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Food preservation is the

science of extending the


shelf life of food,
maintaining as much as
possible its nutritional
quality and avoiding the
growth of unwanted
microorganisms.

FOOD PRESERVATION
INTRODUCTION
Food spoilage refers to undesirable changes
occurring in food due to the influence of air, heat,
light, moisture, which foster the growth of
microorganisms.
Foods are spoilt by the action of: (1) Micro-
organisms (2) Enzymes and (3) Insects.

BACTERIA
FUNGI
PROTOZOA
VIRUS

Main causes of food spoilage


Bacterial infections can be transmitted from man to man,
from man to animal and from animal to man (zoonoses).

INFECTION, invasion of body tissues by bacteria that


cause damage proportional to their invasive capacity and
quantity, and the immune capacity of the affected body.

INTOXICATION (or poisoning) caused by the ingestion of


chemicals produced by bacteria, called bacterial toxins as
botulinum, tetanus and staphilococcus toxins.

FOOD PRESERVATION
In the majority of food-borne bacterial diseases the presence
of bacteria and their toxins are closely related and the
disease presents at the same time character of an infection
and intoxication.
The clinically healthy subjects that host pathogens in their body
without being affected by the disease are called "carriers".

Problems of healthy carriers among those


involved in the processing of foods, as they
may inadvertently contaminate food, thus
transmitting the pathogen to other people.

FOOD POISONING
Cross contamination is one of the
most common causes of food
poisoning. It happens when harmful
germs are spread onto food from
other food, surfaces, hands or
equipment.

Don't let raw meat, poultry or unwashed raw vegetables touch other foods.
Never prepare ready-to-eat food using a chopping board, utensil or knife that
you have used to prepare raw meat, poultry or unwashed raw vegetables unless
they have been washed and disinfected thoroughly first.
Clean worktops and utensils with hot water and detergent and remember to
disinfect those surfaces that have come in contact with raw meat, poultry and
unwashed raw vegetables.

CROSS CONTAMINATION OF FOOD


BACTERIA can be:

USEFUL: they are found in cheese, yogurt, various sausages,


preventing other dangerous bacteria to develop.

SPOILAGE: bacteria of putrefaction; they can multiply in the


presence of moisture, high temperature, variation of pH and
too long storage times.

DANGEROUS: or pathogenic bacteria, i.e. those ones that


cause diseases (infections or poisoning), either directly or
through the production of toxic substances called "toxins".

MICROORGANISMS CLASSIFICATION
TIME: In 20 hours the single cell can develop five billion cells.
MOISTURE: Foods with a higher moisture content are the ones that
most easily allow bacterial growth (eg. broths).
TEMPERATURE: The ideal temperature for their development is
between 10-60 C. The temperature which they prefer is very close
to that of the human body (37 C).

Low temperatures stop their


reproduction, which resumes when
favorable temperature conditions are
restored. Only high temperatures
ensure the death of pathogenic
germs.

MICROORGANISMS GROWTH
.... other conditions that affect microbial growth:

OXYGEN: some species of bacteria can live only in the presence


of oxygen (aerobic), while others can live even in its absence
(anaerobic).
Some bacteria cause of poisoning may live and multiply even in
hermetically sealed containers, and then deprived of oxygen, if
they have not been killed by an appropriate heat treatment
(Botulin toxin).

ACIDITY: most of the bacteria is spread mainly in products neither


too acidic nor too alkaline. The ideal pH for growth is between 6
and 8.

MICROORGANISMS GROWTH
Growth conditions Food Frequence
Growth Food improperly Rare
temperature 10 sterilized.
Anaerobic, and 45C. Homemade
spore formed Spores are preserves.
in canned or destroyed at 121C
and toxins by
vacuum-
boiling at 100C
packed. for 15 minutes.

FOOD SOURCE: preserved vegetables, homemade sausages and


vacuum products in oil, smoked fish.
Growth conditions Food Frequence
Growth and toxin Egg-based Very frequent.
production between products.
10-40C.
Bacteria are
destroyed from
63C,
toxins are heat
resistant.

FOOD SOURCE: ice cream, confectionery, dairy


products, foods made with raw milk.
Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi

Growth conditions Food Frequence

Growth in preserved Poorly processed and Very frequent.


food between 10 and lightly cooked protein
40C. Bacteria are foods. Foods that come
destroyed by the in contact with faecal
heating at 63C for 30 material of animal
minutes. origin.

