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International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics (IJCSBI.ORG) ISSN: 1694 - 2507 (Print) ISSN:
International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics (IJCSBI.ORG) ISSN: 1694 - 2507 (Print) ISSN:

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

(IJCSBI.ORG)

ISSN: 1694-2507 (Print) ISSN: 1694-2108 (Online)

VOL 16, NO 1 JANUARY-JUNE 2016

IJCSBI.ORG Table of Contents VOL 16, NO 1 JANUARY-JUNE 2016 Various Common Control Channel Assignment

IJCSBI.ORG

Table of Contents

VOL 16, NO 1

JANUARY-JUNE 2016

Various Common Control Channel Assignment Schemes in CRNs: A Survey Jagsir Singh, Inderdeep Kaur Aulakh and Roopali Garg

1

Framework for Threat Modelling for a Power Utility: Case of Zimbabwe Power Utility Company Samuel Musungwini, Gilbert Mahlangu, Beauty Mugoniwa, and Samuel Simbarashe Furusa

8

Enhanced-bandwidth Compact Printed Inverted F Antenna Suitable for LTE/GSM Mobile Phone S. Jesse Jackson and T. Thomas

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Implementation of e-Government Services using Java Technologies: A Methodological Guide in Improving an e-Police Management System in Zimbabwe Mahlangu Gilbert, Chikonye Musafare, Furusa Samuel Simbarashe and Mugoniwa Beauty

32

Onto Tagger: Ontology Focused Image Tagging System Incorporating Semantic Deviation Computing and Strategic Set Expansion Gerard Deepak and Sheeba Priyadarshini J

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International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Various Common Control Channel Assignment Schemes

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Various Common Control Channel Assignment Schemes in CRNs:

A Survey

Jagsir Singh

Research Scholar(ME-IT) UIET, Panjab University Chandigarh, India

Inderdeep Kaur Aulakh

Assistant Professor & Coordinator (IT) UIET, Panjab University Chandigarh, India

Roopali Garg

Assistant Professor (IT) UIET, Panjab University Chandigarh, India

Abstract

Cognitive radio technology makes the unlicensed user to use the licensed band in opportunistic manner. By using licensed band in intelligently way for solving the problem of shortage of radio bands and optimal utilization of licensed band there is the requirement control channel (CCC). Control channels are used for exchanging control information about the new available channel for data transmission. When the primary user is detected or decline of QoS of currently being used channel by cognitive user then there is need of the common control channel to move on a new available channel. These channels are required to sense the free channel, to transmit the control information for channel synchronization between sender and receiver. It is challenging aspect of CRNs to provide the proper coverage of CCC that the problems of data packet loss or termination of connection can be reduced. In this paper various control channel assignment schemes are described.

Keywords

Common Control Channel (CCC), Media Access Control (MAC), Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), Primary Users (PUs).

1. INTRODUCTION Cognitive radio allows to cognitive users (unlicensed users) to use the licensed band in opportunistic way for addressing the problem of radio spectrum scarcity and utilization of licensed radio bands. It implements the idea of spectrum sharing which permits the cognitive users to share free licensed band intelligently without disturbing primary user’s communication in the course of cognitive radio phenomena. In cognitive

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radio networks there must be channel synchronization between transmitter and receiver upon which channel data will be transmitted to avoid the dada packet loss. A common control channel in CRNs does the various operations such as make the connection between transmitter and receiver, detection of other neighboring cognitive users [1], [2].We can define the control channel in a number of ways such as a dedicated frequency band [3] or a time slot in a time division multiple access systems. And a frequency hopping sequence can be a common control channel. In an intelligent cognitive radio, availability of the spectrum shows the both spatial and temporal variations due to primary user activity. That’s why, there is no assurance that a specified frequency band will be accessible for transferring the control signals. We refer this is the problem of allotment of the common control channels for controlling purpose. In the cognitive radio networks common control channels assignment is done in basic two ways static and dynamic channel allocation algorithms. In this paper we will discuss the various control channel assignment algorithms. There are numbers of challenges in the cognitive radio networks to implement the common control channel algorithms. Some of major issues are robustness to primary user activity, and security to protect the control channel from jamming attack [10]. It is the major issue of cognitive radio networks over which many researchers have been working and they have purposed various common control assignment methods which are described in remaining portion of this paper.

2. VARIOUS COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT

SCHEMES The categorization of common control channel design is the easy way to know the control channel assignment schemes in CR networks which are shown below:

assignment schemes in CR networks which are shown below: Fig. 1 Categorization of CCC design [7].

Fig. 1 Categorization of CCC design [7].

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG 2.1 Overlay In overlay based CCC scheme, the

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2.1 Overlay In overlay based CCC scheme, the CCC is permanently or for the short term allocated of the spectrum not used by the primary user. When the allocated common control channels are affected by primary user’s activity then cognitive radio users has to leave the control channel and create the connection over a new common control channel.

2.1.1 Out-of-Band

In this scheme, licensed or unlicensed band can be used like a common control channel to establish connection between sender and receiver, node co-ordination and synchronization. It helps to maintain the signaling overhead which will increase the performance of the cognitive radio media access protocol. Due to this, most of the cognitive radio network protocols use unlicensed common control channel. If we use the unlicensed dedicated common control channel it may be cause of interference with other communications like networks like Bluetooth which will degrade the performance of CR networks [11]. Also, transmit on single dedicated common control channel will be subject to security attacks like control channel jamming and Denial of service attacks (DoS) which can jeopardize the entire cognitive radio network with single point of failure [11]. Thus, designing common control channel through out-of-band technique has number of issues with such as security attacks, and interference with other technologies.

2.1.2 In-Band

In this common control design scheme, different intervals of time are used to transmit the data and control messages [7]. Currently, sequential and group based CCC design is proposed for node co-ordination and synchronization. In sequential based network setup, CR nodes have to first sense free channel list and scan each and every channel to find the common channel which takes long time.

2.2 Underlay In underlay scheme, same radio band can be used by both primary user and cognitive radio users as a control channel. Control messages are transmitted in low power by using short pulses by using spread spectrum phenomena, which are transmitted over a high bandwidth. Because if transmit the control information over large bandwidth then it does not disrupt the communication of primary users. Even though, cognitive radio control messages and primary user data can be transmitted concurrently in a licensed spectrum.

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3.

MAIN COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL DESIGN SCHEMES

3.1

Dynamic CCC assignment using Swarm Intelligence

Swarm intelligence CCC scheme is purposed to dynamically find and handle control channel in CRNs that does not require explicit messaging and synchronization of clocks of both sender and receiver [4]. It is circulated, in-band and flexible design which handle the problem of primary user movement. Cognitive radio user chooses the best available free channel as CCC when primary user return back over that channel [10]. In addition, if numbers of control channel are less then it becomes easy to maintain. Moreover its benefits, but there is a problem in swarm intelligence common control channel scheme it requires high maintenance mainly in the presence of fast changeable primary user activity.

3.2 Cluster based CCC assignment

In this scheme the common control channel in cognitive radio networks are based on the time and the space-altering spectrum slots. A cluster-based common assignment scheme has been purposed that defines we can assign different control channel in different clusters in the cognitive radio networks [3]. We make the cluster by dividing the CRNs and the common control channel from the every cluster is chosen from the free channels. If the each cluster has large common free channels then it is beneficial such as (i) cognitive user can move to a new control channel if the current channel occupied by a primary user, (ii) it becomes cooperative sensing easier[3]. And to handle the situation when spectrum opportunities are highly heterogeneous a new algorithm designed which is known as Spectrum- Opportunity Clustering (SOC). This technique provides the solution to PU activity problem. The major disadvantage of this scheme is that, to handle signal exchange between the clusters, it needs high control and it is very difficult to synchronize the nodes in the clusters.

3.3 Hybrid CCC based Media Access Control Protocol

To improve the performance in the cognitive radio networks with respect to the synchronization among the nodes of the cognitive radio networks and to handle hidden terminal problem, a hybrid CCC based scheme has been purposed [11]. It provides solution to avoid collisions due to hidden terminal in multi channel network, reduce the time for set of connections of network, robust to primary user activity and provides protection against intruders. In hybrid common control based media access protocol provides solution for above issues of CRNs to improve the performance of cognitive radio-MAC protocol. It is combination of two spectrum band one is 902 MHz and other is 420 MHz which is a Television White space spectrum band. Both bands are collectively used as a CCC for exchanging the control

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signal between sender and receiver and for dynamic primary user activity

[11].

3.4

Synchronized MAC Protocol

It has been purposed to keep away from the need of the dedicated control channel and also sort out the problem of hidden terminal in multi-channel. In this scheme we divide the total time in to fixed-time intervals [12]. And it is defined at the initial state which time slot will be used by the cognitive radio users for transmitting the control information. A dedicated common control channel has many disadvantage, one major drawback is the wastage of radio spectrum. Secondly, a control channel can be overburden when cognitive user increases [6]. Also, it becomes vulnerable to denial of service attack. The synchronized media access protocol is a slotted protocol. It collaborate the control channel contact together with standard vacant data channel [8]. A time slot can works like a channel, over which control and data can be transmitted. It also provides the solution to problem of saturation of common control channels and jamming. The main drawback of SYN-MAC scheme is when a primary user occupies the control slot then it blocks the control channel operation.

3.5 Sequence based Rendezvous Common Control Channel Design

In sequence based CCC assignment scheme control channel are allocated according to a sequence which can be a random sequence or a predefined channel hopping sequence. These sequences are constructed by taking the permutation of available control channel and choose best one from them. A cognitive radio user can use the different sequence for different neighboring user and it possible as well that neighboring users may be use different hopping sequence. Through sequence-based rendezvous scheme, it is possible to: (i) create an upper limit to the time to make contact , (ii) establish a priority order for channels in which rendezvous occurs; (iii) reduce the expected TTR as compared to random rendezvous. In this scheme the sequences are pre-defined in order to visit the available control channels that reduce the time required to make the contact with receiver in

minimum time. Basically the purpose of this method by using the particular sequences which are constructed in such a manner to minimize expected time-to rendezvous to find the best available control channel. If the numbers of available channels are large, then it takes long time to find a adjoining node on a channel for control information exchange [7].But there is a problem in sequence based CCC assignment scheme that the order is predefined and is not adjustable to new control channel opportunities.

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3.6 Adaptive Multiple Rendezvous Control Channel assignment

It solves the problem of multiple rendezvous CCC scheme which is static in nature. In this design the sequences can be chosen dynamically for handling the issue of the interference with primary user. It achieves the high performance by changing the hopping sequence when a primary is detected. If we compare it with sequence based rendezvous scheme it does not require strict synchronization. In simple terms it becomes easy to understand that, it exploits the frequency hopping spread spectrum technique in which transmitting channel changes over a particular time slice or according to a

pseudo random sequence. Similarly, this scheme is implemented in same fashion to avoid the interference with other control channel and also provide primary users activity robustness. But there is a problem in this scheme is the average time to rendezvous may not be limited, cause of this time required to create common control channel link may be long. This happens when available channels are large [7].

4. CONCLUSION To address the problem of common control channel assignment various designs has been purposed by various researcher and computer scientists. We have mentioned some of them. Each and every design algorithm has own pros and cons. But the thing is that according to particular cognitive radio networks we have to choose optimal common control channel assignment scheme that it becomes easy to cognitive radio user to sense the free available channel, exchange the control information related to channel tuning and reduce the interference problem with other licensed(primary user) and non-licensed(cognitive radio) users.

REFERENCES

[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M.C. Vuran, S. Mohanty, “Next generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: a survey”, Elsevier Computer Networks vol.50, no.13, pp. 21272159, Sept. 2006 [2] I.F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, K.R. Chowdhury, “Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks, Ad Hoc Networks”, Elsevier Ad Hoc networks, vol. 7, no.5, pp 810836, Jul. 2009. [3] Sisi Liu, Loukas Lazos, and Marwan Krunz, “Cluster-based Control Channel Allocation in Opportunistic Cognitive Radio”, Networks IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, (TMC), Vol. 11, No. 10, pp. 1436 1449, 2012 [4] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald and Douglas Sicker, “Dynamic Control Channel Assignment in Cognitive Radio Networks using Swarm Intelligence, IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) 2008. [5] J. Zhao, H. Zheng, and G.-H. Yang, “Spectrum sharing through distributed coordination in dynamic spectrum access networks”, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Journal, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 10611075, 2007. [6] J. Zhao, H. Zheng, G.-H. Yang, “Distributed coordination in dynamic spectrum allocation networks”, in: Proc. IEEE DySPAN 2005, pp. 259- 268, November 2005 [7] Brandon F. Lo, “A survey of common control channel design in cognitive radio networks”, Elsevier Physical Comm. , vol.4, No-1, pp. 2639, March-2011

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[8] C. M. Cordeiro and K. Challapali, “C-MAC: A Cognitive MAC Protocol for Multi- Channel Wireless Networks”, in IEEE Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, April 2007. [9] Yogesh R Kondareddy and Prathima Agrawal, “Selective Broadcasting for Multi-Hop CRNs, IEEE Sarnoff Symposium, Princeton, NJ 2008 [10] Claudia Cormio a, Kaushik R. Chowdhury, “Common control channel design for cognitive radio wireless ad hoc networks using adaptive frequency hopping”,Elsevier Ad-Hoc Nerworks Vol. 8, Issue 4, pp. 430-438, June 2010 [11] Satish Anamalamudi and Minglu Jin , “Hybrid Common Control Channel Based MAC Protocol for Cognitive RadioAd-Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, May 2014 [12] Yogesh R Kondareddy and Prathima Agrawal, “Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop CRNs, IEEE International Conference on Comm. Beijing, China 200.

