface of the nose and monocoque as high as possible, to get the
maximum airflow under the car. This resulted in the near flat topped nose at 550mm and a flat
topped monocoque behind it at 625mm. Everyone was aghast at when the first car was
unveiled for 2012 with the resulting step was formed between nose and chassis.

While some teams found an aerodynamic solution to the airflow disruption the step causes,
most teams managed with an inefficient design of a simple if brutal step. A few teams and most
notably McLaren, opted for a lower chassis which eased the need for the step at the loss of
some aerodynamic potential.

A small modesty fairing can now be added above the existing stepped nose

Now for 2013 teams will be allowed to streamline the step, with a thin aerodynamic fairing that
can be no higher than the tub at 625mm. This is a sacrificial part it forms no part of the impact
structure, its simply there to make the stepped nose look better and with it perhaps bring a
small aero benefit.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 14


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

As with the 2012 stepped nose, the 2013 nose will be lower than the cockpit side, the fairing will
break up easily in an accident

As the fairing must be made of a prescribed laminate construction, it cannot be a structural part
and is designed to be safe in the event of an accident. So In the event of a crash the fairing will
simply break up or break away, in the T-bone scenario the fairing will not cause harm to the
driver.

Its been suggested that the FIA could have mandated a low nose tip and then a linear taper of
the structure back to the front bulkhead. This would have looked similar to the step nose and
fairing, but would have been less safe in a side impact. As the nose crumples it would eventually
be higher than the cockpit side.

While you can never say never when it comes to the designers exploiting a rule, this fairing
will be subject to the existing rules for the nose cone. So the fairing must be enclosed and sit
atop the nose cone no higher than 625mm. Teams cannot form holes through it aside from the
driver cooling hole, which was exploited on the Red Bulls stepped nose this year, so the wide
nose slot is likely to disappear on the RB9. Saubers alternative solution to duct airflow to tidy
the flow off the stepped section is also likely to disappear, although this design does have other
benefits in reducing the boundary layer build up under the nose cone.

Teams do not have to run the fairing, some teams might be happy to simply keep their existing
stepped nose design for 2013.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 15


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

The new rule maintains the safety aims of the original 2012 nose, but offsets the negative image
it has presented to the cameras.

2.2.2 2014 noses

As theres been such huge interest in the 2013 nose, its worth noting the regulations for 2014
have been published by the FIA for some time. As part of the safety programme the FIA will
introduce much lower noses. The nose tip must be centered around 185mm and the front
bulkhead lowered to 500mm. Also front wings will be narrower, top rear wings will be shallower
and therell be no beam wing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 16


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.3 DRS secondary effects

Ducts activated by DRS, such as Mercedes DDRS will be banned in 2013

3.18.1 DRS cannot be used to change the geometry of any duct, either directly or indirectly,
other than the change to the distance between adjacent sections permitted by Article 3.10.2.

Even before the 2012 season started the Mercedes Double DRS was already causing ripples
amongst the technical staff at the teams. As explained on this blog previously the Mercedes
DDRS uses the movement of the DRS rear wing flap to open a duct for a se3ocnady effect. In
Mercedes case this effect is to blow through a duct and stall the front wing when DRS is open.
Just as with the F-duct in 2010, there was no rule to prevent this. The FIA eventually describing
the system as a drag reduction system, which was in line with the aims of the DRS rules.
However the system has now been outlawed by a simple addition to the rules. Now the DRS
acting on the rear wing flap cannot affect airflow into duct or device for a secondary effect. This
clearly bans the Mercedes system, but does not go as far as to ban the passive Lotus Drag
Reduction Device (DRD), which Mercedes have now tested themse3ivles. Unless a clarification is
issues ahead of the 2013 season we can expect every top team to develop a passive DRD.
Somewhat offsetting the rule change made against the Mercedes DDRS system.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 17


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.4 F-Duct front wings

Air cannot be ducted through the neutral centre section of the front wing, effectively banning
nose-hole fed stalling front wings, as tested by Mercedes in 2011

We saw last year that Mercedes also created a passive stalling front wing; this was in
preparation for their 2012 DDRS. With the new DRS rules preventing part of the 2012 DDRS
effect, teams could still exploit a stalling front wing. So the 2013 rules now prevent the ducting
of airflow through the centre section of front wing.

This section may not contain any closed channel the effect of which is to duct air directly or
indirectly to or from the external air stream for any purpose other than data acquisition.

This means that the nose hole ducting tested in 2011 cannot be used to stall the front wing.
However, the front wing can still be stalled by other means, most likely slots above the wing
feeding airflow through to the stalling slot under the wing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 18


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.5 Floor flatness tolerance

Ever since 1983 when flat floors were mandated, there has been a tolerance to allow for
manufacturing problems. This tolerance was tightened from 5mm to 3mm for 2012. But earlier
this year teams were rumoured to be using this tolerance to tilt the splitter upwards. Exploiting
this tolerance for the Splitter means the car can run lower at the front by 3mm, gaining crucial
front wing efficiency. A technical directive was sent out about the practice and now that has
made it into the rule book.

3.12.6 To help overcome any possible manufacturing problems, and not to permit any design
which may contravene any part of these regulations, dimensional tolerances are permitted on
bodywork situated between a point lying 330mm behind the front wheel centre line and the
rear wheel centre line. A vertical tolerance of +/- 3mm is permissible across the surfaces lying
on the reference and step planes and a horizontal tolerance of 3mm is permitted when
assessing whether a surface is visible from beneath the car.

So now teams cannot purposely curve the flat floor for aerodynamic advantage.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 19


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.6 Tyres

Pirelli have worked with the FIA and the teams to change the tyres for 2013. This will result in a
more balanced set of tyres and similar high rates of degradation as we saw at the start of last
year. To achieve this Pirelli have completely redesigned the tyre range. They have softened the
stiffness of the sidewalls of the tyres, but stiffened the shoulders of the tyres. The softer
sidewall will induce more heat in the tyre and generally softer compounds will heat up more
quickly, produce more grip, and ultimately degrade quicker than before. The stronger tyre
shoulder will help keep the more flexible tyre together during a stint. Teams will be forced by
this degradation into more than stop per race, also the pair of compounds at each race will
ensure one set of tyres will produce far different lap times to the other (at least 0.5s per lap).

Teams and drivers will have to adapt quickly to the new balance, grip and wear levels, meaning
flexibility in the cars set up will be important so some mechanical part of the car will need to
have scope for greater adjustability.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 20


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.7 SECU

Having run the McLaren Electronics Systems TAG-310B ECU since 2006, teams will have an
upgraded ECU to run in 2013. The TAG-320 is the same physical size, but has far greater
performance and more interfaces. Although useful, for 2013 this has no real impact on the
teams, as the ECU is aimed at supporting the complex powertrains to be introduced in 2014.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 21


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.8 Front wing deflection test

It was quite clear several teams were again deflecting the front wing at speed during 2012.
Rather than the beam bending weve seen in recent years were the wing bows down at the tips
when viewed from the front. The flex we saw in 2012 was a twist about the lateral Y axis, this
was evident when at speed the front wing endplate viewed from side could be seen rotating,
such that its trailing edge was closer to the ground than the front. This would reduce downforce
and drag produced by the front wing and also reduces drag created by the vortices spilling from
the endplate finding a different route around the front tyre. Both these effects would improve
straight-line speed and make the car less pointy at high speed.

The new test now allows the FIA to place the 1000n (approx. 100kg) load at any point along a
300mm section of the endplate (at points 675mm and 975mm forward from the front wheel
centreline). The endplate must not deflect more than 10mm from this test load. Although this
test will reduce the twist seen in 2012, it will not eradicate teams still wanting to deflect the
wing for aerodynamic benefit, as the load is still quite far forward on the endplate.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 22


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.9 DRS use


Aside from the bans on DRS airflow being use to stall the front and rear wings (as explained in
the previous blog post), DRS use is also being controlled during practice and qualifying. No
longer will drivers be free to use DRS at any point on the circuit, instead DRS can only be used
on the nominated DRS straight\s. Thus Rear wings designed for a smaller DRS effect to allow the
wing to be used in fast turns will not be useful anymore. Instead teams will need to focus on a
greater DRS effect on top speed.

2.2.10 Front roll structure

One final small change to the rules is the relationship between the front roll structure (the small
fin ahead of the cockpit) and the cockpit. Previously the roll hoop had to be 250mm forward of
the steering wheel, this made issues for teams will drivers with differing steering wheel
positions. Now the rules demand the roll structure is 1050mm in front of the rear of the cockpit
making the position the same for all teams and drivers.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 23


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.11 Trends: Layout


The cars layout is the length of the major components (monocoque, Fuel tank, engine, gearbox)
and their relationship to each other. The net total of these lengths dictates the cars wheelbase.
Although oft talked about, wheel base is not a critical design factor. Shorter cars do not
intrinsically have better abilities in corners. Instead wheelbase is largely a factor driven by the
aerodynamicists desire for shape to package the sidepods and turning vanes. Layout is critical
in other respects; the fuel tank length, gearbox length and engine position all have an effect of
the shape and packaging of the car as well as the weight distribution. Allied to these factors
KERS positioning is also critical in deciding the layout of the car.

Most teams are increasingly going for longer gearboxes, this is to allow for the slimmest of rear
ends and sidepod shapes. Long gearboxes are associated with shifting the weight bias forwards.
As F1 cars have a mandatory and relatively rearward weight bias, other elements in the car
design are needed to place weight where its needed. Most teams fit their bulky KERS batteries
under the fuel tank. This is good for safety and low CofG, but it does create a linger fuel tank,
which shifts the engine and gearbox backwards making it hard to package a long slim gearbox.
IT also works against a rearwards biased weight distribution. Red Bull has been clever to
package their KERS batteries beside and inside the gearbox. This allows a shorter fuel tank; bring
the engine forwards and allowing a longer gearbox. The weight of the batteries towards the rear
helps meet the mandatory weight distribution. We can expect some teams to rethink their KERS
positioning to improve the cars layout.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 24


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.12 Trends: Nose shape


Although not a primary factor in car performance, a lot of the talk preseason will be about the
different nose solutions, teams have opted for this year. The rule change to allow a modesty
panel bonded on top of the 2012 stepped nose is of little benefit. Teams can fit this fairing and
gain a small aero benefit, but already in 2012 teams were finding other benefits from the odd
nose step.

Stepped nose as used in 2012

For 2013 many teams will simply opt for the same nose step as in 2012 and wont waste R&D
time on this area. Some teams will fit the thin skinned fairing, to gain a slightly better flow over
the nose.

Nose Fairing stepped nose covered by the 2013 fairing

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 25


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

In its simplest form the nose fairing will simply fill in the step created by the 2012 rules. In
crashes the specially specified carbon fibre fairing will simply disintegrate into 1000s of pieces
on impact. It will offer no safety hazard to drivers.

Bulged nose the chin under the nose aids airflow

In 2012 some teams were finding aero benefits from a bulged under chin on the nose cone.
These appeared to work with both nose high noses (RBR, Williams and Lotus) and lower noses
(Marussia). The chins have been in use since 2009, Williams launched their car with a chin and
Force India spent two seasons racing with a chin under the nose until 2012. The chin fairing acts
in one of two ways, either to negate the effect of the neutral central wing section or to direct
airflow towards the under nose turning vanes. We are likely to see teams vary this design
according the track and their own turning vane solutions.

Slotted nose top and\or bottom slots reduce boundary layer growth
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 26
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Two teams found new ways to exploit the nose in 2012, Sauber and Red Bull both created slots
in the nose to divert airflow away from the external surfaces of the car. The nose cone and
monocoque form some of the longest unbroken surfaces on an F1 car. Being so long these
surfaces can build up a thick boundary layer, this is a layer of airflow that sticks to the car, and it
can create drag and lead to stalled airflow. The very long and flat noses dictated by the 2012
regulation only worsened this problem, so a slot that sucks the boundary layer of the surface
will help general airflow over the car. In Red Bulls case there were two slots only highly visible
one above the nose, which formed the driver cooling slot aided airflow over the car, while
another slot under the nose fed the FIA timing transponder with cool air and also served to keep
the airflow clean under the nose. Sauber ducts a slot form under the nose, to clean up the
boundary layer and directed into the area behind the stepped nose to help keep airflow
attached in that area. Its possible that such boundary layer control slots could be adopted
despite the 2013 rules allowing more conventional noses.

Z625 Nose the fairing can effectively to used to make the nose even higher

One means to circumvent the 2012\2013 nose rules is to use the fairing in a more aggressive
way. The nose structure that forms the crash protection must not be higher than 550mm above
the floor. However more airflow could be forced under the car for more downforce if the nose
were higher. As the fairing is allowed to be as high as 625mm, this could form a new nose tip
75mm higher than the rules intended. With a shorter structure nose cone, the modesty fairing
could instead be shaped to form a very high nose for better aerodynamic performance. This is
likely to be viewed as marginal on the rules, but the rules do not preclude it.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 27


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.13 Trends: Front Wing


Front wing design is now near a converged format across the grid. The wings all feature 3-4
profiles with the main working area of the wing in the outboard sections. The flow over the wing
diverges and the wing sends a lot of the wake around the front tyres. Its largely the endplate
design that differs. Most teams will form the lower part of the endplate by curving the wing tips
down to form the foot plate, then adding vanes to curve the airflow outwards and meet the
minimum endplate surface area rules. Both Red Bull and Ferrari adopted this format, but chose
to make the vertical endplate more conventional, having one surface stretching across the
entire wing length and curving it outwards nearer the tyre. This appears to create a strong more
aggressive outwash than the multi vanes endplate seen on all the other cars.

Cascade elements were far smaller in 2012, as the team strived to find more rear downforce
from the exhaust blown diffuser area. The trend was towards a simpler winglet attached to the
endplate and the inner cascade winglet being replaced with a simpler vane. It will be testament
to the teams ability to claw more downforce from the exhaust\diffuser if we see a return of
larger cascade winglets.

Despite the new Deflection test, teams will still employ methods of flexing the wing for some
aerodynamic benefit. As already mentioned the test is not placing its load at the rearmost end
of the wing so careful structural design can still create a wing that meets the 1000n test, but
flexes with the real loads the wing sees at higher speeds. As long as the FIA allow these flexible
wing to race and never punish a team for their use, their method of static load tests will
continue to fail to prevent this bending of the rules. Teams will still use the IMTT excuse It
Meets The Test, even when relatively simple observations from on-board cameras or track side
photography prove the wing to be deflecting at speed.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 28


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.14 Trends: Pullrod Front Suspension

Ferrari opted for a pull rod front suspension in 2012; this was the first iteration of front pullrod
since Minardi in 2001. Such is the complex geometry of a modern F1 cars front wishbones, the
pullrod installation works from a kinematic point of view. The pullrod moves the
rocker\spring\damper as much as a pushrod. The main benefit Ferrari sought was to place the
near horizontal pullrod in an ideal aerodynamic path to divert the airflow over the car. Pull rod
also offers a tiny CofG benefit, but the top wishbone is more highly stressed over bumps and
has to be a slightly stronger construction.

Many teams are rumoured to be running front pull rod this year. This rumour is largely likely to
be driven by the mainstream media, which initially criticised Ferrari for the design. Teams could
find a benefit in front pull rod, but the 2014 low nose regulations are unlikely to pullrod, so any
gain would be for just one year. So its likely only well-funded teams have invested the
resources for this design for 2013.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 29


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

As Pull Rod places the inboard suspension lower, Ferrari did have access issues to the torsion
bars, dampers, anti roll bar and heave elements. This was made worse when the team switch
from nose mounted turning vanes to curved vanes under the chassis. These vanes had to be
removed whenever the mechanincs needed access to the suspension. Its possible to switch the
spring\damper layout around, by placing the torsion bars upright, as on rear suspension. This
would give access to the torsion bars, through the top of the chassis and the dampers would be
laid out in a more accessible position. The CofG penalty would be tiny and the car would retain
the same aero efficient pull rod position.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 30


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.15 Trends: Front Brake Ducts

Several teams were already innovating with their front brake ducts in 2011, for 2012 Williams
launched with a scoopless brake duct. The usual snorkel projecting out in the airflow to direct
cooling air to the brakes was deleted replaced with an aerodynamically more efficient inlet in
between the tyre and the brake duct vane. During the season most teams followed this route
and we can expect most teams to go with the scoopless brake duct, leaving more room for
aerodynamic enhancing vanes and flicks fitted in its place.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 31


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.16 Trends: Rear Brake Ducts

Ferrari not only went for a scoopless front brake duct in 2012, they are also developed a
scoopless rear brake duct. Just as with the front set up, the cooling inlets gets placed in between
the projecting brake duct vane and the tyre. This leaves more space for airflow to reach the
increasingly complex stack of winglets added inside the rear brake ducts. Not only to these aid
the general upwash of airflow behind the car, but also create downforce directly at the wheel.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 32


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.17 Trends: Wheel retention

With more pit stops required for the new Pirelli tyres teams will seeking further ways to reduce
pit stop times. Already 2s has been achieved privately in practice, with the race pit stop time
averaging 2.5. Teams are now short of methods to reduce pit stop times further. The longest
activity in the stop being the; unbolting, removal and refastening of the wheels. The rules do not
mandate wheel nuts, the rules re vague only stating The wheel must be attached to the car
with a single fastener Thus the means by which the wheel fastener grips the wheel to the axle
is free. I can expect some efforts to create a collet type fastener, which undoes without thread.
Perhaps its release aided by hydraulics in the axle to eject the collet-fastener and perhaps even
eject the wheel when the car stops for a tyre change.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 33


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.18 Trends: Coanda effect Exhaust blown diffusers (EBDs)

Coanda ramp: A ramp directs the exhaust flow (red), but blocks the coke bottle flow (yellow)
With the tightening of the rules in 2012 to restrict the exhaust effect on the diffuser, teams
found several ways to deflect the exhaust towards the diffuser. Unbeknown to us at the time,
there was a solution developed by Red Bull. This set up blew the exhaust into the rear brake
duct area; the exhaust was then ducted down to the diffusers edge to seal the diffuser as in
2011. This approach was banned before the season started and lead Red Bull to rethink its EBD
development. Thus the team launched with an interim conventional periscope exhaust layout,
while the tunnel\ramp set up was developed. It was perhaps no surprise that the team on its
back foot, struggled to develop their eventual EBD solution.

Meanwhile Sauber found a simple solution, with a ramped sidepod that the exhaust followed
down towards the diffuser. This set up employed two aerodynamic effects, Downwash and
coanda. Downwash was the effect of the air flowing over the sidepod bending the exhaust
plume downwards. Coanda is the effect of the exhaust plume wanting to stick to and follow the
ramped sidepod section. Eventually the coanda term has been applied to all blown diffuser

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 34


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

solutions, albeit all the solutions use the coanda effect to some extent, the Sauber and latterly
Red Bull solutions were the only Id apply the term coanda to.

McLaren: Semi Coanda solution

McLaren however had found another solution; they did not want the means of directing the
exhaust flow to impact on the flow through the coke bottle section of sidepod. So they had a
more open exhaust redirection method. The exhaust exited in a sidepod bulge, the channel
inside the bulge ramped down, like the Sauber solution, but is truncated and the exhaust plume
was left unguided towards diffusers edge. This allowed the bodywork to be slimmer but the
exhaust plume was not directed as accurately as with full coanda ramp. It was the McLaren
solution that found favour with other teams and nearly every other team followed this design in
2012.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 35


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Red Bull: Coanda ramp and tunnel solution

Red Bull had a slightly different approach, more akin to Saubers Coanda ramp, but the cross
flow problem that McLarens design sought to resolve, was answered with a tunnel under the
ramp to allow the coke bottle flow to pass under the exhaust flow. Red Bull struggled with the
development of the ramp\tunnel set up; at different points the tunnel was closed off, ducted
toward the starter motor hole and eventually allowed to exit more freely. In theory the
ramp\tunnel set up offer some benefits, but the rules limit the tunnel size to 50mm high, this
restrict the flow through the tunnels and perhaps may not present at much benefit as
McLarens side exit design.

For 2013 teams may well switch between designs, there being no major gain for either design.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 36


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Concept 1: A small ramp catches the exhaust flow and points it towards the diffuser

There is perhaps a halfway house, the ramp idea is appealing but the cross flow issue difficult to
solve with the rules as they are. Perhaps the ramp might be split, to allow the exhaust to
reattach to be directed toward the diffuser and still allow some crossover flow. Something akin
to an open tunnel.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 37


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Concept 2: A ramp sends the exhaust flow under the coke bottle flow

The other idea is the inverse which to pass the exhaust in an open channel, the channel ramped
either side to send the cross over flow over the exhausts plumes path. This would still be legal in
the eyes of the regulations.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 38


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

One method to aid the airflow over the sidepod towards the exhaust are vortex generating
vanes. Last year most teams adopted a pair of vertical fins, which shed vortices aligned with the
exhaust exit. However Sauber and latterly McLaren fitted larger horizontal vanes over the top of
the sidepod. These diverted airflow down over the exhaust outlet to increase the downwash
effect that bends the exhaust plume downwards. Already we have seen Lotus adopt these vanes
and many teams will exploit them regardless of their final exhaust\sidepod solution.
Trends: Floor Slots
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 39
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

One feature much argued about last year were the floor slots ahead of the rear tyres. Before
EBDs these were to induce a vortex under the diffuser edges to aid sealing t eh diffuser. With
EBDs these were redundant, but Ferrari and Sauber revised this idea despite blowing the same
area with the exhausts. Red bull also reintroduced their slot, but were force to remove it when
they failed to meet the exact wording of the rules. I understand the slot is to return in 2013, as
any misdirection of the exhaust plume would be caught by the slot and legally directed under
the floor to create the floor sealing vortex all teams are seeking to create with their EBDs.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 40


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.19 Trends: Gearbox


Gearbox design has been fairly static in recent years, the seamless gear selection mechanisms
are common through the pit lane and teams make their gearbox from Cast aluminium, Cast
Titanium, or carbon fibre according to the R&D budget. Gearbox weight is not such a critical
factor with the mandatory weight distribution. Gearbox length is dictated by the designer
preferred car layout and super short gear clusters outlawed by the minimum gear width rules.
Its left largely down to aerodynamics to differentiate between case designs for the teams.
Williams found an aero advantage by lowering the gearbox to an extreme level in 2011and in
2012 several teams followed a similar but not as aggressive path, by lowering the top of the
gearcase, as evidenced by the wishbones mounting on vertical extensions designed in the top of
the gearcase. We can expect to see more low line gearcase for 2013, as teams seek to improve
flow to the rear beam wing.

Some flexibility in mounting the suspension will be useful with the new tyre constructions, this
will be useful both the wishbone to alter geometry and for the inboard suspension
(rockers\springs\dampers), so that the team can alter set up to react to testing with the new
tyres.

Linked suspension is commonplace, where the front and rear axles are passively hydraulically
linked. Mercedes are known to link their suspension diagonally to also manage roll and
therefore warp stiffness, independently. This system has been criticized by Mercedes chairman
Niki Lauda and may be simplified for 2013.

A trick Red Bull used in 2012 was to combine the rear track rod and wishbone into one
component. With the oversized rear leg also fairing in the driveshaft to prevent the rotating
shaft upsetting the aerodynamics. Covering the driveshaft with non-structural fairings is not
allowed, and this is a practice likely to be adopted by those teams who can get the slightly
compromised geometry working for them.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 41


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.20 Trends: Rear Wing Drag Reduction Devices


As Mercedes and Red Bulls DRS activated Double DRS is effectively banned, teams are now
faced with the option of developing passive systems as tested by Lotus and Mercedes in the
latter part of the year. Known within lotus as the Device, these have been termed Drag
Reduction Devices (DRD) to differentiate them from double DRS (DDRS). These systems do not
use the DRS to switch the stalling effect on\off, instead a passive fluid switch is used, with no
moving parts, other than the airflow through it, these remain legal. Making the switch from
neutral to stalling is difficult, the switch is a gradual changeover, which needs tuning to ensure
the stall only occurs above a specific speed in order to retain the rear wing downforce in fast
turns. Its possible that the spillage from the airbox inlet helps change the airflow conditions
inside the duct, to switch over. One other issue is that the staling duct under the rear wing will
always blow a small amount of air, this will reduce downforce. As will the duct itself which sits
below the critical underside of the wing. In 2012 Lotus and Mercedes found the Passive Device
to cost as much performance from these problems as it gained in top speed. Its by no means
certain any team will have a really effective DRD. I have no doubt a single duct blowing under
the rear wing will create enough of an effect to stall the rear wing for a top speed boost, but
Toro Rosso tested with eh double duct arrangement that used two stalling ducts apace 15cm
apart. These effectively formed the endplates of the Y75 wing (monkey seat) and would have a
greater effect in stalling the flow under the rear wing surface, albeit at an even greater cost in
lost downforce from their obstruction to the normal airflow approaching the wing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 42


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.21 Season 2013 A goodbye to stepped noses


(by Michalis K. - http://formula1techandart.wordpress.com/)

A short piece of history about noses

The nose height reached the front wing level before 1991 but Benetton team (and now Lotus)
launched that season the first modern F1 car with a raised nose letting the front wing to hang
under the nose cone via two vertical pylons ( Tyrrell was the first car in 1990 to have a raised
nose but with a single pylon to the front wing, a designed once again seen in 1997 ). Since then
nose height went from high to low again and vice versa depending on technical rules changes
taking effect from season to season.In 2001 new rules forced an increase of the front wing
height from ground level by 10 cm favoring in theory a high nose. But thats only in theory
because the inspired spoon curved front wings showed in 2001 surpassed the need of a high
nose favoring shorter banana style designs. ( it is obvious why are called banana because they
look like one ). Ferrari and Sauber pioneered the spoon feature while Minardi presented the so
called dolphin or crocodile nose which started thick but becomes very thin at its tip. The dolphin
nose was a promising design and adopted by McLaren someyears later.

2012 birth year of the stepped noses

In 2009 new technical rules stripped the car body off the aerodynamic add-ons and restricted
the diffuser volume forcing teams to develop a more aggressive chassis design philosophy,
building higher chassis to the upper limit allowed by the rules. Such an approach raised worries
about safety because the high noses reached the cockpit area in height and potentially could
penetrate into the cockpit and thus capable of harming the driver.

Safety ringed a bell to FIA reflexes and so new technical changes forced the teams to adopt
lower noses in 2012.The new regulations gave birth to the so called stepped noses and are
explained below.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 43


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

The maximum dimensions allowed by 2012 technical regulations are shown in the
illustration

The nose starts 450 mm wide (point A) and gets narrower where the nose box meets the chassis
(point B, named also bulkhead ), being only 300 mm wide. Then the nose drops down steeply to
meet the maximum height of 550 mm at a distance of 150 mm ahead of point B. After the point
C the nose becomes wider till the nose tip (easily noticed on top view image) in order to allow
the maximum possible quantity of air to flow under the nose.

Almost all teams in 2012 adopted the stepped design but only McLaren and Marussia chose to
follow the path of the lower banana nose. However McLaren opted to a higher hybrid nose
later the season. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are summarized below

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 44


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Richer flow of air under the Higher chassis cause increase in centre
Stepped nose chassis and thus better aero of gravity (COG), uncomfortable driver
efficiency position
Better front suspension geometry Poorer airflow under the chassis,
Banana nose and thus enhanced mechanical stronger negative interaction with the
grip front wing
Hybrid noses Compromise the strong points of each design

2013 a goodbye to ugliness

To improve the aesthetic appeal of the 2013 cars, FIA meet an agreement with the teams and
was decided to fix a fairing on the nose surface to cover the stepped nose ugliness. The new
article coded 3.7.9. of the Technical regulations dictates that the fairing should consist of a
single part and describes the allowed dimensions and characteristics.

Article 3.7.9

With the exception of an optional, single piece, non-structural fairing of prescribed laminate
(whose precise lay-up may be found in the Appendix to the regulations) which may not be more
than 625mm above the reference plane at any point, no bodywork situated more than
1950mm forward of rear face of the cockpit entry template may be more than 550mm above
the reference plane.

