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3.
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, .., 2002; .., 2009; .., 2010;
.., 2005; Amenta S., Balconi M., 2008; Anolli L., Ciceri R.,
Infantino M.G., 2002; Attardo S., 2003; Bryant G.A., 2010, 2011, 2012; Bryant
G.A., Fox Tree J.E., 2005; Cheang H.S., Pell M.D., 2008; Kreuz R.J., Roberts
R.M., 1995; Nakassis C., Snedeker J., 2002; Scharrer L., Christmann U., Knoll M.,
2011; Woodland J., Voyer D., 2011).

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(Mariscal Chicano J.M., 1993: 188).
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1502 ,
(ironick).
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: [Irony is] mode of speech in which the meaning is clearly contrary to
the words (Winokur J., 2007: XIII).

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2007: 14). ,
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( .., .., 1998: 42).


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( ..,
2012: 168).

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(
) (, 1989: 305-306).
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, irony is subtle, sarcasm is blunt (Winokur J., 2007: 7).
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. This is an irony of
situation, or an irony of existence; it is as though human life and its understanding
of the world is undercut by some other meaning or design beyond our powers...
(Colebrook C., 2004). , .. ,
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, ( .., 1999). ,

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(Winokur J., 2007: XV).
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17

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, 2012).
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, 1985: 505).

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( .., 2000: 7).
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21

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:
Our friends are always there when they need us (Martin R., 1992: 81).
.
,

( , 83).
, Heui-Joo Jeoung,
(truth-telling irony) (Jeoung H.J., 2006).

.
, :
.. ;
. -;
. . ;
. . ;
..
.. (1975) ,
, Maxims of
Conversation. ,
(Maxim of Quality),
, , ,
(Grice P., 1975).
, ,

22

, , . ,
, ,
(Curc C., 1995).

.
, . -
(pragmatic insincerity),
,
, (Kumon-Nakamura S., Glucksberg S.,
Brown M., 1995).
, (Pretense Theory) .
. ,
,
; , , ,
(), ,
,
(Clark H.H., Gerrig R.J., 1984: 121).
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(Relevance Theory), . .
(1986/1995), ,
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(relevance-theoretic)
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23

, ,
(Sperber D., Wilson D., 1996: 239).
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. . ).
, ,

,
(Wilson D., Sperber D., 2012: 128-129).
, -
,

,
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,
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,
: Irony is particularly notable for its ability
to forcefully highlight the discrepancy between some reality and what some people
expected or desired (Gibbs R.W., Jr., 2012: 104).
, . .
, ,
,
, ,
(Escandell-Vidal V., Leonetti M., 2014).
,
.
24


(Tinge Hypothesis),
-
,
.
,
(echoic theories of irony),
(Sperber D., Wilson D., 1996; Kreuz R.J., Glucksberg S., 1989).
,

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(,
, , : How I
love winning!).
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25

,
(Keenan T.R., Quigley K., 1999).
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1.2.


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26

..
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( , 1985: 621).
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( .., 1947: 74).
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28

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, (Blommaert J., 2005).
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- -
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, ,
. , .
, ,
. , . . : it does
not seem possible at the present time to give a single, precise, technical definition
of context, and eventually we might have to accept that such a definition may not
be possible. At the moment the term means quite different things within alternative
research paradigms, and indeed even within particular traditions seems to be
defined more by situated practice, be use of the concept to work with particular
analytical problems, than by formal definition (Goodwin Ch., Duranti A.,
1992 : 2).

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( .., 1999: 92).
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( .., 2004: 21).

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uptake (). , . ,
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31

- ,
(Gumperz J.J., 2003: 113).

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understanding ( ): , ..
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(Bakhtin M.M., 1986: 125).
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(sentence meaning)
(speaker meaning) ( .. ), .. ,
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33


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(Katz A.N., Lee C.J., 1993).
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35

,

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.
, (Gibbs R.W., Jr., 1994; Gibbs R.W., Jr.,
OBrien J.E., Doolittle S., 1995) , ,

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, Standard
Pragmatic Model (Grice P., 1975; Searle J.R., 1985; Temple J.G., Honeck R.P.,
1999),
.
, , Standard Pragmatic
Model, ,
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36

,
(Gibbs R.W., Jr., OBrien J.E., Doolittle S., 1995).
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(modular view),
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(Fodor J.A., 1983).
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(Giora R., Fein O., Schwartz T.,
1998; Schwoebel J., Dews S., Winner E., Srinivas K., 1999). ,

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37

graded salience hypothesis (. , . )