This paper may be cited as:

Singh, J., Aulakh, I. K. and Garg, R. 2016. Various Common Control Channel Assignment Schemes in CRNs: A Survey. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 1-7.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Framework for Threat Modelling for a Power

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Framework for Threat Modelling for a Power Utility: Case of Zimbabwe Power Utility Company

Samuel Musungwini, Gilbert Mahlangu, Beauty Mugoniwa, and Samuel Simbarashe Furusa Computer Science and Information Systems Faculty of Science and Technology Midlands State University Gweru Zimbabwe

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was analyse threats that are inherent in the prepaid electricity meter system and to propose a framework for threat modelling. This framework can be effectively used by power utilities power utilities in particular and other prepaid meter system organisations to achieve end-to-end actionable insights on prepaid electricity metering infrastructure. The study used a qualitative case research methodology with a single unit of analysis. A purposive sampling technique was used to select suitable participants. Data was collected from power utility engineers and security experts using semi-structured interviews and focus group in order to triangulate the research findings. The findings of the study indicated that at the present moment there are very few frameworks that can be explicitly used to model threat to prepaid electricity infrastructure. This has exposed the infrastructure to various attacks such as physical bypass, cyber-attack and mechanically induced attack. We therefore recommend the adoption of an explicit framework for modelling threat in prepaid metering infrastructure.

Keywords Threat modelling, cyber attack, electricity theft, framework, ICTs, Mobile technologies.

1. INTRODUCTION The prepaid metering infrastructure is one of the most vital components of the electricity grid system (Hämmerli, Svendsen & Lopez, 2013), because it is the dominion of revenue collection for the power utilities. Its installation within the electricity grid system has transformed electricity from the “right to use” into a cash commodity which is one of its paramount characteristics.

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This has provided significant benefits to the power utilities, which include maximising revenue collection, minimising cost associated with revenue collection, reduced consumer debt on electricity usage, supplying purchased electricity only, reduction in incorrect electricity billing, etc. (Miyogo, Ondieki, & Nashappi, 2013). With the prepaid electricity metering infrastructure, customers are now able to purchase electricity tokens from various designated points such as power utility’s revenue halls and other vending kiosks (Pabla, 2008). However, the installation of prepaid electricity metering infrastructure to the consumer premises presents different threats that have left it exposed/vulnerable to attack (Tondel, Jaatun & Line, 2012). An attack is an unwanted action that utilizes one or more vulnerabilities to which when performed, it has the paossibility of compromising the purpose of the installed infrastructure (Ucedavelez & Partner, 2012). In this case, the purpose of the prepaid electricity metering infrastructure is to ensure that consumers pay for electricity before use in order to reduce consumer debt, among other reasons. The attack on prepaid metering infrastructure which come in various forms and from different sources has seen power utilities around the world losing millions of dollars through electricity theft. This has negatively impacted revenue streams and backward operations of these utilities.

2. BACKGROUD In Zimbabwe, a prepaid electricity metering system was launched in 2012 for both domestic and commercial consumers to replace the conventional post-paid meters and estimation billing (Megawatt Bulletin, 2012). The concept of prepayment is built around paying before using a product or service. Prepayment systems provide a disbursement for goods and services before consumption or use (Casarin & Nicollier, 2010). In the context of electricity distribution, the aspect of prepayment calls for the consumers to hold electricity credit on their accounts (Miyogo, Ondieki & Nashappi., 2013). The consumer can only use electricity as a commodity or service when the account is paid up in advance. The power utility has managed to install more than 900 000 prepaid electricity meters for both domestic and commercial consumers by now (Sibanda, 2014), with important applications already laid out and usable. However, the installation of prepaid electricity metering system has seen the power utility being deprived of millions of dollars by the consumers who have found ways to steal from prepaid electricity meters. The power utility is losing about US$10 million a month in revenue from electricity theft (Share, 2014). Electricity theft has also seen the country experiencing more loads shedding than ever in recent months, because the power utility cannot

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raise enough revenue for continuous electricity generations. The system was introduced without proper feasibility study to check the polarity of the prepaid electricity meters, hence, the consumers tampering with the system. The power utility has reacted to electricity theft by introducing a Revenue Protection Unit (RPU) to conduct field inspections/checks, investigate and report consumers engaging in electricity thefts. Farawo & Towindo (2013) reported that the power utility now offers monetary incentives as a way to persuade consumers to provide information about electricity theft. Since it is laborious to monitor all the 900 000 and more prepaid electricity meters to be installed by means of field checks/inspection, there is need to protect the system and ensure the security of the installed infrastructure (prepaid electricity meter) so as to yield projected revenues for the investments made. Although, electricity theft has been in existence since the 20 th century, the introduction of the prepaid metering system world over which have transformed electricity into a cash commodity has seen perpetrators adopting “smart” ways or methods of stealing electricity (Sreenivasan, 2011). Some of these methods are so complicated that they cannot be easily detected by the current methods being employed by the power utilities. For example the use of infra-red programming and micro-processor programming techniques to alter electricity billing registers.

Therefore power utilities need to model threat to the prepaid electricity metering infrastructure for them to figure out appropriate ways of combating the attack. Threat modelling increases awareness of threat in order to prepare for the security of the defined system. The threat should be modelled so that all the possible attack strategies could be addressed using appropriate mitigation methods. The process of identifying and discovering vulnerabilities in an infrastructure requires awareness of the access points, threats and their exploitations in achieving an attack goal (Zhang & Xu,

2006).

3. RESEARCH PURPOSE

The purpose of this study was to propose a unique and specific framework for threat modelling that can be used by power utilities in an effective manner to achieve end-to-end actionable insights on prepaid electricity metering infrastructure. This study was guided by the following objectives:

Evaluate and analyse various models/frameworks used in threat modelling.

Determine the steps and processes used in threat modelling.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG  Establish vulnerabilities, threats and

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Establish vulnerabilities, threats and attack strategies in prepaid metering infrastructure.

Identify sources of threats and types of attackers in prepaid metering infrastructure.

Provide guidance for further inquiry ito threats prevention.

4. OVERVIEW OF THREAT MODELLING

Threat modelling is a method used by many security experts and professionals to investigate security incidents and vulnerabilities in information systems and infrastructure. According to (Microsoft, 2012), the method involves identifying the infrastructure that needs protection from attack and the potential threats to that infrastructure, classifying the threats and finding mitigation strategies in a structured process. It is a practice which serves as a organised approach in creating models that define, detect and foretell threats to a given infrastructure in an organisation (Mcgrath & Lennon, 2013). It encompasses the appreciative of the complexity of the infrastructure and identifying all possible threats that may affect its purpose of deployment and use (Zhang & Xu, 2006). Threat modelling can be conducted before the deployment of the infrastructure as a preventive measure or after the deployment as a way of maintenance.

The main factors covered in threat modelling should include identification of what to be secured (system characterising), what an attacker may do (threat), weaknesses (vulnerabilities) that gives the attacker intrusion capabilities and the potential damages (Williams, 2007). The goal of threat modelling is to identify and build possible threats and vulnerabilities to the infrastructure in order to increase the security awareness of the organisation and come up with adequate mitigation strategies. To further elaborate on threat modelling, Ciampa (2009) cites that the objective of threat modelling is to understand the goal of the attacker, the attacker himself, types of attacks and the possible strategies that may be used to attack the infrastructure. The modeller should study components like who is the threat, where and how is it likely to occur and the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure. Therefore, instead of relying with continuous discovery mechanism, organisations can use threat modelling to mitigate and defeat the attack scenarios before they fully develop (Hardy, 2012).

5. PRESENT APPROACHES TO THREAT MODELLING

The capability of an organization to respond to the emerging threats to their infrastructure can be seen as a journey rather than a destination (Excellence, 2013), since attackers always aim to be ahead of the frameworks and models

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currently in use. Various frameworks and models have been used to model threat to the infrastructure by different organisations. Some are simple and ease to use by non-experts in the field of security while others are complicated and require special skills and knowledge. These include, among many the Threat Logic Tree, Attack Tree-Model, Game Theoretic Model, PASTA model and Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation (OCTAVE) framework. This study only looked at the Attack Tree-Model, OCTAVE and Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) Threat Modelling. The decision to choose these models is because ATM and Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) Threat Modelling have been used before to model threat in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and their concepts complement each other in threat identification and evaluation. Although OCTAVE is yet to be used in AMI and other metering infrastructure in electricity grids, its consideration was based on the fact that it focuses on balancing operational risk, security practices, and technology (Zhang & Xu, 2006), which is central to this study.

5.1 Attack Tree-Model This one of the first modelling techniques developed by Schneier (1999). The model takes the form of a tree in demonstrating the attack whereby the attack goal is the root node while the leaf nodes represents the steps to be taken to accomplish the attack goal. It is a schematic mode of depicting how attacks can occur to the infrastructure whereby the root node represent the ultimate goal of the attack while leaf nodes represent the various ways an attacker can use to achieve the ultimate goal (Ucedavelez & Partner, 2012). The leaf nodes are decomposed until they reach a state where further decomposition is no longer possible. Leaf nodes also represent the condition(s) which must be fulfilled to accomplish successive goals or the ultimate goal of the attack. This technique has been used to define attacks against various information infrastructures and other real-world applications. The technique has gained its popularity in computer science and information systems research. It has been widely used by a number of organisations to model threats to information technology and non- information infrastructure. However, this model focused on either classifying threats or modelling the behaviour of the attacker using one specific factor which is the intrusion scenario. This has resulted in the limited scope of the attack discoveries and mitigation strategies. There is a need to extend the concepts covered in previous models to address factors like threat rating, priorities, countermeasures and protection strategies.

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5.2 OCTAVE framework OCTAVE is an approach that aims to increase the decision making process of protection and management of organizational resources (Marek & Paulina, 2006). It is intended to allow people to comprehend the security matters of the organizations and work towards improving them with least exterior assistance. It is underpinned on the philosophy and the principle of self-direct which states that people from the organization are in a better position to decide on the security of their resources. Thus, it provides a systematic and context-driven approach for the organization to manage threats to infrastructure. This technique studies, both technical and organisational issues in order to portray the security needs of an organisation using a three phase approach (Bakari, 2007) as indicated in Figure 2.

phase approach (Bakari, 2007) as indicated in Figure 2. Figure 1: The OCTAVE framework Source: Marek

Figure 1: The OCTAVE framework Source: Marek & Paulina, 2006 As shown in Figure 2, the major components of the OCTAVE framework are Building of Asset-Based Threat Profiles, Identifying Infrastructure Vulnerabilities and Developing Security Strategy and Plans. Within each phase, various processes and activities exist. The other factors that are covered in these three phases though not visible include information gathering, characterising the assets/infrastructure, describing threats and

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current mitigation strategies/plans and establishing security requirements. The OCTAVE framework has presented the foundation and guidelines for many organizations to deal with various threats. Although the OCTAVE framework covers major factors for threat modelling, it focuses more on information infrastructure. Therefore, there is a need for an improved framework that will encompass the physical infrastructure that is deployed external to the organization such as the prepaid electricity meter.

5.3 Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) model

This model has been used in conjunction with the ATM in modelling Threat in Advanced AMI by Tondel et al. (2012) in designing Demo Steinkjer conceptual framework. It is based on two categories which are Threat overview and Attacker strategies.

5.3.1 Threat overview

In classifying threat to the AMI, Tondel et al. (2012) used a STRIDE model which is a borrowed concept from Microsoft to aid the modeller in categorizing the threat. The model is concerned with determining the access an attacker may have to the data (spoofing) as the meter communicates with the back-end system, access to the configuration settings of the meter (information disclosure) such as billing registers and communication link in order to tamper with the billing cycle and the elevation of privileges remotely or physically.