Salmonella are bacteria that live in intestines of humans and


animals, even in healthy carriers. Salmonellosis is transmitted
through the ingestion of food contaminated with feces of infected
animals.

FOOD SOURCES: poultry, raw meats, eggs, raw milk.


Growth conditions Food Frequence

Growth in food kept Meat and sauces Very frequent in catering.


between 10 and (especially if
40C. prepared a lot of
Some strains are time in advance).
resistant to boiling
process.
Spores are
destroyed at 121C.

Anaerobe, is found in feces and meats, survives heat


and dehydration.

FOOD SOURCES: poultry, meat, heated foods, spices, vegetables


and soups.
Growth conditions Food Frequence
Does not multiply at Potentially present in Rare.
a pH less than 4. Not all foods, but
resistant to especially in cheeses,
pasteurization. meats and
vegetables.

FOOD SOURCES: Ready-to-eat deli meats and hot dogs. Refrigerated


pts or meat spreads. Unpasteurized (raw) milk and dairy products Soft
cheese made with unpasteurized milk, such as queso fresco, Feta, Brie,
Camembert. Refrigerated smoked seafood.

Listeria is unlike many other germs because it can grow even in the cold temperature
of the refrigerator. Listeria is killed by cooking and pasteurization.
Nematodes (worms) are commonly present in fish caught in
the wild, most frequently in the liver and belly cavity, but can
also occur in the flesh.

Anisakiasis is an uncommon disease because the parasite


is killed by heating (55C for 1 min), and by freezing (20C
for 24 h).
There is a risk of illness from fishery products consumed raw,
for example sushi, or after only mild processing, such as
salting at low concentrations or smoking.
Many countries (also Italy) now require that fish used for these
mildly processed products must be frozen before processing or
before sale.
RAW MATERIALS:

ENVIRONMENT:

MANUFACTURING PRACTICES:

SOURCES OF FOOD CONTAMINATION


Any food processed to retain its nutritional and sensory profile
can be considered "preserved

- stored products: those packed in containers that are maintained


for a long time at room or low temperatures (frozen, dried,
canned, lyophilized, etc.).
- semi-preserved products: those that are kept for a limited time
and who have suffered less drastic procedures (pasteurized,
chilled, etc.).
- processed products: those that have undergone deep
transformations of their original structure (fermented products,
salted, seasoned, smoked etc.).

PRESERVED FOOD
PHYSICAL: temperature control, water content control,
oxygen content control in the packaging, exposure to
radiations

CHEMICAL: use of natural preservatives, use of


chemical food additives

BIOLOGICAL: fermentation (Yougurt)

FOOD PRESERVATION METHODS


METHODS CLASSIFICATION
Refrigeration slows down the biological, chemical,
and physical reactions that shorten the shelf life of
food.

FOOD PRESERVATION BY PHYSICAL METHODS

REFRIGERATION
The refrigeration temperatures range from -1 to +8 C, the
choice depending on the type of food.

There are two categories of refrigerated products:


- refrigerated during transport and storage but sold at
room temperature (fruit, vegetables, etc.)

- distributed, stored and sold T-fridge


- these include: food as livestock meat, milk, dairy
products, fresh fish products; pre-cooked meat and fish,
fresh meats and sausages, delicatessen products, salads
and fresh pastries.

REFRIGERATION
Postharvest life of fruits can be extended by both refrigeration and
CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE (CA) storage in which oxygen is kept at
about 5 percent and CARBON DIOXIDE at 1 to 3 percent, while
temperature is held at a level best suited to the particular fruit.
So-called CA storage is common today for apples and pears and is
being adapted to other fruits.

