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FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY


Institute of Nursing
AY 2010 - 2011

RESOURCE UNIT IN
NURSING ETHICS & JURISPRUDENCE
NF Cañizares, BSN, RN, MAN
NURSING ETHICS
Main Concept:
• Nursing Ethics is concerned with the principles and right conduct as they apply to
the nursing profession. It reinforces the nurses’ ideals and motives in order to
maximize the affectivity of their service.
• Nursing Jurisprudence is that department of law which comprises all the legal rules
and principles affecting the practice of nursing. It also includes the interpretation of
all these rules and principles and their application to the regulation of the practice of
nursing.

Course Objectives:
At the end of 20 hours, the students should:
1. Be sensitive to ethical considerations and face ethical issues and responsibility in
health care, community work, and public issues.
Specifically, the student will be able to:
a. Explain bioethical concepts and principles and integrate them in
clinical practice.
b. Apply the steps in ethical decision-making when given an ethical
issue
c. Analyze common bioethical issues affecting nursing practice
2. Be able to integrate a basic understanding of nursing law, develop skills in the
application of legal, ethico-moral principles in nursing practice and recognize the
importance of these principles in the nursing profession.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Profession – an occupation or calling requiring advance training and experience
in some specific or specialized body of knowledge which provides service to
society in that specific field.
2. Vocation – an occupation of calling.
3. Ethics – refers to a standard to examine and understand moral life.
4. Morality – refers to social consensus about moral conduct for human beings and
society.
5. Professional Ethics – a branch of moral science concerned with the obligations
that a member of the profession owes to the public.
6. Health Care Ethics – the division of ethics that relates to human health.
7. Bio-Ethics – a specific domain of ethics that focuses on moral issues in the field of
health care.
8. Nursing Ethics – related to all the principles of right conduct as they apply to the
profession.
9. Nursing Profession – the performance for a fee, salary or other reward or
compensation or professional nursing service to individuals, families and
communities in various stages of development. The promotion of health,
prevention of diseases, restoration of health and alleviation of suffering thru:
• Utilization of Nursing Process
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• Establishment of connection with community resources


• Motivation of individuals, families and communities
• Participation in teaching guidelines and supervision
• Undertaking nursing and health manpower development
ETHICAL APPROACHES

A. Teleological Approach or Act of Utilitarianism


• Teleology comes from the Greek word “telos” or “goal or end.”
• This is expressed as “the right thing to do is the good thing to do.”
• The teleological approach is also termed as act utilitarianism where the good
resides in the promotion of happiness or the greatest net increase of pleasure over
pain.
Guidelines for making ethical decisions:
1. Consideration for people as human beings;
2. Consideration of consequences;
3. Proportionate good to come from choices;
4. Propriety of actual needs over ideal or potential needs;
5. A desire to enlarge choices and reduce chance; and
6. A courageous acceptance of the consequence of the decision.

B. Deontological Approach or Duty-Oriented Theory


• The basic rightness or wrongness of an act depends on the intrinsic natures rather
than upon the situation or its consequences.
• The word deontology came from the Greek word “deon” which means duty.

C. Virtue Ethics Approach


• Virtue Ethics, known as aretaic ethics (from the Greek word “arête”) is focused
primarily on the heart of the person performing the act.
• It focused on the traits and virtues of a good person such as courage, temperance,
wisdom and justice.
• Intellectual virtue is the power to deliberate about things good for oneself.
• Moral virtues must be lived over time in order to be learned.

D. Divine Command Ethics


• Is based on the theory that there is a Supreme or Divine being that sets down the
rules to provide guidance to moral decisions.

UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL ETHICS

A. Autonomy
• Comes from the Greek word “autos” meaning self and “nomos” meaning
governance.
• It involves self-determination and freedom to choose and implement one’s
decision, free from deceit, duress, constraint or coercion.
B. Veracity
• To maximize the efficiency of health care, the patient and the health care
providers are bound to tell the truth.
• The patient has the responsibility to provide, to the best of his knowledge,
accurate and complete information about his complaints, past illness,

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previous hospitalizations, medications taken, allergies, religious restrictions,


and other matters relevant to his health.
C. Beneficence / Peace Education
• The principle of beneficence promotes doing acts of kindness and mercy
that directly benefit the patient.
• These acts promote the health of the patient, prevent illness or
complications, alleviate suffering and assist towards peaceful death if the
inevitable comes.
D. Nonmaleficence
• Is stated as an admonition in the negative form to remind health
practitioners to do no harm.
E. Justice
• Refers to the right to demand to be treated justly, fairly and equally.