,
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(salience) . , (
) ,
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,
( )
. ,
:
, , .
bank. ,
bank (.. financial institution river edge)
() , ,
, ,
-
, bank (=financial institution)
, (.. / salient).
, , bank river
edge (Giora R., Fein O., 1999).
,
, ,
(.. ) (salient) . , ,
I needed money, so I went to the bank money
financial institution
bank. Standing on the riverbank she noticed some fish river
river edge bank.
, river riverbank
38

bank riverside, ,

bank financial institution, ,
,
. , , graded
salience hypothesis ,

- .
, graded salience hypothesis
.
, (),
. ,
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, ( ),
.
,

,
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(Giora R., Fein O.,
1999).
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40

1.3. -

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(-, , )
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41

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2013)
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The 100 Words that Make the English, ,
default
conversational mode ( ).
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(Thorne T., 2011). , ,
,
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43

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44

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,
, : Its like a kettle to us [the
British]: its always on, whistling styly in the corner of our daily interactions
( 1).
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(Fox K., 2004: 65).
, 1.3
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,

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1.4.
-

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45

, M. Selting E. Couper-Kuhlen,

, , ,
, (Couper-
Kuhlen E., Selting M., 1996).

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, .

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, .. ( .., 2011: 136) ,

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(Roach P., 2009)
, .
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46

, .. (Crystal D., 2008:


252).
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(Roach
P., 2009: 15). .
,
(Ladefoged P., 2003).
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( .., 2011: 137).
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138). , ,
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47


(Vassilyev V.A., 1970: 290).
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(pitch),
(loudness) (tempo). ,

( .., 2005).
,
;
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.
,
.

. ,
, (Rise)
(Fall) .
(High Fall),
(Low Fall), - (Fall-Rise),
(High Rise), (Mid-Level Rise),
(Low Rise). ,
( .., 2005).
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,
:
;
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;
48

-;
.
,
-
(attitudinal) . ,
.

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( ),

( .., 2005).
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( .., 1996).
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( .., 1964).
49

- , .. ,
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() ()
,
( .., 1964).
,
(Wells J.C., 2007).
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( .., 2011: 148).
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50

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.. ( .., 2011: 150), :
;
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, ,
- ( attitudinal meanings)
,
. . ,

- .


(Roach P., 2009: 227).
51

, ,
,
.


, ,
1.5.

1.5.


, , ,
,
.
, , ,
,
,

(Harada T., Itakura S., Xu F., Lee K., Nakashita S., Saito D.N., Sadato N., 2009).

,

(Winner E., Brownell H., Happ F., Blum A., Pincus D.,
1998).

,
, , . ,
52

, ,
, ,
, .

,
, ,
,
..

, , ,
,
. .. :
,
.
,
-
( .., 1997: 10).
,
,

(, ,
) (Kreuz
R.J., Glucksberg S., 1989; Gibbs R.W., Jr., 1994; Kumon-Nakamura S.,
Glucksberg S., Brown M., 1995; Utsumi A., 2000).
. . ,
,
-
(discourse context)
(target statement) (Ivanko S.L., Pexman P.M., 2003).
53

,
,
. ,


, . ,
, ,

. , . (2005)
. (1990) ,

(Bryant G.A., 2002;
Capelli C.A., Nakagawa N., Madden C.M., 1990).
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?,
? (Nakassis C., Snedeker J., 2002).
,
.
,
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,
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,
54

- , ,

. ,

,
(Bryant G.A., Fox Tree J.E., 2002, 2005).
(. 1.2)
. , ,
,

. , ,
, , ,
,
(Couper-Kuhlen E., Selting M., 1996: 13).
, , ,
( ). , P. Auer
,
(Auer P., 1992).
,
,
.
, Lisa Scharrer,
(Scharrer L., Christmann U., Knoll M., 2011).
, -
(,
, )
(, , -
), (,
)
(, )
55

(Muoa Barredo I., 1997), - (discourse markers)


(Schiffrin D., 1988).
( )
, ..
(Gibbs R.W., Jr., 2000; Bryant G.A., 2010;
Scharrer L., Christmann U., Knoll M., 2011).
, .
,
. , .. ( ..,
1993) ,
. ..
( .., 1977), , ,
, . ,
(,
,
), ,
.
,
. , ,

.
,

.
. ,
, ,
(Woodland J., Voyer D.,
2011).
56



.. .
.. ( .., 2002)

. ,
:
) ,
;
)
-;
)
;
)
.
,
, ,
.