The external surface of any longitudinal or lateral cross section taken through the above fairing
may contain no concave radius of curvature less than 50mm.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 45


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

The fairing is placed above the stepped area and may extend up to the nose tip

The fairing aims nothing more than to improve the beauty of the car and any attempt to
create aerodynamic advantage is discouraged. Additionally the fairing is optional and not

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 46


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

obligatory for teams. However important details about how the fairing is placed on the nose
cone and its internal structure are still grey zones and I believe designs like Saubers nose hole
may be enhanced by such fairings.

As regards the fixing of the fairing on the nose, more attention should be required by FIA to
guaranty safety. Multiple crash tests should be carried over to examine possible detachment of
the fairing itself in a crash situation.A detached fairing is obvious a dangerous flying debris
(remember Massa accident back in 2009 due to a flying suspension debris from Barrichellos
car).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 47


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.2.22 F1 cars 2013 Nose Fairing patterns


(by Michalis K. - http://formula1techandart.wordpress.com/)

Despite the fact that FIA attempted to discourage teams from exploiting the nose fairing and
gaining aero advantage over it, many teams bypassed the regulations spirit and developed
elegant structures both to gain improved airflow over the nose and keep the weight penalty due
to the added fairing as low as possible. To be honest this was something more than expected as
many changes caused the opposite effect than the wanted one, with the recent ban of the
blown diffuser to be the best example. The only team which does not need a fairing is Marussia
because of its low chassis.

Ferrari, Mc Laren, Force India, Williams and Toro Rosso followed a conservative pattern as
shown in the illustration below.

Ferrari, McLaren, Force India, Williams, Toro Rosso


A full cover from stepped point to the nose tip, highlighted in orange color

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 48


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Sauber developed a unique shaped fairing to create a deep channel on top of the nose,
separating the air stream flowing over the nose with the one flowing at sides.

Sauber concept

Red Bulls dwarf fairing is an outcome of the desire to limit the fairing dimensions to the
minimum required for opted aero efficiency so as to keep the extra weight as low as possible.

Red Bull dwarf fairing

Mercedes evolved further last season arched nose. Instead of being flat at the top it has an
intense arched shape and a more smooth bulkhead height transition. This is to reduce drag by
diverting the air flowing above the nose tip towards the nose sides while the main flow is

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 49


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

channeled smoothly over the bulkhead, all aiming lower drag production. The optical result of
this pattern resembles to a duck nose.

Mercedes duck fairing

Finally Caterham and Lotus rejected the possibility of fixing a weight costly fairing and instead
developed a sculpted chassis on top, thus forming a smoother airpath for drag cut. However
Caterham features a deeper and a more obvious sculpted area than Lotus does.

Caterham and Lotus sculpted chassis

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 50


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

It is of high possibility to see teams developing further their initial idea or even coping rivals
patterns. It is good to remember that the nose fairing, as all new designs, needs to be examined
and studied further, unless FIA decides to make regulations even stricter.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 51


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.3 THE 2013 PIRELLI TIRES EXPLAINED


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

2.3.1 The 2013 Pirelli Tires

Pirelli begins the 2013 Formula One season with a completely revolutionised P Zero range for
dry weather and Cinturato range for wet weather. These new tyres have been developed
according to the wishes of the teams and the latest rules from world motorsports governing
body, the FIA. The most recent evolutions benefit the compounds, which have become softer,
the structures, which are more flexible and the shoulders, which have been reinforced.

The objective of all these innovations, which work closely together, is to improve performance
and increase thermal degradation, to ensure at least two pit stops per race and open up more
strategic options for all the teams. The sidewalls also look different, with colours that are more
immediately striking and a brand new marking: orange, which comes in place of last years silver
to denote the hardest compound.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 52


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

The 2013 season continues the philosophy adopted by Pirelli last year in evolving the original
2011 range of Formula One tyres, commented Pirellis motorsport director Paul Hembery. The
goal is to continuously set new challenges for the drivers and to ensure that all the teams start
the new season on a level playing field when it comes to the tyres. Through accumulating more
information with each grand prix last year, the teams eventually fully understood the tyres,
after a spectacular start with seven winners from the first seven races. The result at the end of
the year was races with less competition and sometimes only one pit stop. This phenomenon
was also observed in 2011, disappointing many fans and prompting some of the teams to ask us
to continue developing our tyres further this year, in order to provide a fresh challenge with
something different. Our 2013 range of tyres mixes up the cards once more to help overtaking
and ensure two to three pit stops per race.

Computer Simulations And Thousands Of Kilometres Of Testing

The development of the 2013 P Zero and Cinturato ranges included thousands of computer
simulations carried out by Pirellis engineers throughout the 2012 season, using sophisticated
predictive software. These simulations, which were backed up by laboratory tests on the
compounds, have been integrated with data collected during grands prix and the seven
thousand so kilometres covered during five private tests with the Renault R30. Pirellis test car
was driven by Jaime Alguersuari and Lucas Di Grassi at Jerez, Spa, Barcelona (for two sessions)
and Paul Ricard (for a wet weather test).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 53


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

The teams were able to sample the new P Zero Orange hard tyre during free practice in Brazil
last November, but the debut for the complete new range will come at the first official Formula
One test in Jerez at the beginning of February.

Higher Temperatures, Softer Sidewalls, Increased Performance

The defining characteristic of the 2013 Pirelli Formula One tyres is softer compounds all round,
which will allow them to reach peak operating temperature faster and deliver lap times that are
around 0.5 seconds faster than last year.

Swift evolution of Pirellis tyre technology has allowed the new hard tyre the PZero Orange
to be roughly equivalent to last years medium compound. The tyre sidewalls are softer this
year, but the shoulders are stronger. The effect of this is faster thermal degradation while the
tyres peak performance window is extended. Traction is also improved, which translates into
faster lap times, especially on the exit of corners and in combined traction areas, from braking
to acceleration and vice versa.

The performance gap between the different compounds is now in excess of 0.5 seconds per lap,
as opposed to last year when the difference was often smaller: particularly in the latter half of
the season. Faster thermal degradation and a bigger performance gap between the compounds
will encourage overtaking throughout each race.

11 Sets Of Tyres Per Car Assigned By Bar Code

The Formula One tyres are designed at the Pirelli laboratories in Milan and produced at a
dedicated facility in Izmit, Turkey. Having passed quality control and other checks, the tyres are
then sent to Pirellis logistics hub in Didcot (United Kingdom) from which they are shipped out
to all the different circuits. Once more, each Formula One car will have 11 sets of tyres available
for the weekend, made up of six sets of the harder and five sets of the softer compound. In total
Pirelli takes about 1800 tyres to each race.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 54


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Tyres are allocated to each team at random, as per FIA regulations, through the use of bar
codes. FIA officials allocate the tyres to the teams, with no involvement from Pirelli in this
process. Each tyre has a barcode embedded into its sidewall even before the vulcanization
process, which effectively acts as the tyres passport.

The on-track Pirelli team will once more be made up of around 55 people this year, including
fitters, logistics personnel, hospitality staff, and engineers. As has always been the case, each
team will have its own dedicated Pirelli engineer.

2.3.2 The Tyre Changes in Detail


While the tyre rules imposed by the sports governing body remain exactly the same for 2013,
with no aspect of the regulations altered, Pirelli has been able to make some far-reaching
evolutions to the tyres amounting to the biggest set of changes since the company entered
Formula One. Visibly, the biggest difference is the brand new colour for the hard tyre, which will
now be known as the P Zero Orange, changing from Silver. This will help viewers distinguish the
hard compound more easily from the White medium compound when both are used together.

Design and Construction

All the compounds are generally softer, which leads to enhanced performance and a
deliberately higher degree of degradation, with increased thermal degradation in particular.
This should ensure a minimum of two pit stops at each race.

The new structures have been designed with a different philosophy and new materials that
increase the footprint of the tyre, allowing more rubber to be in contact with the track and
leading to better performance particularly when it comes to combined traction and cornering.
Secondly, it means that temperatures are more evenly distributed across the whole surface of
the tyre, meaning that there is no localized heat build-up that can lead to blistering.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 55


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

As a result of the modifications the 2013 tyres are generally easier to bring up to temperature
and they have a more varied working range, making them more easily adaptable to a bigger
variety of set-ups. Generally speaking, the hard and the soft tyre have a high working range,
while the medium and the supersoft have a low working range. This should help the teams to
understand the tyres and how they interact with their cars faster.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 56


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

The different compounds will lead to an increased gap in performance between the compounds
even though they are all generally softer. The tyres have been engineered to provide a time
difference of at least half a second per lap between each compound, whereas on occasions it
was less than that last year. The bigger gap will make strategy all the more important, with
more to gain by being on the right tyre at the right time.

Both the Cinturato tyres have changed as well, with the construction of the rear tyres re-
engineered in particular, so that they provide more progressive traction and better warm-up in
wet conditions. This helps to reduce snap oversteer and so makes the handling of the car more
linear.

The new construction means that the weight of the tyres has increased slightly, but not enough
to affect the performance of the cars. On average, each front tyre now weighs around 200
grams more than it did last year while each rear tyre is 700 grams heavier, meaning that
approximately two kilograms have been added to the overall weight of a set of tyres. However,
the overall minimum weight of the car has been adjusted in the 2013 technical regulations to
compensate for this.

Increased thermal degradation means that there will be more significant difference in speeds
between different cars at different points in the race. This makes overtaking easier and places
the emphasis on an effective race strategy.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 57


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

2.3.3 The Compounds Explained


Supersoft (red)

The P Zero Red supersoft was the only tyre last year
to remain unchanged from 2011, but for 2013 it is
all new with a softer compound designed to
increase performance and degradation. The warm-
up has been made even faster this year, ensuring
that the P Zero Red will be instantly on the pace and
offer optimal grip. This tyre is ideally suited for slow
and twisty circuits such as Monaco and Hungary. It
is a low working range compound so also very
suitable for smooth asphalt.

Soft (yellow)

The P Zero Yellow soft is just over half a second per


lap slower than the supersoft but it is still softer
than the equivalent compound last year. However
it has a high working range that means it is suitable
for an extremely wide range of conditions, which is
likely to make it one of the most frequently used
compounds this year. This is the compound that
has the most increased working range in 2013.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 58


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Medium (white)

The P Zero White medium has a lower working


range, making it the ideal choice for circuits that
are slightly less demanding or have lower ambient
temperatures. The new medium tyre is not
dissimilar to last years soft, making it around 0.8
seconds per laps faster than the hard.

Hard (orange)

The P Zero hard tyre is the most visually different


compared to the previous year as it changes colour
from silver to orange. It also becomes a lot softer:
closer in character to last years medium. The
working range has been completely changed
compared to last year, being higher and very
similar to the soft. This compound is ideal for the
toughest and hottest circuits.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 59


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 RULES & TRENDS F1 Season 2013

Intermediate (green)

The Cinturato Green intermediate has a new rear


construction but the tread pattern remains the same
as last year. However, modifications made to the rear
tyres in particular have enhanced what was already
one of Pirellis most successful and driveable
products.

Wet (blue)

The Cinturato Blue wet also benefits from a new


construction. Like the intermediate, the rear tyres
have been redesigned to offer more progressive
traction and reduce snap oversteer while
maintaining the ability to evacuate 60 litres of water
per second at top speed. The characteristics of this
tyre are now more closely aligned to those of the
intermediate.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 60


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

3. FEW DEFINITIONS
Just for a better understanding of the articles contained in this document, have a look at
explanations about:
Flow-Viz
Coanda effect
Drag Reduction System
Double DRS (DDRS)

3.1 FLOW VISUALIZATION PAINT OR FLOW-VIZ


(by http://www.formula1-dictionary.net)

McLaren using Flow-Viz paint at preseason testing at Jerez 2011

When McLaren ran Flow-Viz paint for first time on their car in testing last year (2010), the F1
world sees it for the first time. But in fact, teams have been using this solution for years in
privacy of their wind tunnels to show surface
aerodynamic flows, but this year (2011) even
Renault, Lotus, Red Bull and Ferrari bring it to the
track and start to use it openly and a large
amount of green, blue or white fluid was
splattered all over the cars.

But there is no mystery. That was a special liquid


placed onto the car to help with the
aerodynamics. Engineers know that work in wind
tunnel and CFD programs can give you great

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 61


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

results, but nothing can compare with real life situation on track. To better understand air flow
over aero surfaces in this real life situation, teams employ what is call Flow-Viz paint, or
Flow-Visualization paint. Details like direction and attached\non-attached flow can be
observed. But this is only surface airflow and this is not the entire story when it comes to
aerodynamics, so Flow Viz is only one solution for measuring and observing aero on track.

McLaren engineer applying Flow-Viz paint on front wing

Basically, they put it on, and before it gets chance to dry the car is flying around the circuit. As it
does so, the air flow across the car moves the paint around, where it subsequently dries and
shows detailed air flow patterns across the car. It is to confirm wind tunnel and CFD findings.
Formula 1 teams don't like to use this method very often because in this way all other teams
can see real situation on your bodywork air flow management. If team have a problem with
aerodynamic components, everybody will se it, if there is some secret solution in airflow
management, everybody will know it. It's enough to take photos of ones car and analyze it with
your aerodynamicist and here you are. Basically, my opinion is that if team resorting to flow
visualization paint so openly and in front of so many spying eyes leads me to think they're really
having some problems with their aero, or there is some fundamental work to be done for
further understanding in aero development.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 62


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

McLaren during F-Duct testing 2010. You can clearly see slot in rear wing flap on picture
above, and air streams around it.

But what is this paint?

Paraffin-based light solution applied it to the car. The solution is light enough to flow over the
car, drying quickly to determine the airflow over the bodywork.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 63


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

A surface of a component of the car is coated with a


pigmented (preferably a contrasting phthalocyanine)
or transparent oil based paint of non-gelling
characteristics, and with a specific viscosity chosen in
way that paint will not spill or move when car is
stationary. Sometime, if team need to make longer
stint with Flow-Viz applied, they can apply
additional layer of wetting agent to prevent to fast
drying of paint. Particles of a dry phthalocyanine dye
are then uniformly sprinkled onto the coating of the
paint using a dry brush or an air blower depending on
the accessibility of the surfaces under test. Dye
particles must be soluble in the oil based paint.
Optionally, wetting agent such as Linolic Acid can be
applied to ensure cohesion of the oil based paint and
dye. After that you need to pass an air flow over the
component, mean, you go out and drive your car. As a flow of air is passed over the solid
component, this causes the dye particles to move across the coating of the paint under the
influence of the air flow. The dye particles that come into contact with the coating of the paint,
dissolve in the same time in the oil as they are moved, to leave a trail on the surface of the
coating. This results in a reduction in the size of the particles due to their dissolution. Air flow
produces a pattern of
contrasting trails on the surface
of the coating which
permanently records and
highlights the fluid flow
distribution pattern for later
analysis. Comparison of the
relative movements of the dye
particles provides an indication
of the relative strengths of the
air flow acting on the surfaces of
the component under test.
Aerodynamicist can see the
contours drawn by the oil on the
side-wall of rear wing support or
wing element itself. The intense stripes of colored oil behind the wing cascade indicate the
zones in which the velocity is higher.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 64


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

This happens because the oil, coming from upstream, is feeding the wing element section
downstream. In this case the zones painted with a thinner layer of oil represent the zone of
lower velocity and the wakes. The clean zone on the forward part of the suction side of the
airfoils shows the effect of velocity gradient on the paint path. There the flow accelerates
strongly and has an intense transversal component. It is possible to see that, in between the
two airfoils, the main stripe of oil draws very clearly the air path.

Looking at the oil stripes on tested elements it is possible to see if they follow trajectory in
accordance with the CFD simulations or wind tunnel test.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 65


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Picture down was taken on Saturday morning practice at Korean Grand Prix 2011 as Ferrari
tested its new front wing planed for next season, with a load of aero paint sprayed over it.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 66


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

3.2 COANDA EFFECT


(by http://www.formula1-dictionary.net)

Although generally unrecognized, Romanian aerodynamics pioneer


Henri Coanda was actually the first person to build and fly a jet
powered aircraft. It is commonly believed that the first jet engines
were developed during World War II. Dr. Hans Von Ohain designed the
first German jet aircraft, which made its first flight on August 27, 1939.
Unaware of Dr. Von Ohain's work, A British engineer named Sir Frank
Whittle also independently designed a jet aircraft, which first flew on
May 15, 1941.

The Coanda- 1910, the world's first jet aircraft

Although these two men are generally thought of as the fathers of jet aircraft, Henri Coanda
built and "flew" the first recorded jet aircraft about 30 years earlier.

In 1934 he obtained a patent in France for an effect presently named after Coanda and was
described as:
"Deviation of a plan jet of a fluid that penetrates another fluid in the vicinity of a convex
wall."

Unfortunately Coanda couldn't obtain funding to continue his research after he wrecked his
airplane, and so his contribution to jet propulsion never became widespread. If he had been
able to continue his work, France could have had a jet-powered air force before WWII began.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 67


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Even though he didn't build another jet aircraft, he did make a very important contribution to
how the aircraft wings produce lift when he discovered what is now called the Coanda Effect.

A natural question is "how the hell does the wing divert the air down?" When a moving fluid,
such as air or water, comes into contact with a curved surface it will try to follow that surface.
Coanda Effect: A moving stream of fluid in contact with a curved surface will tend to follow the
curvature of the surface rather than continue traveling in a straight line.

To perform a simple demonstration of this effect, grab


a spoon and find a sink. You can easily demonstrate the
Coanda effect for yourself. Conveniently, these are
often found together in the kitchen, no need for highly
technical lab. Get a small stream of water coming down
from the sink, and then place the bottom of the spoon
next to the stream. Dangle the spoon next to the
stream coming from the tap. I say dangle because you
want to hold it loosely enough so it can swing back and
forth a bit. It helps to attach a piece of tape at the
handle end to act as a hinge. Move the spoon up to the
edge of the stream so it barely touches. When you do
the water will flow around the bowl of the spoon and
off the bottom deflected to the side and the spoon will
move into the stream. Spoon is actually being pulled
towards the stream of water. Gases behave pretty
much like liquids, so when you see the water behaving
strangely with the spoon, that's what the air does with
the curved paper. Just as water flowing around the
spoon's curved surface draws it into the stream, air
blown over the curved paper is what causes the lift in that common paper lift demonstration.

What is unusual about the Coanda effect is the fact that the fluid or gas flow is pulled so
strongly by a curved surface. With a tap, the water will be projected out at a remarkable
distance. The degree to which the water and the curved surface remain attached goes beyond

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 68


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

the expected. A concave curve will naturally push the flow, but the fact that a convex one would
react so strongly to fluid or gas is unusual.

Same situation apply to the wing. Since air behaves exactly like any fluid, Bernoullis principle
applies. Any time the wind is blowing or a fan blows air, the pressure of the moving air becomes
less than it would be if the air wasn't moving. As an aside, this characteristic plays a huge role in
how weather systems work! If you can cause air to move faster on one side of a surface than the
other, the pressure on that side of the surface will be less than the pressure on its other side.

One of the most widely used applications of Bernoulli's principle is in the airplane wing. Wings
are shaped so that the top side of the wing is curved while the bottom side is relatively flat. In
motion, the front edge of the wing hits the air, and some of the air moves downward below the
wing, while some moves upward over the top. Since the top of the wing is curved, the air above
the wing must move up and down to follow the curve around the wing and stay attached to it
(Coanda effect), while the air below the wing moves very little. The air moving on the top of the
curved wing must travel farther before it reaches the back of the wing; consequently it must
travel faster than the air moving under the wing, to reach the back edge at the more or less
same time. The air pressure on the top of the wing is therefore less than that on the bottom of
the wing, according to Bernoullis principle. The higher pressure air on the bottom of the wing
pushes up on the wing with more force than the lower pressure air above the wing pushes
down. This result in a net force acting upwards called lift. Lift pushes the wings upwards and
keeps the airplane in the air.

Though Bernoulli's principle is a major source of lift in an aircraft wing, Coanda effect plays an
even larger role in producing lift.

If the wing is curved, the airflow will follow the curvature of the wing. In order to use this to
produce lift, we need to understand something called angle of attack. This gives the angle
between the wing and the direction of the air flow, as shown in the following picture.

The angle of attack indicates how tilted the wing is with respect to the oncoming air. In order to
produce lift, or downforce acting on the wing, Newton's third law says that there must be equal
force acting in the opposite direction. If we can exert a force on the air so that it is directed

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 69


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

down, the air will exert an upward force back on the wing. Look at how the Coanda effect
directs the airflow for different
angles of attack in the diagrams
below.
This diagram shows that
increasing the angle of attack
increases how much the air is
deflected downwards. If the
angle of attack is too high, the
air flow will no longer follow
the curve of the wing (Coanda
effect is loosing the power). As
shown in the bottom of the
diagram, this creates a small
vacuum just behind the wing.
We can say that wing is stalled.
As the air rushes in to fill this
space, called cavitations, it
causes heavy vibrations on the
wing and greatly decreases the
efficiency of the wing. For this
reason, aircraft wings are generally angled like the middle wing in the diagram. This wing
efficiently directs the airflow downward, which in turn pushes up on the wing, producing lift. If
you turn this wings on upper picture up side down, you get formula 1 or any wing in use in auto
sport. This configuration of the wing, with longer lower part of the wing will produce opposite
force, called downforce. But we can apply same rules.

To get around air stream separation


problem in airplane wing construction
and in Formula 1, and increase the
Coanda effect on wings, dual or more
element or slot-gap wings are used,
these allow for some of the high
pressure flow from (in Formula 1 case)
the upper surface of the wing to bleed
to the lower surface of the next flap
energizing the flow. This increases the
speed of the flow under the wing,
increasing downforce and reducing the
boundary flow separation. If you look
at a F1 rear wing few years ago on

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 70


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

picture above, you can see this concept taken to the extreme, with multi-element wings
creating huge amounts of downforce and little air stream separation even on the flaps with
extremely high angle of attack.

The Coanda effect has important applications in various high-lift or high downforce devices on
aircraft, or in our area of interest, on the racing car wing, where air moving over the wing can be
"bent" using flaps over the curved surface of the top of the wing. The bending of the flow
results in its acceleration and as a result of Bernoulli's principle pressure is decreased;
aerodynamic lift or downforce is increased.

Notice how unlikely is to have a wing in flight with air flow only on one side. The Coanda effect
only works in specific conditions where an isolated jet of fluid (or air) flows across a surface, a
situation which is usually man-made. You don't find it much in nature. Just so you know, there is
no Coanda lift on an airfoil. Coanda effect helps airstream to stay attached to the wing surface,
but Bernoulli principle and difference in pressures are the reason why we have a lift or
downforce.

Coanda effect is a balancing act between many factors, among them speed of fluids stream,
pressure, molecular attraction, and a centrifugal effect if the surface is curved.

Main trouble of the Coanda effect is the airstream becoming turbulent and detaching from the
surface, that's how a wing stalls. Pull of surrounding air causes turbulence, drag from the
surface and from the ambient air. It's a goal to pull as much as possible ambient air into the
airstream, but the drag caused by the difference in velocity between the airstream and the
surface is just a loss of energy. If the airstream gets turbulent and stops following the curved
surface, there's no more low air pressure, no more thrust.

Since all applications of a Coanda effect involve a fluid object flowing over a solid one, the
science behind this effect is known as fluid dynamics. Fluid dynamics represents and study the
motion of liquids or gases. Studying this science can lead to many consequential discoveries like
the Coanda effect.

The Coanda effect is used on a modern Formula 1 car everywhere sometime to generate
downforce, but sometime not for generating downforce directly, but for guiding and
conditioning airflow in one place, as a means of maximizing downforce on other. For example,
the rear of a modern Formula 1 car is tightly tapered between the rear wheels, like the neck and
shoulders of a coke-bottle. By means of the Coanda effect, the air flowing along the flanks of the
sidepods adheres to the contours at the rear, and the airflow here is accelerated, creating lower
pressure. In itself, this tranverse pressure differential on either side of the car cancels out, and
creates no net force. However, the accelerated airflow between the rear wheels and over the

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 71


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

top of the diffuser does raise the velocity of the air exiting the diffuser. In addition, bending air
away from the rear tires contribute to reducing drag.

The Coanda effect is also used by the bargeboards, aerodynamic appendages typically sited
between the trailing edge of the front wheels and the leading edge of the sidepods.
Bargeboards are used to guide turbulent air from the front wing wake, away from the vital
airflow underneath the car. In addition, the lower trailing edge of a bargeboard creates a vortex
which travels down the outer lower edge of the sidepod, acting as a skirt, helping to seal the
lower pressure area under the car.

On the end of 2011 exhaust blown diffusers where prohibited by the FIA. Stringent
requirements have been placed on the location of the exhaust exit, and engine mapping
restrictions are imposed to eliminate off-throttle pumping of the exhaust jet.

In short, these move the exhaust exit to at least 500mm in front of the rear axle line, and
250mm above the reference plane underneath the car. The exhaust exit must also be angled
upwards by at least 10 degrees. Hence, it will no longer be possible to blow the exhaust directly
between the outer edge of the diffuser and inner face of the rotating rear wheel. Moreover, it
will be illegal to place any sprung bodywork in a cone-shaped region, aligned with the exhaust
exit, diverging at 3 degrees, and terminating at the rear axle line.

New positioning of the exhaust pipes exits and limitations are shown on picture below. Exits of
the pipe can be positioned inside green box with exhaust tailpipe pointed upwards.

But this was not sufficient to eliminate exhaust-blown diffusers. Well, the first thing to note is
that it is not possible to point the exhaust exit down at the diffuser in same way as before, this
will not necessarily prevent the exhaust jet itself from blowing in that direction. When an
exhaust jet exits into a cross-stream of fresh air, the exhaust jet bend with the air stream, effect
called "Downwash".

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 72


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Picture from paper published by F. L. Parra and K.Kontis in their 2006, Aerodynamic
effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration

If the exhaust exit is placed flush in the rearward face of sidepods sweeping downwards at a
fairly steep angle, then the free stream airflow could deflect the exhaust jet downwards in
direction of the diffuser. The degree to which the jet is deflected is determined by the ratio
between the velocity of the jet and the velocity of the cross-stream flow. The smaller the ratio,
the more the jet is deflected. This effect is well documented and often termed jet in cross
flow.

After that, coanda effect will take over and "glue", now energized air stream (mixed with
exhaust jet) to the bodywork. Of course, secret is to design this part of the bodywork and
bodywork in front of the exhaust exit in the way to optimize this effect and give a proper and
exact route for gasses to flow downward in diffuser direction. Effect of diffuser blowing is not as
strong as before, but with clever design and optimization you can get few percent more of
download. With this set up the exhaust plume is curved downwards by both the shape of the
bodywork aft of the tailpipe (coanda) and by the airflow passing over the sidepod (downwash).
To learn more about Exhaust Blown Diffuser check my article here.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 73


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

3.3 ADJUSTABLE REAR WING DRAG REDUCTION SYSTEM (DRS)


(by http://www.formula1-dictionary.net)

New FIA "moveable bodywork" technical regulations for 2011 have allowed adjustment of the
rear wing from the cockpit at any time in practice and qualifying, but only when a driver is less
than one second behind another car at a pre-determined point on the track during a race.
Braking deactivates the device. The intention is to decrease drag for the chasing car and
improve the chances of overtaking. The only time it cannot be used under any circumstances is
two laps after the start or safety car restart and in wet conditions.

Although 2010's Championship proved to be one of the more thrilling with four drivers in the
hunt for the World title heading into the final race in Abu Dhabi, it finished like a boring
procession. Contenders Fernando Alonso and Mark Webber, who were first and second in the
title race, chose the wrong strategy and found themselves stuck behind Renault's Vitaly Petrov
with no way to overtake. It was a boring end to a spectacular season.

After the FIA World Motor Sport Council announced a new package of aerodynamic rules for
2011, the powers-that-be are hoping for more overtaking after driver-adjustable front wing of
2010 is gone ( a concept that never really delivered what was expected of it), replaced by a
driver-adjustable - but FIA regulated - rear wing and bringing back KERS. The moveable front
flap was brought in to try and assist with overtaking too, but in practice it didnt really make a
difference. Instead it was used as a device to optimize car balance as the tires degraded and the
fuel load reduced. Thats why the teams voted to remove adjustable front wings and try a new
initiative with the rear wings with the intention of generating better overtaking opportunities.

