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1. De ce mustul se fierbe?

Scopul principal al acestei operatiuni este solubilizarea uleiurilor aromatice si a

rasinilor amare din hamei sau produse de hamei prin fierberea impreuna cu mustul
pentru a conferi gustul si aroma specifica berii. De asemenea au loc o serie de
transformari importante pentru stabilitatea si insusirile senzoriale ale produsului finit,
precum si coagularea substantelor proteice, concentrare pentru a se ajunge la un
anumit continut de extract si sterilizarea mustului, favorizata de compozitia acida a
acestuia. In afara de aceasta, prin procesul de fierbere se inactiveaza enzimele care
altfel ar actiona asupra dextrinelor in continuare.Ca efecte secundare la fierberea
mustului de bere se constata o inchidere de culoare a acestuia, formarea de
substante reducatoare cu actiune protectoare fata de oxidarea si cresterea aciditatii
mustului. In aparenta un process fizic simplu, in realitate fierberea reprezinta o
tehnica comlicata de evaporare intense a surplusului de apa pentru realizarea
concentratiei dorite, precipitarea eficienta a proteinelor coagulabile prin formarea
rupturii, solubilizarea si transformarea substantelor din hamei, in special a
substantelor amare si sterilizarea mustului pentru fermentare.

Scopul principal al fierberii mustului este de a stabiliza compoziia acestuia i de a extrage compuii
doriti din hamei, care dau berii aroma caracteristic. In timpul fierberii, de asemenea, se indeparteaza
unii dintre compuii volatili nedoritori care provin din materiile prime. Fierberea mustului asigur att
aroma, ct i o buna durata de pstrare a berii.

Sterilisation of the wort & stopping enzymatic action.

Brewing raw materials such as malt, hops and occasionally brewing water itself are infected by micro-
organisms. These have to be killed during the brewing process to prevent wort and beer spoilage.
After wort boiling the wort is normally free from microbial contamination. Some micro-organisms
are able to form spores and to withstand heat treatment, including wort boiling. If they are present in
the raw materials or the brewing water they may persist into the finished beer. However, standard
beer is a poor growth medium for these types of organisms. The pH is too low. They do not normally
represent a product or health hazard, except possibly in low alcohol beers.
Above a certain temperature (usually in the range of 50-80 0C), enzyme structure is broken down and
the enzymes lose their activity. All the natural malt enzymes are denatured by the time the mash
temperature reaches 76 to 780C. Thus enzyme activity will cease by the end of a normal lager mash.
Some brewers add external enzymes, such as thermostable beta-glucanase or alpha amylase, intended
to help with wort filtration. These enzymes have a higher heat stability and are active throughout
mashing but will be de-activated during wort boiling. It is important that they are destroyed otherwise
they would continue working. This would change the profile of the beer.

Isomerisation is a relatively rapid reaction with production of over 90% of the wort bitterness
occurring within the first 30 minutes of boil. Complete extractable bitterness occurs within 60 to 70

The isomerisation reaction is faster at higher temperature. Results from high temperature wort boiling
show that the rate of isomerisation of alpha acid is directly related to temperature. Higher bitterness
levels are achieved within a few minutes using continuous wort boiling systems at 140 0C compared to
conventional Copper boiling under atmospheric pressure.

The DMS released during boiling is rapidly lost through evaporation. However, the breakdown of S-
methyl methionine continues during the period between the end of boiling and wort cooling. The
DMS then released is not lost and persists into the finished beer. It is, therefore, possible to control the
level of DMS by varying the duration of boil and whirlpool stage.
It is necessary to control DMS levels in beer and this is achieved by:
Selecting malt with low S- methyl methionine content
Extending wort boiling time to maximize the breakdown of DMS .
Minimise whirlpool stand time to reduce the decomposition of DMS precursor to DMS
in the wort and beer.
Cooling the wort rapidly from the whirlpool to reduce the decomposition of DMS
precursor to DMS in the wort and beer.

Hop oils
The principal hop volatiles lost during wort boiling are the hop oils. If these are present at too high a
concentration they will contribute a bitter, vegetable grassy flavour to the beer. Most of the hop oil
volatiles are lost during a standard 60 to 90 minute boil. Where late hop character is required in beer, a
small amount (up to 20% of the total hop charge) of selected aroma hops can be added to the Copper
5 to 15 minutes before the end of the boil.
The principal factors which will effect the evaporation of volatiles include:
Temperature of wort
Vigour of boil
Surface tension
Condensation of volatiles in the vapour stack
Duration of boil
The Copper design will have a major influence. It has been found that more late hop character persists
in worts with poorly agitated worts.
Increase in Colour
The colour of wort increases during the boil. The reactions responsible for
colour development fall into two broad categories :
Maillard reaction between carbonyl and amino compounds.
The oxidation of polyphenols.
Oxidation during wort boiling increases the colour. Mash and wort produced
with low oxidation produces wort and beer with lower colours and improved
flavour stability

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