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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING

Volume1,No 4,2011
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices
Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

InfluenceofthedampingoftheseismicbaseisolationsystemLRBonthe
dynamic response oftheisolatedstructures
KAABMohamedZohar,OUNISAbdelhafid
DepartmentofCivilEngineerandHydraulic,UniversityofBiskra,BP145,Algeria
kaab.mohamed@yahoo.fr

ABSTRACT

To limit the humanand materialdamagecausedbyanearthquake, we canusedevices that


areabletodiffusetheenergy inducedatthetimeof theearthquakebefore beingtransferredto
thestructure.Generally,wecallthesedevicestheseismicbaseisolation.Theuseofthebase
isolation device LRB (Lead Rubber Bearing) allows the control of the deformations which
arelocalizedonthislast,andalsoallowscarryingoutasatisfactorycompromisebetweenthe
reduction of the seismic forces and the increase in the deformations of the base isolation.
Therefore,aparametricstudyontheeffectivedampingoftheisolationsystemcarriedoutin
this work has allowed the evaluation of the influence of the damping of this seismic base
isolationsystemonthedynamicresponseoftheisolatedstructuresintermofdisplacement,
acceleration,interstorydriftandabsorbedenergy.

Keywords:Seismicbaseisolation,LeadrubberbearingLRB,Damping,Dynamicresponse.

1.Introduction

Thebaseisolationsystemsconsistinputtingbetweenthefoundationsandthesuperstructure,
devices which collect the inelastic deformations and filter the accelerations of high
frequencies so that the isolated superstructure moves primarily according to a rigid mode
undergoing of weak accelerations and almost no deformations. These devices allow
uncoupling the movement of the ground from the movement of the structure in order to
dissipate the maximum of energy and reduce the seismic forces transmitted to the
superstructuretominimizethedisplacementsandtheaccelerationsofthelatterwithasimilar
effectivenessforthetwohorizontaldirectionsXandY.

To illustrate the effectof the damping of thebase isolationsystem on the responsesof the
isolatedstructures,aparametricanalysiswasmadeonanisolatedstructureof08levelsinthe
longitudinaldirectionXforanisolationsystemLRB.Thismechanismofdampingisbased
on the lead bar incorporated within elastomeric bearing with an aim of controlling the
deformationoftheisolationbearingandconsequently displacementsandaccelerationsofthe
superstructure. This system of isolationhas various percentages of effective damping from
8%to35%forthesameisolatedstructure.

2.BehavioroftheIsolationSystemLRB

Theisolation systemLRBiscomposedofalternatelayersofrubberandsteelrelatedtheones
to the others around a pure lead core, inserted into the center of these layers of steel and
rubber.Theleadcylindercontrolsthelateraldisplacementsofthestructureandabsorbspart
oftheseismicenergy.

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Volume1,No 4,2011
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices
Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

The plastic of the lead core confers to this device an important hysteretic behavior. This
hystereticbehaviorcanberepresentedbythebilinearapproximationillustratedonthefigure1.

Figure 1: Bilinearapproximation of alawof hystereticbehaviorexpressedinforce


displacement.

Theparametersofthebilinearapproximationexpressingthelawofhystereticbehaviorare
thefollowing:

Theyielddisplacement.With (01)

Thedesigndisplacementof leadrubberbearingLRB.
Energydissipatedbycyclecorrespondingtothedesigndisplacement,equaltothetotal
areaofhysteresisloop,itisgiven bythefollowingformula:

(02)

Theyieldforceinamonotonousloading.
Theforce,correspondingtonulldisplacementduringacyclicloading,representsalsothe
characteristicstrengthandtheyieldforceofleadbarfortheLRB.

(03)

ThemaximumshearforcecorrespondingtothedesigndisplacementD.
Elasticstiffnessforamonotonousloading,alsoequalstothestiffnessofunloadingin

cyclicloading.With (04)

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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING
Volume1,No 4,2011
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices
Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

Thepostelasticstiffness.With (05)

: TheeffectivestiffnessoftheLRB,itisgivenbythefollowingformula:

:Theeffectivedampingfactoroftheseismicbaseisolationsystem,itisexpressedas
follows:

3.Descriptionoftheisolatedstructureandtheseismicexcitation

Thestructureusedintheparametricstudyisanisolatedbuildingmadeofreinforcedconcrete
thathasrectangularforminplan1224mincludingfourspansinthelongitudinaldirection
andtwospansinthetransversedirectionwithalengthof6mforeachone.Theheightofa
floorisof3m,thebeamsareofsection3060cmandthecolumnsareofsection5050cm
withfullslabsof18cmofthickness,asitisrepresentedinthefigures2and3.