To reiterate, the rule is as follows:

The driver may only activate the adjustable bodywork in the race when he has been notified
via the control electronics that it is enabled. It will only be enabled if the driver is less than one
second behind another at any of the pre-determined positions around each circuit. The system
will be disabled by driver manually, or the first time the driver uses the brakes after the system
has been activated.

Here, I will explain what a driver-adjustable rear wing is, how it works, and how it will be used.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 74


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

As for the mechanics of moveable wings, the adjustments that can be made are related to the
two elements of the rear wing: the main plane and the flap which gap is adjusted in more
favorable (downforce wise) way closed for most of the lap, providing the car with the full
downforce efficiency. While the main plane remains fixed, the rules allow a driver to press a
button on his steering wheel and some kind of actuator will lift the front, leading edge of the
flap. The flap will be able to pivot around a point near the trailing edge (20 millimeters of it),
away and upward from the main plane up to a maximum distance of 50mm into a more
horizontal position, and open up the slot gap. This creates a situation where the two elements
of the wing stop acting in harmony and the airflow around the wing separates from the surface
of the wing decreasing its effectiveness and improving the straight-line speed of the car. This
condition of separated flow is called a stall and it is accompanied by a large drop in both
downforce and drag on the car. The overall effect on straight-line speed is a bit like an F-duct,
but much more powerful. As it is a downforce shedding device, it acts against what most
engineers are seeking, which is more downforce. Planed speed advantage with wing deployed
will be 10-15 kmh.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 75


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Adjustable wing in closed, non-active position, with air streams ideally connected with
wing contours and without any turbulences

Adjustable rear wing in active - deployed - position. Stall condition appeared. Airflow
around the wing separates from the surface of the wing decreasing its effectiveness,
reducing downforce and drag in the same time.

The wings functionality is controlled by a proximity system using electronic loops around the
circuit, which allow the system to be armed on each car. It is up to the FIA to decide where
those loops should go around a track and they will control its use. FIA is taking the view that
they will announce where it can be used as they go along on a race by race basis. The advantage
of doing it this way is that they can make adjustments race by race if the concept isnt working
or if its far too easy to pass, in other words make the "overtaking zones" longer or shorter
depending on how its going. They can also adjust the time interval between the cars to make it
work better. Once a car crosses the first loop the system is either armed or it is not, depend
whether the car is within passing range. The driver is notified by a light in the steering wheel
and he will move the wing using a control button on the steering wheel. System can't be
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 76
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

activated without the throttle 100 per cent open. The driver can manually return the wing to its
normal level or hitting the brakes will achieve the same result. The default setting is for the
system to be disabled, but after two laps of the Grand Prix, the system becomes potentially
enabled, assuming the cars meet the criteria defined.

Thats mean that drivers can use the system at any time in practice and qualifying (read red area
down), but in the race there are restrictions. It cannot be used in the opening two laps, and then
will only be made available to the driver at set zones on the circuit if he is less than one second
behind the car ahead. These zones are marked out with white lines, and the one-second gap is
calculated at the corner before the designated straight, which will see drivers adjusting their
rear wing, in a tightly controlled set of circumstances while close racing.

The tweak and amendments to some technical and sporting regulations for year 2013 came on
the back of the final 2012 World Motor Sport Council meeting in Istanbul to ratify some detailed
changes to the F1 calendar for 2013 and to the sporting and technical regulations. The use of
DRS will be restricted during practice and qualifying and drivers will in future only be allowed to
use it in the same designated zones where it will be available in the race. There were some
concerns over safety at some circuits, as cars were close to being out of control at times. This
move will add around half a second on average to qualifying lap times, as the DRS was a
powerful tool. The benefit will only be felt on the straights now. During the race, all rules
concerning DRS are unchanged.

It has just two settings, ON and OFF effectively, with the ON setting increasing the gap between
the main plane and the flap from 10-15mm to 50mm.

If the system fails, it defaults to the closed, high downforce setting.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 77


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Ferrari technical director Aldo Costa admitted the Formula One Teams Associations plan for an
adjustable rear wing next year was at an early stage and could be dropped if it is deemed
unsuccessful. Peter Sauber said the wing was maybe a good idea for overtaking, but I think
we have different opinions from the technicians.

Several drivers have voiced doubts over the adjustable rear wing. One of the concerns is that
the art of defensive driving will potentially disappear. Of course, if a driver can just sail past an
opponent easily, the skill is taken out of overtaking. The overtaken driver can just bide his time
until the next straight, where he can use exactly the same method to re-take the position. Cars

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 78


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

would change few times a lap, and it would be, quite frankly, ridiculous. To prevent things like
that, teams and the FIA have tried to design a system that only gives just enough assistance to a
trailing car to make an overtaking maneuver just possible. Nobody wants to have a system that
makes overtaking a formality.

Some drivers voiced concerns what will happened if wing, after deployed in overtake attempt
fail and doesnt return in closed position in front of corner due to malfunction. In braking zone
just before corner, last thing you need is car without rear downforce. Technical group wanted to
prevent this by placing pivot point high, 20 millimeters from the tip of the trailing edge of the

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 79


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

flap. In this way, some kind of actuator will keep wing open, but if actuator is disengaged,
aerodynamic forces and load on the wing upper side will close the wing gap and reestablish full
downforce. Of course, something can go wrong, but same can happen with any part of the car.

The plan has also been criticized by F1 Fans and reaction has been mostly negative. Many fans
feel that the device will be a gimmick, which adds an artificial element to the racing and several
drivers articulated similar fears. I would agree, that the way the driver can use the device, as it is
planned, its a bit artificial, and I personally dont like it.

On the other hand, it could make for some interesting strategies, as you see sometimes in
NASCAR or Indy cars when they race in the ovals, and to an extend in Moto GP.

You have to choose, when you want to lead the race, as often the guy who leads into the last
lap/straight is going to loose it, because he is just providing the slipstream for the guy behind.

There have been many attempts over recent years to improve overtaking in Formula 1 without
much success. Will the driver-adjustable rear wings be the silver bullet that solves the problem?
If adjustable front wings didnt help overtaking, why will adjustable rear wings make any better?
Because it all comes down to the different way that changing the angle of the front and rear
wings affects the overall drag of the car. If you change the angle of the front wing, you change
the car balance, but the overall drag of the car remains about the same and hence straight-line
speed is largely unaffected. However, changing the rear wing angle changes the drag of the car
a lot, and therefore the straight-line speed dramatically, in same way F-duct did.

I think it has been and it will be a fascinating area of work and research not just for the actual
race and the entertainment it has given with easier overtaking which I think has transformed
the nature of Formula 1 races. Technically it is fascinating. It has added a whole new dimension
to the process of selecting the best wing for an event. It used to be quite a one dimensional
task, run a wing, have a little look at what competitors were doing as well iterate through the
weekend to the right wing level. Now you have an extra dimension which is what is your
qualifying pace with and without DRS, what's your race pace with the DRS, without it, and even
with the complication that if it is raining in qualifying then you cannot use the DRS. Teams might
have to factor that in if it's a weekend with potential rain. Lots of complicated sums for the guys
to do in the office with the computers to work out what's the best plan.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 80


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

A bit more about logic of overtaking

A common complaint of many F1 fans is the perceived lack of overtaking in the sport, especially
compared to other forms of racing such as touring cars. The main reason for this deficiency is
the advanced aerodynamics of an F1 car (or any so called "downforce car") in that, when one
car closely follows another, it has to re-use the air of the car in front. For good overall grip you
need good aerodynamic grip and mechanical grip. This so-called dirty air has already been
displaced and manipulated by the leading car and, when receiving it second-hand, the car
following cannot take full advantage of it. As a result, the car behind experiences decreased
aerodynamic grip when cornering, and struggles to keep close enough to its rival to mount a
successful challenge for the position. He needs to relay almost entirely on car mechanical grip,
and thats not enough. Where overtaking does take place, it is usually when one driver has a
straight-line speed advantage over the car in front and using slip-streaming in same moment,
where the driver behind eliminates some of the drag on the front of his car by closely following
another. With less drag, the chasing driver can build up speed behind his rival and then, when
he pulls out alongside, although both drivers are now subjected to the same amount of drag
force, the slip-streamer has more momentum, and can power past his rival. At tracks with long
straights, such as Malaysia, China and Monza, those drivers with most powerful engines found it
reasonably easy to get past their rivals. With more horsepower available to them and, with
extra help from a slip-stream, they would have their nose ahead at the end of the straight, and
could take the position into the corner. This is why KERS, introduced in 2009, helped with
overtaking.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 81


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Another thing is a frequent, but not all known problem in modern Formula 1. A driver gets close
enough to the car in front to slipstream him down the straight, but just before hes built enough
speed to pass, he hears the sound of a V8 engine bouncing off its rev limiter at 18,000 rpm.

Its one of the main reasons overtaking in Formula 1 is such a rarity. To squeeze every last tenth
out of the car, technicians pick gear ratios so that cars hit the rev limit in top gear at the fastest
point on the track, normally close to the end of longest straight, few hundred meters before
braking point. The result is that, while slipstreaming reduces a cars drag and increasing its top
speed to allow overtaking, in practice the cars speeds are limited by gear ratios chosen for
different circumstances. If longer gear ratios were used, giving the cars enough headroom to
slipstream, it would impair their performance in clean air.

The FIAs latest solution to the overtaking issue is to introduce an adjustable rear wing, capable
of shedding drag while in the tow of another car to make passing easier. Already, there are
some concern that, because a cars top speed is decided when its gear ratios are chosen, the
loss of drag from the adjustable rear wing will have a negligible impact on overtaking.

A closer look at how the FIA have chosen to implement the adjustable wing reveals this doesnt
need to be a problem. They can change deployment zone in race to race basis, and learn in
progress. Concerns over how the rear wing will impact on gear ratios seem to stem from the
assumption that the FIA will choose the straight where the cars reach their highest speeds as
the deployment zone.

The FIA has an inglorious history of shooting itself in the foot, but choosing the longest straights
for the rear wing deployment would be stupid even by its standards. Consider this: at a
particular circuit, cars reach their top speed of 300kph at the end of straight A. With the rear
wing activated, the theoretical drag-limited top speed rises to 315kph, but because of the gear
ratios picked before the race, the car starts bouncing off the limiter at 300kph.

At straight B on the same circuit, the cars reach 280kph before they hit the brakes. If the rear
wing were activated on straight B, the cars would now reach 295kph at the end of the straight.
More than enough to pass cars with the wing activated, without threatening the rev limiter. If
the FIA wishes to avoid a headache for teams, and a potential embarrassment for itself, it will
place the deployment zone away from the fastest point on the track, be that on the second-
longest straight or otherwise. Of course, these concerns could well turn out to be academic, as
unrestricted use of the wing in qualifying means teams may well choose gear ratios which allow
them to hit top speed with the rear-wing activated on the longest straight (315kph, to use the
example above). But if teams compromise their Saturday performance by choosing shorter gear
ratios, it could pay dividends on race day, when activation of the rear-wing is restricted.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 82


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

There is one more thing to consider. DRS will not work with same efficiency on every circuit. On
circuits with high or medium download setup DRS will be more effective than on low or ultra
low download circuits. In Monza for example the cars run very little wing anyway. So when you
flatten the upper wing element it actually makes very little difference, because there's hardly
any wing back there anyway, and DRS will be of limited help to overtake.

Data issued by MercedesAMG GP on the end of 2011 season

With DRS Formula One has made an effort to increase the possibility for overtaking.

Overtaking - how much, not enough, or too much of the artificial sort - a frequent topic
throughout the 2011 season, since the advent of DRS (the Drag Reduction System) and Pirelli
tires.

But overall levels of overtaking have risen to record levels - there have been nearly 1500 passes
during 2011 season. The figures used below are calculated for strategic purposes by Mercedes
team, which are reflected in the categorization, and compiled from a combination of video,
timing data and GPS technology. Here I will not use data for overtaking trough pit stops, first lap
or lapping slowest cars or passing damaged cars. Only clean racings (battle between two or
more cars) are counted.

The combined total of 'Normal' and 'DRS-assisted' moves - the indicator of what most observers
consider to be 'clean' overtaking - is 804 overtakes. This gives an average of 45 normal and DRS
overtakes per race.

From the total of 804 clean overtakes, there have been 441 normal overtakes and 363 DRS
overtakes; 55% were normal and 45% were DRS.

The highest number of clean overtakes were recorded in Turkey (85), Canada (79) and China
(67). The races with the fewest were Monaco (16), Australia (17) and India (18). Nine races
featured fewer than 50 clean overtakes; eight races featured more than 50. There have been an
average of 45 clean overtakes per race - broken down to 25 normal overtakes and 20 with DRS.
The highest ratio of DRS overtakes to normal, i.e. where the influence of DRS was greatest,
were: Abu Dhabi (89%), Europe (81%), India (78%), Turkey (59%) and Spain (57%). The lowest
ratio of DRS overtakes to normal were: Monaco (13%), Hungary (20%), Canada (22%), Japan
(26%) and Great Britain (27%) - it should be noted that three of these five races featured wet or
mixed conditions, and use of DRS was restricted for portions of the race in Canada and Great
Britain. DRS overtakes have outnumbered normal moves in eight of 18 races.

In the first nine races of the season, there were on average 21 DRS overtakes per race - on
average, 45% of clean overtakes. The influence of DRS has remained stable in the second nine

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 83


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

races of the year: there were on average 20 DRS overtakes per race, representing on average
46% of clean overtakes.

The most overtaking in the races after lap one list is headed by Perez and Buemi, both with 82
overtakes. They are followed by Button (77), Webber (76), Alguersuari (74) and Michael
Schumacher (71). It should be noted that use of DRS is allowed after second lap.

Of this year's overtaking maneuvers, a lot have been assisted by DRS, but it has also set up
opportunities to pass later in the lap. I think DRS on its own is good but personally I feel that
having KERS and new Pirelli tires are really helped this year. I think they can really use it to their
advantage, to overtake and obviously to try and block and defend a position. Thats meant that
KERS was as important as DRS. There are some instances when perhaps it made overtaking too
easy, but there are always negatives and positives with something new like this. Positives
outweigh the negatives. DRS and KERS has brought a lot to racing, and you can get closer to the
cars ahead and prepare your next move. System has worked very well and it will get even better
next year now the FIA knows how it works.

Double DRS will be banned for 2013, after Formula 1 teams agreed to a change of rules that will
outlaw the concept for next year.

Mercedes led the way at the start of this season with a radical design that feeds air via a hole in
the rear wing endplate, all the way through the car and out the front wing - which is then stalled
when DRS is activated. This helps provide a straight line speed boost.

Following discussions at F1 rules think-tank, the Technical Working Group, sources have
revealed that a majority of teams agreed for a change in regulations that will ensure they
cannot incorporate double DRS into their cars for 2013.

Although Mercedes did not support the change in rules, because it had made such a headstart
in the area, it could not stop the ban going through as it only needed a majority of teams to
agree.

It is understood the changes to the rules will be made official by the FIA's World Motor Sport
Council later this year.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 84


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

3.4 MERCEDES DOUBLE DRS (DDRS)


(by http://www.formula1-dictionary.net)

Front "F-duct" and somebody call it W-duct".

It wouldnt be the start of a Formula One season without some controversy over a new clever
bit of technology designed to make cars go faster. It was same at beginning of 2012 season. This
time Mercedes AMG produced a novel, somebody call it front 'F-duct' and somebody W-duct,
but "officially" is DDRS system, utilizing the DRS activation mechanism on the Mercedes W03
and designed to give the car a straight line speed and braking advantage, and it was causing
controversy at the season-opening Australian GP.

In Japan last year the team tested their new secret weapon aimed for next season, a passive
system that fed air through the nose cone vent and down the two wing pillars to the front-wing
flap. But it proved difficult to set up, and with the nose cone vent now only allowed to be used
for driver cooling, they had to find a different way to get the airflow to the front wing. The
Finnish broadcaster MTV3, describing the system as W-duct, has provided some detail as to
how it works. W-duct name actually describing air flow from nose tip hole, normally used for
driver cooling, trough both wing pylons and is dispersed in a W-like pattern across the underside
length of the front wing. Unlike the driver-operated rear wing F-duct, which was banned for
2011, Mercedes system was entirely passive and requires no moving parts or driver interaction,
and it was therefore legal.

For the first race of 2012 season Mercedes improved their system. It is not anymore completely
passive, and system is activated by and linked to DRS. System is basically DRS-operated speed
boost system. This uses the opening of the DRS flap on the rear wing to open a duct that sends
high pressure air to other parts of the car, specifically to the front wing underside.
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 85
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Some teams, read Lotus and Red Bull, protested the system as illegal and against the spirit of
the rules regulating movable aerodynamic surfaces and a rule that prohibits drivers altering
aerodynamics. The system operates in conjunction with the DRS (drag reductio system)
overtaking aid, which most teams understood to be limited to operation on the rear wing. The
argument has become particularly contentious because Mercedes have raised their
competitiveness after two difficult seasons and are now contenders at the front.

After Melbourne race protest, FIA has allowed the system because race director Charlie Whiting
felt that it was simply an extension of the DRS and that it was impossible to draw a line saying it
was not allowed.

His view is that the driver can affect the aerodynamics as long as it is only for the operation of
the DRS - and the Mercedes system is part of the DRS.

The contrary argument is that this is an illegal secondary system that is activated by the driver
when he uses the DRS. In simple terms, the system cannot work unless the driver hits the DRS
button therefore it is driver controlled.

Whiting feels that as the team are reducing drag - albeit elsewhere on the car than was
originally intended by the DRS system - it should be allowed.

Mercedes argue that the W-Duct system is automatic and the driver does not control it
therefore they consider it legal.

Either way, the grey areas in terms of legality are whether it is considered to be passive in its
operation legal, or driver operated - not legal, and whether it is acceptable for the driver-
operated DRS mechanism to have such a secondary function.

And this secondary function is an interesting thing.

This brings up the designers favorite interpretation in the rule book, Primary and Secondary
Purpose. Any part on the car is made for some primary purpose. Designers always try to find
secondary, useful purpose for device in question. Sometimes any secondary purpose is banned
or restricted. However in most cases the rules are vague and designers are free to find
secondary uses for a solution on the car. Always the Primary purpose is legal, but a secondary
purpose is there to be found and exploited. Good example is blown diffuser. Exhaust gases
primary and secondary purpose. Another good example is engine on the over-run. In Press
Conference at Monaco 2011, Newey tried to defend the legality of exhaust-blown diffusers on
the over-run, by claiming that the primary function of an open throttle on the over-run is to cool
the exhaust valves. (And secondary function is well used!)

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 86


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Finally, before third race 2012 China Grand prix, Lotus become the first to formally lodge a
protest against the controversial DDRS wing.

"Lotus F1 Team Team, by means of this document, formally files a protest concerning the
Scrutineers of the Meeting's decision regarding Cars No: 7 and 8 on 12th April 2012, relating to
their conformation to article 3.15 of the 2012 Technical Regulations," the team said in a
statement.

"This protest is pursuant to Articles 171-179b) (chapter XII) of the FIA International Sporting
Code. A deposit for the amount of 2,000 has been lodged with the FIA in anticipation of this
protest. The FIA is hereby authorized to use this deposit as the fee for this protest in accordance
with Article 17.1 of the 2012 Formula One Sporting Regulations.

Lotus argued that Mercedes' new wing, which stalls the front and rear wings for added straight-
line, is illegal under article 3.15 of the technical regulations.

"With the exception of the parts necessary for the adjustment described in Article 3.18 (DRS
system), any car system, device or procedure which uses driver movement as a means of
altering the aerodynamic characteristics of the car is prohibited," the rules sate.

However, the stewards did not agree with Lotus' argument and unanimously dismissed the
protest.

According to the FIA statement, it was deemed that the Mercedes design is not activated by
driver movement.

It is a consequence of a change of position of the driver adjustable bodywork, which is


permitted under the regulations.

As to the other main point of contention, the FIA stated that while "the Mercedes design does
appear to alter the aerodynamic characteristics of the car by reducing the drag" that "this is
consistent with the intent of the regulations."

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 87


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

All cars have the DRS - which moves a flap on the rear wing to reduce drag and therefore
increase straight-line speed. On the Mercedes, the flap moves in the same way as on all the
other cars, no difference. But when
the DRS flap opens on the Mercedes,
it reveals a holes on the inboard side
of the both end plates, into which the
air flows, before being directed down
through the hollow wing end plates,
along the lower beam wing, through
some pipes and ducting in the engine
space and the cockpit, trough nose
cone, down the front wing pillars, into
the front wing and and emerges
under the front wing out of a slots
and thus stalls the front wing when
the DRS is open. Holes on the rear
wing end plates are located in high
pressure area, on the upper side of
the rear wing main plane and that
would force flow through the duct. Only the pressure of sucked air will be enough, but the low-
pressure air under the front wing will help and suck air through the car ducting from the rear
wing, reducing the effectiveness of the front wing. That has two effects.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 88


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

It cuts drag (in the same way as F-duct system used by the teams two years ago, with air
flowing from the nose, through the monocoque, to the rear wing, but in this case in opposite
way), therefore boosting straight-line speed even more than it already would be just by opening
the DRS flap.

But it also makes the car more balanced front to rear in high-speed corners in practice and
qualifying, where DRS use is free, because the main problem with F1 cars in fast corners with
DRS activated is that they
have too much front
downforce, and that will
increase oversteer - which
is instability at the rear of
the car. That can limit how
fast a driver can go
through the bend.

Because the Mercedes


system reduces front
downforce too, that
means their car can
maintain a consistent

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 89


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

balance while also benefiting from the top-speed boost of the DRS and stalled front wing. When
the DRS are deactivated, the airflow stops. But, maybe a specific characteristic of the system
could hurt Mercedes a bit. When the DRS closes airflow stops, but because there is still some air
in the system, and this air still flowing and staling front wing, the rear downforce comes back on
to the car quicker than the front downforce. It might only be a 10th of a second or less - but it
does mean the rear of the car is stable earlier.

Also, they must have some kind of restrictor in there that they can change from track to track
depending on track characteristics. Some rivals estimate the system could be worth as much as
0.5 seconds a lap during practise and qualifying.

How Mercedes managed to link rear wing with the front of the car? Some pictures have
emerged partially showing how.

Mercedes fitted their DRS actuation system in the rear-wing end plates, which is what allows
them to have the hole in the end plate in first place, which is otherwise illegal. This hole primary
purpose is to allow DRS actuation system levers to connect to the wing flap. This hole is made
unusually big, and with DRS closed, this hole is covered.

When the driver has the DRS flap closed on the rear wing, the front and rear wings operate as
usual. Both wings create downforce in the usual way.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 90


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

When the driver opens DRS, the flap uncovers a pair of openings on the rear wing end plates.
These openings are fed with high pressure air. There is a duct inside the unusually thick end
plates, and that is feeding the DRS-duct system.

The air flow around wing end plates towards the beam wing. The airflow then passes inside the
beam wing, passes to a bulged fairing with two ducts and disappear inside the engine cover. On
the picture before, you can see two ducts, but there is possibility that these ducts are linked

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 91


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

together to balance the system pressure, as in yaw or side wind one duct might not have the
same pressure feed as the other.

Picture up shows a duct passing the


engine bay. On either side of engine is
a same ducting. In picture we can see
ducts disconnected from the beam
wing. Ducts are passing engine bay to
the rear monocoque bulkhead. Looks
like ducting is passing below or low
near the fuel tank. Pictures of duct
routing after bulkhead are still not
available, but I assume they pass
outside the fuel tank area and into the
cockpit, where they then pass along
the roof or sides of the footwell to
emerge at the front bulkhead. This
pipe routing within the tight confines
of the car probably explains why two
ducts are used and not one larger duct.

On picture with the nose cone


removed we can see the front
bulkhead area. We can see two tubes,
exiting footwell area and entering nose
cone. They are feeding the flow into
the front wing trough the nose cone.
When the nose cone is fitted, these
ducts connect with corresponding
holes and ducting inside the nose cone
to pressurize the nose. This in turn feeds the airflow down the front wing pylons to the front
wing. For now, no pictures of inside of nose cone are available.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 92


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Underneath the front wing there is a


pair of slots, one on each side. When
DRS is open the flow through the ducts
blows through these slots and stall the
front wing in same way F-Duct does
with rear wing. We can see from
picture of the Schumacher car in
Melbourne, that there are slots under
the front wing.

But, can this be legal? Strictly by the


rules it is. Stalling a front wing through
a blown slot is legal. Although F-ducts
are banned, its only because the slot
in the rear wing are banned. Direct
driver intervention is banned, but the
driver is allowed to operate the DRS,
so any secondary aerodynamic effect
of that is not prohibited in the rules.
Rivals say that a system is unlawful.
Unless it's banned, the others will
probably all have something similar
soon - but it's a very expensive thing
for a small gain.

For rival teams to replicate this


system, they will need to find space to
package the ducts inside the footwell
area. As we saw in 2010 with F-
duct, teams can be very
imaginative in creating way to
package this sort of solution. But
this will take time and may
explain some teams opposition
to the legality of the system.

During May 2012 in-season test in


Mugello, Italy, Sauber ran with
external piping on its C31 during
testing, which prompted
speculation that it could have

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 93


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

been evaluating the double DRS further. Sauber chief designer Matt Morris said early analysis by
his outfit had left it feeling that it would be better off devoting resources to finding more normal
development progress. "We have done some evaluation on it in the factory, but at the moment
it's not really working for us in terms of cost versus performance. It's definitely a few tenths of a
second in qualifying, but to get that [benefit] so many parts in the car would have to be
changed. That's the problem. It's difficult to know exactly the potential benefits and then it's
only really useful in qualifying as well."

Mercedes team principal Ross Brawn says there is so much opposition to the team's DRS system
because it is difficult to integrate it into a car that was not designed from scratch with the
system in mind. Because the air flow is channeled from the rear wing back to the front wing the
whole structure needs to pass along the length of the car, and Brawn said the difficulty in
packaging it has caused teams to mount a more sustained challenge. A number of Brawn's rivals
have suggested that it would cost a fortune for them to incorporate a DRS-activated F-duct
system on to their cars - at a time when teams are facing budget concerns. Brawn said. It's a
very simple, cheap system, but not so easy to implement if you haven't integrated it into your
car. This is at the heart of the frustration of some of our opponents. If someone could put it on
their car easily, I promise you we wouldn't be having these discussions. But they can't do it very
easily, which is why they're getting so vexed about it. People (other F1 teams) talk about the
huge cost, but there is no huge cost. There are a couple of carbon pipes running down the car.
The man in the street would tell you they are a few thousand pounds, they're not millions of
pounds.

And all the others will have to move their DRS actuation system. On the Mercedes it's in the
rear-wing end plates, which is what allows them to have the hole, which otherwise is illegal. The
others all have theirs in the centre of the wing.

Whether it is deemed legal or not, you have to love this kind of tweaking and stretching of the
rules. And by Ross Brawn, the master of the double diffuser.

Double DRS will be banned for 2013, after Formula 1 teams agreed to a change of rules that will
outlaw the concept for next year, via wording to prevent secondary use of the DRS opening.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 94


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

Mercedes led the way at the start of this season and this helped to provide a straight line speed
boost.

Following discussions at F1 rules think-tank, the Technical Working Group, sources have
revealed that a majority of teams agreed for a change in regulations that will ensure they
cannot incorporate double DRS into their cars for 2013.

Although Mercedes did not support the change in rules, because it had made such a headstart
in the area, it could not stop the ban going through as it only needed a majority of teams to
agree.

It is understood the changes to the rules will be made official by the FIA's World Motor Sport
Council later this year.

At the middle of the season 2012, Lotus tested a prototype drag reduction device fitted to the
cars rear wing. Most people in the paddock and around are still calling it DDRS (Double DRS), but
its not part of the DRS. its aim is to reduce drag on the straight for more top speed, and there is
absolutely no connection with DRS or by FIA rules allowed moveable aero device.