IMPORTANCE OF ETHICAL CODES


1. It is a systematic guide for developing ethical behavior.
2. It answers normative questions of what beliefs and values should be morally
accepted.

NURSING CODE OF ETHICS

1. Importance:
It strongly emphasizes the four-fold responsibility of nurse, the universality
of the nursing practice, the scope of their responsibilities to the people they
serve, to their co-workers, to society and environment, and to their
profession.

2. Brief History:
a. 1982
• The Philippine Nurses Association Special Committee, under the
chairmanship of Dean Emeritus Julita V. Sotejo, developed a Code of Ethics
for Filipino nurses.

b. 1984
• The Board of Nursing, Professional Regulation Commission adopted the
Code of Ethics of the International Council for Nurses through Board
Resolution No. 633 adding “promotion of spiritual environment” as the fifth-
fold responsibility of the nurse.
• This was enforced up to 1989.
c. 1989
• The Code of Ethics promulgated by the Philippine Nurses Association was
approved by the Professional Regulation Commission and through Board
Resolution No. 1955 was recommended for use.
• This was approved by the general assembly of the Philippine Nurses
Association during the Nurses Week convention on October 25, 1990.

3. Amended Code of Ethics for Nurses


a. Pursuant to Section 3 of Republic Act No. 877, known as the Philippine
Nursing Law, and Section 6 of PD No. 233, the amended Code of Ethics for
Nurses recommended and endorsed by the Philippine Nurses Association
was adopted to govern the practice of nursing in the Philippines.
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b. The Code was adopted under Republic Act 9173 and promulgated by the
Board of Nursing under Resolution No. 220 Series of 2004 last July 14, 2004.

PRINCIPLES:
1. Nurses and People
2. Nurses and Practice
3. Nurses and Co-Workers
4. Nurses and the Society
a. Contributing members of the society
b. Awareness for the call for change
5. Nurses and the Profession
6. Responsibility of the Nurse to Patient
7. Responsibility of the Nurse to the Physician
8. Responsibility of the Nurse to her Colleagues
9. Responsibility of the nurse toward themselves
THE ICN CODE FOR NURSES [2006] & THE UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES IN NURSING

1. Nurses and People


• Nursing care
• Environment that respects the rights, values, and spiritual beliefs of patients
• Informed consent/ information dissemination
• Confidentiality

2. Nurses and Practice


• Responsibility and accountability for nursing practice and the maintenance
of competence
• Standard of care wherein the ability to provide care is not compromised
• Assess individual competency
• Maintain standards of personal conduct
• Client safety with regard to the use of technology and scientific advances
3. Nurses and the Profession
• Assume the major role in determining and implementing acceptable
standards in practice, management, education and research
• Be active in developing of core of research-based professional knowledge
• Participate in creating and maintaining safe, equitable, social, and economic
working conditions in nursing through professional organization
4. Nurses and Co-Workers
• Cooperation and collaboration
• Patient Protection from co-worker or other individuals

IMPLEMENTING RULES IN THE ICN CODE OF ETHICS


1. Nurses shall perform professional duties in conformity with the existing laws and
generally accepted principles of moral and ethical conduct and proper decorum
2. Nurses must know responsibilities in the practice of the profession
3. Solicitation, direct or indirect from patients is repugnant to the honor and dignity
of nursing profession that constitutes unethical conduct
4. Nurses must not allow the use of their names in the promotion of any commercial
products or service

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE NURSE TO THE PATIENTS


1. Give him/her the kind of care his/her condition needs regardless of his/her race,
creed, color, nationality or status.
2. The patient’s care shall be based on needs, the physician’s orders, and the
ailment.
3. The nurse shall involve the patient and/or his/her family so that he/she or any of
the family can participate in his/her care.
4. Know the patient’s Bill of Rights.
5. Be patient advocate. Treat patient in a manner that will show concern whether the
patient is rich or poor.
6. Nurses should not leave a patient or any agency without proper permission or
resignation or without relief.
7. Nurses should commit themselves to the welfare of those entrusted to their care.

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PATIENT’S BILL OF RIGHTS


1. The patient has the right to considerate and respectful care.
2. The patient has the right to obtain from his physician complete and current
information concerning his diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in terms the
patient can be reasonably expected to understand.
3. The patient has the right to receive from his physician information necessary to
give informed consent prior to the start of any procedure and/or treatment.
4. The patient has the right to refuse treatment and to be informed of the medical
consequences of his action.
5. The patient has the right to every consideration of his privacy concerning his own
medical care program.
6. The patient has the right to expect that all communications and records pertaining
to his care should be treated as confidential.
7. The patient has the right to expect within its capacity, a hospital must make
reasonable response to the request of a patent for services.
8. The patient has the right to obtain information as to any relationship his hospital
has to other health care and educational institutions insofar as his care is
concerned.
9. The patient has the right to be advised if the hospital proposes t engage in or
perform human experimentation affecting his care or treatment.
10.The patient has the right to expect reasonable continuity of care.
11.The patient has the right to examine and receive an explanation of his bill.
12.The patient has the right to know what hospital rules and regulations apply to his
conduct as a patient.

PATIENT’S RESPONSIBILITIES
1. Providing information
2. Complying with instructions
3. Informing the physician of refusal to treatment
4. Paying hospital charges
5. Following hospital rules and regulations
6. Showing respect and consideration

NURSES’ BILL OF RIGHTS


1. Nurses have the right to practice in a manner that fulfills their obligations to
society and to those who receive nursing care.
2. Nurses have the right to practice in environments that allow them to act in
accordance with professional standards and legally authorized scopes of practice.
3. Nurses have the right to a work environment that supports and facilitates ethical
practice, in accordance with the Code of Ethics for Nurses and its interpretative
statements.
4. Nurses have the right to freely and openly advocate for themselves and their
patients, without fear of retribution.
5. Nurses have the right to fair compensation for their work, consistent with their
knowledge, experience and professional responsibilities.
6. Nurses have the right to a work environment that is safe for themselves and their
patients.
7. Nurses have the right to negotiate the conditions of their employment, either
individuals or collectively, in all practice settings.

NURSES’ RESPONSIBILITIES IN RESEARCH ON HUMAN SUBJECTS

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1. Employment in settings where research is conducted.


2. Vigilant protection of human subjects’ rights
3. Scope of Application
4. Supporting accrual of knowledge
5. Informed consent
6. Representation of Human Rights Committee
BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS OF RESEARCH SUBJECTS
1. Right to informed Consent
2. The right to refuse and/or withdraw from participation
3. Right to privacy
4. Right to confidentiality or anonymity of data
5. Right to be protected from harm

EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECT’S BILL OF RIGHTS


1. To be told about the nature and purpose of the study.
2. To be told about the procedures to be followed in the research study, and whether
any of the drugs, devices, or procedures is different from what would be used in
standard practice.
3. To receive a description of any side effects, discomforts, or risks that you can
reasonably expect to occur during the study.
4. To be told of any benefits that you may reasonably expect to from the
participation in the study, if applicable.
5. To receive a description of any alternative procedures, drugs, or devices that
might be helpful, and their risks and benefits compared to the proposed, drugs or
devices.
6. To be told of what sort of medical treatment, if any, will be available if any
complications should arise.
7. To be given a chance to ask any questions concerning the research study both
before agreeing to participate and at any time during the course of the study.
8. To refuse to participate in the research study. Participation is voluntary. You may
refuse to answer any question or discontinue your involvement at any time without
penalty or loss of benefits to which you might otherwise be entitled. Your decision
will not affect your right to receive the care you would receive if you were not in
the experiment.
9. To receive a copy of signed and dated written consent form and a copy of this
form.
10.To be given the opportunity to freely decide whether or not to consent to the
research study without any force, coercion, or undue influence.

