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PLURARUL SUBSTANTIVELOR

1. Se adaug "s" care se pronun "z" :


car - cars bed - beds zebra - zebras
cow - cows key - keys needle - needles
chair - chairs room - rooms moor - moors
door - doors noon - noons vacuum cleaner - vacuum cleaners
pub - pubs flower - flowers
ball - balls soil - soils

2. Se adaug "s" care se pronun "s" dup substantivele care se termin in "p", "k",
"t":
cap - caps hut - huts
book - books hook - hooks
hat - hats map - maps

3. Se adaug "es" care se pronun citete "iz" dup substantivele care se termin in
"s", "x", "z", "ch", "sh" :
bus - buses fox - foxes
box - boxes dish - dishes
buzz - buzzes bench - benches
branch - branches kiss - kisses
brush - brushes fuss - fusses

3a. Se adaug "s" care se pronun "iz" dup substantivele care se termin in "ge", "ce"
"se", "ze" :
bridge - bridges house - houses
voice - voices noise - noises
fence - fences promise - promises
horse - horses
breeze - breezes
( se aplica aceeai regula si la forma verbelor de la persoana III -a singular , prezent ,
afirmativ : she mixes, he teaches , etc. )

4. Substantive cu plural neregulat :


mouse - mice goose - geese
man - men apex - apices ( eipecs - eipisi:z ) = vrf , culme
woman - women foot - feet
child - children
ox - oxen
louse - lice
die - dice
tooth - tooth 1

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5. Dup substantivele terminate in "o" se adaug "es" care se pronun impreun


"ouz" :
potato - potatoes veto - vetoes
tomato - tomatoes tornado - tornadoes
no - noes torpedo - torpedoes
archipelago - archipelagoes lingo - lingoes
jingo - jingoes mulatto - mulattoes
grotto - grottoes
cargo - cargoes
echo - echoes
hero - heroes
negro - negroes
mosquito - mosquitoes

5a. Dup substantivele terminate in "o" se adaug "s" care se pronun impreun ouz"
radio - radios portfolio - portfolios
piano - pianos ratio - ratios
photo - photos bamboo - bamboos
studio - studios
folio - folios
rodeo - rodeos

6. Substantive care au aceeai form si pentru singular si pentru plural :


fish reindeer
fruit series
candy species
sheep apparatus
deer
grain

7. Dup substantivele terminate in "y" precedat de o consoan se schimb "y" in "i"


si se adaug "es" care se pronun impreun "ies" :
cherry - cherries
baby - babies
lorry - lorries
daisy - daisies

8. Dup substantivele terminate in "y" precedat de o vocal se adaug "s" care se pro-
nun "z" :
boy - boys
toy - toys
day - days

9. Dup substantivele terminate in "f" se schimb "f" in "v" si se adaug "es" care se
pronun impreun "vz" :
wolf - wolves turf - turves (turfs) 2

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http://www.gramatica-limbii-engleze.ro

life - lives scarf - scarves (scarfs)


knife - knives warf - warves (warfs)- chei ,port
wife - wives hoof - hooves (hoofs)
half - halves beef - beeves (beefs)
thief - thieves
loaf - loaves
shelf - shelves
self - selves
calf - calves
leaf - leaves
elf - elves
sheaf - sheaves (snop, teanc)

9a. Dup substantivele terminate in "f" se adaug "s" care se pronun "s"
brief - briefs tariff - tariffs
grief - griefs giraffe - giraffes
dwarf - dwarfs cliff - cliffs
chief - chiefs cuff - cuffs
belief - beliefs sheriff - sheriffs
roof - roofs bailiff - bailiffs - arendas
proof - proofs muff - muffs
gulf - gulfs staff - staffs (vezi punctul 10.)
reef - reefs
motif - motifs
mischief - mischiefs
neckerchief - neckerchiefs
handkerchief - handkerchiefs

10. Substantive care (delimiteaz grupuri si) au aceeasi form si pentru singular si
pentru plural ("is" sau "are" - my family is , my family are ) :
family committee
audience government
class regiment
crew congregation
public tactics
team technics
alms precis ( preisi: pentru "is" - preisi:z pentru "are" )
flock economics
pack species (specie)
army
fleet
navy
staff (vezi punctul "9" )

11. Substantive care se folosesc doar cu forma de singular si cer numai "is" :
advice (plurarul se formeaz cu pieces of - two pieces of advice = dou sfaturi ) 3

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http://www.gramatica-limbii-engleze.ro

news barracks
furniture rubbish
money (where is my money) progress
information billiards
knowledge specie (moned)
luggage music
impoliteness
chalk
baggage
nonsens
homework

12. Substantive care se folosesc doar cu forma de plural si cer numai "are" :
police (where are the police ) pincers
people (singular - person) pliers
trousers pyjamas - pajamas
glasses brethren
scissors
compasses
cattle
pants

13. Substantive cu diferene minime de pronunie singular - "is" , plural - "i:z" :


crisis - crises (kraisis - kraisi:z )
basis - bases
oasis - oases
thesis - theses
emphasis - emphases
antithesis - antitheses
diagnosis - diagnoses
paralysis - paralyses
analysis - analyses
photosynthesis - photosyntheses
parenthesis - parentheses
axis - axes

14. Substantive de origine latin :


datum - data ( deitm - deit ) antenna - antennae (nten - nteni )
stratum - strata (strtm - strt ) larva - larvae (la:v - la:vi )
erratum - errata (era:tm - era:t ) residuum - residua (ri'zidjuam - ri'zidju )
terminus - termini (t:mins - t:mini ) via - viae ( vai - vaii ) = drum, cale
phenomenon - phenomena (fi'nominn - fi'nomin )
nucleus - nuclei (nju:kli s - nju:kliai ) stimulus - stimuli (stimjuls - stimjuli )
genius - genii (dinjs - dinjai )
calculas - calculai (klkjuls - klkjulai )
formula - formulae(as) (fo:mjul - fo:mjuli ) 4

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