Unlike Mercedes whose system


stalls the front wing to balance
the aero when the DRS rear wing
is used in qualifying (and the
race), the Lotus system is passive
and not linked to an external
switch (movable rear wing flap
used for DRS). Instead the system
uses increasing airspeed to send
more flow to slots under the
wing to stall the airflow in the
middle pard of the wing and
reduce drag. Air is entering
trough two roll hoop inlets clearly
visible either side of, and slightly
behind the roll engine air inlet
and duct work exiting the engine
cover between the upper and
lower rear wings. Having the
system passive means that the
Lotus device can be used to stall
the wing above a certain speed

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 95


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
FEW DEFINITIONS F1 Season 2013

on every lap, meaning the small speed advantage is available on every straight and fast corner.
With the system being tuned to airspeed, the wing can be designed to stall at speeds high
enough to allow fast corners to be taken with the rear wing stalled. At these speeds the diffuser
provides enough downforce for cornering and the rear wing in not required for aerodynamic
load. Typically teams will want this stalling to occur at speeds of over 250kmh.

We have seen Mercedes test a similar device on their car at Spa, with other teams rumored to
have a system ready to test. The gain of the system is small, but anything that improves aero
efficiency will be useful, whether to allow a higher top speed for a given downforce level, or vice
versa, a gain in downforce level for a given top speed.

One issue facing the FIA and other teams is that the Mercedes DDRS solution will be banned in
2013, via wording to prevent secondary use of the DRS opening.

But being passive and not part of the DRS activation, the Lotus's and any similar system does not
contravene this rule. As it stand the Lotus and any similar system will be legal for 2013, but the
FIA are likely to find some wording to also outlaw this method of drag reduction.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 96


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4. 2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS


4.1 RED BULL RB9
4.1.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Red Bull launched the RB9 in a converted warehouse next door to its factory in Milton Keynes in
front of an audience of team members, partners, guests and international media.

The car is the final instalment in a generation of designs that have bought Infiniti Red Bull Racing
34 wins and a trio of constructors titles.

Despite the largely unchanged nature of the technical regulations for 2013, Adrian Newey
explained that the off-season was far from relaxed.Its a tribute to all the hard work of the guys
over the winter because we had a very tight championship battle last year, he said. It was
difficult trying to continue development of last years car while also doing research into the RB9.
Obviously it worked for us, but it gave us a very tight timeframe to design and manufacture this
car.

RB9 is an evolutionary car, he added. Probably the most significant change is not the
regulations, but the new Pirelli tyres. We had a quick test with those in practice ahead of the
Brazilian Grand Prix but in truth we didnt learn a lot because of the conditions. Pirelli have
supplied us data about how the new tyres behave but past experience tells us that its only
when we go testing that we really find out.

Red Bull were very cagey indeed at the launch of the car, photography was banned and nobody
was able to get a close look. But a few details can already be gleaned from what was seen.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 97


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The nose of the car features the hump that blighted the looks of many of the 2012 designs, but
Red Bull has dropped its forward facing vent in favour of the hump. But despite there being a
hump the car does feature a vanity panel according to Adrian Newey we do have the vanity
panel on there, but it does not stretch the whole way to the front of the nose as the weight of it
would be too high for that. But we have dropped the letterbox vent which cooled the driver and
some electronic systems he explains.

But closer inspection reveals that the RB9 has still got a nose vent though it is more like the one
fitted to the Sauber in that it faces rearward.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 98


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The exhaust concept is a direct carry over from the RB8, as is the rear suspension, though on
this launch spec car it is likely that many older parts were fitted. The tunnel under the exhaust
bulge has also been retained.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 99


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The sidepod turning vanes and pod wing have been retained from the RB8 but expect to see a
lot of development in this area of the car.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 100


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

One of the family heirlooms of the current generation of Red Bull cars is the roll over structure,
the RB9 almost identical to the RB8 (below) itself very much like the RB7 & RB6.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 101


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 102


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.1.2 Red Bull RB9: Ducted Nose Slots


(by Craig Scarborough - http://scarbsf1.wordpress.com)

Following on from the under nose slot of two years ago and the letterbox slot of last year, this
years Red bull continues to explore aero solutions around the nose box. However with revised
nose rules this year, its an idea from Sauber that found its way onto Neweys drawing board.
Now letterbox opening faces backwards and is joined to the slot below the nose with a duct, to
overcome aerodynamics issues presented by the nose box.

Last year I explained that Red Bulls letterbox opening was largely to overcome the issues of the
stepped nose. Sauber also had a ducted solution aimed at the same issues which also resolves
some of the airflow problems under the nose.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 103


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

A short modesty fairing, removes the 2012 slot but keeps the lower slot (arrowed)

In an attempt to keep the nose box cross section as small as possible and according to Newey to
save weight, Red Bull havent adopted a full modesty fairing, instead the stepped nose is
smoothed with a small fairing. This modesty fairing removes the letterbox opening use last year.
But the high pressure generated under the nose and increasing boundary layer remain an issue,
as does keeping the airflow attached over the step. So the car keeps last years under-nose slot,
but rather than exiting into the monocoque to cool the electronics, the slot now feeds a duct
that curves up in an S shape to exit rearwards in the scalloped top of the monocoque.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 104


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The lower slot feeds the S duct, as witht he Ferrari F138 lower slot, this relieves the pressure
and boundary layer building up below the nose. The duct then exits rearwards over the chassis.
As with Saubers solution last year, this helps keep the flow attached behind the stepped nose.

The S duct sends flow from below to over the nose

Although Ive drawn the ductwork separately, the S duct is actually bonded into the nose box
and isnt removable. No doubt we will get some pictures of the reverse face of the nose box
once the season begins, to see the ductworks full details.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 105


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The V-Shape to the chassis creates the rear facing slot (arrowed)

Packaging the duct requires some repackaging around the front of the bulkhead. The bulkhead
features a rounded indentation at the bottom to help turn the air fed through the lower slot
through 90-degrees and then the anti roll bar and brake fluid reservoirs are packaged into the
top half of the bulkhead and flanked by carbon fibre mouldings that follow the shape of the
duct. Red Bull have always kept a slight V-shape to the cross section to the front of the
monocoque, this keeps the blockage in between the wheels to a minimum and aids the lower
wishbone geometry. The resulting valley in the top of the chassis allows the flow out of the nose
duct to exit. Whats interesting about the new nose layout is that the 2012 RB8 lower slots
purpose to cool the electronics and the upper slots purpose to cool the driver are no longer
catered for. This further underlines the slots purposes were for external airflow and not
primarily for cooling or other internal purpose. Its likely that the nose will gain a conventional
driver cooling hole in its tip for hot races.

4.1.3 Red Bull RB9 Specifications


Engine
Configuration: Renault RS27-2013 90 V8
Location: Mid, longitudinally mounted
Weight: 95 kilo / 209.4 lbs
Construction: light alloy block and head
Displacement: 2.4 liter / 146.5 cu in
Valvetrain: 4 valves / cylinder, DOHC
Fuel feed: Fuel Injection
Aspiration: Naturally Aspirated
Power: 750 bhp / 560 KW
Red Line: 18000 rpm
BHP/Liter: 313 bhp / liter

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 106


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Drivetrain
Chassis: carbon-fibre composite and aluminium honeycomb monocoque with fully
stressed engine
Front suspension: double wishbones, push-rod actuated torsion bar springs and dampers
Rear suspension: double wishbones, pull-rod actuated torsion bar springs and dampers
Brakes: ventilated carbon ceramic discs, all-round
Gearbox: Paddle Operated 7 speed Semi-Automatic
Drive: Rear wheel drive

Dimensions
Weight: 642 kilo / 1415.4 lbs

Performance figures
Combined Power: 830 bhp / 619 KW
Power to weight: 1.29 bhp / kg

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 107


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.2 FERRARI F138


4.2.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The F138 is the fifty ninth car built by Ferrari specifically to take part in the Formula 1 World
Championship. The name comes from a combination of the current year and the number of
cylinders, to mark the fact that this is the eighth and final year of competition for the V8 engine
configuration.

Theres a name, that will be unfamiliar to most outside the walls of the Ferrari factory, alongside
a job title that is also unfamiliar and new to the Maranello team: Simone Resta is now Deputy
Chief Designer. I started my Formula 1 career with the Minardi team, where I spent a few
years, he explains. Then I moved from Faenza to Maranello, working for Ferrari, first as a
designer, then as a coordinator for a group of designers, followed by a time as head of Research
and Development, before taking on my current role with the responsibility of coordinating the
2013 car project. In this role, I report to Nikolas Tombazis and to Pat Fry. As from this year, the
design team has been split into two groups: one for this years car and one for next years.
This means that the F138 can be seen as Restas first car and he outlines some of the key details
of this brand new single-seater. There were very few changes to the regulations, but
nevertheless we chose to work on and modify all aspects of the car, trying to move forward in
every area, because we felt there was a significant amount of performance that could be gained
with this new car. I would say the biggest changes relate to the front suspension, which has an
improved layout, while at the rear, the suspension is completely new. We also have a revised
sidepod design, aimed at improving the aerodynamics in this area, as well as a completely new
layout for the exhaust system.

The new organisation was the result of an in-depth internal enquiry into the shortcomings of
the team. Apart from restructuring the human element, it also became clear that the beautiful
Renzo Piano designed wind tunnel, was now in need of some modernisation. Last year, we had
to push on the development of the F2012 right to the end of the year, while initial development
of the F138 began towards the end of last season with the bulk of the aerodynamic work being

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 108


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

carried out in Maranello, recalls Nikolas Tombazis. We also did some work in an external
tunnel in 2012 and all the work for this seasons car will be carried out in the Toyota tunnel in
Germany while we upgrade the Maranello wind tunnel to bring it up to the right level. It is now
quite old and needs upgrading having served us well for twelve years. The ideal situation would
be to have the wind tunnel right here and I cannot say that using a wind tunnel in Cologne is the
perfect solution, but weighing up the medium and long term advantages of having an upgrade
on our wind tunnel or carrying on as it was, we concluded that our current strategy was the
best. We have taken steps to ensure communications and logistics are as effective as possible in
2013. But still, wherever the wind tunnel, the most important thing is to have good ideas and
aerodynamic development and a good facility.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 109


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 110


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The project, which goes by the internal code name 664, is the first design to come from the
reorganisation concerning working methods that has been in operation for several months, with
the creation of two distinct groups of designers: one working on this car and the other on the
completely different car which will race next season. This car constitutes the Scuderias
interpretation of this years Technical and Sporting Regulations, which in fact are substantially
the same as those from last season. Therefore the F138 can be seen as an evolution of the
F2012, in terms of its basic design principals, although every single part has been revised in

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 111


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

order to maximise performance, while maintaining all the characteristics which were the basis
of last seasons extraordinary reliability.

The design philosophy of the suspension layout has not changed and it continues to use pull-
rods both front and rear, but it has been refined to the limit, in order to gain as much
aerodynamic advantage as possible, especially at the rear. The bodywork elements have been
redesigned to allow for changes to the positioning and layout of the exhausts. The dynamic air
intake, mounted above the cockpit has been redesigned, as have been the intakes to the side
pods, which in turn have also been optimised in aerodynamic terms, while maintaining
unchanged the overall cooling system.

The rear of the car is much narrower and more tapered on the lower part. The configuration of
the front and rear wings derives directly from the last versions used on the F2012, partly
because development of that car ran all the way to the final race of last season. However, the
aerodynamic elements shown on the car are only those from the initial phase of development:
significant modifications will be introduced in the weeks leading up to the first race and a busy
development programme is already planned. The drag reduction system on the rear wing has
been revised and optimised to make the most of the modifications to the Sporting Regulations
that come into play this year. There are detailed changes to the design of the brake ducts, both
front and rear and work has been carried out with Brembo on optimising the braking system
overall. During both the design and production stages, great attention has been paid to weight
reduction and on increasing rigidity. This theme was carried out through all departments
working together Chassis, Engine and Electronics and Production which bears witness to the
importance of being able to design and build a car with everyone working side by side in the
same place, which has always been the case at Ferrari.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 112


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The engine on the F138 is an evolution of the one fitted to the car last year, inevitably given that
the technical regulations forbid modifications to internal components aimed at improving
performance. Given the consequent difficulty of finding performance increases through internal
modifications, work was intensified on ensuring that the engines performance level remained
as high as possible throughout the lifecycle of each power unit, which has now reached an
average life of three races.

The kinetic energy recovery system retains its location in the lower-central part of the car, a
strategic choice which has always been adopted by the team, partly with the aim of ensuring
maximum safety. Once again this year, a great deal of effort has gone into reducing its weight
and size, at the same time improving the efficiency of some of its components and, as in the
case of the engine, maintaining the highest performance level throughout the KERS usage cycle.
The technical collaboration with Shell, which has run for several decades now, has led to further
progress on the fuel and lubricants front, aimed at increasing performance in overall terms and
also on maintaining it throughout the engines life, as well as reducing consumption.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 113


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

As for the electronics, it is worth noting the introduction, ahead of schedule, of the single
control unit that will be used in 2014. This has involved a lot of work to integrate and control all
its features in terms of both software and hardware.

In keeping with a Ferrari tradition, much time has been dedicated to the performance and
improvement of the materials used, at the design stage of each of the six thousand or so
components which make up the car, in order to make all the on-track work more effective and
efficient. Obviously, quality control remains a vital aspect, with the aim of achieving the highest
levels of performance and reliability, at the same time as maintaining the highest safety
standards possible.

With only twelve days of testing available before the start of the Championship, the preparatory
work on the test benches prior to the cars track debut, has taken on even more importance.
The three test sessions at Jerez de la Frontera and Barcelona will allow the team to get to
understand the behaviour of the F138 and to adapt it to the new Pirelli tyres: in fact, tyre use is
an area that has seen a lot of work both at the design stage and in its management at the track.
Also very important and something that will not only be restricted to the winter months, has
been the effort invested in areas that could influence the result of a Grand Prix, such as the
teams pit stop work, reduction of time spent going through the pit lane, strategy management
and the start procedure.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 114


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Whilst the F138 may at first glance be very similar to the F2012 there are some interesting detail
differences. Starting at the rear there are some nice details around the rear suspension. The pull
rod layout is retained as expected and the exhaust solution is straight from the F2012, but note
the neat little panel on top of the brake duct (below)

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 115


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The purpose of the gills in the plate above the brake duct is not clear, also of note in the above
image is the inboard pickup point of the rear upper wishbone arm, is suggests that the
transmission is quite low (though not as low as recent Willliams rear ends) with the pick up
points on a vertical spar running from the top of the transmission casing. Finally just visible is
the shrouded driveshaft.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 116


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The roll hoop treatment on the F138 is straight from the F2012, with three cooling ducts the
uppermost sits slightly behind the main duct and cools the gearbox, the main duct feeds the
plenum and the smaller duct behind the tiny roll hoop support is likely to cool something in the
energy recovery system. Compare the F138 design (above) with that of the F2012 (below). They
are incredibly similar but there are differences, the roll over structure support has a slight
rearward rake on the F138 but is still incredibly small.

The exhaust exit comes directly from the F2012, additional cooling slots in the bodywork are
just visible in the image below all be it they are blanked off. The engine cover drops off sharply
at the rear below the shark fin.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 117


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Under the F of the FIAT logo there is a bulge, this is almost certainly caused by the rear of the
engine. Its shape hints that the engine may be canted forward slightly but it is impossible to tell
without looking under the covers!

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 118


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The cooling gills alongside the transmission seen on the F2012 have carried over to the rear of
the F138. The blanked off additional cooling vent is also clear to see. Compare the F138 layout
above with the F2012 below.

The rear wing on the F138 is very interesting indeed especially the endplates, the trailing edge
of which are slatted, something not seen previously in F1. Its likely that rival teams will already
be investigating the influence of the slats.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 119


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The interest is not all at the rear of the car however, at the front it is obvious that Ferrari have
opted for the vanity panel. The blunt nose is a carry over from the F2012 but the wing support
shape is also a symptom of the regulations which restrict cross sections in some areas.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 120


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The front wing in the image above carries over from the F2012, a new item is likely to appear at
Jerez.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 121


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Looking back at the rear suspension, the view from above is quite interesting, the F-bulge is
evident as is the dumbbell shape of the rear wishbone arms. Note the lack of central air exit.
Ahead of the rear wheels note the vents in the floor, these caused a legality debate last year
when Red Bull fitted a similar solution to the RB8 which was not linked to the outer edge of the
floor which is not legal. The Ferrari solution links the vents to the outer edge with a tiny slit
meaning that they are not holes at all.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 122


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The front pull rod suspension has been revised but is still very similar to the F2012.

The car we will race in Melbourne will be quite different to the one seen at the launch and the
first test, explains Resta. In the past few weeks we have improved and indeed in those ahead
of us now, we can improve further, the performance of the car, which guarantees that the F138
in Melbourne will be significantly different to the F138 at Test 1and hopefully quicker. I am
reasonably happy with the car so far as there was a significant performance gap to be closed,
something which we cannot deny, but I think we have done a good job in all areas, trying to
cover all the weak points of its predecessor.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 123


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 124


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

F2012 F138

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 125


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.2.2 Ferrari F138 Nose Slot


(by Craig Scarborough - http://scarbsf1.wordpress.com)

In the latter part of testing at Jerez


the Ferrari F138 appeared with a slot
under the nose cone. In adopting a
nose slot, Ferrari have followed
other teams recent developments in
this area. Contrary to much
rumouring the slot is a relatively
simple aerodynamic solution to
improve the air flow under the
raised section of chassis.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 126


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Nose box aero issues

The nose and the raised section of chassis it attaches to creates several issues for the
aerodynamicists. Firstly the nose box forms a blockage in between the front wheels and reduces
the flow that can pass in the gap between the wheels. Secondly the very high nose\bulkhead
designs that are almost universal this year create a high pressure region under the nose\chassis
that is effectively creating lift, thus working against the downforce.

Boundary layer (yellow) builds up as flow passes under the nose

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 127


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Lastly the nose and chassis present some of the longest flattest sections of bodywork on the car
(floor excepted) and thus a boundary layer builds up along these surfaces and can create issues
with separating flow. A boundary layer is the airflow that is effectively stuck to the car; whereas
the main flow is passing over the car. As the bodywork surface continues more airflow sticks
and the boundary gets thicker. As the boundary later is not moving (relative to the car) it is
providing no aerodynamic benefit and simply causes flow separation and aero issues
downstream. It appears the nose slot is a solution to resolve these issues, which one of these
creates the greater problem for the cars performance, is debatable, but a small aero gain can be
had by easing this issues.

Nose slots

The RB7s slot\duct is formed by the layers of bodywork under the chassis

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 128


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

As long as two seasons ago, Red Bull also exploited a slot under their nose, its design was more
discrete and even when the letter box slot at the top of their nose last year was introduced, the
under nose slot largely went unnoticed. Thus the RB7 had a slot created at the intersection
between the chassis and nose box. Rather than a slot being formed in the nose box shape, the
slot was formed by a layer of bodywork being added below the chassis. The small duct formed
by this panel lead back to the front axle line, where it entered a small recess moulded inside the
monocoque. This recess was about the size of large paperback book and sported exit vents into
the footwell area of the monocoque. I suspect this area housed the FIA timing transponder, but
probably not much else, due to its small size. The cooling effect was probably of some benefit,
although other teams do not see the need for specifically cooling the transponder.

The under nose slot reduces boundary and pressure, by venting into the cockpit

In fact the benefit of the slot was the effect on the cars external airflow. As air passes under the
nose, pressure and a boundary layer would start to build up. The airflow would then be split by
the slot\duct airflow adjacent to the noses surface, air would enter the duct, skimming off the
boundary layer in the, process. As the duct is also divergent it would reduce the air pressure
under the nose at its entry, by the high pressure region venting into the slot. The off body
airflow, that is the moving stream of air a few millimetres away from the bodywork and thus
clear of the boundary layer, would pass over the slot and the reattach to the under surface of
the raised chassis. This flow is moving faster and is at a lower pressure than the flow closely
attached to the nose cone. Thus this flow will have more energy to work on aero devices
downstream. By splitting the boundary layer and off-body flows at the slot, the preceding nose
cone can be shallower, thus reducing the blockage it creates between the front wheels. This
simple slot effectively negates the three negative aero effects presented by the nose box.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 129


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

F138 Solution

Ferrari solution is very similar to Red Bulls slot, but the slot is formed in the nose box itself.
Legally the slot might be far forward enough to be considered the driver cooling slot, if so it will
be restricted in inlet size. Or if the slot is behind the FIA defined A-A bulkhead line, then it will
not be considered part of the nose box and has total freedom on inlet size.

The slot is mated to a corresponding opening in the monocoque, this appears to feed into the
footwell area, I doubt that its purpose is to be ducted for aero effect elsewhere on the car (i.e.
DRS) or cool anything that isnt already inside the cockpit (i.e. KERS). The air most likely cools
the driver from the ambient heat and the heat created by the power steering rack and
electronics boxes.

This is a simple and effective solution, as the front bulkhead on the monocoque needs the slot
made into it; its not something that can be easily copied in 2013.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 130


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.2.3 Ferrari F138 Specifications


Chassis
Carbon-fibre and honeycomb composite structure
Ferrari longitudinal gearbox
Limited-slip differential
Semiautomatic sequential electronically
Controlled gearbox quick shift
Number of gears 7 +Reverse
Brembo ventilated carbon-fibre disc brakes
Independent suspension, pull-rod activated torsion springs front and rear
Weight with water, lubricant and driver 642 kg
OZ Wheels (front and rear) 13

Engine
Type 056
Number of cylinders 8
Cylinder block in sand cast aluminium V 90
Number of valves 32
Pneumatic distribution
Total displacement 2398 cm3
Piston bore 98 mm
Weight > 95 kg
Electronic injection and ignition
Fuel Shell V-Power
Lubricant Shell Helix Ultra

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 131


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.3 MCLAREN MP4-28


4.3.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Featuring some 16,000 components the 2013 McLaren MP4-28 is a fairly major departure from
the 2012 car, as the team hopes to take a major step forward. We have pushed all the areas
you can with a car that will have no carry over into next year, when everything will go into the
bin reveals McLarens Sam Michael.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 132


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 133


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 134


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 135


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 136


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 137


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 138


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 139


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 140


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The new car is expected to be a regular podium finisher and driver Jenson Button thinks he has
a very real chance of his second World Championship.

It is immediately apparent from the front suspension which features pull rod actuated dampers,
following the lead set by the Ferrari F2012. This layout whilst it presents some structural
challenges provides an aerodynamic advantage. The aerodynamic gain is enough to outweigh
the kinematic and structural issues a pull rod layout creates. Having the pull rod, dampers and
torsion bars all mounted lower in the chassis helps bring the centre of gravity down Michael
explains.

At the rear the exhaust layout is essentially a carry over from the MP4-27 but McLaren is known
to only put vague exhaust solutions on display at the car launch. It is likely that this design will

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 141


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

change by the time the car arrives at Jerez, note the wide area of thermal barrier coating. (the
darker section of the bodywork). The Diffuser on the launch car featured no strakes and is
clearly a component only used at the car launch, the proper version will not appear until the car
arrives at Jerez.

The front upper crash structures sit slightly forward of the sidepod ducts, in the same way
recent cars from Enstone (Lotus & Renault R31) have.

The splitter at the front of the car is a carry over from the 2012 design it will likely change in
testing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 142


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

At the rear the floor on the car is a very simplified design, expect a far more intricate solution
when the car runs in Jerez. A major car update will be implemented for the Barcelona test and a
second update at the Australian Grand Prix.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 143


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The brake duct shows some interesting scope for adjustment (note the slotted inserts) a more
complex design will likely appear in Barcelona. This area of the car is crucial on all current F1
cars and developments are frequent.

In 2012 the MP4-27 had a clever method of managing brake heat which helped the team get the
best out of the tyres. This device though has been dropped for 2013 however we dont have
that concept of design on this car but we achieve the same in a different way, using the learning
we got from that research Michael explains. We have no images of the brakes yet!

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 144


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The upper rear wishbone design is fascinating, note the change in section of the forward
element, and the forward sweep of the rear. The pull rod is also clear to see in the above image.
McLaren has done a lot of work on the rear suspension and transmission in an attempt to free
up volumes around the rear wing, and especially the lower beam wing. The problems the team
had with the gearbox in 2012 have been put down to errors in procedure. Whilst the term is
vague and the teams engineers would not be drawn on that it seems that perhaps the
inspection or manufacturing process was flawed or not adhered to. The team says it has solved
the issue.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 145


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The roll hoop on the MP4-28 is cut from a solid billet of aluminium and was targeted to be 5%
lighter than the one used on the 2012 car, McLarens engineers thought that the 2012 design
was marginal when it came to passing the pre season crash tests but it passed easily MP4-28
version had even more material removed reducing weight at the highest point of the car.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 146


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

This reduction in weight at the top of the car which carried through to other areas has allowed
McLaren to raise the height of the chassis to the maximum allowed. Recall that the 2012 car had
a much lower chassis than any other on the grid (though Marussia also had a low chassis). The
hump on the nose is not evident due to the fitment of a non structural vanity panel. Sam
Michael explains that it is a bit of a non issue for us, having a hump on the nose is not ideal in
aerodynamic terms but the gains and losses are tiny.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 147


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.3.2 McLaren MP4-28 Specifications


Chassis
Monocoque: McLaren-moulded carbonfibre composite incorporating front and side impact
structures
Front suspension: Inboard torsion bar/damper system operated by pullrod and bell crank with a
double wishbone arrangement
Rear suspension: Inboard torsion bar/damper system operated by pullrod and bell crank with a
double wishbone arrangement
Electronics: McLaren Electronic Systems. Including chassis control, engine control, data
acquisition, dashboard, alternator, sensors, data analysis and telemetry.
Bodywork: Carbon-fibre composite. Including engine cover, sidepods, floor, nose, front wing
and rear wing. Driver-operated drag reduction system
Lubricants and fluids: Mobilith SHC 1500 Grease lubricates the four tripod joints on the
drive-shafts resisting the high temperatures generated by the exhaust and braking systems;
Mobilith SHC 220 Grease minimises rolling resistance in the cars ceramic wheel bearings to
help maximise speed; Mobil SHC Hydraulic Oil running at over 200 bar and 100 C this fluid is
an essential part of the hydraulic system which controls gear shift, the throttles and operation
of DRS and steering systems
Tyres: Pirelli P Zero
Radio: Kenwood
Race wheels: Enkei
Brake callipers: Akebono
Master cylinders: Akebono
Batteries: GS Yuasa Corporation
Steering: McLaren power-assisted
Instruments: McLaren Electronic Systems
Paint solutions: AkzoNobel Car Refinishes using Sikkens products

Transmission
Gearbox: McLaren-moulded carbon-fibre composite. Integral rear impact structure
Gears: Seven forward and one reverse
Gear selection: McLaren seamless shift, hand-operated
Clutch: Carbon/carbon, hand-operated
Lubricants: Mobil 1 SHC Gear Oil

Engine
Designation: Mercedes-Benz FO 108F
Configuration: 2.4l 90 V8, naturally aspirated
Maximum rpm: 18,000
Piston bore maximum: 98mm
Number of valves: 32

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 148


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Fuel: ExxonMobil High Performance Unleaded (5.75% bio fuel)


Spark plugs: NGK racing spark plugs specially designed for Formula 1
Lubricants: Mobil 1 - combining greater performance, protection and cooling with increased
economy and lower emissions
Weight: 95kg (minimum FIA regulation weight)
KERS: Supplied by Mercedes-Benz with engine-mounted electrical motor/generator. Integrated
energy storage cells and power electronics

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 149


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.4 MERCEDES W04


4.4.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The Mercedes W04 rolled out at Jerez ahead of pre-season testing for a private filming session.
Much to the surprise of many the car ran in front of the media before its formal launch.

Once the car had been properly launched it gave an opportunity to get a closer look at what
appears to be very much an evolution of the W03.

At the front the car employs the vanity panel found on most of the current generation of F1
cars, though a slight hump is still evident. Note the strake along the side of the nose, also
evident on the Force India.
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 150
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Mercedes has chosen to continue with pushrod actuated front dampers, whilst McLaren and
Ferrari have both gone the pull rod route.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 151


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

A nice look at the front brake ducts, expect a lot of development in this area, the air
temperature at Jerez is relatively low so cooling is not a critical factor.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 152


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The W03 sports an interesting set of turning vanes around the sidepod, with three Ferrari style
winglets under the wing mirror stalk, two turning vanes on its upper edge and the now
commonplace sidepod turning vane on the side.

The sidepod itself has a slight upwards flick at the outer edge.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 153


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The exhaust is typical of the designs fitted to cars in 2013, it does however feature some cooling
gills just inboard of the exits.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 154


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

At the rear end pull rod suspension is retained whilst the sculpting under the exhaust exit is of
interest.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 155


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.4.2 Mercedes W04 Specifications


Chassis: Construction Moulded carbon fibre and honeycomb composite
Suspension: Wishbone and pushrod (front) / pullrod (rear)
Dampers: Penske
Wheels: Advanti forged magnesium
Tyres: Pirelli
Brakes: Brembo calipers
Brake discs/pads: Carbon/Carbon
Steering: Power assisted rack and pinion
Steering wheel: Carbon-fibre construction
Electronics: FIA standard ECU and FIA homologated electronic and electrical system

Transmission
Gearbox: Seven-speed unit with carbon fibre maincase
Gear selection: Sequential, semi-automatic, hydraulic activation
Clutch: Carbon plate

Dimensions
Overall length: 5094mm
Overall height: 950mm
Overall width: 1800mm

Engine
Designation: Mercedes-Benz FO 108F
Configuration: 2.4l 90 V8, naturally aspirated
Maximum rpm: 18,000
Piston bore maximum: 98mm
Number of valves: 32
Fuel: ExxonMobil High Performance Unleaded (5.75% bio fuel)
Spark plugs: NGK racing spark plugs specially designed for Formula 1
Lubricants: Mobil 1 - combining greater performance, protection and cooling with increased
economy and lower emissions
Weight: 95kg (minimum FIA regulation weight)
KERS: Engine-mounted electrical motor/generator. Integrated energy storage cells and power
electronics

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 156


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.5 LOTUS E21


4.5.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Lotus was the first team to show off its 2013 design albeit in digital form via a launch on
Youtube. At the launch technical director James Allison said The E20 proved itself to be an
effective racing car particularly towards the end of last season so there is an element of
expectation from the E21 and plenty to build upon. We have continued with our design themes
and tried to create a more efficient and faster racing car based on all the lessons we learnt last
year. How successful we have been in this task will only be discovered when we take to the
track at the winter tests and more significantly at Grands Prix.

Allison continues after being interrupted by a gallery; depending on where you look, some
parts of the new car are a ground-up redesign and in other areas we have further optimised the
best bits of the design philosophy weve adopted for several seasons. The front and rear
suspension layouts are substantially revised to try and give us better aerodynamic
opportunities. The front wing is a continuation of the concepts we have worked on since the
2009 rules were published. For the rear wing system, weve continued to try to work on having
a satisfactory level of rear downforce stability whilst having maximum DRS switching potential.
There are a number of areas of the car which show off the current design trends in F1, it retains
a humped nose despite a rule change allowing teams to fit a vanity cover to smooth the hump,
it also appears to have an exhaust exit similar to that featured on last years Red Bull RB8.
It retains many features of the E20, which suggests that the launch car could actually be a E20 re
painted and slightly modified, this was the approach the team too with the launch of the E20
last year with an updated R31. Interestingly the E20 part numbers all started R32 so it is possible
that internally Lotus calls the car the R33.

Allison revealed that even the very low weight of the vanity panel was enough to stop it being
fitted to the car. Adding weight fairly high up and forwards in the design may not be ideal in
terms of weight distribution despite the fact that the cover would only weigh a few grams.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 157


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

One thing apparent on the launch car is Sauber style flow conditioners or pod wings later
utilised by Red Bull. It is thought that these little winglets have a lot to do with the airflow
around the rear of the car especially around the exhaust exit and diffuser.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 158


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The exhaust location of the car is crucial and it appears that Lotus has followed the Sauber (and
later Red Bull) lead. The exhaust gasses exit from a bulge at the rear of the sidepod and the
Coanda effect (in theory) draws it down to the edge of the floor in the inner face of the rear
tyre. If it works properly the flow then seals off the diffuser from a vortex generated by the
rotating tyre, of the vortex enters the diffuser does not work as well and rear grip is lost. In
effect this style of exhaust could be considered a cold blow diffuser.

Also apparent in the high res studio images (below) are the odd bumps on the nose that James
Allison refuses to explain. Note the lump on the right front (the left of this pic) is much larger
than that on the left front. Usually you would expect to find damper mounts in this area but
they would almost always be symmetrical.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 159


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

On the renderings of the E21 issued at the launch the car features the tell tale twin roll hoop
intakes which are used for the device or the Lotus interpretation of the Double DRS wing
stalling device (below).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 160


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Interestingly the roll hoop of the launch car did not feature these ducts suggesting that perhaps
the team is not certain about implementing the device too early. This is an area we continue
to work on and the passive nature of the switching of our device means it is not outlawed by the
latest regulations. It is not something which will be a silver bullet to transform our car, but it is
something which could add performance as part of the overall design Allison explains.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 161


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.5.2 Lotus E21 Specifications


Chassis
Moulded carbon fibre and aluminium honeycomb composite monocoque, manufactured by
Lotus F1 Team and designed for maximum strength with minimum weight. RS27-2012 V8 engine
installed as a fully-stressed member.

Front Suspension
Carbon fibre top and bottom wishbones operate an inboard rocker via a pushrod system. This is
connected to a torsion bar and damper units which are mounted inside the front of the
monocoque. Aluminium uprights and OZ machined magnesium wheels.

Rear Suspension
Carbon fibre top and bottom wishbones with pull rod operated torsion springs and transverse-
mounted damper units mounted in the top of the gearbox casing. Aluminium uprights and OZ
machined magnesium wheels.

Transmission
Seven-speed semi-automatic titanium gearbox with reverse gear. Quickshift system in
operation to maximise speed of gearshifts.

Fuel System
Kevlar-reinforced rubber fuel cell by ATL.

Cooling System
Separate oil and water radiators located in the cars sidepods and cooled using airflow from the
cars forward motion.

Electrical
MES-Microsoft Standard Electronic Control Unit.

Braking System
Carbon discs and pads. Calipers by AP Racing. Master cylinders by AP racing and Brembo.

Cockpit
Removable drivers seat made of anatomically formed carbon composite, with six-point or
eight-point harness seat belt. Steering wheel integrates gear change, clutch paddles, and rear
wing adjuster.

KERS

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 162


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Motor generator unit driving into front of engine with batteries as an energy store. Motor
Generator supplied by Renault Sport F1. Electronic control unit by Magneti-Marelli.

DIMENSIONS
Front Track: 1450 mm
Rear Track: 1400 mm
Overall Length: 5088 mm
Overall Height: 950 mm
Overall Width: 1800 mm
Overall Weight: 642kg, with driver, cameras and ballast

ENGINE
Designation: RS27 2013
Configuration: 2.4L V8
No. of Cylinders: 8
No. of Valves: 32
Displacement: 2400cc
Weight: 95kg
V Angle: 90
RPM: 18,000
Fuel: Total
Oil: Total
Power Output: >750 bhp
Spark Plugs: Semi surface discharge
Ignition System: High energy inductive
Pistons: Aluminium alloy
Engine Block: Aluminium alloy
Crankshaft: Nitrided alloy steel with tungsten alloy counterweights
Connecting Rods: Titanium alloy
Throttle System: 8 butterflies

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 163


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.6 WILLIAMS FW35


4.6.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The Williams F1 Team launched its 2013 race car the FW35, at the Circuit de Catalunya in Spain
on 19th February 2013. The latest Williams is a culmination of more than 12 months research
and development by the teams technical departments in Grove and features improvements in
several key areas over last years race-winning FW34.

Given the rule stability over the winter, says Williams Technical Director Mike Coughlan, Im
pleased with the gains that weve been able to make with this car. Its a better, more refined
Formula One car than the FW34 and I think everyone involved in the project can feel proud of
the work theyve done.

Despite being an evolution of 2012s car, more than 80 per cent of the FW35 is new. It has a
new gearbox, new rear suspension, new radiators, a new floor, new exhausts, new bodywork, a
new nose and a significant amount of weight has been saved as well.

With many new parts on the car, the team has carried out a lot of reliability work over the
winter. The gearbox alone has already completed 3200kms on the dyno, a lot of which was
conducted in the form of five straight Grand Prix weekends.

The unveiling of the FW35, however, with its drivers Pastor Maldonado and Valtteri Bottas is
only the beginning. From here the car will continue to be developed throughout the year,
beginning with an aerodynamic upgrade in time for the first race. By seasons end it is expected

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 164


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

that the FW35 will have made strong performance improvements and Coughlan is in no doubt
over the main area of gain.

The Coanda effect is going to be a big thing for us, Coughlan says. Theres been no rule
clarification concerning this area of the car, so well work closely with Renault to maximise the
available gains. Use of the DRS is more restricted this year, so well take some resource away
from that and focus on other areas.

The Williams FW35 is heavily based on the FW34, so much so that it retains a very similar
chassis. The similarity between the two cars roll hoops (FW35 above and FW34) below is easy to
see.

Note the cooling gills on the FW35 below the Randstad logo.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 165


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The nose of the FW35 features a vanity panel as but the nose shape is very interesting especially
the wing support pylons. It appears that this follows the concept employed on the Ferrari F138

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 166


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

At the rear of the car the FW35 retains pull rod suspension and its very low transmission. A key
part of the Williams concept. Note the brake duct design and slits in the rear wing endplates

The flow of the exhaust gasses is key to the aerodynamic concept at the rear end of the car. The
image below shows clearly the path to the rear of the car. Note the monkey seat winglet.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 167


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

FW35 Exhaust Concept

The exhaust exits on the Williams FW35 look likely to stir up controversy before the F1 season
has even started.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 168


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

At the cars launch in Barcelona the exhaust channel was fitted with a plate that some feel could
fall foul of article 5.8.4 of the 2013 Technical regulations which state that.

Once the exhaust tailpipes, the bodywork required by Article 3.8.4 and any apertures
permitted by Article 3.8.5 have been fully defined there must be no bodywork lying within a
right circular truncated cone which :
a) Shares a common axis with that of the last 100mm of the tailpipe.
b) Has a forward diameter equal to that of each exhaust exit.
c) Starts at the exit of the tailpipe and extends rearwards as far as the rear wheel centre line.
d) Has a half-cone angle of 3 such that the cone has its larger diameter at the rear wheel
centre line.
Furthermore, there must be a view from above, the side, or any intermediate angle
perpendicular to the car centre line, from which the truncated cone is not obscured by any
bodywork lying more than 50mm forward of the rear wheel centre line.

There was also a technical directive issued by the FIA in 2012 which both designs could fall foul
of. I think the wording of the Technical Directive says something along the lines that any
designs that re-ingest or redirect exhaust flow for principally aerodynamic reasons will not be
permitted, said James Allison in 2012.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 169


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The Williams solution is very clever however, whilst the Caterham turning vane is a solid piece
running across the exhaust channel, the FW35 plate has a tiny gap in the centre clearly visible
above. This interpretation of the rules may mean that the design could comply with both the
regulations and the technical directive whilst still serving the same purpose as the questionable
Caterham design.

No formal protest can be lodged yet as in testing the full regulations do not apply.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 170


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.7 SAUBER C32


4.7.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The F1 technical regulations have barely changed going into the 2013 season and yet the new
Sauber C32-Ferrari is a very different proposition visually from its predecessor thanks to a
smooth, slightly downward-sloping nose section and, principally, much slimmer sidepods.

The C31 was an extremely competitive car with many strengths, explained Matt Morris, the
Sauber F1 Teams Chief Designer. Our aim was to further improve these strengths and eliminate
its few weaknesses.

Over the course of last season we invested a lot of time and energy in developing a better
understanding of our car. To this end, we focused primarily on the aerodynamic effects around
the rear of the car. Our aero experts have done some great work in this respect, the basis of
which has been used to develop the C32.

Radical changes have also been conspicuous by their absence when it comes to tyres. We had
the opportunity to test with the new generation of tyres at the last race of the 2012 season at
Interlagos, said Morris. Although there are some differences in the construction of the tyres,
as a whole the changes are minimal, which means there was no need for a fundamental
redevelopment in this area.
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 171
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

A year ago almost all the cars on the grid had one particular feature in common: a stepped nose.
This design element caused an outcry among many fans, but was rendered nigh-on unavoidable
by the regulations. For 2013, the FIA has now allowed a cosmetic fairing to be used in this area,
while retaining the current chassis and structural nose height regulations.

The nose now sweeps down smoothly towards the track, which not only improves the cars
looks, but, more significantly, enhances the aerodynamics of the front end.

With the front wing, the aerodynamicists have put their faith in a proven formula, further
optimising last years development and thus improving its aerodynamic efficiency.

The engineers also remained true to the basic concept of the front suspension, carrying out only
minor adjustments.

The sidepods of the C32 are notably slimmer than the Formula One norm up to now and are
responsible for giving the new car a very distinctive look. The airflow in this area has a major
influence over everything that happens at the rear of the car, said Morris, offering a glimpse
into the teams thinking.

The significantly reduced volume of the sidepods over conventional variants makes packaging a
particular challenge. Even the smallest empty space has been used to accommodate the
countless components.

An extremely slim rear end was high up the engineers list of priorities. One of the key aspects
here is the arrangement of the radiators, which is very different from that in the C31. A look at
the rear end of the new car reveals the engineers rigorous approach to this area.

Morris said: It is one thing the aerodynamicists coming up with great ideas, but they are often
difficult to make into reality. In this respect, the design and production team has done a
fantastic job on the side pods, both from a structural and packaging perspective.

The aerodynamicists have also invested a lot of time developing the details around the exhaust
exits an area which has a major impact on performance and in which the Sauber F1 Team was
one of the leading exponents last season.

As before, the cars KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System), engine and gearbox are supplied by
Ferrari. The KERS is based on last years version, but its weight and packaging volume have been
optimised.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 172


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The rear axle is a totally new development. Although it still works according to the pullrod
principle, its layout has been designed to better interact with the airflow around the rear of the
car, while further improving the tyre management.

There is also potential for improvement in how the tyres are used in qualifying, as Morris
explained: Our car looked after its tyres very well during races last year. However, we had
problems now and again when it came to getting the maximum out of them in qualifying. Weve
looked at this phenomenon closely and made the required adjustments.

Double DRS systems are banned in this years technical regulations and the sporting regulations
now stipulate that, during qualifying, DRS can only be activated in those areas of the circuit
where it is permitted during the race. The demands placed on the aerodynamic efficiency and
rear wing design, are therefore slightly different now. We expect this to be an area where we
see various developments introduced over the course of the season, said Morris.

Another high priority was reducing the cars overall component weight, to allow a better
distribution of the ballast, while retaining its structural requirements and mechanical setup
flexibility. My colleagues have done an excellent job here, and we have even exceeded our
original targets, praised Morris.

Like last year, the Sauber F1 Team will use a basic version of the car for its rollout event and
introduce a major update before the first race of the season.

We have set ourselves lofty goals with the Sauber C32-Ferrari, and Im confident that well be
able to meet them. The C31 gave us a very good basis, to which weve made further
improvements. Our aim is to line up for 2013 with a car that is competitive from the first race,
but which also offers extensive potential for further development, summed up Morris.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 173


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The revised rear suspension still features the Ferrari transmission and pull rod suspension
(above). The exhaust exit is conventional for a 2013 car but the panel around the exit suggests
that there will be rapid developments in this area still.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 174


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The nose of the C32 is very interesting, Sauber has not fully adopted the vanity panel leaving
the hump in the nose visible from certain angles but not in profile. The hump is shielded by two
ridges running along the nose (below).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 175


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Behind the up there is a duct facing towards the cockpit, similar to the one found on the C31.
The bodywork ahead of the cockpit drops down with the side of the chassis ensuring legality.

On the small sidepods Sauber has dropped its full size pod wings in favour of a solution quite
similar to that of the Red Bull RB8, interestingly Lotus has gone down the route Sauber took in
2012.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 176


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The roll hoop has changed, likely in an attempt to reduce weight, the C31 had a heavily Force
India inspired roll hoop with multiple supports but as is the case with the Silverstone team the
concept has been dropped in favour of having just two exposed supports.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 177


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 178


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.7.2 Sauber C32 Specifications


Chassis
Structure carbon-fibre monocoque
Front suspension upper and lower wishbones, inboard springs and dampers activated by
pushrods (Sachs Race Engineering and Penske)
Rear suspension upper and lower wishbones, inboard springs and dampers actuated by
pullrods (Sachs Race Engineering and Penske)
Brakes six-piston brake callipers (Brembo), carbon-fibre pads and discs (Brembo)
Transmission Ferrari 7-speed quick-shift carbon gearbox, longitudinally mounted,
carbon-fibre clutch
Chassis electronics MES
KERS Ferrari
Steering wheel Sauber F1 Team
Tyres Pirelli
Wheels OZ

Dimensions
length 5.240 mm
width 1.800 mm
height 1.000 mm
track width, front 1.495 mm
track width, rear 1.410 mm
Weight 642 kg (incl. driver, tank empty)

Ferrari 056 engine


Type naturally aspirated 8-cylinder, 90 cylinder angleel 90 Grad
Engine block sand-cast aluminium
Valves / valve train 32 / pneumatic
Displacement 2.398 ccm
Bore 98 mm
Weight > 95 kg
Electronic injection and ignition

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 179


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.8 FORCE INDIA VJM06


4.8.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Its a brand new car from the ground-up everything is new explains Force India Technical
Director Andrew Green of the VJM06. We discussed carrying over big chunks of last years car,
including the chassis, but decided not to. There were still some gains to be had with the chassis,
so we elected to take the performance benefits. However, the car is evolution rather than
revolution compared with last year, simply because of the nature of the regulations.

There are quite a few large changes under the skin. Because we focussed a lot on the tyres last
year, weve given ourselves a few more options on set-up to help manage them from qualifying
to the race. So thats something we will focus on going into winter testing well be looking at
those options and trying to understand them. Its going to be a challenge assessing these during
the cold winter tests, but those options will give the engineers more weapons in their armoury.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 180


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

One of the major areas of change is in the rear suspension, which uses different pickup points
on the McLaren gearbox casing compared to the VJM05. It remains a pull rod layout however.
The suspension has been tuned for what we learned on the tyres, so the configuration is
different to last year with changes aimed at better complementing the tyres. The rear
suspension is quite different for aerodynamic reasons the whole thing has been lifted up to
allow the airflow under the lower rear wishbones Green explains.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 181


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

At the front of the car the team has opted to use one of the vanity panels, this is a single ply
carbon fibre skin with just 3mm of honeycomb in it. It weighs just a few grams and gives a minor
aerodynamic gain. Note the interesting strake on the side of the nose. The nose itself features a
bulge on the underside seen on the VJM04 and the 2012 Lotus. It is noticeably different to the
2012 design (below)

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 182


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Another area of the car to be substantially revised is the roll over structure, for a few years
Force India had used a design with four exposed legs (below) which first appeared in 2010.
The Sauber C30 of 2011 copied the design.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 183


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The new design is quite different with the rear supports shrouded and clearly a different shape.
Green has revealed that the centre of gravity of the 2013 car is slightly lower so it is likely that
this redesign of the roll hoop is part of the efforts to lower it.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 184


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The exhaust design follows the same concept as it did in 2012 but with the addition of a so
called Helmholtz chamber which regains some of the power loss incurred by using a blown
diffuser style exhaust layout.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 185


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

This type of exhaust requires a very different approach for the drivers something that Force
India is working on in the simulator. If it signs a driver without experience of driving with one of
these layouts which lose a lot of rear downforce when the driver is off the throttle he will
almost certainly struggle initially.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 186


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Both the front and rear suspension have been redesigned to allow the car to work better with
the tyres, the rear wishbones have been raised and the fronts have also been relocated though
the car retains the same wheelbase.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 187


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

A new development for Force India is interlinked suspension, popular with front running teams
it stabilises the car in aerodynamic terms. The front and rear dampers are hydraulically linked
but the system is not as sophisticated as the one used by Mercedes. It will not be installed on
the car initially but the car has been designed for it and once the team is happy with its
performance then it will be fitted.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 188


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The diffuser on the launch car is largely a carry over from the 2012 model but the monkey seat
winglet is far more elaborate.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 189


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

TEST 00: Silverstone (Shakedown)

The cold and wet conditions meant that the VJM06 did not get much running done with less
than a handful of laps. But it did give us the chance to have a look at the cars front brake set up.
Note the drilling patterns in the disc and pads, teams change these throughout the year
depending on the circuit, conditions and driver preference.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 190


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.8.2 Sauber C32 Specifications


Chassis: Carbon fibre composite monocoque with Zylon legality side anti-intrusion panels.
Front suspension: Aluminium uprights with carbon fibre composite wishbones, trackrod and
pushrod. Inboard chassis mounted torsion springs, dampers and anti-roll bar assembly.
Rear suspension: Aluminium uprights with carbon fibre composite wishbones, trackrod and
pullrod. Inboard gearbox mounted torsion springs, dampers and anti-roll bar assembly.
Wheels: BBS forged wheels to team specification
Tyres: Pirelli
Brake system: AP Racing
Brake material: Brembo
Dampers: Penske
Transmission: McLaren Racing 7-speed, semi-automatic, e-shift
Clutch: AP Racing carbon clutch

Dimensions
Front track: 1480mm
Rear track: 1440mm
Overall height: 950mm
Overall length: 5100mm
Overall weight: 642kg (with driver, by regulations)

Engine
Designation: Mercedes-Benz FO 108F
Configuration: 2.4l 90 V8, naturally aspirated
Maximum rpm: 18,000
Piston bore maximum: 98mm
Number of valves: 32
Spark plugs: NGK racing spark plugs specially designed for Formula 1
Lubricants: Mobil 1 products
Weight: 95kg (minimum FIA regulation weight)
KERS: Supplied by Mercedes-Benz with engine-mounted electrical motor/generator. Integrated
energy storage cells and power electronics

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 191


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.9 TORO ROSSO STR8


4.9.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Whilst James Key is the technical director at Toro Rosso the Chief Designer is Luca Furbatto, at
the launch of the STR7 he reviewed the cars design.

In pre-season testing last year, we were able to get a first look at the strengths and limitations
of the STR7. It was clear from the start that we had some issues with the weight distribution of
the car and we were not able to effectively cover the entire weight distribution range, as
controlled by the FIA regulations. This therefore became a point we wanted to rectify with STR8.
Another fact to emerge from initial testing, was that the car appeared to be more compliant in
terms of laptime sensitive compliances, when compared to other cars I have worked on and that
was another point we wanted to rectify with this years car. A further key point was that I
wanted to create a platform for aerodynamic development of the car. The rear end of the STR7
was effectively derived from the previous model, the STR6 and I felt the rear could be made
much slimmer and more compact and that was another area we focussed on in designing STR8.
We sought to give a mechanical infrastructure to the aerodynamic department which would be
a good platform for their development work.

The project began in March 2012 and we started with the rear end of the car- gearbox,
hydraulics and rear suspension because the production time and the testing required for these
components is very extensive. We were able to issue the drawings for the gearbox parts in July
and, as we prepare for our first track test, our dyno testing suggests we have a strong and
reliable gearbox. The second phase was to integrate within the gearbox design a revised rear
suspension, with the emphasis on making it more aerodynamic, in order to generate more
downforce. When designing the chassis, again, providing a platform for aerodynamic
development was an important consideration.

In terms of suspension layout, kinematics and internals those are again brand new. The STR7
was very limited in terms of set-up possibilities and with STR8 we opened up this aspect

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 192


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

substantially, adding devices and features not present on previous STR cars. This should allow
race engineers and drivers to perfect the handling and ride behaviour of the new car.
As for the aerodynamic concept of the car, this too has changed fundamentally from the
previous year. Development was rather limited in 2012 and this was because the STR7s
distinctive sidepod design, although initially looking quite good, later proved difficult to develop,
so that we reached a plateau during the season. We therefore decided in early August to go
down another route and at the same time took the opportunity to change the cooling layout of
the car and so, on STR8 the radiators are much lower. This also allows us to drop the deck of the
sidepods more aggressively. These changes mean the car actually looks quite conventional,
while still retaining some of the features of STR7, because even if it is a new concept, it is an
evolution based on the current regulations. We are also planning an aggressive development
programme for the first part of the season, based around a very narrow rear end and low
exhausts.

From a weight distribution point of view, we believe that thanks to the architectural shape of
STR8, we should be able to explore all the opportunities within the weight distribution range
allowed in the rules. Initial indications on suspension compliance are encouraging and in terms
of aero development, we are in better shape than at the end of last season and another positive
step is that the rate of development is increasing, indicating there is further potential to move
forward in terms of downforce.

Operationally, we continue to work with a wind tunnel and part of our aerodynamic staff based
in Bicester in the UK. Over the past 12 months there has been a big improvement in
communication between the various departments and we have invested in new technologies on
this front, so even though we are operating on different sites, effectively it is as though we are
working next door to one another. This step up in communication means the new car is better
integrated than in the past. I can sum it up by saying that, twelve months ago, when work came
through from Bicester, engineers in Faenza felt on the receiving end of something that was
designed elsewhere, now it really feels like a co-design from different departments within the
same team, which is encouraging for the future, both short and long term.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 193


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

At the front of the car it is instantly apparent that the STR8 utilises the optional vanity panel, but
unlike on other cars seen so far the panel gap can be seen on the side of the car clearly showing
where it runs (above).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 194


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The roll hoop of the car is a direct carry over of the STR7 concept, most of the aerodynamic
elements of the car need much more development according to Key. What you see here is just
a car, the mechanical elements are pretty much there but there is a huge amount of change to
come on the aerodynamic side. Compare the STR7 (below) with the STR8 and you notice that
the extra cooling duct on the ST7 is absent on the 2013 car. This means that the Toro Rosso
engineers have found another way to cool key components.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 195


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

At the rear of the car the pull rod suspension is retained though in revised form, the sidepod
undercut is nowhere near as drastic as that of the 2012 car. Note the opening in the floor at the
rear of the undercut.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 196


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The front brake ducts are very interesting, they seem to draw air in low on the inner panel
below the outer flap of the front wing. Pushrod front suspension is retained.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 197


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The diffuser was covered at the launch but the serrated lower part of the endplate was still
evident note the vented section the the red coloured portion of the endplate.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 198


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The exhaust on the STR8 (below) is very conventional for a 2013 car, though the bodywork
ahead of it seems to hold more interest, worth further investigation during the test session at
Jerez.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 199


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 200


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.10 CATERHAM CT03


4.10.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The 2013 Caterham CT03 has technical features that distinguish it from its predecessor, CT01,
and it will race in an updated livery which sees the teams green and yellow paint-scheme
refreshed and lightened for the season ahead. (CT02 if you were wondering is the forthcoming
Caterham road car)

Mark Smith, Technical Director, Caterham F1 Team: CT03 is the first car we have produced in
the Leafield Technical Centre so it marks an important milestone in the development of our
team. The season ahead presented us with an interesting challenge early in the design process
as it is the last year of the current regulations before the introduction of the new engine rules in
2014. With that in mind we decided that CT03 would be an evolution of CT01 rather than a
complete re-design, allowing us to focus our resources on developing areas of last years
package where opportunities would give us the greatest return, whilst also beginning work on
the 2014 package

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 201


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

We have made a number of significant changes to the car that takes it from the package that
gained us tenth place in the 2012 Championship in Brazil into CT03. Among the most obvious
are around the lower chassis where the sidepods have been significantly undercut to improve
airflow to the rear of the car.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 202


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The diffuser, engine cover and cooling exits have also seen major changes and there are more
subtle improvements to other areas of the car, such as the sidepod turning vanes and the lower
tea-tray area. This is the package we will take to race one in Australia and as part of the 2013
upgrade program we will then bring new front and rear wings and a new diffuser soon after the
start of the season. However, the CT03 car that starts testing in Spain on day one in Jerez is not
the only visible change amongst a number of other important developments at Caterham this
winter. Back in Leafield, we are fast completing our own driver in the loop simulator, created
with the support of Dell and powered by Alienware. This is a major asset for our team that puts
us on a par with any of our competitors and constitutes another example of the long-term plans
we are activating that will help us continue to grow and develop into the team we know we can
become

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 203


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Caterham has opted against using a full vanity panel on the nose of the car, leaving the hump
evident, though rather more sculped than in 2012.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 204


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The pull rod suspension on the car is also retained at the rear, as dictated by the Red Bull
Technologies transmission used on the CT03. Note the Williams style monkey seat winglet.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 205


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

In the exhaust channel there is a very interesting vane, covered in a ceramic thermal barrier
coating. The dimple at the top of the exhaust channel is also interesting.

The Caterham sports the now common turning vanes above the sidepod duct.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 206


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

The CT03 is a very mild evolution of the CT01, and this is especially apparent around the roll
hoop of the car. This area along with the front of the sidepods is always a good place to look to
see if a car has a new tub or not as these are areas that cannot be changed without fully re-
crash testing the car. Comparing the CT03 roll hoop (above) with the CT01 (below) shows great
similarity.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 207


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

Whilst the rear leg of the hoop support is wider on the CT03 that could simply be shrouding,
practically every roll hoop in F1 is made of metal and shrouded in carbon fibre and the
Caterham is no different in that respect. However the CT03 does have a new tub according to
the teams Press Officer Tom Webb who told RCE that Its evolved from it (The CT01 tub) there
are quite a few changes but it isnt the same, hence the new identification.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 208


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

4.11 MARUSSIA MR02


4.11.1 Presentation
(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The MR02 represents a comprehensive evolution of the 2012 car, which proved to be the most
successful package in our three formative years of competition, borne out by its progressive
development during the latter half of last season. Certain elements of the new chassis have
been subject to redesign to accommodate important new developments aimed at achieving a
further performance step. In addition, the MR02 is the first complete car conceived using a
design philosophy of CFD complementing wind tunnel. Although the 2012 in-season
development was conducted in this way, the MR01 from conception to launch was all-CFD.

The heart of the car bears the most significant area of redevelopment due to the requirement
to accommodate the KERS installation, which is new to the package this season. This created a
busier-than-usual programme for the designers as they sought to integrate the system whilst, at
the same time, reducing the overall weight of the chassis, maintaining stiffness and meeting the
demands of the mandatory FIA crash tests. We are pleased to have met all those requirements,
aided by a strong partnership between the Marussia F1 Team engineering department and the
first-class support provided by Williams Advanced Engineering in respect of the adopted KERS
system enthuses a team source. We continue to enjoy similarly strong partnerships with our
drivetrain partners Cosworth and Xtrac. Cosworths experienced engineers continue to work
tirelessly to develop the reliability, power, driveability and fuel consumption of its engine within
the tight parameters of Formula 1s technical regulations. The MR02 will be powered by
Cosworths CA2013K power unit this season. Our transmission technology partner Xtrac brings
an evolution of the 2012 gearbox design, with particular attention paid to increasing the
installation stiffness of the suspension. The technical partnership with McLaren Applied
Technologies continues to provide some of the tools which allow us to design and develop an
increasingly competitive race car, in particular the use of wind tunnel and simulator. The new
Pirelli P Zero tyre shape for 2013 was a significant design factor and one which required the
Team to be very diligent in the process of our model to full scale wind tunnel validation.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 209


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

A further key area of consideration in terms of the aerodynamic development of the MR02 has
been achieving enhanced cooling efficiency and hence improving air flow over the rear of the
car. This is clearly evident in the new side pod design solution and a more aggressive Coanda-
style exhaust. However Marussia engineers we seen looking at esim traces evaluating the
benefits for and against using a blown diffuser, so the design may yet change.

The MR02 retains a number of features from the MR01 such as the front and rear suspension,
as much of the teams development work was focussed on integrating KERS We are confident
that the MR02 is the product of evolving elements of last years package whilst integrating the
new KERS system. It was said many times during 2012 that, notwithstanding the impressive
The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 210
http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
2013 F1 CARS LAUNCH & TECHNICAL ANALYSIS F1 Season 2013

steps we were taking in other areas of our development, KERS or the lack of it was the
defining factor in determining our position relative to our immediate competitors. KERS was
however a strategic omission from our package until now; we opted to place the emphasis on
aerodynamics, so that when we were in a position to bring the system to the car, we already
had the strongest possible basis and its integration would be relatively straightforward. Thus far,
this has certainly been the case, as our trackside engineering team have spent the winter
refining their tools and preparing for the addition of KERS to ensure we can hit the ground
running with effect from this week and use the short period of testing we have to get the car
optimised for Melbourne explains Team Boss John Booth.

The rear suspension is a direct carry over from the MR01, but the car now features a more
advanced exhaust layout.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 211


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5. WINTER TESTS TECHNICAL REVIEW


5.1 JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY
5.1.1 Red Bull RB9

5.1.1.1 General Comments

(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Chassis: Not disclosed

Red Bulls Engineering Co-ordinator Andy Damerum:


On the whole weve had a very good first test. I think both drivers would say theyre happy. We
put another 425km on the car on the final day, which means weve logged a total of 1,652km
this week, which is very satisfying. Next week well pour through all the data, learn from it and
then head to Barcelona for the second test.
Nobody got a close look at the RB9 at its launch in Milton Keynes, but things were different in
the opening test. With a chance to look more closely at the car.

A first look at the cars diffuser shows it has a lot in common with that of the RB8 but at the
opening test components like this are often carried over.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 212


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The almost NACA vent on the ears below the monocoque was also evident on the RB8.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 213


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Red Bull spent a fair amount of time looking at its rear end, there was flow vis paint daubed on
the diffuser and rear wing for much of the first days running at Jerez. In the picture above we
get a nice look at the serrated lower edge of the rear wing end plate. Interestingly the serrations
are linked together by what could be described as a horizontal gurney. Note the flow vis paint
on the inside of the rear wing endplate and the underside of the upper elements of the wing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 214


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

A closer look at the exhaust of the RB9. It appears that it got rather hot during running and
damaged some bodywork parts with inadequate heat shielding (the lighter coloured area above
the dark exit bodywork. Time for a trip to Zircotec one suspects (Zircotec is the market leader in
thermal barrier coatings in F1).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 215


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

From above we get a good look at the RB9s nose vent. It is identical in concept to the one used
by Sauber and Adrian Newey has openly admired the design of the Swiss teams 2012 car.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 216


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Another view of the rear wing in its ever present day glow green coating of flow vis paint, in
case you were wondering the paint (or dye) is placed on components of interest to the
aerodynamicists then the car is run on track, the streaks it leaves (rather like a dirty car in the
rain) allow them to see what the air flow is doing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 217


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

At Jerez the air temperature is quite low meaning that Red Bull had to come up with an
impromptu blanking plate for its brake ducts.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 218


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Here is a nice shot of the RB9s exhaust layout and the components downstream of it.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 219


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Red Bull conducted substantial aerodynamic evaluation at Jerez especially at the rear of the car.
The primary tool for this was the once unfashionable flow visualisation paint, seen here on the
upper elements of the rear wing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 220


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

And on the lower element of the wing, this image showing the dye and the flow on the
underside. As this picture was taken as the car left the pits at low speed the dye has not fully
flowed so the pattern on the wing is not especially insightful.

Finally runs were conducted on the diffuser itself. Note the starter hole, clearly evident in this
image.

The RB9 features tunnels under the exhaust exit as was the case with the RB8, it is clear that the
tunnels on the 9 are split in two.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 221


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The image above shows the detailing at the base of the sidepod vane, note the split level on the
outer edge, a feature that also appears on the Lotus.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 222


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.1.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 223


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 224


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 225


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 226


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 227


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 228


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 229


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 230


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 231


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 232


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 233


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 234


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 235


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 236


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.1.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 237


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 238


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 239


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 240


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 241


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.1.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 242


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 243


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 244


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 245


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 246


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 247


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 248


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 249


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 250


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.1.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 251


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 252


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.2 Ferrari F138

5.1.2.1 General Comments

(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

A nice look at the diffuser of the F138 diffuser could be had in the pit lane at Jerez, note the
gearbox oil cooler just visible in the image below.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 253


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Another angles shows off some of the vertical turning vanes above the diffuser on the floor of
the car (below)

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 254


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The F138 has gained some cooling gills under the rollhoop, in the position common to Sauber
and Lotus (below).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 255


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

(by Andreas Mouzouris - http://technicalf1explained.blogspot.ca/)

When Ferrari revealed its new car, we saw a lot of differences to its predecessor, the F2012,
although the sidepods and cooling layout are almost exactly the same. There are many
differences, front and rear wings, slightly different front pull-rod suspension and a significantly
different, slimmer rear end with a new gearbox and new suspension layout. One of the most
apparent differences though is the nose of Ferraris 2013 challenger. Ferrari is one of many
teams that opted use a modesty panel to cover the step despite the very small disadvantage of
the weight of the carbon fiber up high which would have a negative effect on the CoG (Center of
Gravity) of the car, as Red Bull, Sauber and Lotus argue. The step on the nose was created as a
result of last year's regulation changes which did not allow the nose of the cars to extend above
550mm above the horizontal reference plane (the bottom of the wooden plank under the car)
and 150mm forward from the front bulkhead. This rule was enforced to protect the driver's
head in case of a t-bone crash as the crash structure protecting the driver is also 550mm above
the reference plane. Compared to the F2012 the F138 has a slightly taller nose tip which allows
more air under it and then under the floor to channel more air to the diffuser and produce more
downforce. Below I have highlighted in yellow the area in which the nose is not allowed to enter
which also gives an idea of where the modesty panel is.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 256


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Ferrari also kept the smaller radiator above the gearbox used to cool the oil. The smaller
radiator is fed with air from a second intake behind the airbox (highlighted below):

This year though, the second intake is removable, or rather, changeable. It was rumoured that
Ferrari would be testing a DRD (Drag Reduction Device), and this supports the rumours as they
can increase the size of the intake to feed air to the DRD which acts as a fluidic switch to stall
the rear wing at high speed and improve top speed. The system was innovated by Lotus in 2012

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 257


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

and extensively tested by them as well as Mercedes. More teams tested similar devices at last
years Abu Dhabi young drivers test but has not yet been used successfully. It remains to see if
Ferrari will use such a device.

An innovation on the F138, are the vertical rear wing endplate slats. These vertical slats are
there to improve extraction of air from the rear wing to improve its efficiency. In addition, the
slats extend down and become part of the vertical strakes below under the rear wing end plate
which work to turn the airflow behind the rear tires and reduce the turbulence behind the tire.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 258


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

In the following photos you can see vortices shed behind the rear wing of the F138. Vortices are
usually visible when there is a lot of humidity or when it is damp, for example after it rains. To
see vortices shed there though is very strange as it was neither damp nor too humid. Moreover,
the vortices are shed at a very peculiar angle.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 259


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Those vortices are usually a sign of drag, but I suspect they might have something to do with the
vertical slats on the rear wing.

The front wing is largely the same as the wing Ferrari ended 2012 with. The difference is that
the upper flap is split into two more flaps about halfway from its attachment point. This is down
to help keep the airflow attached below the wing and improve flow around the tires and
towards the back of the car.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 260


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

2012 Front Wing

2013 Front Wing

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 261


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The most interesting feature of the F138 is its very slim rear end. Compared to last year the
gearbox is longer for this exact reason, to improve packaging and slim down the rear end. It is
definitely the slimmest car at the rear of all the 2013 cars we have seen (Williams FW35
remains to be revealed). This is partly because of the slimmer, longer gearbox and partly
because of the vertical configuration of the radiators which make the sidepods bulkier at the
front but tighter towards the rear. Below you can see the cars rear end colour-coded.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 262


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The vertical strakes are there to manage the airflow on top of the diffuser to help extract more
air out of it. The shroud housing part of the lower wishbone, the half-shaft and the track rod is
also visible (Half Shaft Shroud) The brake ducts sport some new features, but are simpler than
the ones used at the end of last season, so they are expected to be upgraded along with other
parts of the car in the big upgrade package Ferrari will introduce in the last pre-season test in
Barcelona.

In the following drawing, the space freed up below the gearbox is visible. This will improve the
airflow over the diffuser and out of the SMH (Starter Motor Hole) which helps in preventing the
diffuser from stalling. The floor is now so far away from the gearbox they had to use two rods,

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 263


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

one on each side (highlighted with red colour) and an inverse U shaped flow conditioner on top
of the diffuser to improve its rigidity with the rest of the car (again highlighted with red color).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 264


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.2.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 265


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 266


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 267


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 268


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 269


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 270


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 271


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 272


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 273


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 274


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 275


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 276


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 277


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.2.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 278


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.2.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 279


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 280


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 281


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 282


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 283


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 284


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.3 McLaren MP4-28

5.1.3.1 General Comments

(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Testing at Jerez gave a look at the McLarens diffuser for the first time as it was not fitted at the
launch event.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 285


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

McLaren roll hoop cooling assembly

(by Tomba from http://www.f1technical.net)

Detail pictures of the roll hoop on the McLaren MP4-28 have revealed that the team has largely
retained the cooling layout of the 27. Just as on any other current F1 car, the main, somewhat
triangular inlet feeds air to the engine required for burning fuel in the cylinders. Contrary to
popular belief though, air is not pushed into this inlet, but the engine is sucking air in, reducing
the drag penalty a normal cooling inlet would generate.

Underneath this main inlet is a smaller one, positioned more or less behind the driver's helmet
and a little backward of the airbox inlet. As the picture shows, a small cooling radiator is
positioned in the engine cover, underneath the channel that feeds air to the engine. Already
since the MP4-26 of 2011, McLaren have positioned the KERS cooler here in an attempt to free
up some space inside the sidepods. It's a change originally fuelled by the U-shaped sidepods on
the McLaren MP4-26, a car where McLaren pushed for low, small sidepods to clean up airflow

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 286


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

to the back of the car. As it gives packaging benefits, the team retained this solution, albeit that
a radiator positioned this high up in the car, no matter how small, will have a negative impact on
the car's centre of gravity.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 287


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.3.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 288


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 289


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 290


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 291


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 292


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 293


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 294


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 295


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.3.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 296


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 297


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 298


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 299


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 300


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.3.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 301


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.3.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 302


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.4 Mercedes W04

5.1.4.1 General Comments

(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Chassis: Not disclosed

Ross Brawn: After a difficult first half of the test, the last two days have really been as good as
we could have hoped for. Nico is probably best placed to compare between last years car and
the new W04 and he seems pretty enthusiastic, but it is hard to have any reliable feeling of
where we stand relative to the competition. Lewis had a very constructive day today as he
settled in to the car; he has been very straightforward in telling us what he thinks, is interested
in everything about the car and has a very good eye for detail. Overall, the step we have to
make from where we were at the end of last year is substantial and it is also, of course, a
moving target. But looking at the team as a whole, I can see very encouraging signs of progress.
As you can see from the image above the first day of testing did not go all that well for
Mercedes. An electrical problem stopped the W04 in spectacular style

Unburnt fuel in the exhausts ignited but did not cause any serious damage to the car according
to the team. The cause was found to be a fault in the wiring loom which has since been
modified. However Mercedes is thought to be using an innovative wiring solution on the W04
with the loom running through the bodywork instead of under it as normal. This has not been
confirmed yet.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 303


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The opening test gave a first look at the cars diffuser. In the image below you get an idea how
complex the aerodynamic flow structures are in this region. Mercedes made a significant
upgrade to its facilities mid way through last year, a 60% scale wind tunnel model was used to
design the W04, whilst a 50% model was used for the W03.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 304


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

A chat with Mercedes Press Officer Bradley Lord reveals a little bit more about the wiring
harness on the W04, whilst he did not know if Mercedes had changed supplier he described the
loom as such Im pretty sure it is the same as last year, we have all the wires in a carbon fibre
housing with connectors on rather than in the usual heat shrink, it is lighter that way. Otherwise
it is just a conventional loom. Lord went on to explain that it was the same as the W03 was
fitted with as far as he knew.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 305


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Despite some components being modified following the fire on the W04 the car still shows clear
signs that it is getting far too hot.

When the W04 is not fitted with its rear wing stalling device (more on that to follow) there is a
curious vertical element hanging off the centre of the rear wing. Its purpose is not clear.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 306


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

At Jerez Mercedes tested a new five element front wing

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 307


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.4.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 308


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 309


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 310


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 311


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 312


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 313


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 314


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 315


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 316


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 317


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.4.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 318


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 319


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 320


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 321


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 322


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 323


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 324


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.4.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 325


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 326


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 327


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 328


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 329


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 330


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.4.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 331


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 332


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 333


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 334


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 335


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 336


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 337


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 338


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 339


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 340


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 341


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 342


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.5 Lotus E21

5.1.5.1 General Comments

(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

With the launch of the E21 online only the first real chance to get a good look at the Lotus came
at the first test. Instantly obvious were a number of updates fitted to the car since the launch.

The roll hoop ears seen on the renderings above appeared on the car, but are either blanked off
or have a very strange shape. It its thought that these ears have something to do with the Lotus
rear wing stalling device.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 343


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The diffuser on the E21 was visible in the pit lane during the test note the vented upper section.

Much flow vis running was conducted at Jerez, with the team studying the airflow over the
modified parts.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 344


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Note the new sidepod wings, these are very different to the ones fitted to the car at the launch,
the application of flow visualisation dye shows that the Lotus team was studying their impact.
Also note the cooling vents along the flank of the car. These are placed in one of the few areas
of the cars body where openings are allowed under the current regulations.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 345


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The front wing was also of interest to those wielding the dye bottle, note the dye that has
collected on the suspension elements. A bulge under the E21s nose is also clear in this image.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 346


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Lotus revised the E21s exhaust on the third day of testing replacing the panel around the
exhaust exit with a metal item (or at least one with a metallic coating). The overall design seems
to remain the same so this may be as a result of burning bodywork still evident with the new
design (above), also note the tunnel under the exhaust exit, a concept near identical to the Red
Bull RB8 & RB9.

Compare the above with the layout run at the start of testing in Jerez (below)

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 347


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The stay holding the cars splitter (tea tray) is a fascinating design made of curved carbon fibre.

The E21 seems to be full of itself

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 348


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 349


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.5.2 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 350


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 351


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 352


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 353


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 354


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 355


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 356


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 357


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 358


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 359


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.5.3 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 360


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 361


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 362


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 363


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 364


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 365


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 366


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 367


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 368


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 369


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 370


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 371


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.5.4 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 372


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 373


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 374


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 375


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 376


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.5.5 High Resolution Pictures - Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 377


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 378


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 379


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 380


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 381


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 382


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Jerez Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 383


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.1.6 Williams FW35


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Chassis: FW34-03

Williams opted not to run its new car at the opening test of the season, instead running a FW34
based test mule fitted with FW35 components such as a new nose complete with vanity panel.

This compliments our current philosophy of using rigs to pass off systems before running them
on the car explains Mike Coughlan, Williams F1 Technical Director. The drivers have enjoyed
themselves running through tyre comparisons and set-up changes that you would be reluctant
to do at a race meeting due to time constraints. Although these results have been a little
compromised by the very aggressive nature of the track surface here, we have acquired some
useful data to carry forward. We now look forward to the next test in Barcelona and the launch
of the FW35.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 384


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

Williams ran back to back tests using a nose fitted with a vanity panel and one without, a large
sensor array with airspeed sensors was used to measure both configurations.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

5.1.7 Sauber C32


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

More detailed elements of the C32 became apparent in Jerez after the Swiss car had its first
runs.

The rear wing endplate has a serrated lower section as is now common in F1. Note the rear
brake (Brembo) caliper mounting position low on the wheel.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

The front bulkhead of the C32 is fairly conventional also, but note the shape of the top section
designed to house the cars nose duct. The torsion bars (or at least the holes they sit in) are just
visible.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

A look at the front brake layout shows the caliper mounting position with the disc and pad both
visible. Note the cooling slats in the cake tim brake shroud. The unit running forward from the
brake duct is a mechanics leaf blower, used to cool the discs after a run.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

A first look at the diffuser on the C32, with the serrated lower portions of the rear wing end
plates in evidence.

The above pic gives a good look at the Saubers nose duct.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

Sauber did a one lap run with this sensor mounted on the roll hoop, it has not been run on the
car since.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

5.1.8 Force India VJM06


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

At Jerez it was possible to get a glimpse of the Force Indias front bulkhead. The torsion bars,
power steering and master cylinder are all visible, as is what appears to be a nose fed driver
cooling duct at the base of the chassis between the lower wishbone pickups.

The nose of the VJM06 has a curious shape when studied from above

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

5.1.9 Toro Rosso STR8


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

After the usual installation laps, the team began tackling the days programme which centred on
checking all the car systems, without looking at performance. Inevitably however, the engineers
could not resist looking at the aero numbers for the new car! STR8 ran reliably, completing 70
laps.

That aero work partly used flow vis on the floor of the car which is significantly different to the
design of the STR7 which had a much larger undercut (below)

Luca Furbatto explains why the change was made using the big undercut or double floor made
the car very difficult to develop aerodynamically and even though we had lots of upgrades the
car did not respond. We felt that the concept had reached a plateau of aerodynamic
performance so it was time for a change.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

One of the biggest areas of change for Toro Rosso is at the back of the car where an all new
transmission is fitted as the result of the adoption of a new suspension concept.

The gearbox is still built by us, it has a carbon bell housing and and an aluminium main case at
the back its very narrow and the rear end of the car is very tiny. Its a totally different gearbox to
the STR7, it has new internals, because of the suspension concept we have gone for we could
not use last years main case Furbatto reveals.

In terms of suspension the STR7 was very limited in terms of the number of systems you could
use, so when we decided to redesign the car we decided to reintroduce back some of those
systems. For example the STR7 did not have anti roll bars this car does as well as a number of
other systems common in modern F1 cars, and we have looked at Interlinked suspension.
Because the suspension was very limited in terms of tuning the car was very peaky which made
it hard for the drivers. This year they have much more chance to change the balance of the car
which should give them more confidence.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

5.1.10 Caterham CT03


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Chassis: CT03-05

The Caterham chassis numbering could be considered confusing, with the car running at Jerez
dubbed CT03-05, suggesting it is the 5th CT03 built. But it is in fact the first. The CT03 is very
closely based on the CT01 so much so that the chassis numbering has continued from the four
CT01 tubs.

The early runs of the CT03 gave a good opportunity to have a look at the back of the car and
here there is much carry over from the CT01. However note the monkey seat winglet sprouting
from the rear crash structure.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

The lower tea tray area is one that Caterham single out as a development area on the CT03.
In a press conference at Jerez James Allison Technical Director of the Lotus F1 team was asked if
he had seen anything of interest on the other new cars, his reply was certainly interesting Its a
crap answer but Ive not had time to look at any other cars but our own, bit there is one feature
of the Caterhams exhaust that I dont think will be there when we get to Melbourne.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

The feature in question is what appears to be a flow conditioner in the exhaust channel of the
Caterham CT03. Lotus has near identical image to the one seen here as the Lotus pit lane
photographer was stood next to Racecars when they were taken! The conditioner appears to
guide the exhaust gasses toward the crucial area at the rear of the car floor which would give
the blown diffuser effect. The element is coated in a ceramic thermal barrier coating and is likely
to be made of metal not carbon fibre.

The design may fall foul of article 5.8.4 of the 2013 Technical regulations which state that.

Once the exhaust tailpipes, the bodywork required by Article 3.8.4 and any apertures permitted by
Article 3.8.5 have been fully defined there must be no bodywork lying within a right circular truncated
cone which :
a) Shares a common axis with that of the last 100mm of the tailpipe.
b) Has a forward diameter equal to that of each exhaust exit.
c) Starts at the exit of the tailpipe and extends rearwards as far as the rear wheel centre line.
d) Has a half-cone angle of 3 such that the cone has its larger diameter at the rear wheel centre line.
Furthermore, there must be a view from above, the side, or any intermediate angle perpendicular to
the car centre line, from which the truncated cone is not obscured by any bodywork lying more than
50mm forward of the rear wheel centre line.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

No formal protest can be lodged yet as in testing the full regulations do not apply.

Caterham has responded to the comments made by Lotus with team boss Cyril Abiteboul stating
to Autosport magazine that My understanding is that it is within the regulations, we tested it
last year and nobody made any remark about it. We are quite flattered that James Allison is
paying attention to what is happening at our exhausts. There are different ways of looking at it,
and definitely we are outside of the cone. The purpose of testing is to test and to understand
what is happening. One of the areas that everybody is looking at is to understand how the
exhaust effect is working, and where it is going. Therefore anything that helps you better
measure that is welcome, at least for the tests. We will see whatever clarification is made
before the first race.

Caterham could keep the turning vane outside of the exhaust cone by giving the exhaust exit a
slight upward angle (as it appears to feature above) thus keeping most of the exit channel
outside of the cone. But the exhaust plume could still pass through the channel and over the
turning vane. The cooling hole above the exhaust exit could serve some purpose in this function.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

It can be seen above that the cooling duct above the exhaust is likely to influence the exhaust
plume, this duct could flow direct from the sidepod and effectively pen in the exhaust plume. All
pure speculation of course as without a wind tunnel it is very hard to tell how the fluid structure
interact.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

5.1.11 Marussia MR02


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Chassis: MR02-1

The first test started relatively well for the Marussia team but went downhill on the afternoon
of the first day when a suspension failure put the car in the wall.

Parts were checked and the car was back out at the start of the second days running.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

The sidepod ducts on the MR02 are quite rectangular in shape. Note the wing profile of the link
between the sidepod and the turning vane.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

Under the sidepod the inner workings of the MR02 are revealed. Firstly in the image above
(available in higher res in the gallery) you can see the upper and lower side impact structures,
the upper one is interesting as its internal design is evident with two Rohacell sections around a
hollow core. The brown tank from fuel system specialists is a is a pressurised auxiliary oil cell to
refill the main oil tank as oil is consumed (most teams use them). The main air duct and diffuser
are clear to see as is the radiator angle, but from the duct on the inner section is a seperate
channel likely to be for cooling the energy recovery system.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

The front bulkhead is just visible behind the stand the car is sat on, the master cylinders are
obvious and the a glimpse of part of the power steering system is also evident.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS JEREZ 5-8 FEBRUARY

A look at the layout of the MR02s front brakes, note the AP Racing calipers and temperature
strip.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2 BARCELONA I 19 - 22 FEBRUARY


5.2.1 Lotus testing DRD and rear wing combination
(by Tomba from http://www.f1technical.net)

Lotus was seen running its DRD system 29th February at Barcelona, but interestingly that is not
all that changes about the car. In fact, the team changes rear wings along with the fitting of the
DRD, and reverts to the previous rear wing when continuing to run without DRD - or passive
DRS, or DDRS.

Although the differences between the rear wings are quite marginal, it does show the
complexity of the DRD in Formula One. When DRD is fitted, the raer wing endplates do not
feature strakes on the outside of the plates. Their design is also remarkable, as all strakes aim to
direct air upwards. Ferrari on the other hand have similar, albeit smaller strakes, but the lowest
of the 3 on the Ferrari F138 direct air downwards.

Furthermore, the Lotus rear wings also feature different DRS actuator pods and appear to have
a slightly different cut in the centre of the upper rear wing flap.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 406


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.2 Williams FW35


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Chassis: FW35-01

The FW35 was shaken down ahead of its roll out but the first formal test came at Barcelona.

Early running gave a chance to look at the cars diffuser. Note the exposed driveshafts, sitting at
a less extreme angle compared to other recent Williams designs such as the FW33.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

At Barcelona there is a particular section of track that allows photographers to capture the rake
angle a particular car is running at. Compare the Red Bull RB9 (above), with the Sauber C32
(below).

Finally take a look at the Williams FW35 with almost no rake at all (below)

Williams trialled three different noses on the FW35, the launch spec nose (below) appears
similar in concept to that of the Ferrari F138, it may exploit a loophole in the regulations that
allow vanity panels to exceed the maximum nose height.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

At Jerez the Williams FW34 was fitted with a 2013 specification nose, this nose, lower than the
one above was also run on the FW35 at Barcelona. The TV cameras have been relocated from
the edge of the nose itself to in-between the pylons.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Finally the FW35 was fitted with a nose without a vanity panel at all (below). This stepped nose
may be developed into a Sauber style vented nose as the preseason testing continues. During
most of these test runs the cars were fitted with sensor arrays the mounting of which is visible
in the image below.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

This sensor array was mounted just behind the front wheel, it is not a type seen elsewhere and
is made up of pitot tubes.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

One of the areas of interest on the FW35 is its hollow hub (below). This is thought to be part of
the brake cooling layout and could bring aerodynamic gains. Red Bull tried a similar system last
year but it was outlawed as it rotated (movable aerodynamic device). The Williams design is
thought to be legal as it does not rotate.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The FW35 has optional cooling vents behind the cockpit as is commonplace on the current
breed of cars.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.3 FIA deems Caterham and Williams exhausts illegal


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

The FIA has told Williams and Caterham that it believes the exhaust designs being used by the
pair in testing are illegal. Both designs could conceivably breach 5.8.4 of the 2013 Technical
regulations and a technical directive issued in 2012 restricting the usage of flow capture ducts
and elements downstream of the exhaust exit to guide the plume of high energy gasses.

