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SE-2 ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​Social​ ​Action​ ​(APSA)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Indian​ ​Institute​ ​of​ ​Management​ ​Bangalore ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017









Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​Social​ ​Action​ ​(APSA)


In Bangalore, the authorities have reported more than 600 slums, but according to other sources there are many more. It is estimated that 40% of the population is considered poor in Bangalore.This takes into account populations living in a slum and those outside but not having sufficient resources. Then, the slum are increasing in Bangalore. Indeed, taking the official number of slum from 473 in 2003 to 597 in 2013. This number show that the help of the NGOs is more and more important to fight against this growing poverty.

Bangalore just like any other metropolitan city in India seems to face various obstacles due to social inequality, mass urbanisation and migration, eventually leading to formation of slum settlements. This trend has created scarcity of basic resources like water, food and a place to settle for migrants creating epidemic public health care crisis for poor and neighbourhood​​working​​class​​people. 1

neighbourhood ​​ working ​​ class ​​ people. 1 APSA The Association for Promoting Social Action or


The Association for Promoting Social Action or APSA is a NGO created in 1981 in Bangalore and Hyderabad for urban community development especially focusing on the needs of poor children. Today the association with many volunteers who come from different horizons and who have different skills. This is the richness of this association. Volunteers can be Indians wanting to get involved with their city. And sometimes foreigners join the association for a short time to help APSA. Currently the association includes more than 100 volunteers. APSA works on 10 projects at the same time, split between Hyderabad and Bangalore. They have several goals, the first is to help children in difficulty. Afterwards, it also helps in a more general way the people in

1​ ​dna.​ ​(2017).​ ​​Nearly​ ​1.4​ ​million​ ​people​ ​live​ ​in​ ​Bangalore​ ​slums,​ ​says​ ​report​ ​|​ ​Latest​ ​News​ ​&​ ​Updates​ ​at​ ​Daily​ ​News​ ​&​ ​Analysis.​ ​[online]​ ​Available​ ​at:​​[Accessed​​19​​Nov.​​2017].


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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need, mainly in the slums. Then he helps some communities, especially women and children, to declare themselves to the government, so that they get their rights and entitlements as citizens. Then an other responsibility of APSA is to sensitize various stakeholders in the society including public, government agency, and international​ ​communities​ ​about​ ​the​ ​challenges​ ​faced​ ​by​ ​unprivileged​ ​slum​ ​dwellers.​ ​.


Mr.Lakshapathi founded APSA in 1981. He first works for the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation’s Urban Community Development Project, it was there that he understood that his role was essential to help his people, and that action was needed. During his missions he has traveled more than 100 slums in the cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad. He was able to see the misery, the problems that these people are facing and the lack of help they encounter. That's why he take assignment with C210 founded with 8 other APSA people to improve the lives of these populations. He devotes an important place to the children because he considers that it is the keystone of a country. In particular, he wants every child to have the right to his luck and​​receive​​a​​good​​education.

Laksa speaks 4 languages: Kannada, Telugu, English & Hindi. During his life, he learned to interact with all types of institutions, whether private or public. Laksha also represents APSA as a member of various Committees at National, State and District Levels. This demonstrates his involvement and his desire to expand his work ever further. He has also received many awards, for his dedication to the cause of childhood,​​and​​his​​investment​​to​​improve​​the​​lives​​of​​the​​poor.


After graduating in social works from Osmania University, he along with his group of friends jumped into social work. At a young age of 19 this group of friends was using their pocket money to fund these activities. After gaining exposure to urban slums he realized that various welfare activities announced by the government was not reaching the poor and a chain of intermediaries namely the local leaders and slum lords were making merry. In his initial work to unite the poor, he failed miserably due to no support from politicians​​and​​bureaucrats​​against​​the​​slum​​lords.

The situation was such that the people who approached his group were abhorred by the politicians, they started seeing his group as a threat and neglected them saying “How can you question​​me?​​Why?​​Who​​are​​you?”.

At this point, Mr Laksha felt the need to organize and unite the people so as to gain an advantage in the fight for their rights. They went about collecting donations, took back items and recycled and reused them, used their own pocket money and kept moving forward and finally succeeded in getting some benefits​​for​​the​​people.

Another incident narrated by him was when he saw the plight of coolies in slum areas. They were made to work in unsafe conditions. An example was during summer time they were made to handle heavy iron rods without any safety, due to which a lot of them got injured. The middlemen did not provide any accidental protection to them. On top of this, not even 10% of the wages sanctioned by the government reached the coolies. The contractor acted as a feudal lord/ as a god and did whatever he wished, if anyone

government reached the coolies. The contractor acted as a feudal lord/ as a god and did


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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raised a voice he was beaten up. Not only was this a huge injustice for the coolies it also caused a condition of​​fear​​psychosis​​among​​the​​village​​people.

Mr Laksha organized a trade union in 8 months time and made their voice heard. He was offered cash and money to leave the area, several attempts were made on his life but the fight still continued. Finally, justice was served and order restored. This may sound straight out of a movie but tells us about the strong​​willed​​character​​of​​Mr.​​Laksha.

willed ​​ character ​​ of ​​ Mr. ​​ Laksha. The primary role taken by APSA is

The primary role taken by APSA is that of






a facilitator


One of Mr Lakshya's major learnings from all these years of social service has been that any project should always consult people who are to be benefited from the project before declaring the project. On many occasions, the social initiative does not hold any consultation with the poor and not able to sustain later.​​This​​is​​in​​coherence​​with​​the​​thoughts​​of​​Prof.​​Trilochan​​taught​​in​​class.


In the section we perform an analysis of Mr Laksha's

leadership style on three parameters which are backed by research .

He has worked over the years in various positions starting from slum

welfare, labour rights, women’s welfare and children. The major focus

of APSA is on the empowerment and upliftment of children. He

believes that children are at the cornerstone of society and any development effort must start with them. This shows a clarity of thought. His personal integrity and commitment is par none as we saw from his life story in the previous section. If we consider the third parameter, he again ranks high. APSA by design is a decentralized unit. The very fact the Mr. Laksha has been able to identify and recruit strong leaders in his mission over the years is testimony to his abilities. In a nutshell he shows a rare mix of all the above components​​which​​are​​considered​​to​​be​​the​​traits​​of​​a​​great​​leader.


traits ​​ of ​​ a ​​ great ​​ leader. 2 Current ​​ organization ​​ structure The


The organization has a simple structure. There are 9 people at the governing body. Only Mr.Lakshapathi the executive director and Ms. Sheila Devaraj the director are paid. All other members work as volunteers and do not receive any income. In this organization everyone has a mission based on their abilities. Mr.Lakshapathi will be the privileged intermediary with all the partners, whether they are public or private. He is the secretary general of the association. Then Sheila Devaraj is the treasurer, she manages all budgets allocate to different organs of the organization.Then, Mr.R Shankar is the president. All other members​​of​​the​​board​​are​​advisors.​​But​​everyone​​has​​a​​role​​to​​play.

Various activities conducted by APSA are decentralized and have a dedicated project team allocated

for each effort. This helps from a funding point of view as the customization in the scope of an individual

project allows for alignment in the interests of the donors and APSA. Thus each project can be pitched to a


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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particular class of donors having concerns in that area. Each project grows organically centered around children.Exhibit​​A​​represents​​the​​organogram​​of​​APSA.

APSA:​ ​Principles,​ ​Approach​ ​​ ​&​ ​Work

The vision of APSA is to “work with the community at the grassroots, with the privileged sections of society and with the government towards preventing exploitation and marginalization of the underprivileged, and to evolve social paradigms based on values of justice and non-discrimination for those already​​in​​exploitative​​situations” 3

​​ in ​​ exploitative ​​ situations” 3 Five-pronged ​​ mission ​​ of ​​ APSA APSA



​​ to ​​ get ​​ people ​​ together: 1. Approaching through assembly constituency: APSA chooses

1. Approaching through assembly constituency: APSA chooses its location of operations by finding the urban slums and poor families in a particular constituency and work with marginalised people to improve the situation for childrens in the community. Currently it focuses on 8 such constituencies in hyderabad​​and​​Bangalore.

3​ ​​​ ​(2017).​ ​​About​ ​APSA.​ ​[online]​ ​Available​ ​at:​ ​



​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017

2. Managing collectives: APSA finds forming collectives to be the most effective tool to fight for any right based issues because this method seem to give more bargain power rather any other way available. some of the such collective includes child rights club, Meena Thandas, and Harisu sanghas etc.

3. Working with Child Friendly Wards: APSA has managed to create child based committees that participate in various local government meetings to represent the children’s view on governance especially related to budget allocation for child empowerment. This has actually created accountability in the system where people at responsible position become answerable to children committee​​during​​the​​meetings.


As the organization has grown over the years, it manages a sizeable fund. The growth has led the founders to set up a processes inside the organization which promote transparency. In the context of financial payments, every rupee is tracked digitally and no cash transactions are allowed for any expenditure or incoming fund. Further, the decentralized teams are responsible for their own project budgets. It is also important to take the community approval before any project is started, this is achieved with the help of self help​​groups​​in​​the​​particular​​community.


APSA deals with many projects with different vocations. They are mainly focused on the well-being of children. Specially those who come from poor areas, and those who are in distress. The also lobby for child​​friendly​​policy​​changes​​at​​both​​state​​and​​central​​levels.

They created many project, The Dream School which provided a school education to children of slums. They have each year around 110 children. They promote learning English in a fun and logical way. The ultimate goal is for these children to eventually join government schools. They also teach art classes. For the most part they are organized by volunteers according to their passions. The children had karate, flute and guitar lessons. They have created a partnership with an association that promotes music for the underprivileged children,it’s called Ascent of Harmonies. Then the dream school is also home to 3 nursery, for the youngest children.The nursery has really helped in improving the health and nutrition of children who


After they work closely with the police services dedicated to children in Bangalore and Hyderabad. Called Special Juvenile Police Unit (SJPU). Their main purpose is to advise children with problems with the law,​​to​​bring​​them​​back​​to​​the​​right​​path.

The Nammane Shelter Home provided health care, protection, education to 320 children. They organize​​summers​​camps​​for​​the​​children,​​in​​order​​to​​sensitize​​them​​to​​the​​governmental​​authorities.

APSA’s is also providing shelter to 106 girls who studying in the government school at Rainbow Home​​hostel​​located​​in​​hyderabad.


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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Exhibit B provides a brief overview of the Dream School taken from the APSA website. An important personality in the operations of the school was Ms. Padmaja Ramamurthi . She had over 35 years of teaching experience and had joined APSA after retirement. In her words, the children in the school are very raw and have been labelled by the society. Near to the school premises lies a series of temporary huts built by seasonal​​labourers​​who​​have​​settled​​near​​this​​area​​to​​provide​​education​​to​​their​​children.

The school has been built to cater to rescued , abused, abandoned, orphaned and street children. There are a unique set of challenges which emerge in the dream school which are not solved by the traditional approach to primary education. The children have a huge resistance to education. A unique pedagogy was developed to first heal children mentally and then bring them back to the curriculum. After some cycles of iterations new teaching methods which include use of audio/video tools have brought down the bunking of classes. A degree of admancy is needed on the part of teachers to break children out of the “useless” label put by society. Many students have passed out and found jobs in BPOs, started earning and broken out of such a tag by being a contributing​​member​​of​​the​​family.

Being a non-formal school, the dream school can not cater age-wise but rather they cluster children based on their mental state. It is healing process that needs constant care and patience of upto 6 years to bring children into a learning mood. The school also inculcates a sense of responsibility and ownership of the children​​over​​their​​own​​lives.​​This​​is​​done​​in​​phases​​as​​shown​​below:



in ​​ phases ​​ as ​​ shown ​​ below: 4 5 4 ​​ Exhibit ​​ D:
in ​​ phases ​​ as ​​ shown ​​ below: 4 5 4 ​​ Exhibit ​​ D:
in ​​ phases ​​ as ​​ shown ​​ below: 4 5 4 ​​ Exhibit ​​ D:

4 ​​Exhibit​​D:​​Mrs​​Padmaja​​Ramamurthi

5 ​​Exhibit​​E

APSA has also enabled the setup of child bodies in the community with a motive to bring out their concerns and help them achieve what they want. In this way, a community of children bring up agendas on social issue like drug trafficking using children as transporters, water and sanitation issues in the area, etc. to the ears of the authority. It has been a tradition in the dream school that old students come back and inspire the new ones. No amount of motivation can match the boost when the children of the school interact with one of their owns standing in a respectable​​position​​in​​the​​society.


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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The Dream school model has been recognized internationally and has been emulated in Oslo, Norway. Many foreign interns join the school to engage in volunteer work and learn about alternate teaching​​methods.

From the viewpoint of the teacher volunteers, they consider their services guided by their moral compass. At the end of the day, the job is tough and thankless in nature. However, there still exist people like​​Mrs​​Padma​​who​​are​​running​​the​​school​​passionately​​and​​taking​​every​​child​​as​​their​​own.


The activities of APSA are increasingly recognized and ever more useful. We can talk about their childline. The principle is very simple. They put an emergency number {1098} at everyone's disposal. That is, if you are witnessing violence against children, or children in need, who are in danger. You can call this number and ask for help. The association will intervene according to its needs and the situation. It is therefore a very fast way of communicating and above all it can be an anonymous means of denunciation, because sometimes one may be afraid of retaliation or feel shame. The childline is still receiving more appeal as the years go by. In 2014, they received more than 16 000 calls and they were able to intervene in 600 calls. What may have several meanings, the first is that violence against children is increasing. The second is that​​the​​action​​of​​APSA​​and​​Childline​​is​​more​​and​​more​​recognized​​and​​effective.