REFRIGERATION UNDER CONTROLLED-ATMOSPHERE


For most of microbial contaminants the presence of oxygen is
necessary, therefore the first goal of this technology will be
the reduction of O2 percentage in contact with the food.
Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2) or their mixtures are
the most widely used gases to create a modified
atmosphere. Mechanisms of action:
removing the oxygen, the microbial growth is slowed
hydrating in water lowers the pH of the medium and the acid
pH creates an unfavorable environment to germs (only for CO2)
inhibition of different enzymes of the tissue metabolism (fruit
ripening and rotting meat slow)

REFRIGERATION UNDER CONTROLLED-ATMOSPHERE


Only one exception, where OXYGEN presence is favorable
to improve food storage:
oxygenates myoglobin (red pigment of fresh meat)
improving the red color of the meat
In all the other cases, the presence of OXYGEN is
detrimental to food storage for the following reasons:
promoter of enzymatic and chemical oxidations
activates the degradation of beta-carotene
is the substrate of respiration of plant and microbial
cells

REFRIGERATION UNDER CONTROLLED-ATMOSPHERE


Because packaging helps to control the
PACKAGING immediate environment of a food
product, it is useful in creating conditions
that extend the storage life (shelf life)
of a food.
Modified - Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)

barrier properties
Packaging materials such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and
polypropylene (PP) offer low moisture permeability. Similarly, packaging
materials with low gas permeability are used for fatty foods in order to
minimize oxidation reactions.
Because fresh fruits and vegetables respire, they require packaging
materials, such as polyethylene (PE), that have high permeability to
gases.

REFRIGERATION UNDER MODIFIED-ATMOSPHERE


The packaging in modified atmospheres widely used in the
United States and in the European Countries is allowed in Italy
for some products established by law (fresh pasta, baked
goods, meats, fresh cut fruits etc.).

The packing material must be


compatible with the gas used on
the casing and must include the
following information:

PRODOTTO CONFEZIONATO IN ATMOSFERA


MODIFICATA O PROTETTIVA
"PRODUCT PACKAGED IN A MODIFIED OR
PROTECTIVE ATMOSPHERE"

REFRIGERATION UNDER MODIFIED-ATMOSPHERE


When pressure is below the atmospheric value, a vacuum
packaging is made with the aim to prolong the product
preservation through the elimination of the oxygen.
Storage in "CRYOVAC" provides refrigeration of food under
vacuum in a plastic and waterproof wrap (eg. sausages, ham, cold
cuts, etc.).

The bags are firstly sealed under


vacuum, then, the package is
immersed for a few seconds in water
at 90C: the heat-labile film
perfectly adheres to the food.

UNDER VACUUM PACKAGING


Flash freezing is a process in which food is very
quickly frozen at extremely cold temperatures (more
nutrients, more flavor).
The freezing point of a food is a function of its
composition (freezing point is usually between -0.5C
and -4C).
Enzymatic reactions are stopped in a product in which
100% of the water is solidified.

FOOD PRESERVATION PHYSICAL METHODS

FREEZING
Industrial flash freezing process allows reaching quickly
temperatures below -18C. This quick process forms very
small ice crystals in the cells and no damage is caused to the
structure of the food.

Deep-freezing, instead, is a slower process.


Therefore it forms bigger ice crystals that can
break the cell walls. When the product is thawed,
cells lose liquid and consequently nutritive
principles get lost and the organoleptic qualities
of the product can decrease.

FREEZING
Flash freezing refers to the process in various food
industries to quickly freeze perishable food items. This
rapid freezing is done by submerging the sample in
liquid nitrogen or a mixture of dry ice and ethanol.
Then, the flash freezing differs from freezing
depending on the cooling time: by the law, a frozen
product undergoes a rapid freezing, such that at the
end of the process, which lasted up to 4 hours, the
temperature is lower than or equal to -18C throughout
the mass and the same temperature is maintained
throughout the process of preservation.

FLASH FREEZING
1. CONTACT WITH PLATES: the product is pressed between two
plates at -40, -50C (cubes of spinach)
2. FORCED AIR: bulk foodstuffs are subjected to a jet of air to -40,
-50C in a tunnel or freezing cells. Ex. Freezers fluid bed (eg.
peas, green beans, carrot cubes, etc.)
3. IMMERSION IN NON-FREEZABLE LIQUIDS: the product, sealed
in waterproof packaging, is immersed in solutions that freeze at
very low temperatures (poultry)
4. DIRECT USE OF THE FREEZING AGENT : the food is treated with
liquid nitrogen (-196C) or carbon dioxide (-80C), which does
not leave any residue on the food.

METHODS OF FLASH FREEZING


The COLD CHAIN extends from the raw material supplier (e.g. on-
farm cooling of milk) through to the consumers refrigerator/freezer,
and all the steps in between.

COLD CHAIN
The vegetables are subjected to "BLANCHING" or burn, a very short
cooking that inactivates the enzymes that could alter the food quality.

BLANCHING
Slows or stops enzymatic action, preserving flavor, color and texture
cleanses the surface of dirt, bacteria, molds and other organisms
brightens the color
helps retard loss of vitamins
softens vegetables and makes them easier
to pack and less susceptible to freezer burn

BLANCHING VEGETABLES BEFORE FREEZING


The action of the heat prevents the processes of fermentation and
putrefaction that the development of the bacterial flora usually
causes at room T.
Pasteurized food must be
stored in such conditions as to
limit the development of
microorganisms. Generally, the
pasteurization is combined
with other preservation
methods such as refrigeration,
the addition of chemicals and
under vacuum packaging.

FOOD PRESERVATION PHYSICAL METHODS


METHODS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE
The microorganisms are particularly sensitive to high temperatures,
especially when coupled with humidity. The moist heating, which acts
by coagulating the proteins, has an effect more energetic and rapid
than the dry heat, which oxidizes the chemical components of the
cell. For exposure to moist heating most of the vegetative forms
succumbs to 60-70C in 5-10 min.

A food preservation process that heats liquids to 70-75C for 15


seconds, or 60-65C for 30 minutes, in order to kill bacteria,
yeasts, and molds.
The term pasteurization derives from
Pasteur, who in 1860 discovered that
Dr. Pasteur
heating the wine at 60C and maintaining
this temperature for a few minutes, the wine
could be stored longer.

METHODS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE


PASTEURIZATION T (C) TIME FOOD
TYPE
LOW 60 - 65 30 min Wine, beer, milk for cheese
making

HIGH 70 - 75 2-3 min For milk now substituted by


HTST

FAST or HTST 70 - 75 15-20 sec Applied to liquid food flowing in


High Temperature a thin layer between two metal
Short Time heated walls (or plates)

Normally, pasteurization is followed by a rapid cooling of the


product that maintains almost unaltered its original quality, but it
can not be stored for long.

PASTEURIZATION
The milk is pushed via pumps into a hollow space between two thin
plates in steel, in contact with heat exchangers filled of water at
70C (HTST).
The milk reaches the same
temperature for a few seconds.
In cheese making, the heat
pasteurization destroys the lactic
acid bacteria (Lactobacillus
acidophilus). These bacteria are
essential for the subsequent stages
of processing, so, they are
necessarily added after
pasteurization for lactose
fermentation.

MILK PASTEURIZATION
All microbial forms, including spores are destroyed.
Canning products are not completely aseptic
Temperatures and exposure times for:
COMMERCIAL STERILIZATION

The sterilization temperatures are related to the acidity of


the food: with pH lower than 4.5 a temperature of 100C
is enough; with a pH higher than 4.5, a temperature of
115-120C is needed for at least 20 minutes.

CANNING (Food Sterilization)


Heat treatment of such products must be intensive enough to
inactivate the most heat resistant bacterial microorganisms (spores
of Clostridium). In practice, the meat products filled in sealed
containers are exposed to temperatures above 100C in pressure
cookers. Temperatures above 100C, usually ranging from 110-
121C depending on the type of product, must be reached inside
the product.

A compromise has to be reached in order to


keep the heat sterilization intensive enough
for the microbiological safety of the products
and as moderate as possible for product
quality reasons.

CANNING
In order to reach temperatures above 100C, the thermal treatment has to
be performed under P in pressure cookers, also called autoclaves or
retorts. In the autoclaves, high temperatures are generated either by direct
steam injection, by heating water up to temperatures over 100C or by
combined steam and water heating.

vertical autoclaves

pressures up to 5.0 bar.

CANNING
Larger autoclaves are usually horizontal and loaded through a front lid.
Horizontal autoclaves can be built as single or double vessel system. The
double vessel systems have the advantage that the water is heated up in
the upper vessel to the sterilization temperature and released into the lower
(processing) vessel, when it is loaded and hermetically closed.

AUTOCLAVE OR RETORT
Using the twovessel system, the
heat treatment can begin
immediately without lengthy
heating up of the processing
vessel and the hot water can be
recycled afterwards for
immediate use in the following
sterilization cycle.

CANNING
- Indirect UHT (Ultra High Temperature) : 140-150C for a
few seconds, carried on the food packaged plunged in
water or in an autoclave;
- Direct UHT : 140-150C for a few seconds, carried out by
the injection of superheated steam in the bulk product.

Followed by cooling and


aseptic packaging in sterile
containers (multi-layer
cartons flexible or
TETRAPAK).
The sterilized foods can also be subjected to methods of aseptic
packaging (mild technology).

The process consists in the continuous sterilization of food in bulk,


followed by cold-aseptic packaging, in sterile containers.
Technology introduced on a large scale in 1960 with the
introduction of the Tetra Pak packaging (milk, fruit juice, instant
soups, tomato pulp, etc..).

Foods that undergo this treatment have superior nutritional


and organoleptic properties to the classical sterilized, but
they have a shorter duration (3 or more months versus 2-5
years).

ASEPTIC PACKAGING
The food packaging can be sanitized on the surface by using
vapors of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
All the online manufacturing are carried out safely in a clean
room maintained in over Pressure, eliminating the risks related to
the presence of residual sterilizing agents in contact with the
product.

All the sterilizing vapor is


recovered via catalyst, and
split into O2 and H2O ensuring
an eco-friendly process.

ASEPTIC PACKAGING
Paper
2
(75%)

4
Aluminum
5 (5%)
PE 1
3
(20%)

Tetra Packs are constituted by a multilayer structure of


paper, plastic (polyethylene), and aluminum. The paper
represents more than 75% of the total.

ASEPTIC PACKAGING
The presence of liquid water is essential for the life of
microorganisms and the enzyme activity. Its elimination,
even partial, creates a hostile environment to microbial
growth and enzymatic activities and, therefore, constitute
a tool for the preservation of food products.
The percentage of water to be eliminated depends on
the nature of the food: it must be almost total (eg. Milk,
cereal grains) or can also be partial (eg. Tomato
concentrates, fruit juices about 60 70%).

DEHYDRATION
DEHYDRATION CAN BE CARRIED OUT EITHER BY HOT OR COLD
METHODS.

HOT DEHYDRATION consists in the evaporation of water in


a current of hot air or in special evaporators. Because a
prolonged heating under vacuum may also cause a loss of
nutrients, actually, the process of concentration can be
performed by reverse osmosis or by microwave heating.
Industrially, the dehydration of the goods
is obtained in industrial ovens.
Long Shelf life.
Significant reduction of volume and
weight.
Lower transport costs. Drying Oven

CLASSICAL DRYING
In the drying process the
initial content of water is
lowered up to 5%.
It can also be done via
microwaves, electromagnetic
radiation with = 1 cm;
considerably used in food
industry, for the property to
quickly penetrate in the food Tunnel Oven
reducing the heating time.

DRYING
The main goal of the food's concentration is to reduce its
volume and weight, in the case it is destined to a direct
consumption or must be processed by industries, making its
transportation and storage easier and less expensive.

The partial elimination of the water enhances the


preservation of the food, but is not sufficient to keep it so
long, and must be combined with other preservation
treatments, as the addition of chemicals (eg. sugar or salt),
or hot methods as pasteurization or sterilization.

The milk, as an example, is concentrated under reduced


pressure by heating to 50-60C.

CONCENTRATION
The concentration of a food product can be achieved by
using different technologies, based on different physical
principles. It is important to identify for each type of food
the more suitable process to preserve the nutritional,
organoleptic characteristics and physical appearance.

The main techniques are the followings:


1. Concentration by evaporation
2. Cryoconcentration
3. Concentration by membrane technologies

FOOD CONCENTRATION
Concentration by evaporation
It is the classic and most common
method, also used at domestic level:
water is removed by evaporation
heating the food, to increase the speed
of the process. A disadvantage of this
method can be the altering of foods
characteristics for such nutrients
sensitive to high temperatures, and for
volatile components loosed in
significant amounts with a consequent
decrease of the aroma. It is used for
fruit juices, canned tomatoes, etc.

CONCENTRATION BY EVAPORATION
CRYOCONCENTRATION
This technique exploits the properties of a solution to lower its
congelation point with respect to the pure water (eg. orange
juice 11% freezes at -2C; 50% freezes at -9C).
When it drops below 0C, pure water is separated from the rest
of the solution in the form of ice. The ice can be then removed
and the remaining liquid solution becomes more concentrated as
it has lost some of the water.
This technique allows to maintain the nutritional and
organoleptic characteristics of foods, avoiding the loss of such
components sensitive to high temperatures, in orange juice, wine,
beer (which is only concentrated for an easier transport), coffee,
vinegar, milk, tea.