Both article 5.8.4 and the technical directive were intended to prevent teams from building
blown diffusers into their cars, but with no change to these regulations it is clear that both
Caterham and Williams believe that they have found a loophole in the regulations.

The exhaust plumes can be used to restrict dirty air from the base of the rotating tyre from
entering the diffuser, increasing rear downforce, and allowing teh curs to be run at an extreme
rake.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Whilst the FIA believe that the cars would be disqualified if they ran their current designs in
Melbourne the teams seem to disagree. The team spoke with the FIA this morning which is
when they gave us their view on this. The team are now seeking further clarification on this and
a decision as to whether this design will be carried forward will be made before the first race.

Whilst a Caterham F1 Team spokesperson said We are continuing to evaluate a range of


options at the pre-season tests as per our normal program.

The FIA cannot make an official ruling as testing is not governed by the full technical regulations,
and the teams are free to continue to run whatever bodywork they want.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.4 Ferrari F138 High Resolution Pictures

5.2.4.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 417


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 418


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 419


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 420


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 421


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 422


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 423


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 424


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 425


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 426


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 427


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 428


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 429


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 430


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 431


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.4.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 432


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 433


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 434


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 435


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 436


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 437


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 438


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 439


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 440


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 441


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.4.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 442


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 443


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.4.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 444


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 445


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 446


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.5 Red Bull RB9 High Resolution Pictures

5.2.5.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 447


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 448


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 449


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 450


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 451


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 452


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 453


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 454


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 455


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 456


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 457


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.5.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 458


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 459


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.5.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 460


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 461


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.5.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 462


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 463


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 464


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 465


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 466


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.6 McLaren MP4-28 High Resolution Pictures

5.2.6.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 467


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 468


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 469


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 470


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 471


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 472


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 473


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 474


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 475


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 476


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.6.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 477


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 478


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 479


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.6.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 480


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 481


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 482


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 483


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 484


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 485


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 486


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 487


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 488


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.6.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 489


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 490


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.7 Mercedes W04 High Resolution Pictures

5.2.7.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 491


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 492


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 493


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 494


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 495


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 496


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 497


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 498


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 499


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 500


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 501


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 502


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 503


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 504


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 505


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 506


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.7.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 507


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 508


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.7.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 509


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 510


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 511


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 512


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.7.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 513


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 514


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 515


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 516


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 517


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.8 Lotus E21 High Resolution Pictures

5.2.8.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 518


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 519


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 520


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 521


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 522


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 523


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.8.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 524


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 525


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 526


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 527


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 528


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 529


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 530


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.8.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 531


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 532


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 533


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 534


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.8.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona I Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 535


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 536


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Barcelona I - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 537


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.9 Barcelona I - Test Analysis by Scott Williams


(by Scott Williams - http://formulaoneanalysis.blogspot.co.uk)

I intend to analyse the Circuit de Catalunya test (19/02/2013-22/02/2013) however my analysis


is only going to cover the first three, rain unaffected, days. The varying conditions on the 22nd
distort comparisons to other days so are less useful (plus none of the fastest times in the test
were set on the day).

I've chosen to concentrate on two main performance indicators:


1) Fastest adjusted time
2) Tyre degradation/tyre performance.

Let's start with the analysis.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 538


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.9.1 Fastest Adjusted Times

One of the best ways to judge potential lap times is to take each lap time and apply an
adjustment based on various factors including: 1) the day the lap was posted (sources cite a 0.2
second improvement each day due to the track rubbering in) 2) the amount of laps left on the
stint (each lap consumes approximately 2.4kg and 10kg of fuel is worth 0.4 seconds around
Catalunya) 3) the compound the stint was set on (the Pirelli report states 0.5 seconds should be
the difference between each compound therfore 1.5 seconds between the new super soft and
hard). Times are assumed to be set on the super soft.

As we would expect most of the adjusted fastest times are on the harder compounds. No one
has completed any qualifying simulations on the soft or super soft tyres. What this shows is that
the Mercedes and Ferrari are actually quite quick over one lap although Red Bull are almost
certainly holding back a lot. Track observers have praised the Red Bull's downforce levels and
handling characteristics although this might not necessarily translate into lap time. Given
everything the smart money is on the champions to be right up there.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 539


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

What is striking is that all of the top 20 adjusted times belong to the top five cars from last year
(Red Bull 4, Ferrari 4, McLaren 3, Mercedes 6, Lotus 3). The closest times for the other
constructors are:

Sauber 81.66
Toro Rosso 81.73
Force India 81.853
Williams 82.23

Marussia and Caterham are some way off with times in the 84s and 85s. It's certainly not
looking great for either of them especially as they were looking to battle into the pack ahead.

5.2.9.2 Conclusions on speed

From the data collected over the first three days the Red Bull, Ferrari and Mercedes all seem
very fast with lesser fuel loads. The pecking order is particularly unclear at this stage; the fact
that Mercedes posted six out of the top twenty and four of the first six fastest adjusted times is
impressive however it's wise not to read too much into this. Hamilton and Rosberg have both
been playing down expectations and whether this is the truth or a bit of a bluff is yet to be seen.

Other factors to consider are that McLaren and Red Bull are historically known to never run too
light in testing. According to reports and trackside observers McLaren has at times looked like
the best car while at other times they have struggled (Jenson Button has also said similar
things). They need to do more work to understand the car but should they find a solution they
should be very strong all the way through the year.

It's hard to judge the current speed across all of the constructors especially as the programmes
are so different. Different cars seem to be stronger over shorter or longer runs. The numbers,
and other factors, suggest the following order:

Red Bull > Lotus > Ferrari > Mercedes > McLaren > Sauber > Williams > Force India > Toro Rosso >
Marussia > Caterham.

Red Bull and Lotus are leading the way, factoring in both short and long runs. Both have excelled
and both are fairly confident in their prospects this year. The main question marks are over
McLaren (and to a lesser extent Ferrari). I think McLaren have a potential rocketship but are
struggling to understand it, next week's test will be crucial. I'm still tipping them to win at least
4-6 races this year although it will be important to hit the ground running from the very first
race.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 540


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

The Ferrari seems to be pretty poor over long runs although this is so radically different to last
year that it's hard to accept this as the truth, I'll have to await further data before making a
proper assessment (race simulations from Catalunya next week will be fascinating). Overall I
think there are plenty of positive signs from the Mercedes data although fuel loads may have
influenced this, four of the top six adjusted times is very positive regardless though. Both
Williams and Sauber looked quick at points, Nico Hulkenberg set the 3rd fastest time of the
entire test although Gutierrez was fairly off the pace. At the moment the pace of the Williams
and the Toro Rosso is fairly hard to predict although the Toro Rosso seems to be the slowest of
the first nine constructors. At the back Marussia seem to have got the better of Caterham.

5.2.9.3 Tyre Degradation Comparison

First off comparing tyre degradation between teams is very difficult because teams are running
different programmes and are often running to specific deltas. I've taken out any stints where
they've started too slowly and look to be running to a delta or where the last lap is quicker than
the first. There are plenty of stints where information on tyre compounds is not known so I've
analysed soft, medium and hard and then grouped all of the remaining runs into an unknown
group and analysed that separately.

Due to the limited samples on each tyre it will be difficult to draw any concrete conclusions
about a car and its characteristics however considering all of the factors may allow patterns to
be highlighted.

The most striking characteristic of the short, fast runs (see criteria) is the large amount of drop-
off on the Ferrari stints. Fernando Alonso completed five sets of two lap stints each with rapid
degradation. The nearest direct comparison is the Force India of Sutil who posted a similar first

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 541


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

lap time with a smaller degree of drop-off on average. There could be two major explanations
for this; firstly the testing programme. Ferrari could be looking to gather data around aggressive
stints, this may come in useful during race weekends especially where qualifying is concerned.
Secondly there may be a change in car dynamics which mean Ferrari are chewing their tyres
quicker than others. This all depends on how revolutionary Ferrari have been with their
development. Last year's car the F2012 was easy on its tyres but lacked one-lap speed. Given
the importance of qualifying and the dominance Red Bull were able to exhibit it is not
unreasonable that Ferrari have targeted this as an area of improvement.

The Lotus and Williams looked particularly good on their only stints on the softs however it is
hard to draw too many conclusions from this data despite a similar pattern being shown by both
teams on the long, slower stints on the softs. The Red Bull and McLaren were substantially
worse in drop-off on their stints.

On the medium tyre the Ferrari experienced further problems, the McLaren and Red Bull looked
better than on the soft specifically (they were probably running higher fuel loads on the soft).
McLaren once again had better degradation than the Red Bull (like on the softs). The Mercedes
had mixed fortunes while the Lotus seemed reasonably strong again.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 542


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

On the hard tyre the Lotus was the stand-out star, putting in very strong stints on the longer
runs. The Mercedes handled the tyres well and do not seem to be experiencing as many
problems as last year. Ferrari again were experiencing high tyre degradation - this repeating
factor is definitely symptomatic of the programme or the general behaviour of the car which is
worrying for Ferrari and a complete turnaround from last year. Red Bull posted fairly similar
stats for both the medium and hard tyres.

All of the rest of the stints were split into four categories as runs seemed to fall into specific
groupings (see criteria). It was only across the longer slow runs where Ferrari have broken their
run of high degradation. Again Lotus are one of the better managers of tyre degradation (green
on each of the groupings). They definitely cement their place as the most consistent runner
although this may have something to do with their programme.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 543


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Sauber have carried on from last year with the tyre degradation. By and large it seems fairly low
especially over shorter stints. What the Toro Rosso lacks in outright pace seems to be offset by
the small amount of degradation. This will likely result in a fairly similar picture to last year with
plenty of Q1 exits although some promising drives through the field.

5.2.9.4 Conclusions on tyre degradation

Overall it's very difficult to draw conclusions on tyre degradation however I would rate the
teams in the following order (based on the data alone):

Lotus > Toro Rosso > Sauber > Mercedes > Williams > McLaren > Red Bull > Force India > Ferrari
(Marussia and Caterham not included).

Only Ferrari seem to be really struggling. The easy standout performers are Lotus. It's strange
that the top teams (with the exception of Lotus) seem to be experiencing fairly high levels of
degradation. Could this be down to high fuel load runs? Only time will tell, hopefully we'll get
more of an insight into both tyre degradation and speed at the next test.

5.2.9.5 Overall Conclusions (five key points)

Lotus are very strong, long run pace and degradation look 'impressive'.
Ferrari look quick but have some real issues with degradation
Mercedes and Red Bull both look great in their own ways
McLaren struggling and still have a lot of work to do before winning races
None of the teams ranked 6th-9th look to have made enough progress to challenge on
a regular basis although Sauber and Williams could surprise

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 544


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

5.2.9.6 Constructors Report

Red Bull
Speed: A-
Degradation: B-

At the moment it is really difficult to read too much into Red Bull's test. The sounds coming out
of Red Bull are fairly positive at the moment, Mark Webber seems happy with how the team is
working. The RB9 is an evolutionary design on last year's double championship winner. The loss
of unlimited DRS will harm the Red Bull in qualifying so there could be problems ahead.

However given all the factors this car will be right at the front when the cars turn up in Australia.
The only worrying sign seems to be some of the longer runs where the degradation on the car
seemed to be marginally worse than other key rivals. This could be explained by fuel loads
which will increase degradation so this is only a vague concern.

Ferrari
Speed: A-
Degradation: D

The speed on the Ferrari seems to be there. Alonso posted the fastest adjusted time of the test
on hard tyres during day one, also posting the second fastest non-adjusted time after Sergio
Perez. I'm wondering whether Ferrari have attempted to be more aggressive, pushing their car
development towards greater one lap speed.

The overwhelming concerning factor on the Ferrari is the high levels of degradation. It's hard to
ignore that they had the worse degradation in six of the eight categories they posted stints
within (soft, short-fast etc.). This could have been down to the programme that Ferrari have
decided to run but it seems to be too pervasive and will likely be down to the car and how it
behaves.

Ferrari will be in a much better place this year than last year. Expect two Ferraris to qualify in
the top six/eight come Melbourne.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 545


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

McLaren
Speed: B
Degradation: B-

McLaren have admitted they still need to understand various aspects of this car. The
revolutionary MP4-28 will take some time to work out but when they do I think they have a real
potential to be the fastest car on the grid. They have next week to develop the car and bring
upgrades which may solve these issues.

Just based on this week however McLaren are probably fifth fastest taking short and long runs
into account. Next week will answer a lot of questions about the MP4-28. They will be positive
that the degradation seemed to be stronger than the Red Bull who will be the one competitor
McLaren want to especially beat this year.

Lotus
Speed: A-
Degradation: A

The long run pace and degradation of the Lotus was the class of the field over the three days.
Lotus are going to be right at the sharp end come Melbourne. The race simulation of Grosjean
compared favourably against Webber's and looked very consistent.

The only worries over the E21 are reliability (there were several problems experienced by
Raikkonen over the first two days) and a lack of one-lap pace against some of the top teams.
The signs are very positive so far and the team are right to be bullish about their chances for the
coming season.

Mercedes
Speed: B+
Degradiation: B

A very solid effort from the Mercedes team over the Catalunya test. Similarly to above,
reliability issues throughout testing have caused a lot of lost time however Brawn and Rosberg
seem optimistic (but cautious). Posting four of the quickest six adjusted times shows this car has
a lot of pace, particularly when compared to the teams who were chasing them last year
(Sauber, Williams etc.).

The degradation issues of last year look improved, the degradation appeared to be relatively
controlled and in line with other teams such as Williams. This is a huge step forward and may be
all the difference between points and podiums/wins so there are plenty of reasons to be
optimistic.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 546


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Sauber
Speed: B-
Degradation: B+

Currently Sauber look the best outside the top five Sauber has pace although it wasn't quite
good enough for a top 20 adjusted time. They've steadily gone about their work completing a
lot of aero runs. The third fastest time of the test by Hulkenberg shows that this car is relatively
quick.

Overall the degradation was positive especially in shorter runs where the car was able to keep
up a fast pace across multiple laps. This may give them an advantage come qualifying should
conditions allow it. Overall Sauber should be fairly happy although they may be disappointed
they have not shown any real evidence of catching the five teams ahead.

Force India
Speed: C+
Degradation: B-

The Force India looks like a reasonable evolution of last years car. According to trackside
spectators there is nothing spectacular about how this car attacks the corners and it looks
'solid'. Due to the stability in the regulations solid is unlikely to be good enough and the early
signs are that Force India are going to struggle to fight for points finishes throughout the season.
Degradation was fairly reasonable although there were signs that the car struggled over both
long runs and intense shorter term runs too. Overall it's very tough to read into Force India's
performance as it was so understated.

Williams
Speed: C+
Degradation: B

The Williams was unveiled at the start of the test so it took them a bit of time to get settled into
consistent running. The signs so far are very mixed from Williams, there is certainly a great deal
of optimism from the drivers and the team however the data hasn't yet showed anything
spectacular.

Analysis of the long runs from the Williams drivers puts them (roughly) 90 seconds behind the
Lotus and the Red Bull which is unlikely to be satisfactory for the team. I think there's plenty
more to come from Williams and they may have something hidden up their sleeves.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 547


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA I 19-22 FEBRUARY F1 Season 2013

Toro Rosso
Speed: C
Degradation: A-

The Toro Rosso once again seems like one of the worst cars on the grid so there may be further
Q1 exits early in the season. Trackside observers say the car looks noticeably worse than some
of their competitors and the teams at the top. However one of the huge positives is the
degradation which seems to be second only to Lotus at the moment. This will mean Toro Rosso
may need to be in the position to make rapid progress through the race to score points. It would
be nice to see what pace the Toro Rosso can bring to the table, their own programme was fairly
different to the other teams (no long runs) so it's hard to make meaningful comparisons.

Caterham
Speed: E
Degradation: -

Marussia
Speed: E+
Degradation: -

Most have agreed that the Caterham is the worst car on the grid at the moment. This is
unfortunate as both Caterham and Marussia were hoping to make that jump to the back of the
midfield. This seems very unlikely now and it's hard to see how each team will continue to fight
after a further potential deficit opening to the midfield. Hopefully for the sake of keeping eleven
teams in F1 they start making good progress.

Yet there is still next weeks test so I hope by the end of pre-season testing Caterham and
Marussia will be in a better position as it's sad to see the two teams struggling year-after-year.

Testing certainly isn't conclusive at the moment but there were a few small surprises (Ferrari
and McLaren's issues and the potential improvement made by the Mercedes).

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 548


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3 BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 3 MARCH


5.3.1 DRD Drag Reduction Device - Passive Drag Reduction
(by Matt Somerfield http://somersf1.blogspot.co.uk)

Lotus introduced a system they simply designated 'The Device' during Free Practice sessions in
2012 as a response to the FIA continuing to allow Mercedes the use of their DDRS (Double Drag
Reduction System).

The mainstream media I believe have caused confusion amongst fans as they continue to call
the Lotus style system DDRS when the systems are very different. The term DDRS should be
used when the DRS mechanism is used for a secondary purpose just as Mercedes and Red Bull
did in 2012 when stalling the Front Wing and Beam Wing on their cars respectively. This
secondary function of DRS was utilised by these two teams by means of holes placed in the Rear
Wing being exposed when DRS was deployed moving airflow to other regions of the car.

DRD however is a passive system and requires no interaction from another system or the driver
to reduce drag at the rear of the car. As Lotus were the first team to utilise the device I will use
theirs as my example.

DRD is made up of several additional components with different teams having tried different
configurations along the way in order to both assess it's capabilities and fit within their own
aero configuration. In the case of Lotus we have 5 main parts.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 549


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

1. Airbox Ear's - Starting at the Front these little ducts move air down the internal tubing (2)
toward the periscope.

2. Internal Ducting - The airbox and ears have separate outlets (Seen in the image below) with
the top one most likely the pipe from the Airbox Ear's that feeds to the periscope and the lower
regulating the release of airflow from the engine as usual.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 550


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

3. Engine Cover Exhaust: Usually the engine cover stops much more abruptly at the rear of the
car that when the 'device' is fitted. The additional exhaust section serves a few purposes: It
allows the addition of the periscope that extends upto the rear wing but also acts as an exhaust
for the airflow which exits into the beam wing Monkey Seat / Mini Diffuser.

4. Periscope: This is most important aspect of the whole system as it's how the air is
transported to the underside of the Rear Wing in order to create the additional downforce at
low speed and 'Stall' the rear wing over the speed threshold. In the picture below Lotus had the
ejector holes taped over in order to stop the device operating (due to bad weather conditions)

5. Monkey Seat / Mini Diffuser is placed / being used in order to take advantage of the
situation presented by the device in general. By adding this Diffuser shaped Monkey Seat the
airflow will be pulled through the exhaust as Downforce is generated on top.

So now we understand the sum of the devices parts lets look at how it works and how much of a
benefit it could offer.

Air travels through the airbox ears out through the engine cover to the engine cover exhaust
(depicted in blue), at a pre-determined speed threshold (measured by the team) the exit of the
cover exhaust cannot extract the airflow it's being presented with. This allows the air to move
up the Periscope and is ejected from the narrow slits placed on the sides of the periscope. The
orientation of the slits means the airflow blows tangentially across the mainplane disrupting the

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 551


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

regular airflow pattern sending the wing into a stall. (In order to adjust the speed threshold at
which the device stalls the rear wing you must adjust the size of the outlet)

The problem the teams have faced whilst testing DRD is the ever changing conditions (climate)
and car changes ie ride height etc. Furthermore this season will represent a different challenge
for the devices as unlimited DRS usage is now unavailable for qualifying. This puts the onus on
all the teams to use DRD and reduce the drag wherever possible but the time required to
calibrate the device for it's passive switch eats into valuable setup time elsewhere on the cars
setup.

The speed differential created by reducing drag via DRD will of course differ for the given
application and as we have seen throughout 2012 and 2013's Testing different approaches have
ensued. The other way to look at is how much downforce are you willing to give up? Teams with
more downforce to trade off could start their stall earlier resulting in a higher top speed. So in
summary although the innovation behind DRD is fantastic to see, it's adoption due it's passive
nature remains to be seen. In terms of gains I'd speculate based on the gains seen by teams
using the F Duct that a speed boost upwards of 5/8KMH could be seen on the straights.

DRD is perfectly legal as it requires no moving parts or interaction from the driver, it's activation
is passive and relys on fluidic switching. The periscope lies within the central 15cm of the rear
wing making it dimensionally legal and so unless the FIA deem the usage to be un-safe I don't
see this being banned for 2013. In order to prohibit it's use the FIA would need to amend:

3.9.2 - No bodywork situated between 50mm forward of the rear wheel centre line and 150mm
behind the rear wheel centre line, and which is between 75mm and 355mm from the car centre
line, may be located between 400mm and 730mm above the reference plane.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 552


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Here's what we have seen in terms of DRD thus far:

Above: Lotus' application of blue flo-viz here helps us see the effects of DRD, the V formation on
the mainplane indicates that the airflow in this region has separated causing the wing to stall
allowing for a higher top speed.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 553


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Above: Mercedes version trialled from Spa onwards in 2012 featured a periscope that fell short
of the underside of the rear wing. This would increase the distance at which the periscope could
blow over the mainplane but would reduce it's targeting effect.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 554


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Above: Red Bull took the opportunity to test their iteration of DRD at the Young Drivers test in
Abu Dhabi

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 555


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Above: Although this isn't DRD it seems Toro Rosso were evaluating running a centralised device
when they tested at Abu Dhabi. Their appendage however featured two periscopes rather than
one which could enable even more drag reduction.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 556


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 557


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Above: Last day of testing at Jerez (2013) and both Lotus and Mercedes placed their DRD's on
the car to test but as we can see both have switched their design format effectively trying out
each others designs.

As an aside we all know I don't have CFD in order to ascertain the credibility of my theories
however as I have put forward in the past a way overcoming the switching effect required for
DRD to work may be to introduce another flow construction enabling DRD's speed threshold to
be lowered. To do this I'd look at the plausibilty of running DRD in conjunction with a mainplane
hole like we have seen many teams utilise in the past. This may make tuning DRD easier as you
now have another way of regulating the airflow in the central portion of the mainplane.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 558


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Lastly DRD has thus far been seen to be targeted at the Rear Wings Mainplane in order to
reduce drag but just as Red Bull did from Singapore onwards with the use of DDRS I see no real
reason why the Beam Wing couldn't be stalled through the use of DRD instead or aswell as. I
look forward to seeing if/what teams decide to implement in regard to DRD throughout the
2013 season.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 559


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.2 New Red Bull front wing filled with tweaks


(by Tomba http://www.f1technical.net)

Red Bull Racing introduced a new front wing on their car, maintaining the same basic concept
but with small modifications all over the wing. Mark Webber left the pitlane with the new wing
filled with flowviz in the morning, ready to do some flow verification.

The changes include the addition of two apertures in the end plates to catch a little more air and
push it up over the flaps. The stacked element has been modified accordingly, now curving
more down close to the endplate. The trailing edge of that stacked flap is also similarly curved,
contrary to a straight edge on the previous wing. Notice that also the lower edge of the
endplate has changed, as well as the innermost endings of the flaps.

Also indicated in the image is a different vanity panel on the nose, making it a bit bigger and
getting rid of the tapering flanks.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 560


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.3 Ferrari introduces steeper exhaust channel


(by Tomba from http://www.f1technical.net)

Ferrari have introduced their updates exhaust one day ahead of schedule. Luca Marmorini
earlier spoke out of his worries about introducing such a new layout so close to the end of
testing, but it appears that Ferrari have managed to speed up the manufacturing process for this
particular item. As such, while Felipe Massa was running on Thursday with the same exhaust
layout as the car was launched, Fernando Alonso's F138 is now fitted with the update.

The new sidepod bodywork aims to get the exhaust flow down to the car's floor quicker than it
was possible in the previous version, thanks to a sharp downward slope in the channel. While
the photo perspectives are somewhat different, the modification is quite drastic. This is obvious
from the bulge that is now sticking out of the bodywork, showing how the top of the sidepod
has been shaped to taper down more quickly. It is also noticable by looking at the small step

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 561


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

inside of the channel, which Ferrari still produces with inconel. That step is present for the
Ferrari to meet the rules, as there must be no bodywork in a virtual 3 cone sticking out of the
exhaust. With the exhaust still in the same position, it is clear that the channel is curved more
extremely down towards the floor.

Along with this goes is also a modified outlet for the sidepod air. The outlet is now slightly wider
and closer to the exhaust itself.

The change is meant to improve rear downforce by getting the exhaust gases more precisely
where the teams wants them to be. It should meanwhile help reduce tyre warmup and
overheating due to the exhausts. To verify all this, Alonso has been busy today at Barcelona with
a lot of constant speed running so that aerodynamic measurements can be read with less
influence from car speed changes.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 562


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.4 Front wing simplification on MP4-28


(by Tomba from http://www.f1technical.net)

McLaren have tested a new front wing (in the lower part of the image) on their MP4-28 to
improve car balance and frontal downforce. The team have basically simplified the main place
by removing the inner humps that were introduced during the 2012 season. The new front wing
is a almost entirely flat, as low as possible to the ground to help create downforce and only
bulges towars the endplate to control the downforce generation under steering and yaw.

Along with this, the endings on the innermost edges of the flaps have also been slightly revised,
although this is more likely to be a matter of controlling airflow towards the sidepods, rather
than a downforce improvement for the wing itself.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 563


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.5 Lotus continue to evaluate exhaust options


(by Tomba from http://www.f1technical.net)

Lotus is continuing to try out different versions of its exhaust channel, trying to maximize rear
downforce. Davide Valsecchi was this morning testing again with an inconel exhaust channel,
featuring a different curve and depth. Similar parts were spotted earlier on at the Jerez test.

The team earlier noted that the inconel metallic parts are not being used to resolve overheating
issues with the carbon fibre exhaust channel. In fact, the inconel parts are easier and quicker to
manufacture and are much more durable than the carbon composite parts. This allows the team
to test various options quickly, albeit with a slight weight penalty for the metallic parts.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 564


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.6 New rear wing for Lotus E21


(by Tomba from http://www.f1technical.net)

Lotus has had quite a busy schedule recently, and today the team came up with a new rear
wing, tested both by Davide Valsecchi in the morning and Romain Grosjean in the afternoon.
The new wing appears to be based on the rear wing that the team has already used when
running without DRD, as the DRS actuator pod is the same and the wing's main profile also looks
similar. The monkey seat however has been changed in a more traditional winglet, contrary to
the curved version that existed on the previous wing. The curved monkey seat had been
introduced during 2012 when the team also introduced DRD, so it remains to be seen if the DRD
outlet will be modified, or if this wing is not designed to be used with DRD.

With its flowviz testing however the team was most interested in airflow around the endplates,
as these have also been modified. The 3 strakes on the outside of the endplate were removed
whereas underneath the endplate 3 vanes were added to help guide air into the wake of the
rear tyres. Extracting air from underneath the rear wing like this can help generate downforce
but it needs to comply with the airflow that the diffuser is throwing up as well. Most teams by
now are using similar designs, but most have more and smaller vanes to achieve the same
purpose.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 565


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.7 Williams FW35 low line transmission


(by Sam - http://www.racecar-engineering.com)

Chassis: FW35-01

This image shows just how low the rear end of the FW35 really is, the low line transmission
leaving a very large gap ahead of the rear wing.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 566


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.8 Williams fit Red Bull style exhaust ramp on FW35


(by Tomba from http://www.f1technical.net)

As was expected, Williams F1 have today changed their car by introducing a ramp style exhaust
slope, similar to what Lotus F1 and Red Bull Racing are running, not coincidentally two teams
that are also powered by a Renault Sport F1 engine. Along with the introduction of the new
exhaust the team also re-fitted their high nose. It must be seen whether this is now the
preferred choice in combination with the ramp exhaust, or if the team will continue to try out
its different nose cones.