An incidence narrated by Mrs Padma shows the effectiveness and importance of this program. They got information about a girl child who was abused daily by a neighbour. They went to the spot and found the parents not allowing them inside. After this, they kept a vigil on the house and confirmed that the child was being abused daily. Next up, they collaborated with the police to rescue the child. She was regularly beaten and on occasions hot oil was spilt over her. The parents of the child were both working in infosys and were well educated. This is one incidence of the many children that benefit from this program. Due to raising awareness, the police department has also shown special interest and now more receptive to investigate such​​incidents​​which​​were​​left​​open​​earlier.

The childline runs by a group of NGOs and supported by the police department. The primary challenge they face is from judicial system which lacks proper legislatures to deal with the situations that the childline faces. The accused parents/guardians use loopholes​​to​​retain​​the​​child​​with​​them.

retain ​​ the ​​ child ​​ with ​​ them. Kaushalya ​​ Skill ​​ Training ​​ Centre


Exhibit G provides a brief overview of the Kaushalya Kendra taken from APSA website. One of the primary driver in the skill training centre is Mr Lamech who is a coordinator and also teaches graphics design to the students. The following write up is based on our discussion with him. It is a skill development center with primary​​focus​​on​​activities​​like:

1. Tailoring​​services​​for​​girls,​​the​​manufactured​​garments​​are​​sold​​in​​the​​markets

2. Electronic​​item​​manufacturing​​for​​boys​​(transformers,​​soldering),​​these​​are​​sold​​in​​bulk​​to​​dealers

3. Printing​​services​​(on​​clothes)

4. Beautician​​services​​by​​the​​girls


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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Youth from more than 100 slums are involved in these activities and have started earning. The primary challenges for the center is self-sustaining itself. Historically, it did not receive any proceedings from the revenue generated by these services over the raw materials but they might have to revisit this model in the future. Additionally, several projects are becoming outdated with the advent of newer technology, for example graphics printing service is one such affected project. Hence, it has become difficult to identify new projects​​which​​will​​be​​suitable​​for​​the​​youth​​in​​the​​area​​and​​profitable​​at​​the​​same​​time.

profitable ​​ at ​​ the ​​ same ​​ time. Several new ideas are being tested for

Several new ideas are being tested for future which include certified fitness trainers, physiotherapists, fashion designers, graphics work, housekeeping, etc. Several firms have also come forward to help set up training programs in graphic design, software related skills. The Kausalya centre faces another challenge, this time it it internal in nature. Some students take advantage of the center and just come for some internet browsing and drop out after some time. Not only are they not able to complete the course and get certifications, they also block the path for someone who would have. This makes selection of students very important to deliver change and results. The centre have taken steps to improve the passing ratio which include raising awareness and promoting it in the rural areas. The reason being rural youth sticks longer as compared to the urban ones. Next, they take a creative test to seek out those who have a flare for the​​subject.


Like many NGOs, APSA needs more and more money to maintain these activities and help people. It must therefore multiply partnerships with many entities, whether for material, human or financial aid. Another challenge is having to adapt to the different profiles they meet every day. Each child, experienced different difficulties. We must try to help them as they can. The bigger it becomes the most money and financial sources is needed. Expenses growing up whereas revenues dont. Now it seems more difficult to grow. The development of Bangalore slow the one of the NGO. Also some children are difficult to reach because of the MAFIAs that are using and hiding them. They give them drugs and alcohol. Corporate companies are willing to participate for books, clothes, food, infrastructure. But they don't want to pay for salaries​​(teacher,​​administration,​​etc).


People do not like their children to sit and study with other lower castes or children from lower strata. Now in case of APSA-Bangalore though caste do not play much role religious believes that seclude women by practices like wearing a purdah and completely insulating them from connecting with any male personal in their life are some issues to be tackled. In some family people, especially the family leader doesn’t want their female child to become educated as they are afraid of their own inability to

the family leader doesn’t want their female child to become educated as they are afraid of


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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answer the some of the liberal questions that could posted by their child as the child is exposed to social values through education. Most of the children are sent to the school only when parents are assured that the school is completely independent of male employees. This situation arises frequently in case of a muslim girl​​child .



Expectation from parents who send their child is very high and most of them look for continuous improved in their children too soon. They don’t want to see education as a long-term investment that takes time to produce fruits. Most of the families opt out for sending their children to work or to take on family business/ family labor that produce instant gratification in terms of income instead of sending them to school. Thus NGOs, find it very hard to convince these parents to make look at long term liberal perspective and APSA being a girl’s school seem to struggle more from these issues. The evaluation metric to measure the impact of education on these child also pose challenge as a standardized approach that can classify these child in a specific basket of performance almost seems so unfair considering the volatility in opportunities and​​resources​​they​​have​​at​​their​​disposal.