5.3.2 Attack strategies in AMI

These can be identified through information gathering from various sources and presented together with their goals and the ways to achieve them. In order to carry out an attack, the attackers need to have knowledge of the power utility’s communication grid topology and meter configurations. In addition, access is also necessary to plan the attack. Some of the attack strategies identified by Tondel et al. (2012) include:

Manipulating power measurement (physically)

Manipulating measurement values

Manipulating messages from the meter

Physical break-in

Break-in via infra-red port

6. PROCESSES/STEPS IN THREAT MODELING

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The processes and steps to be followed in the threat model differ according to the framework/model used. Although frameworks and models use different processes/steps, they all intend to achieve a common goal that is to provide guidelines in dealing with threats and attacks to the infrastructure (Bertino, Martino, Paci, & Squicciarini, 2010). Figure 3 shows a six (6) step-process model proposed by Meier et al. (2003) in their study on “Improving Web Application Security”.

in their study on “Improving Web Application Security”. Figure 2: Process in threat modelling Source: Meier

Figure 2: Process in threat modelling Source: Meier et al. (2003)

6.1 Identify Assets

The major reason why threat and attacks exist is the availability of assets/infrastructure in the organization. Therefore the goal of the attacker is to gain access to a particular asset/infrastructure of interest and perform an attack. Asset/infrastructure identification involves the classification of critical/vital infrastructure or systems that an organization has to protect/guard against attack. Sub-processes may include describing why the asset/infrastructure needs to be protected and determining access points available for the attack to be possible (Burns, 2005).

6.2 Create an architecture overview

The goal here is to identify the key functionalities, the characteristics and the people served by the asset/infrastructure. It can be represented by Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs), tables and sequence diagrams to document the system and its subsystems. End-to-end deployment scenarios should also be specified so that threat identification in step 4 becomes easy. Therefore, the

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more the modeller has knowledge about the key functionalities, characteristics and the people served by the asset/system, the easier it is to

find threats and determine vulnerabilities

6.2.1 Decompose the application

In

order to focus the attention of threat modelling to the areas of concern,

the

architecture should be divided into sub components. This is the third

step

that provides an illustration of the boundaries of the asset to help define

the parameters of threat modelling.

6.2.2 Identify the threats.

A threat is a potential occurrence that can compromise the

asset/infrastructure. For it to occur, they should be a target asset/infrastructure and a vulnerable point. In performing threat modelling,

the modeller should use a systematic approach to discover all vulnerabilities

of the asset/infrastructure that an attacker can be exploited to achieve the

goal. They should be identified in view of the goals of an attacker, knowledge of the asset and potential vulnerabilities to the asset. It can be identified by using the attack trees, STRIDE model during a brainstorming session or just using the knowledge of the asset to list the ways in which the

attacker can achieve the goals.

6.2.3 Document the threats.

A template can be created and used to document each based on certain

attributes. Some of the attributes include threat description and threat target.

Other attributes may include the attack techniques which may show the vulnerabilities exploited. This is the final stage of threat modelling.

6.2.4 Rate the threats.

The threat should be rated by assigning the probabilities of damage should

they occur. This enables the organization to give priority to the most risk threats since it is not possible and economically viable to address all the threats. The threat should be rated in accordance to the risk they pose to the asset/infrastructure and its severity. It can be rated using the damage

potential, reproducibility, exploitability, affected users and visibility.

7. METHODOLOGY

A qualitative case research methodology (Yin, 2014), with a single unit of

analysis was used in this study to collect data from various sources. The

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unity of analysis in this study was a power utility which has installed prepaid metering infrastructure. A purposive sampling technique was used to choose participants from the target population. The sample of this study was comprised of six (6) electrical engineers who have worked in the power utility for more than three (3) years. Data was collected from both the power utility engineers and security experts using semi-structured interviews and focus group, respectively in order to triangulate the research findings and evaluate the framework

8.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

8.1

Comparative analysis of available frameworks and models

This study commenced with an extensive literature review to establish the current frameworks and models used in threat modelling by various organisations. Although a number of them exist, the study found that most of the frameworks and models are directed at solving threats on IT and physical infrastructure that is located within the organisation. The frameworks and models reviewed in the literature and presented in Section 2 have limited capabilities in dealing with the threat to organisational infrastructure that is deployed in the front-end like the prepaid electricity meter. Apart from focusing on addressing threats to internal systems and infrastructures, it can be argued that the Attack-Tree Model and the Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) model are not suitable enough for threat modelling. These approaches only assist the organization to identify ladders and routes an attacker can use to reach the goal.

8.2 Vulnerabilities, threats and attack strategies

The findings of the study have presented the landscape for the authors to understand vulnerabilities, threats and attack strategies to the prepaid electricity metering infrastructure. The prepaid metering infrastructure is highly vulnerable to attack because the attacker has unlimited physical access since they are located in consumer premises. Therefore, when an organisation is carrying out threat modelling to infrastructure it should consider the sources of threats, types of attackers, the level of access they have and the skills of the attacker. According to the findings of the study, prepaid metering infrastructure is vulnerable to three types of threats. These are:

Threat to wiring integrity- this can be exploited through partial and wholly bypass whereby the cable can be either diverted from the service line to the load or the prepaid electricity meter is totally disconnected from the electricity grid system. Here the attacker uses a physical bypassing strategy. This is the easiest strategy that an

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attacker can be used because no skill is required to exploit the threat. The attacker only needs to be brave and an understanding of the wiring integrity of the prepaid electricity meter. The attacker may use two approaches which are visible and non-visible approach. In the former the bypassing is done outside the prepaid electricity meter while in the latter bypassing takes place inside the meter. The goal is to divert the flow of electricity from the service line to the load so that electricity consumption is not measured.

Threat to billing software embedded in the prepaid electricity meter (Cyber-attack strategy)- this threat can be exploited by using an infrared device or micro-controller programming which access the billing software through the port of the meter. Since every prepaid metering infrastructure has an infra-red port to allow the electrical engineers to carry out maintenance work, the ports permit access to any device that uses the infra-red light. The attack is non-visible and non-physical because it cannot be detected by just a mere observation and the attacker does not need to have a physical contact with the infrastructure. This strategy is usually used by intelligent people and other experts in computer programming. The goal of this strategy is to reduce the billing cycle so that few units of consumption will be recorded by the infrastructure.

Threat to the mechanically built-up (Mechanically induced strategy) - particularly the meter disk, the magnet and other internal components. The meter disk is the most important component of the infrastructure that enables power utility record the electricity that has been consumed. This threat can be exploited by inserting metal objects to the infrastructure or exposing it to a strong magnetic object so that the disk’s rotary movement is not proportional to the electricity consumed. The attack can be visible or non-visible. Any potential attacker can use this strategy since it’s not complicated. The goal of this strategy is to make the disk to rotate slowly so that less electricity is recorded. The slow the movement of the disk the low electricity is recorded. An attack-tree model shown in Figure 3 below has been used to model the vulnerabilities, threats and attack strategies to prepaid electricity metering infrastructure.

As shown in Figure 3 below, the tree starts by defining the goal of the attacker which is the root node. In this case the ultimate goal of the attacker is to defeat the electricity billing or enjoy free electricity. The nodes that follow depict the strategies that can be used to fulfil the ultimate goal. The strategies are decomposed further down so that all the possible

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actions/threats that may lead to the accomplishing of the goal are known. The decomposition process will continue until the vulnerabilities are identified which make it impossible to break the tree any further.

Defeat electricity billing/enjoy free electricity consumption
Defeat electricity billing/enjoy free electricity consumption
Physical bypass Cyber-attack Mechanical induced Mechanically Partial bypass Wholly bypass Microcontroller prog.
Physical bypass
Cyber-attack
Mechanical induced
Mechanically
Partial bypass
Wholly bypass
Microcontroller prog.
Infra-red prog.
interference
Crossover
Total meter
Cable
Neutral
Phase
Magnetic
Strong heat
Objects
cabling
disconnecti
alternation
removal
diversion
influence
exposure
injection
ng

Figure 3: Outline of intrusion scenarios for prepaid electricity metering infrastructure Source: Researcher’s own construction

9. SOURCES OF THREATS AND TYPES OF ATTACKERS

Threat sources can either be internal or external

Power utility employees (current and former)

Technologically gifted people/experts

Experimental people

Financially disadvantage people

10. PROPOSED FRAMEWORK

The proposed framework presented in Figure 4 has been conceptualized to consist of three (3) phases:

Phase 1: Attack detection/discovery- this is the initial stage of modelling a threat. The modeller should check for any information that may give clues to the attack, i.e. there is an attack that is going on. In the case of the prepaid electricity meter infrastructure, electricity purchasing reports can act as a lead, especially if the purchasing trends have dropped to low levels. Comparison of consumer and purchasing reports may also be used to guide the modeller for the perceived attack on the infrastructure. With lead

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information, the modeller can consult employees and security expert on more clues. After that a security survey/field inspection can be conducted to confirm or refute the attack by looking for visible and invisible attacks. Lastly, there is a need to recognise and generate the attack patterns based on the methods used.

Phase 1

Attack

detection/discovery

Check for lead information:

Review performance report

List potential attacks

Recognize & generate attack patterns:

Method commonly used

No. of occurrences

Brainstorm (internal/external):

Employees

Security experts

 Employees  Security experts Conduct inspections:  Check for visible & non-

Conduct

inspections:

Check for visible & non- visible attacks

security

survey/field

 Security experts Conduct inspections:  Check for visible & non- visible attacks security survey/field
 Security experts Conduct inspections:  Check for visible & non- visible attacks security survey/field
visible & non- visible attacks security survey/field Phase2 Threat assessment, analysis & evaluation

Phase2

Threat assessment, analysis & evaluation

Outline intrusion/attack scenarios:

Technological

Non- technological

Describe attack goal (s):

Immediate goals

Ultimate goal

attack goal (s):  Immediate goals  Ultimate goal Map intrusion & attack scenarios to attack
attack goal (s):  Immediate goals  Ultimate goal Map intrusion & attack scenarios to attack
attack goal (s):  Immediate goals  Ultimate goal Map intrusion & attack scenarios to attack

Map intrusion & attack scenarios to attack goals using attack tree (s)

Define & profile potential attackers:

Skills

Characteristics

Capabilities

Motivation

 Characteristics  Capabilities  Motivation Rate threats: (PIVE)  Possibility  Impact

Rate threats: (PIVE)

Possibility

Impact (organization & customer)

Visibility Exploitation

Mitigation:

List protection gap

Prioritize threat

Check for infrastructure dependencies

Examine current strategies

Define protection strategy:

Technological

Non-technological

Figure 4: Proposed framework

Phase 3

 Non-technological Figure 4: Proposed framework Phase 3 Develop mitigation plan & strategy Resolve

Develop mitigation plan & strategy

Resolve vulnerabilities & review progress

Figure 4: Proposed framework

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Source: Own construction

Phase 2: Threat assessment, analysis & evaluation- this is the main phase of threat modelling. It requires an outline of the intrusion/attack scenarios based on technological and non technological conduct. For example, cyber-attack is technological while the physical by-pass and mechanically induced are both non- technological. The phase also requires the description and mapping of attack goals to intrusion scenarios, profiling attackers in order to understand their capabilities. Finally, the threats need to be rated using the PIVE model which has been proposed by this study.

Phase 3: Develop mitigation plan & strategy- this phase involves the examination of current protection strategies in order to identify gaps, prioritise the threat and checking for infrastructure dependencies. The modeller also needs to decide on the protection strategy based on the factors like cost befit analysis in order to decide whether to respond with technology or not. Last vulnerabilities should be resolved and a review carried out.

11. LIMITATIONS

This research was conducted at a time when the Prepaid metering system has just been rolled in Zimbabwe and as such this being a new system in a new environment, some threats are still to be discovered. Hence these researchers believed this framework to be a good starting point. In this manuscript the authors have confined the framework to ZESA the power utility organisation in Zimbabwe but in reality we believe this framework can also be extended to other organisations in Zimbabwe and beyond.

12. CONCLUSION

Threat modelling is one of the key requirements that enable organizations to minimize security risks and achieve operational excellence. When conducting threat modelling, the modeller should view the infrastructure from the position of the attacker. This will enable them to see it as an exposed system. Power utilities can use threat modelling to mitigate and defeat attack scenarios before they can cause severe damage.

13. FUTURE RESEARCH

Having proposed the framework for threat modelling to the prepaid metering infrastructure, the guidance for further inquiry may commence by looking at the strategies used to steal electricity in order to reinforce the proposed framework. The research may also proceed by establishing the

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG strategies used by power utilities in dealing

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strategies used by power utilities in dealing with the attack to prepaid metering infrastructure. Furthermore, the use of mobile technologies to achieve end-to-end actionable insights and deliver operational analytics on the infrastructure may also be considered.

14. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The researchers would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions to the success of this work by people from the power utility in Zimbabwe and registered electricity consumers and the framework reviewers. We would like to recognize the assistance rendered by these as their valuable input enabled us to craft this piece of work. We are indeed grateful to these participants for availing themselves for the research and providing data that enabled this study to be carried out. Otherwise this research would not have been possible. Their priceless contribution is greatly appreciated.

REFERENCES

Bakari, J. K. (2007). A Holistic Approach for Managing ICT Security in Non-Commercial Organisations: A Case Study in a Developing Country.

Bertino, E., Martino, L. D., Paci, F., & Squicciarini, A. C. (2010). Security for web services and service-oriented architectures. Security for Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures, 1226. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87742-4

http://www.arrow.dit.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=engschcivcon

Burns, S. F. (2005). Threat Modeling: A Process To Ensure Application Security, (January) SANS Institute

Ciampa, M., (2009). Security and Guide to Network Security Fundamentals. 3 rd edition. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Excellence, N. (2013). Deliverable D6 . 3 : Advanced Report on Smart Environments.

Hämmerli, B., Svendsen, N. K. & Lopez, J. 2013. Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 7th International Workshop, CRITIS 2012, Lillehammer, Norway, September 17- 18, 2012. Revised Selected Papers, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Hardy, G. M. (2012) Beyond Continuous Monitoring : Threat Modeling for Real-time Response, (October) SANS Institute

Marek, P., & Paulina, J. (2006). The OCTAVE methodology as a risk analysis tool for business resources. International Multiconference Computer Science and IT …, 485497. Retrieved from:http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:The+OCTAVE+me

thodology+as+a+risk+analysis+tool+for+business+resources#2

Mcgrath, M., & Lennon, R. (2013). Letterkenny Institute of Technology Threat Modelling for Legacy Enterprise Applications, (August).

Meier, J. D., Mackman, A., Dunner, M., Vasireddy, S., Escamilla, R., & Murukan, A. (2003). Chapter 3 Threat Modeling, (June).

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Microsoft. (2012). Introduction to Microsoft

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Microsoft. (2012). Introduction to Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) Threat Modeling. Retrieved from http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~daw/teaching/cs261-

f12/hws/Introduction_to_Threat_Modeling.pdf

Miyogo, C. N., Ondieki, S., & Nashappi, G. (2013). An Assessment of the Effect of Prepaid Service Transition in Electricity Bill Payment on KP Customers , a Survey of Kenya Power , West Kenya Kisumu, 3(9), 8897.

Pabla A.S., (2008). Electric Power Distribution, 5 th edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Available

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Schneier, B. (1999). Attack Trees. Dr Dobbs Journal, 24(12), 2129. Retrieved from http://www.schneier.com/paper-attacktrees-ddj-ft.html

Tøndel,

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DemoSteinkjer_v1.pdf. SINTEF ICT and Telenor, 1.

Ucedavelez, T., & Partner, M. (2012). Real world threat modelling using the pasta

methodology.

https://www.owasp.org/images/a/aa/AppSecEU2012_PASTA.pdf

Williams, L. (2007). Threat Models Software Security Touchpoints: Purpose of Threat Modeling, 115.

Yin, R.K. (2014) Application of case study research: Design and Methods. 5 th edition. London: Sage publications.

Zhang, X., & Xu, S. (2006). TDDC03 Projects , Spring (2006): A Comparison of Attack Trees , Threat Modeling and OCTAVE.

A.

I.

Jaatun,

M.

G.

&

Line,

pp.2-61.

M.

B.

(2012).

SecurityThreats

,

Available

at:

This paper may be cited as:

Musungwini, S.,Mahlangu, G.,Mugoniwa, B., and Furusa, S. S., 2016. Framework for Threat Modelling for a Power Utility: Case of Zimbabwe Power Utility Company. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 8-23.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Enhanced-bandwidth Compact Printed Inverted F

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Enhanced-bandwidth Compact Printed Inverted F Antenna Suitable for LTE/GSM Mobile Phone

S. Jesse Jackson

PG Student, ECE Department QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole, India sikha.jessejackson@gmail.com

T. Thomas

Assistant Professor, ECE Department QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole, India thomas.thatapudi.t@ieee.org

ABSTRACT

In this paper design of multi band Printed Inverted F Antenna for LTE/GSM mobile application is manifested. The proposed design is suitable for embedding in the mobile handset and has advantages in aspects like low profile, small radiation effect, and good tuning properties. A matching circuit is employed in addition with the proposed aerial constructed by a rectangular plate placed on top of the FR-4 dielectric substrate of 65x80 mm 2 size to provide wide operating frequency band. This makes the design more suitable for better tuning to a required frequency bands. The ground plate is coated on substrate of its bottom side. Overall size of PIFA is small enough to be embedded in a smart phone, and it has been optimized to cover the LTE and GSM bands at 2600, 1500, and 800 MHz frequencies respectively. It has a gain ranging from 1.469 dBi to 5.428 dBi at the resonating frequency bands. The study of antenna’s performance in term of impedance bandwidth, S- parameters, radiation pattern and gain is presented with CST Microwave studio simulation results.

Keywords

Chip inductor, chip capacitor, Impedance matching circuit, Mobile phone, Multi band, PIFA, Tuning.

1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays mobile phones are everywhere and users are depending on phones for multiple services. The hard-hitting issues for handheld cellular user equipment are the antennas with broad impedance bandwidth, low profile, less weight and it should be cost effective, and Omni-directional radiation pattern is desirable. To provide continuous interactive voice, data

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG and even video services many improvements are

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and even video services many improvements are being made in communication systems to make these services available anytime and anyplace. Next-generation cellular communication systems higher bandwidths are mandatory, LTE bands are only alternative for future needs. LTE generally offer high reception date rates [13]. In general based on specification either internal or external antennas are used in mobile handsets. The close proximity of external antenna causes higher radiation absorption rate, it is the major disadvantages of such type of mobile antennas. Contrary to this, to avoid human interference internal antennas are printed on substrate system board, and care will be taken to make sure that the major radiation from antenna is radiated away from head. The printed aerial are designed depending on the mobile phone type and amendments have to be made to meet the specifications. The design of low profile antenna is expected in the mobile handsets and all performance parameters should be up to the mark so that it can be used for commercial services. To achieve wide bandwidths for LTE/ WWAN operation the inverted-F antenna (IFA) is usually used as internal antenna in mobile phones, but 6- 10mm of extra profile is a added size to the basic design, leading to more sophisticated design called PIFA printed inverted F-shape antenna [4-9].

Mono pole antenna is improved in many aspects to be used in mobile phones, which is now called as PIFA. The advantages of PIFAs made them very suitable for small devices so they are widely used in mobile user equipment. A wide planar radiator is used in place of a slim conductive radiating element of an Inverted F antenna, this new design is named as Planer IFA. In the basic PIFA construction one element as top plate, another as ground plane, for feeding the resonating upper element a strip is used. For DC-shorting between ground and upper element a plane is used for connection at one edge of the radiating plane. For better impedance matching, the following are optimized in PIFA design, they are the signal feed position, and the shorting pin position in the slot. The separation between signal feed and DC-shorting pins is another design issues for the better impedance matching of the PIFA. Design of both E-plane and H- plane polarizations with desired directional properties is possible with PIFA. PIFAs are the best antennas when the antenna point of reference is not predictable and reflections are present [10-12]. Control of the resonance frequencies independently by changing lengths of strips or slots is a widely known method in the micro strip patch antenna design.

The antenna space in a mobile handset environment is extremely limited. Therefore, designing an internal antenna for a mobile handset is difficult, especially when multi-band operation is required. This paper presents an antenna for mobile phone with attractive characteristics as shown in figures 1 and 2, the proposed antenna [13] with multiband operation design to

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG support GSM/LTE bands is presented. Embedded

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support GSM/LTE bands is presented. Embedded matching circuit provides tuning property for the system to different resonant frequencies.

property for the system to different resonant frequencies. Figure 1. Proposed antenna s’ radiating section with

Figure 1. Proposed antennas’ radiating section with slots and matching circuit

2. PROPOSED ANTENNA

Tuning of antenna for different resonance frequencies is easy with alteration

of element values of a matching circuit connected to the antenna of a mobile phone. To avail this advantage in the proposed design matching circuit with three elements is employed. A capacitor (1 pF) is connected in series with a parallel combination of capacitor (3.1 pF) and inductor (8.8 nH). For the given set of values of matching elements the proposed antenna resonates at three different frequencies. And other lower and upper resonance frequencies can be obtained with different combination of values for the matching circuit elements.

The substrate is a made up of FR4 having ε r = 4.4 and thickness 0.8 mm, on top of this the radiator plane of 35 x 10mm 2 surface area is realized. At a height of 8.2 mm the separate PCB structure is hovered above a ground plate of 65 x 80 mm 2 with the support of DC-shorting rod with 1.2mm radius and 9mm height. Slots in the structure are crafted to make it resonate at different frequencies, moreover the spacing between feed and shorting strips has considerable impact on resonance frequencies.

For resonance at different frequencies patch slots are introduced. In figure 2. (b) the measurements of the slots of width 1mm in the radiator patch are shown. For the feed line the length and the width are 15.5mm and 1mm. Where as in case of rectangular patch antenna dimensions are calculated based upon operating frequency. Dimensions of radiator are calculated from the following equations [13], in which F r resonant frequency, c light velocity, ε permittivity of substrate. To make available higher data rates for various services the antennas are planned to support foremost cellular system bands namely GSM/UMTS/LTE. In this proposal both rectangular strip and its slots are designed to support multiple bands.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG C L  2 F  r eff

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C L  2 F  r eff 1 2 W  2 F 
C
L 
2 F
r
eff
1 2
W 
2 F
 
r  1
r
o
o

(1)

(2)

eff 1 2 W  2 F   r  1 r o o (1)

(a)

1 2 W  2 F   r  1 r o o (1) (2)

(b)

2 W  2 F   r  1 r o o (1) (2) (a)

(c)

Figure 2. (a) Proposed antenna with elevated radiator shorted to ground. (b) Dimensions of radiating element (all dimensions are in mm). (c) Matching circuit for the proposed antenna, the rating of the capacitor is pF while that of the inductor is in nH.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG 3. SIMULATION RESULTS When matching circuit with

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3. SIMULATION RESULTS

When matching circuit with given combination of elements is connected resonance can obtained at three different frequencies that is 0.8 GHz, 1.5 GHz and 2.7 GHz as shown in Fig. 3. On the other hand the antennas’ return loss value with coaxial feed without matching circuit is -15.5dB at 0.93GHz and -31dB at 1.8 GHz. The impedance bandwidth is wide enough to cover GSM800, 1500 and LTE2600 bands. The proposed Z-shaped feed extension helps to adjust the return loss value to a desired lower level and shows

considerable affect on bandwidth characteristics of the proposed antenna.

affect on bandwidth characteristics of the proposed antenna. Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0-

Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0- 3GHz frequency band.

Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0- 3GHz frequency band. (a) (b) Figure 4. 3D
Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0- 3GHz frequency band. (a) (b) Figure 4. 3D
Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0- 3GHz frequency band. (a) (b) Figure 4. 3D
Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0- 3GHz frequency band. (a) (b) Figure 4. 3D
Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0- 3GHz frequency band. (a) (b) Figure 4. 3D
Figure 3. S11 return loss value over 0- 3GHz frequency band. (a) (b) Figure 4. 3D

(a)

(b)

Figure 4. 3D Radiation pattern of the proposed antenna at (a). 0.8GHz, (b). 1.5GHz, (c). 2.7GHz

(c)

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG (a) (b) (c) Figure 5. 2-D Radiation pattern

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of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG (a) (b) (c) Figure 5. 2-D Radiation pattern at

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 5. 2-D Radiation pattern at (a). 0.8GHz, (b). 1.5GHz, (c). 2.7GHz

The radiation pattern can be defined as the angular distribution of the strength of the radiator. The 2D and 3D radiation patterns are shown in figure 5 at the 0.8GHz, 1.5GHz and 2.7 GHz. From given figures it is obvious that the proposed antenna exhibits omni-directional radiation characteristics at lower resonant frequency, where as its radiation characteristics are different from omni-directional at higher frequencies. For the given set of frequencies the proposed antenna offers directive gain ranging from 1.469 dBi to 5.428 dBi, the substrate height, thickness of the substrate, and relative permittivity of the substrate can affect the gain characteristics of the proposed antenna.

can affect the gain characteristics of the proposed antenna. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Current density
can affect the gain characteristics of the proposed antenna. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Current density
can affect the gain characteristics of the proposed antenna. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Current density
can affect the gain characteristics of the proposed antenna. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Current density

(a)

(b)

the gain characteristics of the proposed antenna. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Current density at (a).
the gain characteristics of the proposed antenna. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Current density at (a).