The team's exhaust ramp features a bulge around the exhaust exit, similar to what Red Bull has
and also had a small inlet to get airflow underneath the ramp. The latter is however
considerably smaller than on the competing team's cars.
Also notice the camera hub on the side of the airbox, including an infrared camera to visualize
exhaust flow for the team's evaluation purposes.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 567


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.9 The Rear Package of the F138 (by Gary Anderson)

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 568


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.10 Ferrari F138 High Resolution Pictures

5.3.10.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 569


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 570


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 571


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 572


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 573


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 574


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 575


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 576


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 577


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 578


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 579


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.10.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 580


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

Day 1 Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 581


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 582


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 583


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 584


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 585


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 586


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 587


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 588


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 589


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 590


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 591


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 592


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 593


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 594


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.10.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 595


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 596


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 597


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 598


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 599


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 600


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 601


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 602


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 603


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 604


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 605


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.11 Red Bull RB9 High Resolution Pictures

5.3.11.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 606


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 607


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 608


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.11.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 609


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 610


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 611


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 612


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 613


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 614


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 615


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.11.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 616


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 617


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 618


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 619


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.11.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 620


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 621


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 622


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 623


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 624


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.12 McLaren MP4-28 High Resolution Pictures

5.3.12.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 625


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 626


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 627


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 628


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 629


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 630


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 631


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.12.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 632


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 633


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 634


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 635


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 636


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 637


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 638


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 639


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 640


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.12.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 641


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 642


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 643


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 644


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 645


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 646


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 647


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 648


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 649


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 650


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 651


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 652


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 653


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 654


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.12.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 655


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 656


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 657


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 658


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 659


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 660


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 661


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 662


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.13 Mercedes W04 High Resolution Pictures

5.3.13.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 663


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 664


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 665


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 666


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 667


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 668


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 669


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 670


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 671


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.13.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 672


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 673


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 674


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 675


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 676


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 677


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 678


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.13.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 679


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 680


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 681


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 682


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 683


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 684


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 685


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.13.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 686


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 687


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 688


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 689


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 690


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 691


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 692


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 693


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 694


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 695


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.14 Lotus E21 High Resolution Pictures

5.3.14.1 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 696


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 697


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 698


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 699


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 700


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 701


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 702


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 703


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 704


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 1

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 705


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.14.2 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 706


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 707


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 708


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 709


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 710


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 711


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 712


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 713


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 714


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 2

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 715


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.14.3 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 716


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 717


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 718


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 719


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 720


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 721


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 722


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 3

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 723


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.14.4 High Resolution Pictures Barcelona II Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 724


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 725


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Barcelona II - Day 4

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 726


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.15 Pirelli review final pre-season test


(by http://www.f1technical.net)

With just two weeks to go before the 2013 Formula One season gets underway in Melbourne,
the final four-day test took place in Barcelona, with two days of wet weather followed by two
days of dry running. This enabled the teams to sample the entire range of 2013 Pirelli tyres and
finally provided conditions representative to racing.

With Barcelona being an extremely familiar venue, particularly off the back of last weeks test at
the Circuit de Catalunya, the teams were able to carry out some useful comparison work
between all the compounds and assess the final upgrades to their new cars.

Paul Hembery, Pirelli motorsport director: It was a useful four days of running in Barcelona,
although the weather conditions were still too cool to be typically representative of what we
will face over the rest of the year. Consequently degradation was still high as the tyres were not
able to operate within their intended working range for most of the test. This, however, is a
familiar situation for both us and the teams, as it was exactly the case in pre-season testing last
year too, so this is not of any great concern. The wet weather over the first two days gave the

The F1-Forecast Technical Files


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

teams a valuable opportunity to assess the intermediate and wet tyres, which have been
evolved to offer better traction this year, and to evaluate crossover points. Generally speaking,
everyone was happy with the wet weather tyres, which shows that our work in this area has
paid off. As this was the final test session, it was useful for the teams to have the opportunity to
run through every tyre in the range as they complete their preparations. Now were looking
forward to getting to Australia, where our tyres will be able to function properly within their
working range, and we hope to see an exciting race with between two and three pit stops per
car.

Testing Facts

The teams are allocated 100 sets of tyres per year for testing purposes, with 35 sets available
for the final test in Barcelona. The supersoft and medium tyres have been nominated for the
opening grand prix of the season in Australia, so many teams focussed on these two compounds
as part of their race preparation. Most of the work concentrated on the medium compound
though, as Barcelona is not suited for the supersoft.

Temperatures were once again cool for the final test, with ambient temperatures peaking at 18
degrees centigrade on the last two days of the test. Ambient temperatures did not exceed 10
degrees centigrade during the rain-soaked first two days of testing.

The fastest time of the test, set by Mercedes driver Nico Rosberg on day four (120130) with a
new set of soft tyres, was significantly faster than the benchmark in Barcelona last week, and
about a second and a half faster than the best testing times in Barcelona last year.

Many of the teams with new parts concentrated on aerodynamic testing of the new
components, while some teams also carried out race simulations especially those running new
drivers this year as well as qualifying simulations with the supersoft tyre.

More Testing Facts

Once again, the time difference between the slick compounds was in the region of half a second
per lap, confirming the results seen at the previous Barcelona test, although the performance
gap in Australia should be slightly bigger. The teams also assessed wet weather crossover points
on a drying track and carried out pit stop practice.

While the weather was not always favourable, this was a test that challenged the versatility of
the car-tyre package to the utmost. Not only did the cars run in an extremely wide variety of
conditions, but Barcelona also assesses every aspect of a car technically, thanks to its
demanding circuit layout that contains every type of corner. The tyres on the left side of the car
are the most stressed, due to the quantity of high-energy right-hand turns such as turn three.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 728


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The total amount of kilometres carried out in pre-season testing: 36,970kms.

Most laps of Barcelona: Rosberg (Mercedes): 251 laps


Alonso (Ferrari): 222 laps
Hamilton (Mercedes): 230 laps

Tyre usage at Barcelona

Total number of sets brought to Barcelona: 451 sets which equals 1804 tyres
- of which supersoft tyres: 35 sets
- of which soft tyres: 119 sets
- of which medium tyres: 123 sets
- of which hard tyres: 112 sets
- of which intermediate tyres: 38 sets
- of which wet tyres: 24 sets

Total amount of sets used: 363


- of which supersoft tyres: 22 sets
- of which soft tyres: 104 sets
- of which medium tyres: 119 sets
- of which hard tyres: 63 sets
- of which intermediate tyres: 34 sets
- of which wet tyres: 21 sets

Longest run: 19 laps on the hard compound


30 laps of the medium compound
19 laps on the soft compound
14 laps on the supersoft compound
47 laps on the intermediate compound
48 laps on the wet compound

Lowest / highest ambient temperature over four days: 6 C (Day 4) / 18 C (Day 3+4)
Lowest / highest track temperature over four days: 8 C (Day 1+2+3) / 26 C (Day 4)

Testing Times+

Day 1
1. Webber 122693 Soft New
2. Hamilton 124348 Medium New
3. Vergne 125017 Medium New

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 729


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Day 3
1. Grosjean 122716 Soft New
2. Button 123181 Medium New
3. Maldonado 123628 Soft New

Day 3
1. Hamilton 120558 Soft New
2. Massa 121266 Supersoft New
3. Sutil 121627 Soft New

Day 4
1. Rosberg 120130 Soft New
2. Alonso 120494 Soft New
3. Button 121444 Soft New

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 730


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.16 Analysis of the final Barcelona F1 test by James Allen


(by JA.F1 Official Website http://www.jamesallenonf1.com/)

Now that the testing is finally over and the teams are back at base preparing their cars for
departure to Melbourne later this week, we can look more closely at what happened in
Barcelona last week and what it tells us about the relative pace of the cars.

Well do it in two separate posts:

* Analysis of lap times and long runs, looking for further trends and indicators
* A look at some of the Technical innovations which indicated what we might see in season

With the help of JA on F1 Technical Adviser Mark Gillan, formerly the top operational engineer
at Williams, we can look closely at what happened on the final day of testing in Barcelona, with
some stunning single lap times and some longer runs.

We see a similar pattern with several of the teams, like Mercedes, McLaren and Ferrari, where
the drivers did short low fuel runs in the morning, when the track was improving and then in the
middle of the day through the afternoon, they focus on long runs. The difference between the
short run lap times and the long run times is significant up to 8 seconds per lap. This isnt all
fuel load, some of this is the drivers working on ways of getting the tyres to last.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 731


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Nico Rosberg set the fastest time of the test, 1.5 seconds faster than last years pole position
time on a qualifying simulation run on soft tyres. It appears that the Mercedes ran on less fuel
than its rivals when it did the short runs, as the lap time margin between short runs and long
runs is bigger for them than Ferrari, for example.

The tyre degradation for the Mercedes and the Ferrari looks quite similar, if you study the
longer runs on the right of the graph. This indicates that Mercedes has improved in this area
over the recent testing period; so they will be quite pleased after the test with both qualifying
pace and tyre degradation.

Although they have showed their hand, at least they know that their car can find the grip on the
single lap, whereas several teams have not been able or willing to show that yet. Remember
that Mercedes was a clear second slower than the pacesetters in the final few races of 2012, so
they will not have made up all of that in one winter. But they have definitely improved their car.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 732


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

The Ferrari looks very consistent on longer runs and was faster than the Mercedes in Sector 1
and Sector 3 on the short run, so it looks like a car that Alonso and Massa can compete with.
There are more development parts promised for Melbourne and Malaysia. Ferrari was behind in
the final races of 2012 and will not have made up all the gap. However, the car looks stable and
one has to presume that Alonso will get the most from it throughout the year; they should be in
the hunt therefore.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 733


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Buttons long runs show consistency too, but the lap times area clearly slower than the other
two, noticeably so. It could be higher fuel, but more likely the gap in correlation as they try to
get the maximum out of the changes they made to the chassis from last year. Its a longer-term
project with McLaren, from the looks of things. They can never be underestimated when it
comes to development, so they will be there as the season goes on, even if they dont set the
pace in the first race.

Of course the question everyone wants to know at this stage is who will be the fastest in
Melbourne?
These graphs illustrate how hard it is this year to predict that accurately, for the reason that not
all teams have been as open as Mercedes in showing what they have got.

Red Bull, for example, were working to a totally different run plan to Mercedes, Ferrari and
McLaren.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 734


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Vettels graph shows consistency, with shorter runs. In the morning the team was working on its
passive DRS system as well as trying different floors and in the afternoon a development passive
DRS, according to sources. This is consistent with this kind of run plan. At no stage do they show
their hand performance wise, because they are working on trying out different things.

This shows two things: they are pushing hard to get the passive DRS working, as they clearly see
significant gains from it, but also it shows that they are confident their basic car is fast enough
to compete in Melbourne. For all that Vettel said it hadnt been a great test, this run plan looks
like a team that feels it has a good car to start the season, but is pushing the envelope hard for
the future.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 735


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

As for Sauber and Force India, both teams had similar run plans, short runs in the morning until
the track stabilises and then longer runs in the afternoon. Both look reasonably consistent on
the long runs, the Sauber is pretty much where you would expect them to be, building on last
year, given that they had a good car last year and have put a fast driver into it.

Hulkenbergs last three runs look good as do Di Restas last two.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 736


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

As for the other teams, Ricciardo looked very consistent on his longer runs, but they were much
slower than the front runners. You have to be careful with a graph like his because the tyre
degradation is always worse when the driver is hitting a faster basic lap time.

The Toro Rosso and Williams cars didnt look particularly quick at the end of this Barcelona test.
Williams has had to change its exhaust, which may be part of the reason.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 737


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.17 Barcelona II - Test Analysis by Scott Williams


(by Scott Williams - http://formulaoneanalysis.blogspot.co.uk)

With pre-season coming to a close we were hoping for some shocking headline times and plenty
of long-runs, what we got was something a bit different. The general consensus is that the field
is closing up but let's look at some of the data and assess how each team looks going into the
new season.

I've chosen to concentrate primarily on day three as the dry conditions gave the most reliable
data. Still to give a fair overview I've also looked at the afternoons of day one and two.
Unfortunately the website (http://f1tests.info) I use which provides the raw data to calculate
both fastest adjusted laps and tyre degradation wasn't working on the last crucial day. Apologies
in advance but from the seven days of testing we have more than enough data to analyse. Some
parts of day four will still be considered but accurate and detailed comparison can't be made. I'll
finish my analysis by comparing the conclusions found in this post to the conclusions I reached
in the first test.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 738


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.17.1 Fastest Adjusted Times

Looking at the 20 fastest adjusted times for the first test gives a feeling of Mercedes and Ferrari
dominance. Still does this mean they'll be right at the front in Australia? Perhaps not. Testing
isn't really about posting fast laps and other teams, especially Red Bull, have not attempted runs
with 20-30kg of fuel in. Historically they have run 70kg as a baseline level which is worth about 3
seconds.

These are the overall best adjusted times:

Note: There is a lack of clarity on Hamilton's time above (80.817), the compound has been listed
as medium but the adjustment is only for the fuel adjustment (not the tyre difference between
the soft and medium).

The adjusted times take into account the 0.5 second difference between each tyre compound
(except between the soft and supersoft) and the fuel adjustment not including in or out laps.
Unfortunately due to the problems on day four of the second test I've been unable to make the

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 739


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

same fuel adjustment. However since all of the times in the table above would have been set on
1-2 lap stints fuel adjustment is not as relevant.

The majority of fastest times for the other teams were also set on the last day of testing (see
below) so it's unfortunate that the data is not available as having access to stint lengths would
aid comparison between them.

3 Button McLaren 1m21.444s +1.314


4 Hulkenberg Sauber 1m21.541s +1.411
5 Raikkonen Lotus 1m21.658s +1.528
6 di Resta Force India 1m21.664s +1.534

Overall what we've learnt is that the Mercedes appears to be a quicker car than the Ferrari. This
takes into account both short and long stints performed throughout the two tests. Mercedes
have often been quicker although the obvious factors, such as different programmes and
different baseline fuel levels, cloud exact comparison.

However it's difficult to read too much into this as Ferrari have not brought their final
aerodynamic package to testing, instead choosing to wait until Australia where they bring the
first part of an aggressive early development push. Ferrari remain confident on scoring strong
results at the start of the season and have been encouraged by on-track performance and its
correlation to their windtunnel.

"Our work in the windtunnel is an element that gives us faith in the area of aerodynamics, where
90 per cent of the performance comes from, so we can work with a certain calmness" - Stefan
Domenicali, Ferrari Team Principal.

We've covered Mercedes and Ferrari but it's worth noting that Lotus, Red Bull and McLaren
have not attempted low fuel stints. This makes comparison of the short runs more difficult. Red
Bull and McLaren have historically tested with high fuel levels and this continues to hold true.
What is striking that the 21st fastest fuel adjusted time was Vettel on the first day of the
Catalunya test. Look at the circumstances of this run and you can easily envisage the Red Bull
running a low 1:19. Lotus and McLaren have yet to show such promising pace. However some of
the longer stints, particularly from Lotus, really stand-out.

Long run pace is often decided by the degradation experienced so let's now analysis that.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 740


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

5.3.17.2 Tyre Degradation

The reduced running time in dry conditions means the data sample is quite small so we need to
isolate specific runs and identify patterns between teams. Another issue is that with unfinished
packages and cooler temperatures than those that the teams will experience in Australia and
Malaysia there's only so much we can read into these drop-offs over stints.

Like last week I've broken down the stints into different categories:

2-5 laps, under 86 seconds first lap


2-5 laps, over 86 seconds last lap
6+, under 86 seconds first lap
6+, over 86 seconds last lap

Each of these will be analysed where possible to the different tyre compounds.

Most of the runs fall into the first two categories. There was quite a lot of tactic variation within
the 2-5 laps as each team worked differently to extract performance; still some similarities could
be seen. Ferrari, Mercedes and McLaren each ran a fast lap followed by a slower lap before
increasing the speed again. I've adjusted these stints to remove the slow lap, taking this into
account provides some marked conclusions.

Soft

McLaren's stint starting with a 82.6 second lap was very strong giving up only 1.06 seconds per
lap on the softer compound. Red Bull and Toro Rosso also did well but since their stints were
long and less aggressive the result is almost to be expected.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 741


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

One of the Lotus runs was arguably the best of all the stints as
they only dropped 1.9 seconds over 2 laps (with a starting time
in the mid 83s). This type of stint is very encouraging and shows
some definite promise for Lotus.

Not every result was so positive and there are some worries
from the second test for Mercedes. The large amount of
degradation experienced in the shorter runs could show some troubles ahead for the team. The
four stints that were run on the soft tyres all ranged between 1.88 and 2.3 seconds drop-off per
lap across 3-4 lap stints. This data reflects a worryingly consistent level of degradation. However
it's worth noting that, in each of these stints, Mercedes were significantly faster than the other
teams which may go a long way to explaining the difference. The other mitigating factor is each
of these runs was on day three so specific daily circumstances or driving styles may have
affected the results. Nico Rosberg's runs on day four drew praise from other drivers.

"Nico had a great final day of testing in his Mercedes, which shows how dangerous he and Lewis
will be in the future." - Sebastian Vettel, reigning F1 champion.

Some good news for Ferrari fans is that Ferrari posted equally fast times to Mercedes but
experienced much better degradation. Though this could have been because they only ran for 2
laps. All-in-all Ferrari's degradation was consistently better in the second test when compared
to the first test. This agrees with the 'cold tear' theory put forward here after the last analysis.
The Ferrari certainly seemed more comfortable, especially on day three in the warmer
conditions. It will be interesting to see how this carries over to very hot conditions but in all
likelihood the Ferrari will look good.

Medium

The Mercedes came alive on the medium runs between 8-10 laps where the starting laps were
quicker, the average drop-off during these laps was 0.3 seconds per stint over the 4 stints - 3 of
which started in the 1:24s. The only point of comparisons over these type of runs were the
McLarens who also ran 3 stints, this time averaging a drop-off of 0.66 seconds. The Mercedes
therefore seemed to be better on the mediums.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 742


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

However this trend seems to be reversed on the slower and long medium runs, where the
McLaren was stronger. The runs from Toro Rosso and Force India can be discounted as they
started off so slowly (in the 1:30s), these were clearly laps performed around a specific slow
delta.

The runs from the other three teams were all below this mark, starting between 1:26.0 and
1:28.5 so are more comparable. Only Massa's run experienced gradual degradation. The
McLaren and Mercedes attempted to slow down their runs after the initial fast laps and got
faster as the stint went on. What this proves is that different teams are going about their testing
programmes in subtly different ways. I think the Mercedes drop-off of 0.3 seconds is more
representative so that certainly looks good.

Hard and Unknown

There were few runs on hard tyres or long runs. However there were plenty of short stints on
unknown tyres (where I've been unable to find out compound information), obviously this isn't
a perfect comparison as compounds vary so much but looking at general averages can
sometimes be helpful.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 743


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Again this backs up the theory that Lotus are very good with tyre degradation. These unknown
runs all began in the 1:23-1:24's so were quick from the offset.
Similarly Force India's degradation looked strong in their one
run which began in the 1:23's.

Ferrari had several runs beginning in the 1:21-1:23's. In


particular a 3-lap stint starting in the 1:22's only saw 0.26
seconds of drop-off per lap which is impressive. It's stints like
this which give Ferrari genuine cause for optimism ahead of the new year.

Ultimately teams like Red Bull and Williams looked a little underwhelming across all of these
runs. Their degradation was generally higher, across all of the runs, than some of their
competitors. The Toro Rosso stints were all longer stints (towards 4-5 laps) and appear to be on
softs or supersofts when comparing to their previous stints so it would be best to ignore their
lowly position on the table above.

5.3.17.3 Summary

In truth the picture is very cloudy; the lack of data, the changing conditions from day-to-day and
the different programmes run by teams means any conclusions drawn on tyre degradation are
slightly suspect at best. What we can say though is that Lotus are still probably looking best,
especially on the longer stints.

5.3.17.4 Pecking Order?

Despite eight days of testing there is still significant doubt over the pecking order. This is due to
the weather and the different testing programmes, leading to one of the most inconclusive
testing periods in recent F1 history. However analysing the data we have been able to gather
some crucial insights.

Taking everything into account, short and long run pace plus tyre degradation I would give the
following pecking order:

Red Bull > Lotus > Mercedes > Ferrari > McLaren > Sauber > Williams > Force India > Toro
Rosso > Marussia > Caterham

This is actually fairly similar to my first analysis. I still feel that Red Bull are the best car and
McLaren are outside of the top four (if only because of their lack of consistency). The Sauber
looks the best of the rest although Williams have yet to show what they're capable of.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 744


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

It's important to state how close the top teams are (within 0.5 seconds) and there is definitely
uncertainty about which team will arrive to Australia in best shape. Each team also has its own
strengths and weaknesses which are summarised below.

5.3.17.5 Constructors Report

Red Bull
Pace: A
Degradation: B
Reliability: A

Red Bull have played their cards close to their chests. In terms of fuel adjusted times they were
only 21st. What is clear from watching the car, and some of the times Webber was posting on
day one in tricky conditions, is that this car has huge quantities of downforce. Also the balance
on the car appears favourable to its nearest competitors, suffering from neither the snappiness
in the rear of the Ferrari or the understeer of the McLaren. The reliability on the car is fantastic,
issues were few and far between during testing so I expect another relatively blemish-free
campaign from the RB9.

Overall you can expect the Red Bull to be right at the front of the first race. They're working
from an existing (evolutionary base) like Ferrari and Lotus and it would be a monumental
surprise not to see a Red Bull in the first two rows in Australia.

Ferrari
Pace: A-
Degradation: B-
Reliability: A-

Ferrari set some impressive times during pre-season testing however they have struggled to
match Mercedes in this category. This may be resolved by their early season development push.
The long runs were pretty variable and there are still small issues that need to be resolved
across the board e.g. the degradation again doesn't look as good as it needs to be, perhaps due
to the colder conditions experienced in Catalunya. The Ferrari is clearly a quick car but I'll put
my neck on the line to say that it won't be the pacesetter in Australia or on the front row of the
grid.

Ferrari would be happy with a podium from Australia and they may have a reasonable chance
with Alonso at the helm. Many people have touted Ferrari as a ready title contender but unless
they can bring crucial performance to Melbourne and hold it throughout the season I feel a
repeat of last season won't happen.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 745


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

McLaren
Pace: B+
Degradation: B+
Reliability: B

Fast one minute, slow the next. There's ample evidence to suggest the McLaren is behind the
other four title contenders.The lack of dry weather running has caused issues for McLaren.
Ideally when designing a revolutionary car (they've changed from a push-rod system to a pull-
rod system) you'd get as much running as possible but this hasn't happened. With Button being
notoriously unsuited to unpredictable cars and Perez recently arrived you'd expect the McLaren
to struggle with this level of inconsistency and doubt.

I think it's unreasonable to expect anything too great from McLaren in Australia, qualifying on
the third row of the grid and scoring double digits points is a reasonable expectation. The pace,
degradation and reliability have all been good but far too inconsistent.

Lotus
Pace: A-
Degradation: A+
Reliability: C

The only real problem experienced by Lotus during the two tests is the multiple reliability issues
experienced by Kimi Raikkonen. The other issue is whether Lotus have the ultimate one lap
pace, they haven't attempted fast laps like the Mercedes and Ferrari so it's hard to ultimately
conclude where they'll be on the grid. Despite this the longer runs have looked very positive.
However this is down, in part, to the excellent tyre degradation seen on the Lotus. They are
certainly the leaders of the field in this regard.

What does this mean for Melbourne? They will hope to emulate Grosjean's excellent third place
qualifying position although this will be difficult. In the race they'll hope to be in contention for a
podium position.

Mercedes
Pace: A
Degradation: B
Reliability: B

The Mercedes has easily been the most surprising car during pre-season testing. They've posted
the quickest and most consistent laps throughout. Mercedes and Hamilton fans will be hoping
that this isn't false optimism. Still the long runs on the Mercedes have looked pretty stable and
the balance on the car has been nothing like last year. Nico Rosberg claimed that the

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 746


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

overheating of the rear tyres is in the past which was one of the major issues for Mercedes last
season. Things are definitely heading in the right direction and the one-lap pace of the
Mercedes will put them in contention for the front row/second row come Australia.

The big concern going into this season is erasing the operational blemishes from last season and
coping with tyre degradation in hotter conditions. These are still question marks and are the
only reasons that I'm not predicting greater things for Mercedes.

Sauber
Pace: B
Degradation: A-
Reliability: B

Sauber have been relatively understated throughout testing. A lot of their focus has been on
managing the tyres and running to a relatively slow and consistent delta to reduce tyre
degradation. In the first four days of testing in the first Catalunya test over half of their stints
ended up faster than they started. What does this tell us? They've probably learnt a lot about
managing the tyres. This should make them stronger in the race and they'll hope to stop less
than the rest of the field. This could be especially relevant if the Pirelli's degrade as quickly as
the media have been predicting.

The Sauber has also showed glimpses of speed, finishing third fastest in the first week of testing
at Catalunya and finishing fourth on the final day of testing. Sauber will look to score points and
may be in a tight battle with Force India and Williams throughout the season.

Force India
Pace: B-
Degradation: A-
Reliability: A

The one thing you can say about the Force India is that it's a very reliable car. The team have
approached testing in a methodical style and the car looks solid. However the big question is
whether or not it looks spectacular. Can the Force India challenge for big points? The answer is
probably no, they don't look like they can do anything that will rival the top peformers and I
can't see them rising to the heights of Hulkenberg's performance in Brazil or the Williams victory
at Catalunya. I could be proven wrong but I believe that the Force India will be a semi-consistent
points scorer and no more this season.
However big aerodynamic updates in Australia may solve their issue and the good base +
increased speed may allow this team to achieve better things. First they need to focus on adding
the raw performance before this team can outperform its previous seasons outings.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 747


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Williams
Pace: B-
Degradation: C
Reliability: A-

Williams have been very positive about their latest challenger (claiming that they are not ruling
out wins) but I still think it's too early to judge their efforts.This may be because of their testing
approach, like the Red Bull's they have not attempted many short runs where the full pace is on
show. Plus since they launched later than the other ten teams I think they have primarily been
focusing on gathering data and understanding the car.

Overall the lack of evidence makes Williams a difficult one to judge but there's no reason why
they can't do well this year. Although they've received a B- for pace this could easily have been
higher had their programme been different. We shall have to wait and see.

Toro Rosso
Pace: C+
Degradation: A-
Reliability: A

Like the Force India, the Toro Rosso is a very solid car. Both its degradation and reliability have
been consistently notable during testing. The major pitfall of the car is the lack of outright pace,
it has also looked more unstable than the others. All this adds up to one of their two drivers at
least suffering a Q1 exit in Australia. All of the midfield teams are looking to consistently fight
for points. One of the midfield teams is going to miss out and it may be Toro Rosso, despite the
improvements made from last year.

Caterham
Pace: E+
Degradation: C-
Reliability: B

The Caterham appears to be the worst car in the field now, according to some track observers
the car looks like a real handful especially in wet conditions. They've fared better in degradation
than Marussia but have struggled for pace. Will Pic and Van der Garde be able to turn it around
in Australia? It's going to be a close, season-long battle with Marussia but there can only be one
winner.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 748


http://www.f1-forecast.com
AERODYNAMIC & MECHANICAL UPDATES 2013 VOLUME 1
WINTER TESTS BARCELONA II 29 FEBRUARY 03 MARCH F1 Season 2013

Marussia
Pace: D
Degradation: D
Reliability: C+

Marussia appear to have fallen further behind the midfield although they look like they've
jumped Caterham which could be crucial for their future F1 participation. However the
degradation on the Marussia looks particularly bad with over 2 seconds a lap drop-off on some
of their fastest stints.

Overall the car has looked slow but solid. The introduction of KERS will help in its battle for 10th
but the loss of Glock will hurt the team. Bianchi looks like a decent prospect though. It's hard to
expect too much from Marussia; expecting anything more than a 10th place battle with
Caterham would be too much.

The F1-Forecast Technical Files Page 749


http://www.f1-forecast.com