Most of student studying in APSA or similar kind of NGO are from diverse background, when it is said to be diverse it does not mean the culture but the experience of these children in their daily life. For instance, a story from one of APSA child almost trembled everyone. The child was from Bihar a state from north east part of India. She was a working in the household of well-educated family from Bihar which has settled in Bangalore. Now this girl was not fed properly and when got hold of some food with permission from her master, she was treated almost beaten like a slave. The neighbors noting the child crying every day around midnight called APSA for checking out the issue. It was later found that the girl was physically abused. APSA later filed a case against the family and rescued the child. Imagine bringing children who have experience such brutal things in life, the difficulty and challenges of creating hope in life and inhabiting self-confidence into them and make them ready to take on this competitive, unfair world is just almost impossible. APSA had managed to do just that and currently the girl has become economically independent working in a BPO from Bangalore. The education for these kinds of child has to be designed case by case which cannot be standardized as it has been in other schools thus making an immense challenge for scaling up.


While there are good quality teachers in APSA’s school and in Skill development center, almost 70% of these people are enrolled on voluntary basis. Though most of them are regular in their work, even these NGOs are facing issues with acquiring new talent and retaining them in revenant skills just like any other industry. Till now, most of the employees are enrolled based on word of mouth marketing about the opening, there isn’t enough network for NGOs to leverage and fulfill their human resources requirement in more​​of​​organized​​manner.

6 ​ ​​


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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APSA’s skill development center is facing difficulty in finding the current trend that has high demand in market. Since APSA provides the incubation and launch pad kind of services to young talents apart from offering vocational education, it is imperative for them to analyze the current industry trend and adapt to it accordingly as soon as possible by being as lean as possible. For instance, there were times when people were using visiting cards printed out of screen printing which was an outdated technology at present and such changes has made the APSA to move away from those program that imparted screen printing skills to its students. Occasionally, these centers are indirectly being exploited by digital companies. There was a course sponsored by adobe itself on one of its product to these students, after six months of training the student found it almost difficult to find relevant job as the skills though were too narrow without much base. It almost seemed like a feeble attempt of these companies to market their product at the expense of wasting time​​and​​resources​​of​​both​​NGO​​and​​young​​students.


APSA doesn’t seem to be operating with a sustainable business model though it seems to get some revenue out of successful ventures from skill development center. So, it had to depend on the grants from various institutions and organization. Apart from challenges of maintaining records as per regulation requirement of donors which seem to consume NGO’s resources, the donor almost seem to change the issues that they want tackle with their CSR grants almost every year. There was an instant were APSA got involved into a slum development program in Andhra with funding from LIC housing finance and eventually as it was about to stabilize its operation the contract expired at end of the year, causing the fund flow to stop. Now, imagine explain this to people over the development area that they got to go back to their previous lives because some contract got expired. Now, there is also another issue of these donor agencies who are willing to contribute only to physical materials that has direct impact with the people. There was an occasion, where an organization was willing to donate amount to buy shoes, uniforms, books and bags for school children but not for expenses of salary and wages of school teacher or any other administrative expenses. These are some of elementary challenges that NGOs are tackling every time they try to renew a contract​​or​​raise​​new​​grants.

Another facet of challenge is now posed due to APSA geographical location itself. Several donors believe that as Bangalore has developed over the years, the state of living for the slum children has improved. This misconception is proving to be very costly for APSA as various long time external donors have cut their share. In terms of CSR funding, recently the trend by the firms has been to plan and execute their own activities which has further dropped the line of funds. Some of the funds are specially reserved for tangible benefits like food, clothes, books and bags for children. The firms do not prefer to fund salaries for NGO​​employees​​and​​school​​teachers​​which​​are​​essential​​for​​the​​long​​term​​impact​​that​​APSA​​aspires​​for.

Another trend that has emerged is the tracking of KPIs by the NGO as a prerequisite for future fund inflow by donor organizations. APSA has been able to keep up with such requests by monitoring projects and furnishing track record studies every six months. They however view this activity as a burden because in the lack of any formal employees, the project leaders end up doing bulk of the reporting and precious time is lost.


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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APSA has been functioning primarily on the grants and funds provided by both foundations and individual philanthropist. Most of the grants are from foreign organisations and foundations and below chart provides better description on split up of funds from various sources. As of 2014, the organization balance sheet​​had​​an​​asset​​of​​1.4​​crores​​and​​a​​fixed​​deposit​​of​​10​​lakhs​​in​​bank. 7

​​ of ​​ 10 ​​ lakhs ​​ in ​​ bank. 7 Based on the statistics discussed
​​ of ​​ 10 ​​ lakhs ​​ in ​​ bank. 7 Based on the statistics discussed
​​ of ​​ 10 ​​ lakhs ​​ in ​​ bank. 7 Based on the statistics discussed

Based on the statistics discussed in class India on its own has tremendous amount of CSR funds in crores and they are growing year on year. Hence, APSA while maintaining its ties with international organisations,​​should​​market​​itself​​by​​focusing​​more​​on​​local​​contributors​​and​​tap​​the​​opportunity.






