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Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Traffic Loading Part 1 Dr. K. Sudhakar Reddy Professor, Department of

Traffic Loading Part 1

Dr. K. Sudhakar Reddy Professor, Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur India Email: ksreddy@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Traffic Loads Different Types of vehicles • Cycles • Two-wheelers •

Traffic Loads

Different Types of vehicles

Cycles

Two-wheelers

Passenger Cars

Vans

Buses

Single Unit Trucks

Multi-unit Trucks

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur • In evaluating the traffic condition of a facility and for

In evaluating the traffic condition of a facility

and for assessing the geometric design requirements, it is necessary to consider all types of vehicles using (or expected to use) the facility.

But for pavement design, only the vehicles that

carry significantly heavy loads are important

commercial vehicles

Indian Roads Congress defines Commercial vehicles as the vehicles having a laden weight more than 3 Tons

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Commercial Vehicles Trucks, Buses, Vans Load - Gross load, Axle load,

Commercial Vehicles

Trucks, Buses, Vans

Load - Gross load, Axle load, wheel load

200 kN 80 kN 120 kN
200 kN
80 kN
120 kN

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Front Axle Load 4 0 k N 40 kN

Front Axle Load

40kN

40 kN
40 kN

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Rear Axle Load 6 0 k N 60 kN

Rear Axle Load

60 kN

60 kN
60 kN
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Tandem Axle

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Tandem Axle

Tandem Axle

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Tandem Axle

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Combinations of vehicular units and axles • Commercial Vehicles - single

Combinations of vehicular units and axles

Commercial Vehicles - single or multiple units

Single Unit truck with 2 or more axles

Vehicle-Trailer Combinations Semi- trailer tractor combinations Tractor and trailer combinations

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Combination of Vehicular Units

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Combination of Vehicular Units

Combination of Vehicular Units

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Combination of Vehicular Units

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Permissible Weights (tonnes) as per IRC Vehicle Truck/Tractor Trailer

Permissible Weights (tonnes) as per IRC

Vehicle

Truck/Tractor

Trailer

Type

Gross Wt

FAW

RAW

FAW

RAW

Single Tyre

12

6

6

FA-Single, Rear-Dual

16.2

6

10.2

Type-3

25

6

19 (TA)

TYpe2-S1

26.4

6

10.2

10.2

Type 3-3

54.2

6

19(TA)

10.2

19

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through Wheels Pneumatic Tyres – Inflated with air Three

Load Transfer through Wheels

Pneumatic Tyres Inflated with air Three parameters need to be considered Total wheel load Shape of Contact area

Distribution of pressure over the contact area

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through wheels • Vertical stresses • Unidirectional surface

Load Transfer through wheels

Vertical stresses

Unidirectional surface shear stresses

Centripetal Shear stresses

surface shear stresses • Centripetal Shear stresses Vertical Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration
surface shear stresses • Centripetal Shear stresses Vertical Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration
surface shear stresses • Centripetal Shear stresses Vertical Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration

Vertical

surface shear stresses • Centripetal Shear stresses Vertical Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration
surface shear stresses • Centripetal Shear stresses Vertical Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration
surface shear stresses • Centripetal Shear stresses Vertical Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration
surface shear stresses • Centripetal Shear stresses Vertical Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration

Unidirectional shear stresses braking/acceleration

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through wheels Centripetal Shear stresses

Load Transfer through wheels

Centripetal Shear stresses

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through wheels Centripetal Shear stresses
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through wheels Centripetal Shear stresses
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through wheels Centripetal Shear stresses
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through wheels Centripetal Shear stresses

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Transfer through wheels The Pressure distribution (vertical, centripetal or

Load Transfer through wheels

The Pressure distribution (vertical, centripetal or unidirectional) is normally not uniform

Normally only uniformly distributed vertical surface

stress equal to tyre pressure is considered for

analysis

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Contact Area Shape of contact area depends on • Inflation

Load Contact Area

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Load Contact Area Shape of contact area depends on • Inflation

Shape of contact area depends on

Inflation pressure

Tyre age

Pavement surface

Typical Tyre Imprint

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Shape of Contact Area Different shapes are considered for analysis •

Shape of Contact Area

Different shapes are considered for analysis

Circular

Rectangular

Rectangular with semi-circular ends

More exact shapes for rigorous analysis

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Contact Area - Rectangle with circular ends 0.6 L L

Contact Area - Rectangle with circular ends

0.6 L L
0.6 L
L

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Rectangular Contact Area Area = 0.5227 L 2 0.8712 L Equivalent

Rectangular Contact Area

Area = 0.5227 L 2

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Rectangular Contact Area Area = 0.5227 L 2 0.8712 L Equivalent

0.8712 L

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Rectangular Contact Area Area = 0.5227 L 2 0.8712 L Equivalent

Equivalent Area

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Rectangular Contact Area Area = 0.5227 L 2 0.8712 L Equivalent

0.6 L

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Rectangular Contact Area Area = 0.5227 L 2 0.8712 L Equivalent

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Design Loading Considerations • Traffic loads applied over several years

Design Loading Considerations

Traffic loads applied over several years (design life period) traffic volumes normally increase each year

Vehicles on a given road carry different loads

Vehicles on different facilities carry different loads

The wheel loads are applied over different portions of the pavement and not at a single location.

The manner of transmission of load to the pavement depends on the speed of the vehicle

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Design Traffic - Traffic Forecast • Pavement is designed to carry

Design Traffic - Traffic Forecast

Pavement is designed to carry traffic loads over a specified period (design life)

Thus, it is essential to have a good estimate of the total number of vehicles expected to use

the facility during the design life period

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Traffic Forecast • It will also help in design if the

Traffic Forecast

It will also help in design if the traffic volumes

during different periods (even on an yearly basis) of the design life can be estimated

These estimates can be done from the traffic volumes prevailing in a base year and by

selecting appropriate growth factors and

projection techniques.

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Traffic Forecast A typical approach followed by Indian Roads Congress (IRC:37)

Traffic Forecast

A typical approach followed by Indian Roads Congress (IRC:37) for projection of traffic over design life period is

Cumulative traffic (commercial vehicles) for design period

N = 365 x A x { (1+r) n 1 }

r

where, A = Initial design traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of number of commercial vehicles/ day

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Traffic Forecast r = annual growth rate of commercial vehicles expressed

Traffic Forecast

r

= annual growth rate of commercial vehicles expressed as a fraction.

n

= design period (years)

The traffic in the year of completion of construction is estimated using the expression

A = P (1+r) x where, P = Number of commercial vehicles/day as per last count x = No. years between the last count and the year of completion of construction.

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Traffic Forecast The Cumulative traffic (commercial vehicles) for design period,

Traffic Forecast

The Cumulative traffic (commercial vehicles) for design period, N will have to be adjusted for

directional distribution of traffic lateral placement characteristics of wheels on the pavement load spectrum

to get the design traffic

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Traffic Forecast Example: • average two-way traffic per day on an

Traffic Forecast

Example:

average two-way traffic per day on an existing 2-lane highway counted in 2005 = 4000 commercial vehicles (P)

annual growth rate of commercial vehicles r = 7%,

n = design period = 15 years

construction of road is expected to be completed in the year 2007

SOL:

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lateral Distribution of wheel loads • All the commercial vehicles do

Lateral Distribution of wheel loads

All the commercial vehicles do not take the same lateral position of the highway

Depending on the type of facility (two-way, multi- lane), number of lanes, etc the paths that the wheels of commercial vehicles tread differ

As a result all the wheels of all the commercial

vehicles utilizing the pavement during the design period do not stress the same point on the pavement

Each part of the pavement gets different repetitions of loads

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lateral Distribution Four-lane divided

Lateral Distribution

Four-lane divided

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lateral Distribution Four-lane divided

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Wheel Load Placement Characteristics

Wheel Load Placement Characteristics

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Wheel Load Placement Characteristics

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur IRC Recommendations Single – lane roads design based on total number

IRC Recommendations

Single lane roads design based on total number of commercial vehicles in both directions.

Two-lane Single carriageway roads design based on 75 % of the total number of commercial vehicles in both directions.

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur IRC Recommendations Four-lane Single carriageway roads design based on 40 %

IRC Recommendations

Four-lane Single carriageway roads design based on 40 % of the total number of commercial vehicles in both directions.

Dual carriageway roads

design of dual two-lane carriage way roads should

be based on 75 % of the number of commercial vehicles in each direction. For dual three-lane carriageway and dual four-lane carriageway, the distribution factor will be 60 % and 45 % respectively.