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE NURSE TO THE PHYSICIAN

• Section 28(a) of RA 9173 states that: It shall be the duty of the nurse to:
(a) Provide nursing care through utilization of the nursing process. Nursing care
includes, but not limited to, traditional and innovative approaches, therapeutic and
innovative approaches, therapeutic use of self, executing health care techniques
and procedures, comfort measures, health teachings, and administration of written
prescription for treatment, therapies, oral, topical and parental medications,
internal examination during labor in the absence of antenatal bleeding and
delivery. In case of suturing or perineal laceration, special training shall be
provided according to protocol established.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF NURSES TO THEIR COLLEAGUES


1. Establish good working relationships with co-workers.
2. Nurses shall adjust themselves to the organization and know its policies and
procedures.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF NURSES TO THEMSELVES


1. Develop their own skills.
2. Their conduct must bring credit to the profession.
3. They shall endeavor to live a life that will uphold their self-respect.
4. Wear uniform with respect and dignity (clean, neat hair style, moderate make-up,
without jewelries)
5. Must act in a manner that is worth emulating especially while they are on duty.

Special Concepts and Principles which Guide Client-health Professional


Relationship
1. Right to Health Care
2. Right to Informed Consent
3. Promise Keeping (Fidelity)
4. Truth-Telling (Veracity)
5. Confidentiality

MORAL PRINCIPLES
1. The Golden Rule
2. The Two-fold Effect
3. The Principle of Totality
4. Epikia
5. One who acts through an agent is himself responsible
6. No one is obliged to betray himself/herself
7. The end does not justify the means
8. Defects of nature may be corrected
9. If one is willing to cooperate in the act, no justice is done to him/her
10.A little more or less does not change the substance of an act
11.The greatest good for the greatest number
12.No one is held to the impossible
13.The morality of cooperation
14.Principle relating to the origin and destruction of life

The Good Samaritan Law


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It is based on the biblical story of a man who aided an injured person who was
waylaid by thieves and was left half-dead. A nurse, therefore, who renders first aid or
treatment at the scene of an emergency and who does so within the standard of care,
acting in good faith, is relieved of the consequences of the act.

LAWS AND ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTING NURSES:


1. International Labor Organization Convention 149
2. ILO Recommendation 1977
3. International Council of Nurses
4. Code of Ethics for Nurses
5. Magna Carta for Health Workers (RA 7305)
6. Philippine Nursing Law
7. Philippine Constitution

JURISPRUDENCE

A. Definition of Terms
1. Law – the sum total of rules and regulations by which society is governed.
2. Jurisprudence – the science of law.
3. Nursing Jurisprudence – that department of law which comprises all the legal
rules and principles affecting the practice of nursing. It also includes the
interpretation of all these rules and principles and their application to the
regulation of the practice of nursing.
4. Plaintiff – the party to a civil suit who brings the suit seeking damages or other
legal relief; complainant. (ACCUSER)
5. Defendant – (In criminal case) the person accused of committing a crime; (In civil
suit) the party against whom suit is brought demanding that he pays the other
party legal relief.
6. Subpoena – a court order requiring one to appear in court to give testimony.
7. Summons – a notice to a defendant ordering him to speak in a court at a specified
time and date to answer a complaint against him.
8. Witness – one who is called to give testimony in a court of law.
9. Felony – a crime of a serious nature usually punishable for a period of longer than
one year or by death.
10.Principal – a person who takes direct part in the execution of the act.
11.Accomplice - those people who not being principals, cooperate in execution of the
offense by previous simultaneous acts.
12.Legal Right – a right or claim which can be enforced by legal means against the
person of the community.
13.Jurisdiction – the legal right or authority of a court to hear and decide on a legal
case or controversy.
14.Legislation – the act or process of making laws.

Aspects of the Profession with Provisions with Provisions of the Law:


1. Examination and registration of applicants.
2. Professional conduct of practitioners.
3. Maintenance of ethical and technical standards of the profession.
4. Illegal practice of unregistered persons.
5. Exercise of powers and duties to examine applicant and administer the law
regulating the profession.

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CLASSIFICATION OF LAWS:

A. According to Source of Authority


1. Divine Law – laws authored by God
2. Human Law – laws authored by men

B. Groups of Human Law


1. Public Law – department of law which is concerned with the state in its
political or sovereign capacity. It is a law that applies generally to people of the
state adopting or enacting it.
1.1Criminal Law – treats the nature, extent and degree of every crime and
adjusts to it the adequate and necessary penalty.
1.2International Law – the law which regulates the intercourse of nations
1.2.1 Public International Law – control the conduct of independent
state in their relation to each other.
1.2.2 Private International Law – conflict law
1.3Political Law – Threats the science of politics (Government) Regulates the
relation between the state and individuals that compose it.
1.3.1 Constitutional Law - law that relates the constitution, as a
permanent system of political and juridical government, as
distinguished from statutory and common law, which relate to
matters subordinate to such constitution.
1.3.2 Administrative Law – the body of rules and regulations and orders
and decisions created by administrative agencies of government.
1.3.3 Law of Public Administration
1.3.4 Law of Public Corporation
1.4Private Law – law that relates the private matters which do not concern
the public at large (Administrative between citizen and citizen)
1.4.1 Civil Law – organizing the family and regulating property.
1.4.2 Commercial Law – relates to the rights of property and the relations
of persons engaged in commerce.
1.4.3 Remedial Law – methods of enforcing rights or obtaining redress
(correcting the wrong)

THE EVOLUTION OF THE PHILIPPINE NURSING LAW

Republic Act No. 2493 dated February 5, 1915 – The first law affecting the practice of
nursing in the Philippines. It consists of two sections:
a. Sec. 7 – states that every person desiring to practice nursing in the Philippines
shall apply to the Director of Health for a Certificate of registration as a nurse.
b. Sec. 8 – states that it shall be unlawful for any person to practice as a nurse in
any of its branches in the Phil. until the proper certificate of registration has been
obtained.
This is also an act that provides for the examination and registration of nurses in the
Philippines.

Republic Act No. 2808 dated March 1, 1919 – an act regulating the practice of nursing
profession in the Philippines otherwise known as the Nursing Law (this is first considered
as the first Nursing Law).
Significance of this Law
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• The first board of examinees for nurses was created composed of three
members appointed by the Secretary of Interior (one doctor of medicine as
chairman and two members who are registered nurses, had experience in the
nursing profession for at least five years of reputable character)

The Board has the following powers:


1. Issue and revoke certificates of registration for practitioners of the nursing
profession.
2. Study the conditions affecting the practice of the nursing profession in all parts
of the Philippines.
3. Exercise the power conferred by the law to maintain efficient, ethical and
technical standards in nursing profession.
4. Promulgate regulations governing the nurse examination and standards to be
attained.

Republic Act No. 4007 dated December 5, 1931 (Reorganization Law) – took effect the
conduct of board examination and placed the direct supervision of the Bureau of Civil
Service.
NURSING LAWS PASSED IN JUNE 1950

• RA 465 – standardized the fees charge by the examining board.


• RA 546 – reorganized and placed all the board examinees under the direct
supervision of the Pres. of the Phil.
• RA 877 dated June 19, 1953 – was enacted as an entirely new law created by the
Filipino Nurses associated (NOW PNA) namely: Ms. Obdulia Kabigting as chairman;
Dean JV Sutejo and Conchita Ruiz. The act was sponsored by Sen. Geronima Pecson.
The purpose is to “regulate the practice of nursing in the Philippines and to set up
provisions for the registration of the nurses for the establishment and maintenance of
standards of nursing education and practice.”
• RA 1080 dated June 15, 1954 – An act declaring the BAR and BOARD OF
EXAMINATION as “Civil Service Examniation”

Cognizant of the complexities in the Nursing Profession on 1970, the nursing leader mad
steps to re-align the nursing law a tuned times. The following event took place:
 1975 – Dean JV Sotejo called on then Pres. Marcos for the revision of the Nursing
Law to enable nurses to practice more effectively and with legal protection with in
the framework of an expanding and changing health care delivery system (this did
not materialized).
 July 1977 – Dr. R. Diamante worked for the decree instituting a professional
regulation code and the proposed amendments of the Nursing Law.
 May 13, 1982 – Coping of the propose amendment of the Philippine Nursing Act
of 1982 was submitted to health minister Azurin for him to sponsor at Batasan
Pambansa.