,
(Bryant G.A., 2010; Scharrer L., Christmann U.,
Knoll M., 2011).
, ,
(,
(pitch peaks), (pitch range),
(average pitch), (e.g., intensity
range, average intensity) (e.g., average, main syllable duration, ).
,

.
57

-
, ,

.. ( .., 1969).
,
: , ,
.
,
. ,
,
, .
, ,

,
(D. Brazil, D. Crystal, .. ).
. ,
How Important is Intonation?, :
?
. ,
. ,
RP ( ) ( .., 2005: 76).
.
. ,
,

(Bryant G.A., 2010). , . ,

(.. , )
( ).
58

, - ..
,
( .., 1969).
, ..
: , ,
, ,
( .., 2002).
,
,
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, ,
:
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,
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.
,
,
. ,

( .., 2009).
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,
-
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( .., 2010).
, ,
,
,
59


(Bryant G.A., 2010).

(Cutler A., 1976),
,
, (Nakassis C., Snedeker J., 2002).
,
, ,
(nasal, stressed intonation) ( ) ,
.
,
.
. , ,
, , : Great way to
start the day, , - ,
: I really appreciated waiting for you on the street corner
for an hour.
,
,
(positive tone of voice) (Winner E., 1997).
,
.

(, ).
, ,

, .
, (),
, , ,
, , ,
60

(speech rate). . ,
,
: Slowing down speech gives the listener more time to process the
relatively higher proportional load often contained in verbal irony, compared to
literal interpretations of the same utterances (Bryant G.A., 2010: 556).
, ,

( )
, ,
,
(Bryant G.A., 2011; Scharrer L., Christmann U., Knoll M., 2011).
,
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.
61

, .

-
(form-function approach)
,
,
, ,
()
(Bryant G.A., 2011: 294).
-
, ,
,
. H.S. Cheang M.D. Pell
,
(by harmonics-to-
noise ratio), ,
. ,
, , ,
(Cheang H.S., Pell M.D., 2008).
, ,
-,

- .

, (.. )
,

(Morton E.S., 1977).
. ,

62

, ,

(Anolli L., Ciceri R.,
Infantino M.G., 2002).
, , ,
,
,
,
.
:
;
;
().
, ,
, ,
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2.1.



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Dan Foster: Sheena /Gough?|


Sheena Gough ( SG1): oWho are \you?
Sheena Gough ( SG 2): Im onot otalking about /Sonia or Stephen
\Collins.

Dan Foster: Im not ointerested in the a\ffair.


Sheena Gough ( SG 3): Yeah, of \course youre onot. (!)

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1.4

(KNOCKS ON DOOR)
Cameron Foster: Come \on. oCal oMcCaffrey, | Yvonne \Shaps, olegal
e\xecutive.| As from ~now,| Yvonne will be |making all my \headline decisions
ofor me.||
Yvonne Shaps: \Nowhere onear otrue.||| \Im here to a\void us printing
ma\terial that invites more |writs than \readers.|| Ive with\drawn the aoppeal
against the in\junction.||
Cal McCaffrey ( MC): Oh, great ofirst ~move. (!) (High Pre-Head
+ Sliding Head + Rise-Fall-Rise)


Yvonne Shaps. ,
97

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99

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1.5

Adam: Camerons looking for me.


Secretary ( SEC 1): His doors locked, so its the Famous Five
knock.
Cameron Foster: Adam... Thanks.
Secretary ( SEC 2): oLike Im \interes/ted.|| (!)

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-.
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1.6

Policeman: (CHEWY) Its confirmed. Foy is on the earlier plane.


Hes on the half nine.
Dan Foster: Did you try Cals mobile?
Della: Its off.
Della: Foys arriving an hour early.
Cal: Sorry.
Della ( D1): A\gain.| ( D2) oLike you \/mean it. (!)
102

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103

. 6. Again. Like you mean it

Della Smith: A\gain.| oLike you \/mean it.||


:
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(742 ).
9.

9. ( 1.6)

D1 D2

20,42 12,66
()

190,5 147,8
()

,
.
104

1.7

Dan Foster: Bloody hell! Dominic Foy. Hows it going?


Dominic Foy: Do I know you?
Dan Foster: Yeah, were connected through work.
Dominic Foy: How come?
Dan Foster: Im a journalist.
Dominic Foy: Yeah.
Dan Foster: And youve been avoiding me.
Dominic Foy: Yeah.
Dan Foster: And now I know...
Cal McCaffrey: How was Spain?
Della: Can you get that tanned in 24 hours?
Dan Foster: Some people do. Naturally I mean. Depends on your UV
exposure. Me, I just go pink, then medical.
Dominic Foy: Listen, forget it, all right? I dont wanna talk here.
Della Smith ( DS): Like \we /do. (!)