Figure 2:Sectionofthe structure Figure 3:Planofthestructure.


with baseisolation
systemLRB.

Tocomparetheinfluenceofdampingonthedynamicresponseoftheisolatedstructureswith
the various percentages of effective damping and under various seismic excitations, an
analysisoftheresponsesby accelerogramsiscarriedoutandtheconsideredseismicloadings
arethefollowing:

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Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

1. ThecomponentofElCentrooftheearthquakeof Imperial Valley (1979).


2. The component of Oakland Outer Harbor Wharf of the earthquake of Loma Prieta
(1989).
3. Thecomponentof Lexington Damof theearthquakeof LomaPrieta(1989).
4. Thecomponentof SylmarCounty of theearthquakeof Northridge(1994).

With PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) of 0.436 g, 0.287 g, 0.442 g and of 0.604 g
respectively. The accelerograms of these excitations are represented respectively on the
figures 4,5,6and 7.

Figure 4:AccelerogramofthecomponentofElCentrooftheearthquakeofImperialValley
(1979).

Figure5: AccelerogramofthecomponentofOaklandOuteroftheearthquake ofLoma


Prieta(1989).

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Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

Figure6: AccelerogramofthecomponentofLexingtonDamoftheearthquake ofLoma


Prieta(1989).

Figure 7: AccelerogramofthecomponentofSylmarCountyoftheearthquake ofNorthridge


(1994)
4.Results and discussions

4.1Displacements

Accordingtotheresultsofabsolutedisplacementswhicharerepresentedgraphicallybythe
figures8and9,wenoticethatunderalltheseismic loadingsusedinthisparametricstudy,
thedisplacementsofthesuperstructureoroftheseismicisolationsystemaredecreasedwith
the increase intheeffectivedampingduetothepresenceofleadbarsLRBwhichresistthe
shearstrains.Thisshowstheinfluenceofthedampingoftheseismicisolationsystemwhich

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Volume1,No 4,2011
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices
Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

reduces the displacements in the superstructure and the displacements at the basis for an
isolatedstructure.

Figure8: Absolutemaximumdisplacementsofthe8thlevelwiththedifferentpercentagesof
effectivedamping.

Figure9: Absolutemaximumdisplacementsofthebasewiththedifferentpercentagesof
effectivedamping.
4.2Accelerations

Asshowninthefigure10,themaximumaccelerationstransmittedforallseismicexcitations
aregenerallyincreasedin agreementwiththeeffectivedampingmadefrom 08to 20%. On the
other hand, more than 20% of damping, accelerations are reduced with the increase in
effective damping.

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Thevalueoftheeffectivedampingof20%givesusthemaximumvalueofaccelerationfor
anyseismicexcitation.Byconsequence,inthedesignoftheinsulationsystemitisnecessary
tochoose an effective damping of more than 20%.
Thisistranslatedbythechangeinthemaximumshearforceoftheseismicisolationsystem
forvariousvaluesofeffectivedamping.

AccordingtoKelly andNaeimthebilinearmodel of approximation of ahystereticbehavior


lawofseismicisolationLRBgives:

For weak effective damping, the increase in the maximum shear force is due to the
increaseoftheinelasticforce (greatdisplacement).
Foraverageandstrongeffectivedamping,theincreaseofthemaximumshearforceof
the seismic isolation system is due to the increase in the characteristic strength Q
(smalldisplacement).

Figure10: Maximumaccelerationsofthe8thlevelwiththedifferentpercentagesofeffective
damping.
4.3Interstorydrift
Theresultsrepresentedinfigure11showthatinterstorydriftunderalltheseismicloadings
usedaregenerallyreducedwiththeincreaseinthepercentageoftheeffectivedamping.

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Volume1,No 4,2011
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices
Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

Figure11:Displacementsinterfloorsofthe8thlevelwiththedifferentpercentagesof
effectivedamping.

4.4Absorbedenergy

Toillustratetheeffectofthedampingoftheseismicisolationsystemonthedissipationof
energy,acomparisonwasmadebetweenthediagramseffortsdeformationsoftheseismic
isolationofcenterforpercentagesofweakeffectivedamping(08%)andhigh(35%)under
variousseismicloadingswhichareusedpreviously.

Theresultsofthiscomparisonarerepresentedbythefiguresbelow:

(a)Effectivedampingof08%(b)Effectivedampingof35%

Figure12: Comparisonofthediagramseffortsdeformationsofanseismicisolationofcenter
forpercentagesofweakeffectivedamping(08%)andhigh(35%)subjectedtothecomponent
ofElCentrooftheearthquakeofImperialValley.

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Volume1,No 4,2011
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices
Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

(a)Effectivedampingof08%(b) EffectiveDampingof35%

Figure13: Comparisonofthediagramseffortsdeformationsofanseismicisolationofcenter
forpercentagesofweak effectivedamping(08%)andhigh(35%)subjectedtothecomponent
ofOaklandOuteroftheearthquakeofLomaPrieta.

(a)Effectivedampingof08%(b)EffectiveDampingof35%

Figure14: Comparisonofthediagramseffortsdeformationsofanseismicisolationofcenter
forpercentagesofweakeffectivedamping(08%)andhigh(35%)subjectedtothecomponent
ofLexingtonDamoftheearthquakeofLomaPrieta.

(a)Effectivedampingof08%(b) EffectiveDampingof35%

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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING
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Researcharticle ISSN0976 4399

Figure15: Comparisonofthediagramseffortsdeformationsofanseismicisolationofcenter
forpercentagesofweakeffectivedamping(08%)andhigh(35%)subjectedtothecomponent
ofSylmarCountyoftheNorthridgeearthquake.

Theremarkdrawn fromthesecomparisonsisthatareasofhysteresis loopsareincreasedin


agreementwiththeincreaseoftheeffectivedampingforalltheseismicexcitationsused.This
is explainedby the increase ofthe energy absorbedby the seismic isolation system of with
theincreaseoftheeffectivedamping.

5.Conclusion

Theresultsoftheseismicresponseobtainedbytheparametricstudyontheeffectivedamping
oftheseismicisolationsystemLRBhaveallowedustodeducethatthedisplacementsofthe
superstructure and the isolation system decrease with the increase of the effective damping
under all the seismic loadings used, the accelerations transmitted to the superstructure
increaseforaweakeffectivedampingandontheotherhandtheyarereducedforanaverage
or high damping and the interstory drift under all the seismic loadings used are generally
reducedwiththeincreaseofthepercentageoftheeffectivedamping.Wecanalsoconclude
that the energy absorbed by the seismic isolation system increase in agreement with the
increaseoftheeffectivedampingofthissystem.

6.References

1. Kaab M. Z. (2010), Influence of the damping on the dynamic response of the


structures with seismic isolation systems Memory of Magister, University
MohamedKhider,Biskra.

2. Federal Emergency Federal Agency, FEMA 274 (1997), Seismic Isolation and
Energy Dissipation NEHRP Commentary On The Guidelines for The Seismic
rehabilitation ofBuildings,Chapter09,WashingtonDC.

3. NaeimF.,KellyJ.M.(1999),Designofseismicisolatedstructuresfromtheoryto
practice,JohnWiley&Sons,NewYork.

4. Kelly J. M. (1997), EarthquakeResistant Design with Rubber, SpringerVerlag,


London.

5. MayesR.L.,NaeimF.(2001),DesignofStructureswithSeismicIsolation,The
SeismicDesign Handbook,2ndedition,Chapter14.

6. Yang Y.B.,Chang K.C. and Yau J.D. (2003), Base Isolation Earthquake
EngineeringHandbook,Chapter17,CRCPress,WashingtonDC.

7. CSI, ETABS Nonlinear Version 9.0.0 (2003), Integrated Software for Structural
AnalysisandDesign,ComputersandStructures,Inc,Berkeley,California,USA.

8. Ioannis P. (2007), Le rle de lamortissement dans lisolation sismique, 7th


NationalConferenceAFPS,CentralSchoolParis.

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