CRYOCONCENTRATION
These techniques utilize semipermeable membranes. They can be
considered special sieves that have a tight weave that allows the
retention of larger particles and pass the smaller ones. Depending on
the size of the pores of the membrane, there are the following
processes: traditional filtration, microfiltration, and ultrafiltration.

These methods are worth of


noting and poorly expensive;
moreover, they do not alter the
characteristics of the food and
are important for obtaining
nutraceuticals and food
supplements (eg. whey proteins
extracted by ultrafiltration).

CONCENTRATION BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES


The concentration of a rich in water food can also be obtained using
the technology of REVERSE OSMOSIS, using a semipermeable
membrane, which allows the passage of water, but not of the
substances dissolved in it.
Applying to the solution
which has to be concentrated,
a pressure higher than its
OSMOTIC PRESSURE, there
will be a flow of water from
the solution itself to the less
concentrated (usually
drinking water or pure water)
with further concentration of
the first solution (fruit juices
and so on).

CONCENTRATION BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES


Lyophilization or freeze drying is a process by which very
different biological materials may be preserved undamaged for
extended periods.
Freeze-dried products may be kept at room temperature, with low
weight, and their properties are restored after rehydration.
LYOPHILIZATION is carried out using a simple principle of physics called
SUBLIMATION = transition of a substance from the solid to the vapor
state, without firstly passing through an intermediate liquid phase.

1-2% residual moisture


Food regenerated by addition of H2O
Conservation guaranteed for 3 years

FREEZE-DRYING process or LYOPHILIZATION


The lyophilization is obtained by rapid freezing of the food
at temperatures of -30, -40C, and subsequent dehydration
by sublimation under vacuum at low T.

water phase diagram

FOOD PRESERVATION PHYSICAL METHODS


LYOPHILIZATION
FREEZE-DRYER SCHEME

To extract water from foods, the process of LYOPHILIZATION consists of:


FREEZING: The product is frozen.
VACUUM: After freezing, the product is placed under vacuum (frozen water in the
product vaporize without passing through the liquid phase = sublimation).
HEAT: Heat (25-30C) is applied to the frozen product to accelerate sublimation.
CONDENSATION: Low-temperature condenser plates remove the vaporized solvent
from the vacuum chamber by converting it back to a solid.

LYOPHILIZATION
The product to be treated is placed in a chamber in which vacuum is rapidly
produced. As pressure in the chamber drops, temperature also drops and the
water contained in the product freezes. Next, still under vacuum, the product is
heated and ice sublimation occurs (water turns into vapor without passing through
the liquid phase).
Conventional industrial installations produce vacuum by means of a combination of
vacuum pumps and cold traps which operate at -40 or -50C, to freeze water to be
extracted from the product and to reduce the pressure within the freeze-drying
chamber.
The large mechanical vacuum pumps and freezing equipment require specialized
labor to run and maintain - which increases cost.

LYOPHILIZATION PLANT
The freeze-dried food must be packaged in pouches resistant to
oxygen and moisture, usually aluminum and polyethylene, but
also glass.
Food Types Suitable For Freeze Drying
Coffee
Fruit and juice
Vegetables
Meat
Fish and Seafood
Eggs
Dairy
The packaging of these products is a crucial manufacturing
process, and must be accomplished in vacuum or in
CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE

LYOPHILIZATION
RADIANT ENERGY HAS DIFFERING WAVELENGTHS AND
DEGREES OF POWER. Light, infrared heat and microwaves are
forms of radiant energy.
The radiation of interest
in food preservation is
IONIZING RADIATION,
also known as
irradiation.

These shorter wavelengths are capable of damaging microorganisms


such as those that contaminate food or cause food spoilage and
deterioration.
Method of food preservation since 1950.

IRRADIATION
The preservation technique that employs ionizing
radiation has been used for the first time in the USA
in 1943 to sterilize hamburgers.
It consists in subjecting the food to the action of
electromagnetic radiations, such as:
X rays
rays
UV radiation

IRRADIATION
HOW IRRADIATION IS USED:
Sterilization of medical equipment (instruments, surgical gloves,
alcohol wipes, sutures, etc.)
Sterilization of consumer products (adhesive bandages, contact
lens cleaning solutions, cosmetics, etc.)
Foods for immune-compromised hospital patients (e.g., AIDS,
cancer, or transplant patients)
Some foods for astronauts, who cannot risk foodborne illness
Spices and seasonings used in products such as sausage and
certain baked goods.