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Della Smith: Like \we /do.||

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1.8

Stephen Collins: Dan Foster. What, as in Cameron Foster? Your dads the
editor? ( SC 1) So all this was laid on a plate to you, eh, Dan, working for
Daddy?
Dan Foster: Cal McCaffrey sent me on this cause Im good.
Stephen Collins ( SC 2): \Yeah,| ~sure.|| (!)
Dan Foster: My dad doesnt agree with that which is why it took me five
years to get a job there.
108

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Stephen Collins: \Yeah,| ~sure.||


, 10,

(23,8 5,69 ),
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10. ( 1.8)

SC1 SC2

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Stuart ( ST1): /Della oSmith?||


Della: Thats the /password.||

Stuart ( ST2): Stuart /Brown.|| ( ST3/1) Smith and
>Brown| ( ST3/2) sophisticated \ance/stry.||| (!)

(Della Smith) (Stuart Brown)


. , ,

116

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117

. 9. Smith and Brown sophisticated ancestry


Smith and >Brown| sophisticated \ance/stry.|||

12. ( 2.1)

ST1 ST2 ST3/1 ST3/2

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118


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2.2

Della: You pay| and Ill make us some \coffee.||


Helen ( H): That sounds oreally ~fair.||| (!)


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2.3

Cal McCaffrey: Youve cheered up.


Ann: Thats true.
Cal McCaffrey: I like compilations.
120


Cal McCaffrey ( CM 1): \Anyway,| how \sad| is managing a

\record store| at your \age?|| ( CM 2) I >bet| six |years doing
geoopolitics came in /really \handy,| \didnt it?||| (!)


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121

. 11. Anyway, how sad is managing a record store


at your age? I bet six years doing geopolitics came in really handy, didnt it?

Cal McCaffrey: I >bet| six |years doing geo\politics| came in \really handy,| \didnt it?|||

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13. ( 2.3)

CM1 CM2

19,08 16,77
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302 164
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,
, -
, .
,
-,
.
-,
.

2.4

Alan Carr: Now... Youre filming X-Factor, American X-Factor, at the


moment. So youre meant to be mentoring, what the hell are you doing over here?
Youre gonna get into trouble...
Nicole Scherzinger ( NS1): I know. >Well,| Im mainly here for
~you...|
123

Alan Carr: Yeah, of course.


Nicole Scherzinger: ... ( NS2) and then,| ( NS3) you know,|
( NS4) per|forming on >X-Factor.
A. Carr
N. Scherzinger, 2011
- X-Factor
.
, ,
- .

, .
,

.
.

. 12.
Well, Im mainly here for you. And then, you know, performing on X-Factor


Nicole Scherzinger: >Well,| Im mainly here for ~you...| And >then,| you know,|
per|forming on >X-Factor.|||
124

(. 12),

-- .
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14. ( 2.4)

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- ()

1. The Guardian,
What are you laughing at? [ ]. - :
https://www.theguardian.com/film/2007/feb/10/comedy.television. -
. .
2. MP3 [
]. - : https://audio.online-convert.com/convert-
to-mp3. - . .
3.
Speech Analyzer [ ]. - :
https://www-01.sil.org/computing/sa/index.htm. - . .
4. Smithsonian,
The Science of Sarcasm? Yeah, Right [ ]. -
: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-
science-of-sarcasm-yeah-right-25038/?no-ist. - . .
5. :
, [ ]:
- : http://www.feb-web.ru/feb/litenc/encyclop/le4/le4-
5711.htm. - . .
173

Name: _______________________ Age: ________________ Sex: ___________________ Nationality: ____________________


1) Would you interpret the given utterance as ironic? / Is the given utterance perceived as ironic?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
a) yes
b) no

2) The given utterance is perceived as containing...


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
a) negative irony
b) positive irony
c) routine irony
d) sarcasm
e) ironic manner
f) self-irony
g) other

3) The utterance is perceived as ironic due to the...


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
a) context
b) intonation
c) nonverbal means of
communication
d) all of the above
174

4) Is there any discrepancy / incongruity between the lexical content of the utterance and the intended meaning?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
a) yes
b) no
5) How would you describe the tone (of voice)?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
a) annoyed / irritated
b) arrogant
c) friendly / humorous
d) sneering / mocking
e) sarcastic
f) feigned / pretended
g) vexed / angry
h) other

6) How would you characterise the role of the context provided?


a) crucial, would not
see irony without it
b) important, would see
the irony, but would not
get the meaning of it
c) insignificant, would
see and understand
irony without the
context

7) Would it help you identify irony provided you could see speakers facial expressions?
a) yes
b) no
175

8) Is the use of irony determined by the situation or is it an ironic manner of speech?


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
a) situation
b) ironic manner

9) Is irony typical of British speech?


a) yes b) no c) not sure

10) Is irony typical of American speech?


a) yes b) no c) not sure

11) Additional comments: