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# CHEM 113

## MODULE 1: BASIC STOICHIOMETRY CHEMISTRY CALCULATIONS

DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY FO SANTO TOMAS
MODULE OUTLINE
BASIC STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY
MOLE CONCEPT PERCENT CONCENTRATION
MOLAR MASS MOLARITY
MOLECULES MOLALITY
PPM, PPB

## LIMITING AND EXCESS REACTANTS STOICHIOMETRY OF GASES

IDENTIFYING THE LIMITING REACTANT GAS LAWS
PERCENTAGE YIELD AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT
DEGREE COMPLETION / CONVERSION IDEAL GAS EQUATION
PERCENTAGE EXCESS
BASIC STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS
MOLE (mol)
the amount of substance that contains 6.02 x 1023 particles (atoms, molecules, or ions)
1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 particles, where 6.02 x 1023 is commonly referred to as Avogadros Number

PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. How many molecules of H2O is in 2.52 moles of the compound?
2. How many moles would 7.31 x 1024 atoms of Ag make?
3. How many ions of Na+ would 5.34 moles of NaCl contain?

Answers: (1) 1.52 x 1024 molecules of H2O, (2) 12.14 moles Ag, (3) 3.21 x 1024 ions of Na+
BASIC STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS
MOLAR MASS
the mass, in grams, of 1 mole (or 1 g-mol) of a substance
commonly expressed in gram per mole (or g-mol) or kilogram per kilo-mole (kg / kmol)
Atomic weight defines the weight of 1 mole of a certain element (e.g. O, Cu, Au)
Molecular weight denotes the weight of 1 mole of a compound (e.g. H2O, O2, CH4)
Formula mass specifically refers to the mass of a specific ionic compound (e.g. NaCl, BaSO4)

PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Calculate the mass of one mole of chlorophyll, C55H72MgN4O5?
2. How many atoms are in 1,000 kg. of iron?
3. How many grams of BaCl is in 25 kmol of the compound?

Answers: (1) 892.31 grams, (2) 1.09 x 1028 atoms Fe, (3) 4.32 x 106 grams BaCl
STOICHIOMETRIC RELATIONS IN COMPOUNDS
The numerical subscript of each element in a compound represents the number of atoms
present in the molecule.
The coefficient gives the number of molecules in the compound.

## Take for example, aspirin, C9H8O4,

1 molecule of C9H8O4 contains: 1 mole of C9H8O4 contains:
9 atoms Carbon 9 moles of C atoms
8 atoms Hydrogen 8 moles of H atoms
4 atoms Oxygen 4 moles of O atoms
STOICHIOMETRIC RELATIONS IN
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Consider the balanced chemical equation,
3 Fe + 4 H2O Fe3O4 + 4 H2
The stoichiometric relations among the reactants and products can be stated as:
3 atoms of Fe react with 4 molecules of H2O to produce 1 formula unit of Fe3O4 and 4 molecules of H2.
3 moles of Fe react with 4 moles of H2O to produce 1 mole of F2O3 and 4 moles of H2.

Note that you can only express the chemical equation as either of the two aforementioned statements and
not a mixture of both.
STOICHIOMETRIC RELATIONS IN
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
Consider the balanced chemical equation,
SiCl4 + 2 H2 + O2 SiO2 + 4 HCl
1. How many molecules of H2 reacted with 1 formula unit of SiCl4?
2. How many moles of SiO2 were produced if 2 moles of SiCl4, 4 moles of H2 and 2 moles of O2 were
introduced?
3. How many (a) molecules of HCl (b) grams of HCl would be present in the product stream if 1 mole of
SiO2 were produced?

Answers: (1) 2 molecules of H2, (2) 2 mol SiO2, (3a) 2.41 x 1024 molecules of HCl, (3b) 145.8 g. HCl
LIMITING AND EXCESS REACTANTS
The limiting reactant is the reactant that controls or limits the amount of product that can
be produced. The reactions stops when all the limiting reactant is completely consumed.
The excess reactant is the reactant in a chemical reaction that remains when the limiting
reactant is completely converted to product.

## 2 Methods of Identifying the Limiting and Excess Reactants

METHOD 1: Comparing molar ratio of reactants with ratio of reactant coefficients
METHOD 2: Comparing and computing for the weights of the reactant needed to completely
consume the other
LIMITING AND EXCESS REACTANTS
METHOD 1: Comparing molar ratio of reactants with ratio of reactant coefficients
Consider a balanced chemical reaction:
aA + bB cC + dD
where a, b, c, and d are coefficients of components A, B, C, and D

Suppose x moles of A and y moles of B are present and they react according to the above reaction,

If < then reactant A is limiting

If > then reactant B is limiting

LIMITING AND EXCESS REACTANTS
METHOD 2: Comparing and computing for the weights of the reactant needed to completely consume the
other
Suppose a reaction proceeds as follows:
aA + bB cC
Determine the amount of component B needed to fully consume component A and vice-versa by converting
the amount of A to B using the molar relation of A to B described by the chemical equation (for every a mole
of component A, b moles of component B is needed)

. = .

. = .

The component with required amount > supplied amount is the limiting reactant.
The component with required amount < supplied amount is the excess reactant.
LIMITING AND EXCESS REACTANTS
Antimony (Sb) is obtained by heating pulverized stibnite (Sb2S3) with scrap iron and drawing
off the molten antimony from the bottom of the reaction vessel.
Sb2S3 + 3 Fe 2 Sb + 3 FeS
Suppose that 0.600 kg of stibnite and 0.250 kg of iron turnings are heated together to give
0.200 kg of Sb metal. Determine the limiting reactant.

METHOD 1:

## Reactant Weight Mol. Wt. Moles

Sb2S3 0.600 kg = 600 g 339.73 g/mole 1.766 moles Sb2S3
Fe 0.250 kg = 250 g 55.85 g/mole 4.476 moles Fe
LIMITING AND EXCESS REACTANTS
Sb2S3 + 3 Fe 2 Sb + 3 FeS
METHOD 1
Reactant Weight Mol. Wt. Moles
Sb2S3 0.600 kg = 600 g 339.73 g/mole 1.766 moles Sb2S3
Fe 0.250 kg = 250 g 55.85 g/mole 4.476 moles Fe

23 1.766
= = = 0.3945
4.476
23 1
= = = 0.333
3

Since > , Fe is the limiting reactant and Sb2S3 is the excess reactant.

LIMITING AND EXCESS REACTANTS
Sb2S3 + 3 Fe 2 Sb + 3 FeS
METHOD 2
Reactant Weight Mol. Wt. Moles
Sb2S3 0.600 kg = 600 g 339.73 g/mole 1.766 moles Sb2S3
Fe 0.250 kg = 250 g 55.85 g/mole 4.476 moles Fe

3
1.766 23 = 5.298
1 23
1 23
4.476 = 1.492 23
3

Since 5.298 moles Fe (reqd) > 4.476 moles Fe (supplied), Fe is the limiting reactant.
Since 1.492 moles Sb2S3 (reqd) < 1.766 moles Sb2S3 (supplied), Sb2S3 is the excess reactant.
HOMEWORK (TO BE SUBMITTED NEXT MEETING)
Determine the limiting and excess reactants in the following chemical reactions:
(1) Plants apply a chemical reaction called photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide
and water into glucose and oxygen. 2.5 moles of CO2 was reacted with 73.5 grams of
water.
6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2

(2) The combustion reaction of propane, C3H8, found in gas grills is defined by the
balanced chemical reaction below. 15.6 grams of C3H8 was exposed to 5.15 moles of
oxygen gas, O2.
C3H8 + 5 O2 4 H2O + 3 CO2