These events laid the foundation for RA 7164 with Senator Heherson Alvarez as primary
sponsor. It was finally passed in the lower house and appraisal in November 21, 1991 by
Pres. Corazon Aquino “Nursing as a dynamic profession continues to seek ways and
means to make it more responsive and relevant. This is the prime motive for the birth of
RA 9173 – sponsored by Hon. Carlos M. Padilla of the House of Representatives. Said bill
was approved on the third meeting by the low House on August 22, 2000 but was not
acted upon by the Senate.
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The counterpart bill in the Senate (SB No. 2292) with Senator Flavier as sponsor. The BM
and PNA and Legislation Committee worked and put the bill in its final form. The Pres.
GM Arroyo during the 80th Anniversary of the Nurses Week celebration on October 21,
2002 in Manila Midtown Hotel.

 RA 9173 October 21, 2002 – an act providing for a more responsive nursing
profession repealing for the purpose RA # 7164, otherwise known as the Philippine
Nursing Act of 1991.

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PHILIPPINE NURSING LAW (RA 9173)

 Title of the law and its provision (Article I)


 Declaration of Policy (Article II)
 Organization of the Board of Nursing (Article III)
 Examination and Registration (Article IV)
 Nursing Education (Article V)
 Nursing Practice (Article VI)
 Health Human Resources Production, Utilization and Development (Article VII)
 Penal and Miscellaneous Provisions (Article VIII)

Reference for RA 9173 – Primer of RA 9173, Twelfth Congress, Second Regular Session –
Board of Nursing Resolution No. 425, Series of 2003, Implementing Rules and Regulation
of the Philippine Nursing Act of 2002.

ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN LEGAL LIABILITY:


1. Negligence – refers to the commission or omission of an act, pursuant to a duty,
that a reasonably prudent person in the same or similar circumstance would or
would not do, and acting or non-acting of which is the proximate cause of injury to
another person or his property.
2. Malpractice – the idea of improper or unskillful care of a patient by a nurse;
denotes stepping beyond one’s authority with serious consequences. It is the term
for negligence or carelessness of professional personnel.
3. Incompetence – the lack of ability, legal qualifications or fitness to discharge the
required duty.
4. Ignorance – means want of knowledge.
5. Moral Turpitude – an act of baseness, vileness or depravity in social or private
duties.
6. Fraud – a wrong doing or misconduct, an act resulting from a willful act to
deceive; deceitful practice, rules of common honesty.
7. Deceit – any act. Declaration or practice which misleads a person or which causes
him to believe what is false.
8. False Statement – an allegation or statement that is deceitful with intention to
commit a fraud.
PROFESSIONAL NEGLIGENCE

A. Elements of Professional Negligence


1. Existence of duty on the part of the person charged to use due care under
circumstances.
2. Failure to meet the standard of due care.
3. The foreseeability of harm resulting from failure to meet the standard.
4. The fact that the breach of this standard resulted in an injury to the plaintiff.

B. Five Legal Doctrines to Describe Professional Negligence


1. Res Ipsa Loquitor – three conditions are required to establish a defendant’s
negligence without proving specific conduct.
2. Doctrine of Force Majeure - means an irresistible force, one that is unforeseen
or inevitable.
3. Doctrine of Respondeat Superior – “let the master answer for the acts of the
subordinate.”
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4. Captain of the Ship Doctrine


5. Doctrine of Corporate Liability

TORTS
– a legal wrong, committed against a person or property independent of a contract
which renders the person who commits it liable for damages in a civil action.

Examples of Torts:

1. Assault – the imminent threat of harmful or offensive bodily contact.


2. Battery – an intentional, unconsented touching of another person.
3. False Imprisonment or Illegal Detention – means the unjustifiable detention of
a person without a legal warrant within boundaries fixed by the defendant by an
act or violation of duty intended to result in such confinement.
4. Invasion of Right to Privacy and Breach of Confidentiality
5. Defamation
• Slander – oral defamation of a person by speaking unprivileged or false
words by which his reputation is damaged.
• Libel – defamation by written words, cartoons or such representations that
cause a person to be avoided, ridiculed or held in contempt or tend to injure
him in his work.

