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TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

College of Architecture and Fine Arts


Department of Graphics and Technology

DESIGN 5

Handicrafts

Submitted by:
Arlando, Judy Ann L.
BGT AT 4A

Submitted to:
Prof. Manzano
HANDICRAFT

A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or


handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects
are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector
of craft, and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to
making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles, moldable and rigid
materials, paper, plant fibers, etc. Usually the term is applied to traditional techniques of
creating items (whether for personal use or as a product) that are both practical and
aesthetic.
Many handcrafters use natural, even entirely indigenous, materials while others
may prefer modern, non-traditional materials, and even upcycle industrial materials. The
individual artisanship of a handcrafted item is the paramount criterion; those made by
mass production or machines are not handicraft goods.

TYPES OF HANDICRAFTS

Pottery
Pottery is the material from which the pottery ware is made, of which major types include
earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also
called a pottery (plural "potteries"). Pottery also refers to
the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery.
Pottery is made by forming a clay body into objects of a
required shape and heating them to high temperature.

Basket Weaving
Basket weaving (also basketry, basket making, or
basketmaking) is the process of weaving unspun
vegetable fibers into a basket or other similar form.
People and artists who weave baskets are called basket
makers and basket weavers.
Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials; anything that will
bend and form a shape. Examples include pine straw, stems, animal hair, hide, grasses,
thread, and wood.

Weaving
Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or
threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The other methods are
knitting, lace making, felting, and braiding or plaiting.
The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the
lateral threads are the weft or filling. (Weft or woof is
an old English word meaning "that which is woven".
The method in which these threads are inter woven
affects the characteristics of the cloth.
Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place
while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of
cloth (warp threads with a weft thread winding between) can also be made using other
methods, including tablet weaving, back-strap, or other techniques without looms.
The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave.
The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave,
satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or can
be woven in decorative or artistic designs.

Tatting
Tatting is a technique for handcrafting a particularly durable lace
constructed by a series of knots and loops. Tatting can be used to
make lace edging as well as doilies, collars, and other decorative
pieces. The lace is formed by a pattern of rings and chains formed
from a series of cow hitch, or half-hitch knots, called double stitches,
over a core thread. Gaps can be left between the stitches to form picots, which are used
for practical construction as well as decorative effect.
Tatting dates to the early 19th century. The term for tatting in most European
languages is derived from French frivolit, which refers to the purely decorative nature of
the textiles produced by this technique. The technique was developed to imitate point
lace.

Macram
Macram or macram is a form of textile-making using knotting rather than
weaving or knitting. Its primary knots are the square knot and forms of "hitching": full hitch
and double half hitches. It was long crafted by sailors,
especially in elaborate or ornamental knotting forms, to
decorate anything from knife handles to bottles to parts of
ships. Materials used in macram include cords made of
cotton twine, linen, hemp, jute, leather or yarn. Cords are
identified by construction, such as a 3-ply cord, made of 3 lengths of fiber twisted together.

Crochet
Crochet is a process of creating fabric from yarn, thread, or
other material strands using a crochet hook. The word is
derived from the French word "crochet", meaning hook.
Hooks can be made of materials such as metals, woods or
plastic and are commercially manufactured as well as
produced by artisans. Crocheting, like knitting, consists of pulling loops through other
loops, but additionally incorporates wrapping the working material around the hook one
or more times.
Crochet differs from knitting in that only one stitch is active at one time, stitches
made with the same diameter of yarn are comparably taller, and a single crochet hook is
used instead of two knitting needles. Additionally, crochet has its own system of symbols
to represent stitch types.
Tapestry
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a
vertical loom. However, it can also be woven on a floor loom as
well. It is composed of two sets of interlaced threads, those running
parallel to the length (called the warp) and those parallel to the
width (called the weft); the warp threads are set up under tension
on a loom, and the weft thread is passed back and forth across part or all of the warps.
Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the
completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be
visible. In tapestry weaving, weft yarns are typically discontinuous; the artisan interlaces
each colored weft back and forth in its own small pattern area. It is a plain weft-faced
weave having weft threads of different colors worked over portions of the warp to form
the design. Most weavers use a naturally based warp thread such as linen or cotton. The
weft threads are usually wool or cotton, but may include silk, gold, silver, or other
alternatives.

Mosaic
Mosaic is the art of creating images with an assemblage of small
pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It may be a
technique of decorative art, an aspect of interior decoration, or
of cultural and spiritual significance as in a cathedral. Small
pieces, normally roughly quadratic, of stone or glass of different
colors, known as tesserae, are used to create a pattern or picture.