​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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Overall APSA is doing well. The association started from nothing in 1976 thanks to the shared goal of a group of eight young people, who wanted to improve the life of coolies (load workers), and now it has become a huge institution with a hundred of workers and a dozen of projects handled. So far so good, the Dream


Most of children have succeeded in passing their exams and they mostly had way better grades and success rates than other schools in general. Furthermore, as it can be seen in the chart girls it is globally girls who suffer the most from poverty or family problems globally. That is why APSA is doing well by being very efficient in their analysis of the problems and the response they bring. Indeed as they saw girls are more concerned and since their parents are usually reluctant to send them to Dream School for some reasons (for example many muslims do not want boys in same classes) they decided to create another school entirely dedicated to girls. It started with 8 girls the first year, 16 the second, and now they are more than 20. Finally the succeed of Dream School is that it provides much more than simple courses. As the professor said, there is no punishment, no pressure of learning and the curriculum is highly flexible because the purpose is to heal the children and to give him peace of mind so that he feels comfortable before starting any training and studying.

The education of young people is all the more important as a it expanded to a larger panel of age groups. Indeed a training center has also been created, which allows older young people to benefit from graduate education almost free of charge. Basically it is high oriented job training that approximately 240 students have attended this year. The 3 main courses are graphic design, electronical and beautician but they want to drop electronical as it is becoming obsolete. They already did it with screen printing few years ago. In fact as for​​Dream​​School​​they​​are​​able​​to​​adapt​​their​​courses​​to​​the​​current​​market​​drivers.

One thing APSA is struggling with is the expansion and the growth. Indeed The bigger it becomes the most money and financial sources is needed but expenses are growing up whereas revenues do not. Now it seems more difficult to grow as the association barely not arrive to adapt itself to the evolution of the city. The development of Bangalore slows the one of the NGO. Also some children are becoming more difficult to reach​​because​​of​​the​​MAFIAs​​that​​are​​using​​and​​hiding​​them.​​They​​give​​them​​drugs​​and​​alcohol.


In their annual report, we can see that the company has had audits. It can be read that the opinion of the auditor is favorable. And that many pages affirm the authenticity of the accounts of the association. This has two objectives, the first is that we can say that the association is not subject to corruption. The second point is that potential investors are reassured to see their money well invested. They use specific tools called

RBC (result based management) : In order to give the donners the directions and usefulness of the money​ ​given.

We can say that their donation is multiple and that they come from several countries of the world. This demonstrates their effectiveness in raising funds. The treasurer manages the funds of the association. She decides on the allocation of money for each project. This makes it more efficient because only one person manages everything. Robust financial system with secured process that permit to follow the money and to ensure​​that​​the​​donations​​are​​used​​for​​good​​actions​​and​​not​​diverted.


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017


We think the association is already doing very well, it helps a lot of people, that's the main thing. After nothing is perfect, and she faces every day many challenges that does not make it easy for it. This is why the recommendations are difficult, because often each recommendation leads to a financial expense. Associations must really rely on social networks. It's a free way to communicate. More and more, people are on social networks so this is a very good way to get known all around the world. They already have a facebook page, but it should publish more content to make it more attractive. He should also go to other social​​networks​​like​​twitter.​​The​​more​​visibility​​they​​have,​​the​​more​​they​​can​​get​​new​​contributions.

vii. How do you see the future of the organization? Will it survive and grow? Give your reasons for whatever​​you​​say.

One of the main goals for the future is to continue to partner with various local donors, philanthropists, well-wishers as well as explore funding with corporate companies under the CSR initiative. Then they are eager to develop many other projects, such as the Suraksha center, and then replicate it in other states and the whole country. They also want to meet other associations to learn from what they do, and exchange their process with them. Indeed, in the sector of charitable associations exchange and mutual help are very present. They have created links with Nepalese and Sri Lankan associations. This association grows more and more each year. Its reputation and influence make it more and more efficient. They could use more and more​​the​​digital​​marketing​​.

Exhibit​​A​​:​​APSA​​Organogram​​and​​project​​dimensions 8

​​ Organogram ​​ and ​​ project ​​ dimensions 8 8 ​​ 13

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​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017

​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​ 20 ​ ​ Nov ​ ​ 2017 Exhibit ​​ B: ​​

Exhibit​​B:​​Excerpt​​on​​APSA​​dream​​school​​from​​NGO​​website 9

The Dream School was built in 2005 to provide education to ex-child labourers, street children, out-of-school children and school dropouts as well as urban poor children from surrounding communities. The school caters mainly to children – both boys and girls – in the age group of 3 to 18 years. The school has adopted a non-formal education pattern under the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), combined with its own creative teaching methodologies and unique studying patterns, enabling better learning in a child-friendly environment.

Cyclic tests and preparatory examinations ensure that children are accustomed to a learning environment and​​following​​their​​final​​examinations​​under​​NIOS,​​they​​are​​enrolled​​in​​mainstream​​schools.

The Dream School program has 5 different components that address the educational needs of specific groups​​of​​children:

The National Child Labour Project (NCLP) funded by the Department of Labour, Government of Karnataka, for ex-child labourers between ages 10 and 14, who benefit from the non-formal education.

Coaching in Class VII and X syllabi (high school) for school dropouts and those unable to cope with regular classes. Students coming under this program enroll in government schools as private candidates​​and​​sit​​their​​Board​​exams.

Children of migrant families living in the surrounding areas are taught rudimentary skills of academics​​and​​eventually​​helped​​to​​re-join​​mainstream​​education​​in​​government​​schools.


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​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017

A day-care centre equipped to handle nutritional and educational needs for young children in the age group of 3-6 years of working parents, who are primarily migrant construction or domestic workers​​or​​daily​​wage​​labourers.

Since its inception, the Dream School has provided non-formal education to more than 250 to 300 children annually.

The Dream School has also been making active efforts to raise event-based corporate sponsorships, and have succeeded to a large extent. Events that these companies have sponsored include medical camps, cultural and creative programs that enable children to bring out talents, exposure visits, celebration of special and important days and exhibitions for display of children’s hand-made crafts. These multi-national corporate ventures have not only sponsored such special events, but themselves volunteered time with the children through various activities including teaching song and dance, drawing and colouring, conversational skills, career guidance, counselling, craftwork, art of letter writing, gardening, visual education on social sciences,​​cultural​​programs​​and​​sports​​events.

Exhibit​​C:​​Mrs​​Padmaja​​with​​students​​at​​APSA​​dream​​school 10

​​ at ​​ APSA ​​ dream ​​ school 1 0 Exhibit ​​ D: ​​ Mrs ​​


Mrs Padma holds a postgraduate degree in education management and has been in various teaching roles all through her life. She has been teaching for 35 years across states in both high-end private schools and government schools. After her retirement, she did not like an empty routine and joined APSA to try her hands at volunteer teaching and it has taken up a bigger role of coordinator since then. Her passion for children​​and​​teaching​​drove​​her​​to​​APSA​​and​​now​​she​​overlooks​​the​​operations​​of​​the​​school.

She is a firm believer in empowering children and the need to have their voice heard in the society. She emphasizes that every children is capable in some way or the other, teachers are mere facilitators and they should trust the children to connect with them. Below are some experts taken from an article on her achievements .


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​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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“There has been a huge change in the attitude of the kids. They had zero self esteem when they first joined, and​​after​​the​​one​​year​​course​​they​​are​​very​​positive,​​confident​​and​​ready​​to​​take​​up​​challenges,”

“I take every day as it comes. There is nothing in particular that inspires me to teach – this is what I love to do. This is my passion and it keeps me going,” she says. “There are so many things that one can do even after retirement. Why waste your life doing nothing? You can contribute in so many ways to the community. Do your​​bit,”


E: ​​ APSA ​​ Dream ​​ School, ​​ images Temporary ​​ shelters ​​ built ​​ by

Temporary​​shelters​​built​​by​​seasonal​​laborers​​to​​keep​​children​​close​​to​​a​​chance​​of​​education. 12

to ​​ a ​​ chance ​​ of ​​ education. 1 2 A ​​ view ​​ of
to ​​ a ​​ chance ​​ of ​​ education. 1 2 A ​​ view ​​ of
to ​​ a ​​ chance ​​ of ​​ education. 1 2 A ​​ view ​​ of
to ​​ a ​​ chance ​​ of ​​ education. 1 2 A ​​ view ​​ of


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​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017

Exhibit​ ​F:​ ​Excerpts​ ​of​ ​Interview​ ​with​ ​Senior​ ​Coordinator​ ​Ms​ ​​ ​Vishala​ ​Sharma​ ​(volunteer​ ​for​ ​25​ ​yrs)

Ms. Vishala is one of the long standing volunteers who joined APSA in its beginning. She has been with APSA for over 25 years at the time of writing. Presently she is the coordinator of the lifeskills project and member of the Child Welfare Committee (CWC) which handles cases related with rescuing children. Ms. Vishala did her MSc in applied physics and felt the need to join the social sector immediately. One of the foremost inspiration in her life was her grandfather who was a freedom fighter and this attracted her to the cause of helping​​the​​needy.

After quitting job she arrived in Mysore and tried to participate in social activities in the vicinity. After a gap of 1 year, she came to bangalore and worked in with the interior village children. Her original plan was to develop scientific toys for children. In the olden days, APSA focussed on rag picking children and provided them with basic education and health. They also moved into providing training and upskilling the youth, particularly in automotive jobs but could not sustain this program. She was very vocal about the issues faced by​​the​​children​​especially​​that​​caused​​by​​drug​​mafia.

A major concern raised by her was in terms of the funding of emergency events. The NGOs role is such that they open the doors to anyone who is in need and on many occasions budget does not permit such care. She believes that an emergency fund should be kept aside to handle extreme situations such as an emergency medical​​condition​​faced​​by​​any​​children.






















​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017






















APSA​​working​​areas​​are​​given​​skill​​training​​in​​Computers,​​Typing,​​Spoken​​English​​and​​Communications.​​The SMART​​program​​is​​based​​on​​curriculum​​in​​the​​form​​of​​modules​​developed​​by​​Tech-Mahindra.​​Job​​placement


















​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

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​​ Skill ​​ Training ​​ Center, ​​ Images The ​​ above ​​ two ​​ images ​​
​​ Skill ​​ Training ​​ Center, ​​ Images The ​​ above ​​ two ​​ images ​​


computer ​​ graphic ​​ design ​​ teachings. The ​​ above ​​ two ​​ images ​​ represent
computer ​​ graphic ​​ design ​​ teachings. The ​​ above ​​ two ​​ images ​​ represent




​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017


2017 Exhibit ​​ I: ​​ Kaushalya ​​ Training ​​ Center ​​ Admission ​​ announcement ​​ 2014


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017


APSA ​​ Balance ​​ Sheet ​​ and ​​ Consolidated ​​ statement ​​ for ​​ year ​​


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​ 20 ​ ​


​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​APSA​ ​(Association​ ​for​ ​Promoting​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Action)



​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​20​ ​Nov​ ​2017

1. What​​is​​the​​main​​reason​​you​​choose​​to​​create​​your​​NGO,​​what​​were​​your​​motivations?​​Personal


2. What​​are​​your​​major​​difficulties,​​pain​​points​​through​​your​​journey​​till​​now?

3. How​​have​​your​​goals​​changed​​over​​the​​years,​​how​​far​​are​​you​​from​​your​​initial​​goals,​​did​​it​​change?

4. Does​​growth​​has​​come​​at​​a​​price,​​what​​are​​the​​challenges​​for​​future​​growth?

5. What​​is​​your​​major​​pride?

6. If​​you​​have​​the​​opportunity​​to​​launch​​again​​your​​Ngo,​​what​​you​​would​​like​​to​​change.

7. What​​is​​your​​learning​​from​​managing​​the​​organization?

8. How​​do​​measure​​KPI​​for​​all​​functions?

9. How​​do​​you​​prevent​​misuse​​of​​funds?

10. How​​do​​you​​keep​​up​​motivation​​and​​focus,​​knowing​​that​​at​​times​​your​​collaborators​​may​​look​​to


11. How​​do​​you​​deal​​with​​situations​​where​​people​​ask​​you​​for​​help,​​but​​you​​know​​it´s​​not​​within​​your



1. What​​do​​you​​do​​when​​you​​have​​short-term​​fund​​crisis?

2. Organisation​​structure?​​Authority​​and​​Hierarchy?​​Roles​​and​​responsibility​​of​​different​​designations.

3. How​​do​​you​​retain​​and​​acquire​​talent?​​Do​​you​​face​​attrition​​problem​​or​​productivity​​issues?

4. Do​​you​​have​​tie-ups​​with​​other​​NGOs,​​Companies​​that​​help​​in​​your​​operations?

5. How​​do​​you​​ensure​​accountability​​and​​integrity​​in​​NGO?​​(among​​volunteers​​and​​employees)

6. How​​self-sustainable​​is​​organization?

7. How​​receptive​​is​​the​​government​​to​​your​​mission?

8. What​​are​​the​​challenges​​you​​face​​in​​being​​the​​connection​​between​​founders​​and​​collaborators?


1. Why​​did​​you​​choose​​to​​work​​in​​this​​ngo?

2. What​​motivates​​you?

3. How​​do​​you​​manage​​the​​social