CRIMES, MISDEMEANORS AND FELONIES

1. Crimes – an act committed or omitted in violation of the law.


2. Elements of Criminal Offenses:
a. Criminal Act
b. Evil/ Criminal Intent

• Conspiracy to commit a crime


• Criminal Actions
• Criminal Negligence
• Criminal Intent

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CLASSIFICATION OF FELONY:
A. According to Degree of the acts of Execution:
1. Consummated – when all the elements necessary for its execution and
accomplishment are present.
2. Frustrated – when the offender performs all the acts or execution which will
produce the felony as a consequence but which nevertheless, do not produce it
by reason of causes independent of the will of the perpetrator.
3. Attempt – when the offender commences the commission of the same directly
overt (open or manifest) acts, and does not perform all the acts or execution
which shall produce the felony, by reason of some cause or accident other than
his own spontaneous desistance.

B. According to Degree of Punishment:


1. Grave Felonies – those to which the law attaches the capital punishment
(death) or penalties which in any of their periods are afflictive (imprisonment
ranging from six (6) years and one (1) day to life imprisonment not exceeding
P6,000.00).
2. Less Grave Felonies – those which the law punishes with penalties which in
their maximum period are correctional (imprisonment ranging from one month
and one day to six (6) years, or a fine not exceeding P6,000.00 but not less
than P200.00).
3. Light Felonies – those infractions of law for the commission of which the
penalty of arresto menor (imprisonment for one (1) day to thirty (30) days or a
fine not exceeding P200.00 or both of which are imposed). This is punishable
only when they have been consummated, with the exception of those
committed against a person or property.

CIRCUMSTANCES AFFECTING CRIMINAL LIABILITY


1. Justifying Circumstances
2. Exempting Circumstances
3. Mitigating Circumstances
4. Aggravating Circumstances
5. Alternative Circumstances

CRIMES WHICH CONCERNS NURSES


1. Parricide – a crime committed by one who kills his/her father, mother, or child
whether legitimate or illegitimate, or any of his/her ascendants or descendants of
his/her spouse.
2. Murder – the unlawful killing of a human being with intent to kill.
3. Homicide – the killing of a human being by another.
4. Infanticide – the killing of a child less than three (3) days of age.
5. Abortion – the expulsion of the product of conception before the age of viability.
6. Giving assistance to suicide
7. Illegal Detention – unlawful taking of a person or property as in the case of
forcible entry or detention.
8. Simulation of birth, substitution of one child for one another, or
abandonment of a legitimate child.
9. Criminal Negligence
 Reckless Imprudence – when a person does an act or fails to do it voluntarily
but without malice, from which material damage results immediately.

NFC JUNE 2010


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 Simple Imprudence – when the person or nurse did not use precaution and
the damage was immediate or the impending danger was not evident or
manifest.

Legal Responsibilities of Nurses into the Following Areas:


A. Contracts
B. Informed Consent
C. Wills
D. Nursing Care
E. Operation of Patients
F. Abortion Cases
G. Unauthorized Discharge of Patient

Points to Observe by Nurses in Order to Avoid Criminal Liability


1. Be very familiar with the Philippine Nursing Law.
2. Beware of laws affect nursing practice.
3. At the start of employment, get a copy of your job description, the agency’s rules,
regulations and policies.
4. Upgrade your skills and competence.
5. Accept only such responsibility that is within the scope of your employment and
job description.
6. Do not delegate your responsibility to others.

REFERENCES:
1. Lydia M. Venzon, RN, MAN, PhD, FPCHA and Ronald M. Venzon
Professional Nursing in the Philippines
11th Edition, C&E Publishing Corp., 2010
10th Edition, C&E Publishing Corp., 2005
2. Rustico T. De Belen and Donna Vivian De Belen
Nursing Law, Jurisprudence & Professional Ethics
1st Edition, C&E Publishing Corp., 2007
3. DOH Nursing Service Manual, 2005
4. Kozier, Erb, Berman and Snyder
Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process and Practice
8th Edition, C&E Publishing Corp
5. Commission on Higher Education CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) no. 14,
S. 2009
6. Commission on Higher Education CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) no. 30,
S. 2001

NFC JUNE 2010