Wood Carving
Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of
a cutting tool (knife), chisel, and a mallet, resulting in a
wooden figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a
wooden object.
PART OF THE PHILIPPINES THAT MANUFACTURED HANDICRAFTS

PLACE PRODUCT
Ilocos Norte Pottery
Ilocos Sur Blanket Weaving, Basketry, Pottery-making, wood and stone craft
La Union Pottery-making, Blanket weaving
Pangasinan Soft Broom
Bohol Raffia bags, rolls, and placemats
Siquijor Molave Wine Holder
Camiguin Nito Handicraft
South Bukidnon Bamboo Novelty
Agusan del Sur Woodcarft
Surigao del Norte Reinz Driftwood
Surigao del Sur De Lara Agsam Handicraft
Marinduque Abaca footwear, Buntal bags
Palawan Rainmaker, Table Runner
Romblon Vine Basket
Aurora Sabutan Craft
Tarlac Crocheted Products
Catanduanes Abaca Twine Basket
Abaca Slippers, Abaca Silk, tayok-Tayok Bag with Nito handle,
Aklan Sinamay Cloth, Nito Products, Softbroom, Bariw Mat, Abaca
Rope, Abaca Wallet
Antique Patadyong with Design, Handwoven Coth
Ilo-Ilo Abaca Scrunch Lampshade
Samar Tikog Mats
Compostela
Woodcraft
Valley
Camiguin Nito Handicraft
Dipolog City Nito Vine Craft
Saranggani Sinamay
Cebu Wooden Crafts
Bicol Handcrafted fashion bags, Utility Baskets
Guimaras Native Bags
Negros
Native Wallets and Bags
Occidental
Biliran Nito Based Products

PROCESS OF MAKING/PRODUCING HANDICRAFTS

Handicraft techniques are the processes for converting the materials into finished
products. The materials foreshadow the techniques. In addition, the choice of technique
depends on the material and the design, the use or function of the object as well as the
availability of tools and equipment.

Handicraft techniques can be categorized into three major processes:


Pre-construction techniques pertain to the preparation of materials after harvest
and before use. Plant-based materials are dried in the sun to eliminate moisture. If fibers
are to be extracted from plants, the stems or leaves are allowed to undergo a retting
process. Retting entails soaking the materials in water and through bacterial action the
unusable parts decay and fibers are extracted then dried. While some materials are
utilized for their natural earthly tones, bleaching and dyeing may be also being performed
to dried fibers and similar materials to incorporate color and variety. Cutting is another
pre-construction technique that is applied to almost all materials. It includes stripping,
pounding, splitting, crushing and peeling. For metals that cannot be cut using snips,
sawing and filing is also done.
Construction techniques include the actual implementation of the design plan
using the selected materials and appropriate tools. Techniques are sometimes specific to
a particular type of handicraft but they are generally concerned about joining, forming and
assembling. The methods of joining materials in wood craft, for instance, are gluing using
adhesives and nailing using brads and screws. In metal craft, forming includes bending
the metal to hold two pieces together or soldering. In wire (or metal) craft, construction
technique includes drawing a wire where its shape is reduced or changed using a
drawplate. Annealing, a process of softening metals using heat then dropping it in a
pickling solution or water, will allow the metal to be shaped or formed accordingly. In
needlework, fabrics are joined through sewing using needles and thread or in case of
crocheting, crocheted strips are joined by interloping the yarns using a crochet hook.
During construction, decorative elements are also added and are incorporated in the
process. For example, pyrography, a method of decorating a bamboo by burning its
surface with the use of a hot iron or wire, is employed. Another example of adding
decorative element during the construction process is in smocking where the stitches
themselves lend decorative element to the project, such as the cable stitch or the
honeycomb stitch.

The third major process is applying finishing techniques to improve strength,


durability and aesthetic quality of the handicraft. In rattan craft, varnish is applied to
incorporate shimmer and protect the rattan from decay. In other cases, shellac and
lacquer are applied over surfaces of handicrafts. In basketry, woven baskets are given a
binding edge finish to make it stable and durable. For fabrics, most finishing techniques
include ironing or pressing the materials. This is true for projects like quilts, tie-dye, batik
and even smocked products. For all finishing techniques, aesthetic enhancement must
be prudent to preserve the integrity of the material. This means that the finishing touches
must not camouflage the intrinsic qualities of the materials used such as when paint is
applied to seashells or dark stain is applied to a wood with a beautiful bark or rings. A
good example is the natural finish done in the salad bowl which showed an honest
treatment of the material preserving its tiger barks and natural color.