(c)

Figure 6. Current density at (a). 0.8GHz, (b). 1.5GHz, (c). 2.7GHz

The surface current distribution at different resonance frequencies is presented in figure 6. In the standard PIFA the surface current has a maximum distribution near the DC-shorting strip. In the proposed antenna similar behavior can be observed. The high concentrated surface current path lengths represent the resonating strip lengths responsible for resonance at various frequencies. Table 1 shows the gain value of the proposed antenna at various resonating frequencies.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Table 1. Gain of proposed antenna at resonant

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Table 1. Gain of proposed antenna at resonant frequencies

Frequency (GHz)

1.469

2.872

5.428

Gain (dBi)

Gain (dBi)

Gain (dBi)
Gain (dBi)
parameter

parameter

0.8 1.5

2.7

4. CONCLUSION The presented compact PIFA design has enough frequency bandwidth to support GSM, LTE, and DCS bands having directivity ranging from 1.4dBi to 5.4dBi. The proposed antenna has an appreciable return loss at different resonant frequencies 0.8GHz, 1.5GHz and 2.7GHz. The low profile flat design of presented multiband PIFA for cellular user equipment is simple and easy to fabricate. Matching circuit used in the modal has given fine tuning possibility making it to resonate at different frequencies. The proposed antenna is recommended for smart phones with multiband functionality.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are pleased to acknowledge the support of management of the organizations for providing all required facilities to carry out the work, and sincere thanks to principal for suggestions.

6. FUTURE SCOPE

This modal can be further improved to have more frequency bands like LTE700, LTE2300 etc., and matching circuit can be optimized for better profile advantage.

REFERENCES

[1] F-H Chu and Kin-Lu W, Planar printed strip monopole with a closely-coupled parasitic shorted strip for eight-band LTE/GSM/UMTS mobile phone,IEEE Transactions. on Antennas and Prop., V. 58, No. 10, Oct. 2010, pp. 34263431.

[2] Keng-Chih Lin, Chih-Hao Lin and Yi-Cheng Lin, “Simple printed multiband antenna with novel parasitic-element design for multi standard mobile phone applications,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propag., Vol. 61, No. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 488491.

[3] Yong-Ling Ban, Jin-Hua Chen, Joshua Le-Wei Li and Yujiang Wu, Small-size printed coupled-fed antenna for eight-band LTE/GSM/UMTS wireless wide area network operation in an internal mobile handset,IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 7, Iss. 6, Jun. 2013, pp. 399407.

[4] Y. K. Park and Y. Sung, A reconfigurable antenna for quad-band mobile handset applications,IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propag., Vol. 60, No. 6, Jun. 2012, pp.

30033006.

[5] Yun-Wen Chi, Kin-Lu Wong, Quarter-wavelength printed loop antenna with an internal printed matching circuit for GSM/DCS/PCS/UMTS operation in the mobile

phone,IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propag., Vol. 57, No. 9, Sept. 2009, pp. 2541

2547.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG [6] Jae Hee Kim, Won Woo Cho and

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[6] Jae Hee Kim, Won Woo Cho and Wee Sang Park, A small dual-band inverted-F antenna with a twisted line,IEEE Antennas and Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 8, 2009, pp. 307310.

[7] Chien-Wen Chiu and Yu-Jen Chi, Planar hexa-band inverted-F antenna for portable device applications,IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 8, 2009, pp. 1099

1102.

[8] Sung. Y, Compact quad-band reconfigurable antenna for mobile phone applications,Electron. Lett., Vol. 48, No. 16, 2012, pp. 977979.

[9] N. Misran, M. M. Yunus and M. T. Islam, “Small Dual-Band Planar Antenna with Folded Patch Feed,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 1975- 1980, 2010.

[10] Mikko Komulainen, Markus Berg, Heli Jantunen, Eekki T. Salonen and Charles Free, A Frequency Tuning Method for a Planar Inverted-F Antenna,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagat., Vol. 56, No. 4, Apr. 2008, pp. 944-950.

[11] Z. D. Liu, P. S. Hall and D. Wake, Dual-Frequency Planar Inverted-F Antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 45, No. 10, Oct. 1997, pp. 1451-1458.

[12] F. R. Hsiao, H. T. Chen, T. W. Chiou, G. Y. Lee and K. L. Wong, A Dual-Band Planar Inverted-F Patch Antenna with a Branch-Slit,Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 32, No. 4, Feb. 2002, pp. 310-312.

tri band

antenna for mobile applications” International conference on Communication and

[13] Sandeep Kumar Veeravalli, K Shambavi, Zachariah C Alex, “ Design of

Signal Processing, April 3-5, 2013, pp. 947-950.

This paper may be cited as:

Jackson, S. J. and Thomas, T., 2016. Enhanced-bandwidth Compact Printed Inverted F Antenna Suitable for LTE/GSM Mobile Phone. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp.

24-31.

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Implementation of e-Government Services using

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Implementation of e-Government Services using Java Technologies:

A Methodological Guide in Improving an e-Police Management System in Zimbabwe

Mahlangu Gilbert, Chikonye Musafare, Furusa Samuel Simbarashe and Mugoniwa Beauty

Computer Science and Information Systems Midlands State University Gweru, Zimbabwe

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in service delivery in government ministries, departments and agencies. Many governments have redefined their service delivery systems through the implementation of e-government using various technologies. This has seen the transfer of major government services to online platforms. The purpose of this study was to appraise the implementation of e-government services using Java technologies by focusing on an e-police management system in Zimbabwe so that Zimbabwe Republic Police (ZRP) can align its systems with other National Police Services world-over. Using a qualitative research method, the researchers collected data from the participants through qualitative questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The findings indicated that the majority of services that are offered by the ZRP are not electronically enabled. The study proposes that ZRP can improve its service delivery system by utilising Java technologies presented in this study. This will enable the organisation to solve the problems that are inherent in the current system.

Keywords

E-government services, Java technologies, e-police management system

1. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in service delivery in government ministries, departments and agencies. This has been fostered by the introduction of e-government systems around the world. Governments have entered into an intense competition of occupying a leading position in

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG the e-government arena (Bilbao et al., 2013).

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the e-government arena (Bilbao et al., 2013). Inspired by Denmark and Estonia who have played a leading role in implementing e-government (OECD, 2011), many governments have redefined their service delivery systems by using various technologies to expand their services online (Al- khouri, 2013). Technology plays an important role in transforming government services. It has become a key component in managing and administering public affairs. The use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) have been seen as a catalyst in improving the performance and delivery system of government ministries, departments and agencies (OECD, 2009). ICT has the prospective of supporting governments to bond people, government departments, suppliers and service partners to achieve greater efficiencies and public value. However, OECD (2009) argued that the adoption and use of e-government services remains low and unsatisfactory in other countries, despite the fact that various ICTs that exist in the world of technology have the potential to drive the implementation of e-government.

Using various policies and legislatures, governments world-over have invested heavily in programmes that enable the transfer of major government services to online platforms. Similarly, in Zimbabwe the government directed its ministries, departments and agencies to implement e-government systems in 2013 as enshrined in the ZIMASSET policy document (Government of the Republic of Zimbabwe, 2013). This was aimed at improving public service delivery and sharing of critical information that can enhance efficiency among the arms of the government and its citizens through the use appropriate technologies. The main purpose of this study was to appraise the implementation of e-government services using Java technologies by focusing on an e-police management system in Zimbabwe so that Zimbabwe Republic Police (ZRP) can align its systems with other National Police Services world-over.

While technology has become a key driver for the implementation of e- government globally, there is a non-appearance of explicitly synchronised efforts at government ministries and departments in Zimbabwe to transform government services to e-government (Cunningham and Cunningham, 2008). E-government services in Zimbabwe are characterised by disintegration and discrepancies which has caused inconsistencies in service delivery. Correspondingly, the current ZRP’s service delivery system is yet to provide its major services online. In spite of the fact that some of the internal systems are computerised, electronic delivery of service is yet to be implemented. Furthermore, there are no integrations between ZRP systems with other government departments and agencies whom they are supposed to share with critical data. For instance, the verification of fingerprints

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which has to be done with the registrar general’s national database. In addition, vehicle clearance for the purpose of vehicle registration requires verification with ZRP’s database of stolen vehicles. Moreover, applications that could allow the general public to make police reports that do not require the citizen to visit a police station are not implemented. Complainants have to visit police stations to report a crime. The use of electronic forms and Short Message Services (SMS) would be very convenient for the public to conduct such reports in the comfort of their homes. With the scenarios presented above, it can be noted that there is a very huge communication barrier between the police department, citizens, other government departments and agencies in Zimbabwe. Hence, it is important that suitable technologies are used to solve these problems.

The major objective of this study was to provide a methodological guide on improving an e-police management system in Zimbabwe through the

application of Java technologies. To achieve this objective, the following sub objectives have been formulated:

a) To analyse the state of e-government services at ZRP

b) To establish services that are electronically enabled at ZRP

c) To identify areas in ZRP’s systems where e-government should be implemented using Java technologies to allow the general public to access police services online.

2. CONCEPT OF ELECTRONIC

GOVERNMENT) E-government is characterized by the presence of a two way communication between the government agencies and the citizens, and a total integration of the entire government services for online accessibility (Singh, 2015). It is a system that is implemented using digital means in order to provide a single gateway to various governmental services. Therefore, the aspect of e- government denotes the provision of various governmental services using

ICTs, mainly the internet.

Various organisations and authors have provided different definitions on e- government. The World Bank (2012) defines e-government as the use of ICTs such as wide area network, the internet and mobile computing in improving service delivery among citizens, business organisations and other government departments and agencies. As defined by Devasena & Balraj (2014), it is the implementation and delivery of government services through ICTs to achieve efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability and information sharing. Guided by the purpose of the research, this study will define e-government as the transfer of government

GOVERNMENT

(E-

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services to online platforms using web and mobile technologies to facilitate online and remote access.

2.1. E- government services

Various services exist within the domain of the e-government. Some of the services that signifies the existence of e-government include: e-elections, e- police, and e-healthcare, e- banking, e-tax declarations, e-school, citizen

self-service portals, government portals and e-land (Sharma, 2010). However, the success of these services depends on the level of adoption of ICTs among the government ministries, departments and agencies. Therefore, for e-government to be an effective proxy in the provision of government services, it must be implemented using appropriate technologies that support mobility and remote access.

2.2. E-police management system as an e-government service

E-police management system is an integrated platform that uses web and mobile applications to address the operational needs of all units of a National Police Force (NPF). These include crime management, investigations, automated biometric identification, forensic analysis & data exchange within the police force and other government departments and agencies. According to Chavan et al. (2014), an e-police is a government service that uses ICTs brokering systems in increasing the professional efficiency for the government police administration. It is an e-government service that uses ICTs to facilitate communication between the police department and the citizens of a country in order to improve administrative, operational and professional efficiency. Using an e-police management system, police officers can find crime related information from citizens, other police stations and national databases for further action. However, the success of this system will depend upon the development of an interactive website and an electronic database.

3. JAVA TECHNOLOGY

Java consist of various technologies which are subsidiary elements of the three main suites; Java Enterprise Edition (J2EE), Java Standard Edition (J2SE) and Java Mobile Edition (JME). These technologies can support embedded, web, stand alone, distributed and mobile application development. The utilisation of these technologies can allow the development of different types of Java application that can be used in the implementation of e-government services. In this section, the subsidiary elements of Java technologies that are used for web and mobile application development are presented.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG 3.1. Java Servlets Java Servlets is a

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3.1.

Java Servlets

Java

Servlets is a Java based web technology used by web developers to

create efficient web solutions that are accessed through the request-response programming model. It is the most used Java technology for developing

dynamic web pages. Servlets are also known as server side programs because they services the HTTP requests from the client-side, process them and returns back the HTTP responses. They extend the functionality of the server by enabling a connection between the client and the server (Saračević, 2011). They act as a middle layer between requests from web browsers and databases on HTTP servers. This technology enables the server to process multiple requests at once using the threading model; thereby improving performance. According to Qian (2007), the Servlet technology has seen Java expanding greatly in most enterprise web application development. Most enterprise information systems that support

web

services are developed using the Servlet technology.

3.2.

Java Server Pages (JSP)

JSP technology function with the combination of HTML and Java in order

to provide the dynamic component of the Web. It enables programmers to

mix regular and static pages with dynamically generated content using

special tags (Bergsten, 2002). The elements of the JSP technology determines how the page builds dynamic content. Like the servlets, JSP enables users to interact with the databases and web services, and also process responses according to client request. The technology is also platform and server independent because it can run on different operating systems or web servers. While there are various technologies that are used to build web applications that serve dynamic content, JSP has really caught the attention of the web development community (Koletzke, Dorsey & Faderman, 2003). The process of creating JSP accessible on the web is much simpler than other web development technologies because it does not require packaging of the program.

3.3.

Enterprise Java Beans (EJB)

EJB

technology addresses the need to support distributed, transactional,

secure and portable applications based on Java technology (Kumaran,

2002). It is a framework for the server-side of enterprise Java applications

that support database driven websites. The use of EJB in developing web

applications makes Java a distributed technology which can be accessed from different servers and platforms. This technology support database programming by providing services like transaction management and

persistence management (Stevens, 2010). The technology was developed for the purpose of reducing repetitive work involved in persistence,

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transaction management and database security. As opposed to servlets, the EJB is a pure business component that support load balancing, clustering, resource pooling and caching (Dolgicer et al., 2003).

3.4. Java Data Base Connectivity (JDBC) API

The JDBC API defines interfaces and classes for writing database applications in Java. JDBC provides a standard library for connecting to relational databases using Structured Query Language (SQL) with exactly the same Java syntax. However, for the connection to be established the java application must call the JDBC library so that it loads the driver that provides a link to the database (Manonaniam, 2000). It can be used in servlet, JSP or EJB technologies to access the database when implementing database driven websites. Therefore, the main function of JDBC is to establish connections to databases, provide access to a given database, provides mechanisms for reading, inserting, updating and deleting entries of data in a database and takes care of transactions composed of different SQL statements (Stevens, 2010).

3.5. Mobility Pack

Mobile applications are created for mobile use through Java technology. The applications can run on devices like cellular phones, tablets, PDAs and palmtops to mention but a few. Java has a dual role in the development of mobile applications. First, the application should support the sending and receiving of SMS, whether single or bulk between two ends or devices. Secondly, it should support the development of applications that are compatible with mobile devices that uses different operating systems. The two roles of Java in mobile application development can be implemented using mobility pack. This is a Java API that enables software developers to integrate SMS technology into their solutions and helps them develop platform independent applications suitable for mobile devices (El-Kassas et al., 2015).

4. METHODOLOGY A qualitative research method based on qualitative questionnaires and semi- structured interviews were conducted to ascertain whether ZRP is providing some of its services online to the general public. These research instruments also helped the researchers to identify areas of application for Java technology in implementing an e-police management system. Focus group discussion was used to critical evaluate the methodological guide for the use of Java technologies in improving an e-police management system in Zimbabwe. The participants for completing the qualitative questionnaire were randomly selected from the general public. Although the selection for

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questionnaire was random, the participants were supposed to have reported

a case before. This helped the researchers to establish the state of the e-

government services at ZRP. As for the semi-structured interviews, participants were selected using a stratified sampling technique from all the

operational units of ZRP at the 2015 Provincial Agricultural show. According Hair et al. (2015), this sampling technique enables the researcher to achieve a proportional representation from the study population. The sample population for focus group discussions was composed of 12 certified Java programmers from Zimbabwe.

5. FINDINGS This section presents the findings of the study based on the information gathered from the police officers and the citizens of Zimbabwe.

5.1. The state of e-government at ZRP

In this subsection, the state of e-government at ZRP is presented in view of

the services offered through web or mobile technologies.

5.1.1. Citizens using web or mobile technology to report crime

In this category, all the respondents indicated that there is no website at ZRP that allows crimes to be reported using this facility. Crimes are reported physical at the police station or by calling the police station. The mobile technology is limited to phone calls only. Although phone calls are

part of the facility to report a crime, it was noted that in some instances the line(s) may be continuously engaged or some police officers are not willing

to record crime reports from phone calls.

5.1.2. Citizens using web or mobile technology to send suggestions

There are no electronic suggestion boxes at ZRP stations in Zimbabwe. All the respondents indicated that they are only able to send suggestions to the police using WhatsApp platforms. Each police station has a WhatsApp number that can be used by the citizens to send suggestions and tip offs.

5.1.3. Citizens using web or mobile technology to track progress on their

reports The citizens are not able to use web or mobile technologies to track the progress of their reports. They are supposed to visit the police station where the case was reported.

5.1.4. Citizens accessing notices via the web or mobile technology

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Notices that include policies and procedures that

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Notices that include policies and procedures that support law enforcement are not accessible by either web or mobile technology. In most cases, citizens are caught by surprise by the law enforcement agents.

5.1.5. Police officers using web or mobile technology to clear vehicles and

finger prints Clearances for vehicle and finger prints are done manually. The details of the vehicle or the person to be cleared are captured at the police station and

sent through manual dispatches to the Head Office which has the central database. The officers at the Head Office verify the records as per clearance required. In turn, the clearing officer action the clearance documents accordingly and send them back to the dispatching office using the same delivery channel.

5.1.6. Police officers using web or mobile technology to verify driver’s

licences Verification of drivers licences for possession and genuine has been a major challenge since it is enforced at roadblocks which is some distance away from the police station. In most cases, motorist are delayed at the roadblocks for failure to produce a driver’s licence or for being suspected to be holding a fake driver’s licence. This is because police officers at the road block do not have the facility to conduct instant verification. The motorist has to be taken to the police station or have the vehicle impounded until the driver’s licence has been produced or verified with Central Vehicle Registry to be genuine through a phone call.

5.2. Services that are electronically enabled at ZRP

The success of an e-government service depends on the number of services that are electronically enabled. The findings of this study noted that the majority of services that are offered by the ZRP are not electronically enabled. Citizens need to visit or call the department in order to access a service. It was found that the only service that is electronically enabled is

crime reporting through WhatsApp platform. Each police station has a WhatsApp number that can be used by the citizens to report crime or give suggestions.

6. APPLICATION AREAS OF JAVA TECHNOLOGY FOR E- POLICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Java technologies can be utilised in different areas of e-government and for various e-government applications that can be implemented by ZRP. To ensure that an e-police management system is implemented in Zimbabwe, in

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG this section areas of application for e-police

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this section areas of application for e-police management system where java technologies can be used are identified and explained.

6.1. E-crime reporting

This service is expected to provide online crime reporting to citizens using

web or mobile technologies. Any citizen who is a victim of crime can send a report to the nearest police station by completing a web form or using a predefined format for SMS. The web forms may be developed using JSP or servlet while an SMS gateway may be developed using Java eclipse with auto-response functionality for sending delivery reports to the crime reporter. For the crimes to be routed to specific tables, JDBC API can be utilised to handle the INSERT query to the crime management database.

6.2. E-suggestion

This service will allow citizens to send their suggestions that can assist the

police officers in tracking criminals and detecting crime. An electronic suggestion box need to be implemented using JSP and JDBC API. JSP is necessary for developing web forms for inputting suggestions while JDBC is needed for allowing the insertion of suggestions to the electronic suggestion box and retrieving them for further analysis. The major SQL statements for this service are the INSERT and SELECT.

6.3. E-clearance

This service will provide a linkage between the police department and government departments that has the central databases for vehicle and fingerprints. There is need for system integration especially between ZRP's Stolen Motor Vehicle Database and CVR's vehicle registration system to allow verification of vehicle before registration by CVR. In addition, integration is needed between ZRP's Fingerprint Identification System (FIS) and National Registration System to allow verification of accused identity before creation a criminal record of same by ZRP. The JDBC and the EJB API can be used in this service since the two APIs are used to provide

connection among relational databases and handling database transactions respectively. This linkage will unlock government-to-government e- government.

6.4. E-crime progress tracking

This service will allow complainants and the police officers In-Charge of crime investigations at various stations to check the productivity of the investigating officers using web technologies and the intranet respectively.

To implement this service, JSP will be required for creating the login function while in turn JDBC will handle database queries.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG 6.5. E-notices This service will enable the

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6.5. E-notices

This service will enable the police to transfer policies and procedures to the

online platform, giving easy access of information to citizens instead of placing policies and procedures on notice boards at the charge office. Other critical notices may include the names of criminals on the wanted list, warrant of arrests, missing persons, people detained at police stations, lost and found property and victims of road accidents. This service can be implemented using JSP or Java Servlet to provide dynamic web content. Apart from putting notices on the website, crime alerts can also be executed as SMS using Ozeki Message Server and JDBC, whereby the SELECT statement written in Java will be used to query the database table for outgoing messages to the citizens.

6.6. E-driver’s license verification

This service will enable the police officers at the roadblock to verify the

existence of a driver’s license from CVR using mobile technology while those at the police station may use web technology. To implement the mobile functionality, a powerful SMS solution can be developed with an auto reply facility. This can be done using an SMS gateway created in Java eclipse, database triggers or stored procedures enforced using JDBC while supported by the INSERT and the SELECT statements.

6.7. E-payment

The presence of this service to the e-police management system is expected to allow citizens to pay for services and fines that are administered by ZRP using available electronic or mobile payment systems in Zimbabwe. For example, fingerprint vetting and road traffic offenses. In this regard, the JSP is needed for developing form based and API based gateways to provide authentication, authorisation and integration. The other technologies for this service include the mobility pack which enables the development of applications for mobile devices and the JDBC for handling payment records

of services and fines.

7. FURTHER RESEARCH

The study looked at the basic and core business of the police force in Zimbabwe. In order to fully utilise an e-police management system, there is

need to incorporate the aspect of intelligent system in order to increase crime control. Furthermore, future research may also look at how the technology may be used to handle the administrative needs of the police force. For example, e-procurement and e-transfers of police officers.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG 8. CONCLUSION Java technologies have come a long

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8. CONCLUSION

Java technologies have come a long way in developing mobile and web technologies. Most applications that are needed to allow online service delivery can be developed using Java. The use of Java technologies for the

implementation of e-police management system by ZRP is expected to improve the quality of services, reduce the costs of delivering services, improve the utilisation of scarce resources, enhance accountability and transparency and restore citizen confidence in government services. This study noted that there are a number of services ZRP can provide online to Zimbabwe citizens and its officers. For the aforesaid reason, ZRP need to implement e-government system to conform to other National Police Services world-over. Hence, this study suggested a methodological guide of providing an e-police management system anchored in a web portal developed using Java technologies that are capable of supporting the core business of the police force in Zimbabwe.

9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to ZRP officers, the citizens of Zimbabwe and Java

programmers who participated in this research. The information they provided was vital for the success of this research.

10. REFERENCES

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Bergsten, H., 2002. JavaServer Pages,

Bilbao, B., Dutta, S. & Lanvin, B., 2013. The Global Information Technology Report 2013:

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Chavan, R. et al., Securing Information Brokering In Distributed Information Sharing Using RC6 and SPEKE. , 2(2).

Devasena. C.L. & Balraj, P.L., 2014. E-Governance in Southern States of India - Towards Whole-of-Government ( WoG ) Abstract : , 3(2).

Dolgicer, B.M., Bayer, G. & Bardash, M., 2003. Java Servlets and Enterprise Java Beans In Enterprise Architectures : Friends or Foes Part I.

El-Kassas, W.S. et al., 2015. Taxonomy of Cross-Platform Mobile Applications Development Approaches. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. Available at:

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Hair, J.F. et al., 2015. Essentials of Business Research Methods, Routledge. Available at:

https://books.google.com/books?id=GfnqBgAAQBAJ&pgis=1 [Accessed December 21, 2015].

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Kumaran, S.I., 2002. Jini Technology: An

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Kumaran, S.I., 2002. Jini Technology: An Overview, Prentice Hall PTR. Available at:

https://books.google.com/books?id=WtxQAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 [Accessed December 21, 2015].

Manonaniam, 2000. Advanced Java Programming with Database Application.

OECD, 2009. OECD e-Government Studies Rethinking e-Government Services User- Centred Approaches: User-Centred Approaches, OECD Publishing. Available at:

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This paper may be cited as:

Gilbert, M., Musafare, C., Simbarashe, F. S., Beauty, M. 2016. Implementation of e-Government Services using Java Technologies: A Methodological Guide in Improving an e-Police Management System in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 32-43.

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Onto Tagger: Ontology Focused Image Tagging

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Onto Tagger: Ontology Focused Image Tagging System Incorporating Semantic Deviation Computing and Strategic Set Expansion

Gerard Deepak

Department of Computer Science and Engineering University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Bangalore University, Bangalore, India.

Sheeba Priyadarshini J

Department of Computer Science St. Josephs College (Autonomous) Langford Road, Bangalore, India

ABSTRACT

Social Tagging of images uploaded to the Web is highly mandatory as tags serve as the entities for image retrieval. Manual Tagging of images makes the overall process tedious and moreover the tags when manually assigned become noisy. Several automatic tag recommendation systems are available but the background study proves that the tag relevance is not very high. In the era of Semantic Web, there is a need for a semantic driven tagger which would perform efficiently. Also, a system which bridges the gap between manual and automatic tag recommendation is required. An ontology driven semantic tagger for tagging images with social importance which tags the images based on limited reference tags is proposed. The proposed methodology combines ontology crawling using K-Means Clustering and Semantic Deviation Computation using Modified Normalized Google Distance Measured. The tag space is enhanced using Strategic Set Expansion incorporating a dynamic semantic deviation computation. An average precision percentage of 84.4 and an F-Measure percentage of 86.67 are achieved.

Keywords

Ontology Tagger, Semantic Deviation, Social Tagging, Strategic Set Expansion, Tag Recommendation.

1. INTRODUCTION The World Wide Web is a repository of billions of images, video, text and other data. Owing to the increasing number of users of the World Wide Web, even the data on the Web is increasing exponentially. With the popularity of trends in Social Networking, the amount of social data is also

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increasing almost every minute. It has been estimated that Social data mainly includes images and videos that are shared among the social actors (users and their friends) when compared to text and other kinds of data. Images are among the topmost in the list of social data that are the most shared. The problem targeted is definitely not the increasing amount of social or web data or their means to handle it but retrieving the exact or highly similar items like images or video when searched is the main issue. Tags or Annotations become a very important means to retrieve web multimedia information. To facilitate easy searching or retrieval of exact images or items from the World Wide Web, Tagging of such social data items plays an important strategy as images without tags over the Web are ubiquitous[1].There can be two approaches which can be followed. The first approach is the traditional approach where the Search Engine or The Search Algorithm must be designed in a more efficient or intelligent manner to extract the required items. The second of the two approaches is by correctly tagging the social items like images and reducing the noise in such tags such that there is a quicker and faster convergence to retrieve the exact images or videos from the World Wide Web. However, there exists diversity in social tagging behaviors [2]. Tagging an image or a video or any such social items like blogs is like specifying the right address for the search engine to retrieve the tagged item. Tags bridge the gap between users’ cognition and objective [3].Tagging that exists in the present day scenario varies from manual to automatic tag recommendation. Tagging an image on the social websites is a methodology of organizing the images and reliable tags must be specified for social photos [4]. Several automatic taggers are available but the best tag recommendation system must be semantically driven and must recommend them by re-organizing the tags such that the users may be convinced by the tags that are recommended by the search engine. Also the semantics of the tags assigned must correlate with that of the Web Search Engine such that the items that are browsed must have high relevance and must be significant. Although, with the availability of several approaches for automatic tag recommendation, a semantic web approach which is actually budding for tagging will make it much efficient to comply with the web search engines. An ontological approach is proposed for tag construction and recommendation in order to minimize and remove noisy tags for images of community importance. Ontologies constitute important intrinsic structures of the Semantic Web. Due to a paradigm shift towards improved semantic web technologies, ontology focused approach for image tagging is a highly

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG commendable and feasible approach. The usage of

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commendable and feasible approach. The usage of ontologies towards tagging images not just enhances the relevance of the results but also increases the correctness and the quality of tags. The tags when included based on the ontologies, the probability of deviations and noise is minimized to a very large extent. Images with community importance are mainly concentrated because such images are searched more frequently by a large number of people and most of the times simultaneously. There are several social networking sites specifically for uploading of images like Flickr, Instagram, etc. Henceforth, a tagger that computes similarity of tags and automatically recommends by lowering tag noises is mandatory. Motivation: The absence of a tagger which semantically tags images of community importance to without redundancy is the intrinsic motivation of developing such a system. A tagger which tags images by automatically recommending tags which similar images are also holding in order to reduce the tag redundancy. A tagging system which is semantically driven is in a high demand in the era of intelligent and semantic Web. The main motive of the proposed system is higher the quality of the tags better is the relevance of the images. Thus, there is a need for a system that automatically recommends tags which are just not straight forward but are of a very high quality by aggregating tags the tag space with relevant images. Most of the users who upload images feel that manual tagging is much better than automatic tagging. Thus, a gap is formed between the approach of manual tagging and automatic tagging that needs to be bridged. The Proposed approach fills this gap and is highly proficient when tagging images.

Contribution: A system that is highly efficient in tag recommendation which semantically computes for similar tags based on user driven reference tag is proposed. An ontological approach which uses tag level and image level ontologies for tagging is proposed. An innovative approach which incorporates K-Means Clustering for extracting similar images and eventually their tags is proposed for constructing the tag space. Furthermore, the ontologies in the tag space are re-ranked based on semantic similarity deviation computed using Modified Normalized Google Distance [5] [6] is implemented. Dynamic computation of semantic deviation is used for checking the tag level semantic similarity. Several Permutations of the tags from this tree are obtained and are recommended to the users for selection of tags.

Organization: The paper organization is as follows. The Section 2 provides a brief overview of related research work. Section 3 describes the Problem Definition. Section 4 presents the Proposed System Architecture. Section 5 discusses the implementation in brief. Results are presented in Section 6.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Performance is evaluated in Section 7.Finally,

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Performance is evaluated in Section 7.Finally, Section 8 concludes the paper.

2. RELATED WORKS

Zhou et al., [8] have proposed a hybrid collaborative model for image tagging which incorporates probabilistic techniques with a content based strategy for image tagging. The strategy uses an image tag associative matrix for and non-negative factorization of matrix for collaborative filtering. Correlations are estimated using a norm method. The approach is tested using three large databases with a large number of images and tags. Pantraki et al., [9] have proposed an image tagging and recommendation system which uses the strategy of Parallel Strategy Analysis 2 in which three matrices are used with visual features, user information and the tag information. This strategy was tested with ample data sets. The major drawback of this technique is that it uses three large data structures which may tend to increase the overall complexity of the solution. Zhu et al., [10] have proposed an approach where the social information of the image is used as social clues for tagging of images. Along with social clues, the social group information and the tagging preferences of the image owner is used to predict and annotate tags. A strategy called as neighborhood voting on the Online Social Networks is used. This approach is quite good but the tag space doesn’t predict numerous tags which becomes a disadvantage in this system. Qian et al., [11] have proposed a novel strategy of incorporating diversified semantics for image tagging and annotation over online social networks. The strategy uses considering the factor of relevance of improving the tag quality. The usage of semantic compensation onto the already determined top ranked tags is one of the major concepts on which this strategy is based. Liu et al., [12] have proposed an innovative methodology of using more than a single for tagging of an image. This multi feature tagging approach learns several scores of features which are further converted to weights. A tag pair matrix of a predormintarily low rank is formulated such that several features are a significant in tagging of an image. Lin et al., [13] have proposed a strategy of image tagging on social websites by extracting sparse patterns of tags from tags that are already available in the web data. The tags which the users have contributed already are being used to predict and re- recommend tags in this approach. The problem of minimizing the quadratic loss is very well treated in this strategy by incorporating a bi-layer norm. Though there would be a good level of tag relevance, there will be a dependency on the already available tags rather than the image level compatibility.

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Im et al., [14] have proposed a novel

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Im et al., [14] have proposed a novel strategy where semantics is incorporated. The semantic relationship between a pair of tags is inferred in this approach through a semantic paradigm. The context of the word that is used to tag an image is strategically found out in this approach. The disadvantage is that the contexts might add a little amount of noise into the final predicted tags. Pliakos et al., [15] have proposed a unique methodology of image tagging as well as geological tag inference simultaneously. The underlying strategy is the usage of hypergraph incident matrix for geographical location prediction. A concept of group sparsity constraints enforcement is incorporated to this methodology to get better results. Barmpoutis et al., [16] have proposed an approach in which the strategy of tensor structure decomposition of tags. This is purely a mathematical approach which aims at breaking the links between the multilink relations of the tag elements. This method involves the usage of four different unique matrices with four innovative mathematical strategies for tag decomposition. Pavlidis [17] has studied the interdependence of image tagging with that of the actual content of the image. This paper clearly points out that the complexity involved in the analysis of the contents of the image makes tagging and annotation of images also complicated. Furthermore, the paper proposed the non-pixel dependent strategies for image tagging rather than the conventional methodologies. Huges et al., [18] have proposed an approach which incorporates machine learning techniques for computing and estimating the tag relevance of images that are tagged based on Geo-Spatial Information. The tags are classified using an SVM classifier and a semantic approach is used for computing the tag heterogeneity. This approach reduces the irrelevant tags and improves the overall tag quality and is applicable for geographically tagged images of community importance. The approach combines a statistical geographical distribution for spatial information estimation and Machine Learning Technique like SVM for tag classification. Wang et al., [19] has proposed a strategy which bridges the gap between the features extracted and the overall context. An approach of context regularization is implemented for the visual features which makes this strategy an effective one for image tagging over social networks. Gong et al., [20] have proposed a robust model of image annotation using the strategic computation of semantic similarity between words. A language specific model is designed for estimating the semantic similarity in this approach. A cross media relevance model and a translation model is integrated with this strategy in order to enhance the relevance of the results in this approach. Sawant et al., [21] have proposed an innovative approach

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG of social image tagging based on social inputs.

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of social image tagging based on social inputs. Online Social Websites are a repository for very large volumes of social data like the features and patterns of users, images and social tags. This approach mainly concentrates on the semantic analysis of these social inputs to formulate and predict tags for annotation.

3. PROBLEM DEFINITION

Tagging of images is of most importance as the tag names play a vital role when the images are retrieved in the search engine. The major objectives of

our work which were tackled as individual problems are:

To automatically recommend tags for an image uploaded driven by a limited input tag of users’ reference.

To implement an ontological approach for tag recommendation.

To overcome and avoid noisy and redundant tags.

To improve the overall quality of the tags for community important images.

To improve the recall, precision, f-measure and accuracy of the proposed system.

4. PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

of the proposed system. 4. PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Figure 1. Proposed System Architecture ISSN: 1694-2108 |

Figure 1. Proposed System Architecture

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG The overall architecture of the proposed system

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The overall architecture of the proposed system is depicted in Figure 1 where in a user initially uploads an image on the web through a social networking site or directly through the Application Programming Interface (API) of the system created. The API of the proposed system has its own Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the user can directly interact through the systems API with the World Wide Web. The system developed also has a facility to integrate its GUI with that of social networking sites like Instagram or Flicker where images that are of community interest are uploaded. The only restriction for integrating the systems’ API with that of social networks is that the user must have an account in the social networking site to which the user wants to post his image through the proposed system. As the user is uploading the image, it is a mandate that the user also specifies ten reference tag names which the user wishes to tag. The reference image tags are parsed and tokenized to remove redundancy and extract individual tag elements. The individual tag elements are further used as input query to cluster similar images. Furthermore, the tags of the resultant images are extracted and semantic similarity is computed to that of the reference tags. If semantic similarity is high, the tags are included in the tag space. The tag space is generally a vector which is dynamically constructed where in the tags which are highly similar are organized and can be used in several instances. To enhance the relevance of the tags and to give many options, the ontologies similar to the reference tags are crawled using a focused crawler and once again the semantic similarity is computed with that of the reference tags and is included into the tag space. The focused crawler is integrated into the system which automatically crawls the ontologies of similar tags based on the input reference tags. Based on the weights of semantic similarity index, re-ranking of tags is done. Furthermore, using a combinatorial function, the tags are predicted to the user. The user can finalize the tags that can be used. The proposed system enhances the tag relevance and minimizes redundant and noisy tags. This ensures a very high tag quality. Moreover, since ontology is also considered as a parameter for tag formulation, the relevance of the tags is very high.

5. IMPLEMENTATION The implementation of the proposed system is done using JAVA as a programming language and Netbeans as the IDE. The reference tag names are initially parsed and tokenized. Tokenization is performed by incorporating a JAVA based NLTK (Natural Language Tool Kit) Tokenizer

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG to split the individual tag elements. Also a

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to split the individual tag elements. Also a redundancy checker which is custom written in JAVA is used for removing redundant tag items. Redundancy of tag elements is checked to minimize the complexity of the system and avoid unnecessary checks for duplicate items. This definitely enhances the performance of the system implemented. The reference tag elements are used to cluster similar images using a standard nearest neighbor approach incorporating a basic K-Means Clustering. Furthermore, the semantic similarity computation using Modified Google Distance Measure is carried out. A Focused Ontology Crawler is integrated into the system which facilitates the phenomenon of extracting ontologies nearest to the reference tag items. As the ontologies are crawled, a fitness function incorporating Modified Normalized Google Distance which dynamically computes semantic similarity of the ontologies and checks with that of the reference tag items is also imbibed into the system. The motive behind this fitness function is to retain the ontologies

which are correlative to the reference tags and enhance the overall relevance

of

the tags and accelerate the quality of tags. Also, the ontology information

of

the image uploaded is fed into the tag space for tag recommendation.

A

tag space is formulated which is a vector containing all the semantically

similar tags and as well as the best fit ontologies. The tag space is further enhanced by applying the strategic set expansion technique. Further, the re- ranking of the tags is done based on semantic weights of the tags. The combinatorial function is subject to the tags in order to predict the tags for finalization. The combinatorial function implemented is based on a neural network model with initial training such that the tags are predicted as per the user’s choice. Parameters like the size of the tags, number of words needed to the tag, etc., serve as dynamic inputs to the adaptive artificial neural network for prediction. Strategic Set Expansion refers to a set expansion paradigm where deviations are computed among the existing sets in the Tag Space. The standard threshold for the deviation is considered as average of the sum of initial deviations in the tag space before the set expansion is applied. During set expansion, the key procedure which takes place is when a new term is included; the semantic weight of the term is computed and is checked with the threshold deviation. If it’s lesser than the threshold, then it is included in the set. Otherwise it is discarded if it exceeds the threshold. The immediate neighborhood with an order of maximum two hierarchies of the tags in the tag space is alone considered for set expansion. If TS be the current Tag Space, then the elements of the tag space are listed in (1). Deviation between a pair of tags in the tag space is computed and the Deviation set is depicted by (2).

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

TS= {ts1, ts2, ts3, ts4…

}

and Business Informatics TS= {ts1, ts2, ts3, ts4… } IJCSBI.ORG (1) D= {d1, d2, d3, d4….}

IJCSBI.ORG

(1)

D= {d1, d2, d3, d4….} (2) Where di=Semantic Difference (di, di+1), such that i= {1, 2, 3….}. If Td is the threshold of the deviation, then Td = D/n where n is the number of elements in the tag space. In order to compute the Semantic Similarity Deviation or the Semantic Heterogeneity, a Modified Normalized Google Distance is considered which is given by the (3).x and y in (3) signifies the terms whose semantic heterogeneity has to be determined. The Google Distance Measure is modified owing to a reason that it yields better and more precise results increasing the overall confidence of the proposed approach.

ModfNGD x y

(

,

)

max{log

f

( ),log

x

f

(

y

)}

log

f

(

x

,

y

)

log(

x

y

)

log(

x

y

)

 

logN

log(x

y)-logx -logy - min{log f(x),logf(y)}

 

(3)

5.1 EXPERIMENTATION

The experiment was carried out by using 1124 images which were of community importance. 350 images were collected from personal photographers while the rest were crawled from Bing and Google Image search engines. Several monuments which are popular and the ones which are not very popular are also included for experimentation. The amalgamation of less popular monuments with that of the popular ones actually makes the system ready for every kind photographs of community importance.

5.2 ALGORITHM

The Proposed Algorithm which inputs a reference tag pair and predicts tags

is discussed in Table 1.

Table 1: The Proposed Tag Recommendation Algorithm

Begin

Step 1: Initialize the reference tag pair (rs1, rs2) for a specific image that is to be uploaded. The reference tags are incorporated as a discrete tag pair set RS. Ensure at least 1 tag pair is input for an image.

Step 2: The reference tag set RS is sent into a parser and then a Tokenizer to extract elements, remove redundancy and remove stem words and further

a new set RS fin is formulated.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Step 3: If RS f i n is

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Step 3: If RS fin is non-empty, For each element do

a) Cluster Semantically Similar Images

b) Extract the individual tags from these Images and dynamically compute

the semantic similarity of the tags using Modified Normalized Google Distance Measure. The tags are tokenized and stemmed to remove redundancies.

c) Construct a Tag Space vector with the new tags TS and apply strategic

set expansion technique

Step 4: Crawl the essential ontologies O1, O2…. On corresponding to the reference tags and Check for assertions in the ontologies.

Step 5: While the ontologies are not assertions, compute the semantic similarity of the ontologies and check with that of the reference tags. Add them into the tag space TS.

Step 6: Using strategic set expansion, expand the Tag Space by Dynamically Computing the Semantic Heterogeneity.

Step 7: Re-rank the tags based on the Semantic Measure.

Step 8: Using Combinatorial Function, Predict and Recommend the tags to the user.

End

6. RESULTS The tagging for several images that are uploaded are governed by the system implemented. Several images that are of community importance and are of interest to others are incorporated into the experiments. Various images that were crawled from the Google and Bing image search engines and were further uploaded through the proposed system for tagging. Table 2 depicts the images and their corresponding tags which were recommended by the system. The tags recommended were checked for correctness and relevance. The tags recommended by the system must be acceptable by the user and the user must finalize the tags based on the systems recommendation. The proposed system predicts and recommends tags of a high quality which will be evaluated in the performance evaluation

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Table 2: Relevant Tags Recommended for images of

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Table 2: Relevant Tags Recommended for images of social relevance

Images Uploaded

Reference

Tags

Images Uploaded Reference Tags Tags Recommended

Tags Recommended

Amber Fort Bom Church, Goa Jesus Philomena Church, Mysore.
Amber Fort Bom Church, Goa Jesus Philomena Church, Mysore.

Amber Fort

Bom

Church, Goa

Jesus

Philomena

Church,

Mysore.

Amber Fort, Jaipur Amber Fort, Jaipuri Amber Fort, Amer Fort, Amber Amer Fort, Amer Palace, Amer Fort Palace, Amber Palace Fort, Amber Royal Fort, Royal Amer Palace, Rajasthani Amber Fort, Rajasthan Fort Amber, Amber Lake Fort.

Basilica of Bom Jesus, Parish Church of Bom Jesus, Borea Jezuchi Bajilika, Basílica do Bom Jesus,Francis Xavier Church, Goa Xavier Church, Goa Bom Jesus Church, Relic of St. Francis Xavier Church, Basilica of the Relic of Francis Xavier, Old Goa Church, Holy Jesus Church, Good Jesus Basilica.

Saint Philomena Church, Philomena,Church Mysore, Mysore Church, St. Josephs Cathedral Mysore, Mysore Philomena Josephs Church, Mysore Ashoka Road Parish Church.

Mysore, Mysore Church, St. Josephs Cathedral Mysore, Mysore Philomena Josephs Church, Mysore Ashoka Road Parish Church.

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Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Velankanni Church Fateh Prakash

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Velankanni

Church

Velankanni Church Fateh Prakash Palace Brihadeshwara Temple Tanjavur Our Lady of Good Health
Velankanni Church Fateh Prakash Palace Brihadeshwara Temple Tanjavur Our Lady of Good Health
Fateh Prakash Palace Brihadeshwara Temple Tanjavur

Fateh

Prakash

Palace

Brihadeshwara

Temple

Tanjavur

Our Lady of Good Health Basilica, Mother Mary’s Shrine Velankanni, Velankanni Basilica, Annai Velankanni Aalayam, Arokiamarie Basilica Velankanni, Arokiya Matha Church.

Fateh Palace, Prakash Palace, Royal Lake Palace, Lake Palace Uadipur, Prakash Lake Palace, Udaipur City Palace Complex, Lake Palace Complex, Pichola Lake Palace, Pichola Prakash Palace, Pichola Fateh Palace.

Thanjai Periya Koyil, Thanjavur Periya Kovil, Brihadeshwara Temple Tanjore, Thanjavur, Brihadeeswarar Temple Thanjavoor, Thanjai Kalvettu Koil, Peruvudaiyar Kovil, RajaRajeswara Temple, Rajarajeswaram.

Brihadeeswarar Temple Thanjavoor, Thanjai Kalvettu Koil, Peruvudaiyar Kovil, RajaRajeswara Temple, Rajarajeswaram.

7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

The performance analysis of Onto Tagger is carried out by using four evaluation metrics namely the Recall, Precision, F-measure and Accuracy which is depicted in Equations (4), (5), (6) and (7) respectively. The percentage of the metrics used is considered in the approach proposed. The Precision or Positive Predictive Value referred to as a Fraction of Retrieved Instances [22] and is incorporated as the ratio of the number of relevant recommended tags to that of the tags formulated in the Tag Space. Recall also called as sensitivity is known as the fraction of relevant instances [22]

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG and is incorporated as the ratio of relevant

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and is incorporated as the ratio of relevant recommended tags to that of the total number of relevant tags. F-Measure or F-Score relates Recall and Precision and is known as the harmonic mean [22] of Recall and Precision. Accuracy is formulated as the average of recall and precision.

Number of Relevant Tags Recommended

Precision

Recall

Total number of Tags Formulated in Tag Space Number of relevant Tags Recommended

Total number of Relevant Tags

2* Precision* Recall

Precision

Recall

Recall

F - Measure Precision

Accuracy

2

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

The images which were considered for performance evaluation are Amber Fort, Bom Jesus Church Goa, Philomenas Church Mysore, Velankanni Church and Qutab Minar. The images chosen range from the most popular to the less famous images. All images chosen have an importance to a specific community or a society in general. The percentage of Recall, Precision, and Accuracy for the images is individually depicted in Table 2. Also, the average measures of the depicted evaluation metrics is computed which is also lists in Table 2.

Table 2 : Performance Measurement of Onto Tagger

Image Recall Precision % % Amber Fort 88 83 Bom Jesus 93 88 Chrurch,Goa

Image

Recall

Precision

%

%

Amber Fort

88

83

Bom

Jesus

93

88

Chrurch,Goa

Precision % % Amber Fort 88 83 Bom Jesus 93 88 Chrurch,Goa Accuracy % 85.5 90.5
Precision % % Amber Fort 88 83 Bom Jesus 93 88 Chrurch,Goa Accuracy % 85.5 90.5

Accuracy

%

85.5

90.5

93 88 Chrurch,Goa Accuracy % 85.5 90.5 80.5 89 88.5 86.8 Philomenas Church, 86 75

80.5

89

88.5

86.8

Accuracy % 85.5 90.5 80.5 89 88.5 86.8 Philomenas Church, 86 75 Mysore Velankanni

Philomenas

Church,

86

75

Mysore

Velankanni Church

92

86

Qutab Minar

87

90

Average

89.2

84.4

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG Onto Tagger is compared with Tag Relevance [7]

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Onto Tagger is compared with Tag Relevance [7] which is used as a bench mark for performance comparison. The Precision Percentage of Onto Tagger was compared with that of Tag Relevance. Five arbitrary Precision values of Tag Relevance were considered which was then converted into a percentage of precision for comparison with the Precision Percentage of Onto Tagger. Figure 2 gives the graphical depiction of the Precision Percentage of Onto Tagger and Tag relevance. It is clearly evident from the line graph that the Performance of Onto Tagger is much better than that of Tag Relevance.

of Onto Tagger is much better than that of Tag Relevance. Figure 2: Comparison of the

Figure 2: Comparison of the Precision Percentage of Onto Tagger with Tag Relevance

The graphical depiction of the F-Measure of the individual image elements considered for performance evaluation is depicted in Figure 3. The F- Measure of Amber Fort and Bom Jesus Church Goa is 85.43 % and 90.43 % respectively.Philomenas Church, Velankanni Church and Qutab Minar have F-Measure Value of 80.12 %, 88.89 % and 88.47 % respectively. The Comparison of the Average Precision Percentage of Onto Tagger and Tag Relevance is depicted in Figure 4 as a bar chart. It is clearly evident that Onto Tagger outperforms Tag Relevance by 1.9 %. From this we can infer that Onto Tagger is 1.9 percent more precise than Tag Relevance.

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG T Figure 3: F-Measure in Percentage for various

IJCSBI.ORG

T

of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG T Figure 3: F-Measure in Percentage for various images

Figure 3: F-Measure in Percentage for various images

T Figure 3: F-Measure in Percentage for various images Figure 4 : Comparison of Average Percentage

Figure 4 : Comparison of Average Percentage of Precision of Onto Tagger with that of Tag Relevance

International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics IJCSBI.ORG 8. CONCLUSIONS An innovative approach for

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8. CONCLUSIONS An innovative approach for automatic tag recommendation which is based on limited reference tags is implemented successfully. The paradigm is driven by ontology extraction and incorporates a Modified Normalized Google Distance measure to compute semantic deviations between ontology entities and tags. A strategic set expansion strategy is incorporated to enhance the population of the tag space. The proposed methodology clusters similar ontologies using a basic K-Means Clustering Algorithm. Several community contributed images that are crawled from Flicker and Google Image Search are used for validating the approach. Experimental evidences show that the Proposed onto Tagger approach is the best-in-class method for tagging social images on the Web. Onto Tagger yields an average precision of 84.4 %, an average recall of 89.2 %, accuracy of 86.8 %. The average proposed F-measure of Onto Tagger is 86.67 %. Onto Tagger incorporates a strategic set expansion technique which increases the overall number of tags recommended. Onto Tagger extracts the ontology information of the similar tags. Owing to the reason of incorporating ontological information, the tags are of high relevance. Dynamic Semantic Deviation Computation that has been used in Onto Tagger eliminates the noisy and irrelevant tags. Onto Tagger is one of the image tag recommendation systems which is driven by the reference input tags which makes it a cognitive bridge between manual tagging and automating tagging systems.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I whole heartedly thank my parents who stood by me and supported me during the implementation of this work. Above all, I thank God the Almighty and Everlasting Father and my Lord Jesus Christ who gave me strength, wisdom and health for the completion of this work.

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This paper may be cited as:

Gerard, D. and Sheeba, P., J., 2016. Onto Tagger: Ontology Focused Image Tagging System Incorporating Semantic Deviation Computing and Strategic Set Expansion. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 44-61.