IONIZING RADIATION
The treatments can:
1. reduce the microbial load of some foods increasing
shelf life
2. destroy parasites and insects as an alternative to
chemical pesticides
3. inhibit the germination of tubers and bulbs
TO NORMAL STRENGTH (DOSE OF
RADIATION) IS A SURFACE STERILIZATION

RESIDUAL RADIOACTIVITY DOES NOT


REMAIN IN FOOD

IONIZING RADIATION
Two things are needed for the irradiation process:
a source of radiant energy
a way to confine that energy
The radiation can only be made in authorized
buildings, using radioactive sources such as the
60Co and 137Cs.

The products subjected to radiation must have a


symbol on the box to mark it.

IONIZING RADIATION
Salting is used because most bacteria, fungi and other potentially
pathogenic organisms cannot survive in a highly salty (NaCl)
environment, due to the hypertonic nature of salt. Any living cell in
such an environment will become dehydrated through osmosis and
die or become temporarily inactivated.
DRY SALTING: by rubbing the salt on the surface of solid food or overlapping layers,
where the salt is generally mixed with spices. The salt must quickly penetrate into the tissues
of the food. This method of salting is suitable for long aging products and long shelf life
(fish, sausages).
WET SALTING: action is slower and less intense. It is used for
food that need other treatments such as smoking, refrigeration
or cooking. It is performed using saline solutions at different
concentrations. The wet salting can be carried out by immersion
or injection of saline solutions (cheese).

FOOD PRESERVATION CHEMICAL METHODS


SALT (NaCl) SALTING
Sugar exerts its preservative action in a similar way to the salt,
by dehydrating microorganisms by osmosis, thus making them
inactive. The sucrose must be present in the food in a
concentration not less than 50%, as lower percentages favoring
fermentative phenomena.

Sugar can be used in the crystalline


state or as a syrup, which means sugar
and water at different concentrations.
Nevertheless, there are osmophilus
microorganisms not hampered by high
concentrations of sugar.
This method can also be combined with
heat treatment for the preservation of
fruit, such as jam or jelly.

SUGAR USE OF NATURAL PRESERVATIVES


Both olive and seed oils are used to
protect food from air's contact and, thus,
prevent the development of aerobic
microorganisms.
In contrast, the anaerobic organisms can be
rather easily develop, such as Clostridium
botulinum, responsible for a toxin that can
be lethal.
To avoid this contamination, the method can
be combined with other processes, such as
salting, acidification, dehydration and
pasteurization. This method is often used
for fish or vegetables.

Vegetal oils USE OF NATURAL PRESERVATIVES


Vinegar is the product of the acetic fermentation of wine. It must
contain no more than 6% of total acidity expressed as acetic acid,
and a residual amount of alcohol no higher than 1.5%.

The preservative action is due to the acetic acid


content and the consequent lowering of the pH.
The vinegar is used in the preservation of many
plants and as adjuvant in other techniques. The
pickle, like oil, must undergo advance other
conservation processes, such as salting and
pasteurization.

FOOD PRESERVATION CHEMICAL METHODS


VINEGAR USE OF NATURAL PRESERVATIVES
Used at high concentrations (around 70%) ETHYL ALCOOL is
lethal against vegetative forms while at the same dose is
ineffective for bacterial spores.
Bacteria are more sensitive than yeasts. The antimicrobial action
of alcohol is due to several factors:
Denaturation of protoplasmic proteins
Dehydration of cells

Ethanol is present as a preservative in


some bakery products (bread box) to
prevent mold growth due to moisture in
the product.

FOOD PRESERVATION CHEMICAL METHODS


CH3CH2OH USE OF NATURAL PRESERVATIVES
SMOKED SALMON
Smoking, in food processing, concerns
the exposure of cured meat, fish and
dairy products to smoke of aromatic
woods for the purposes of preserving
food and increasing their palatability
by adding flavour and imparting a rich
brown colour.
Preservation technique used by man
since ancient times.

The drying action of the smoke tends to preserve the meat,


though many of the chemicals present in wood smoke (e.g.,
formaldehyde and certain alcohols) are natural preservatives
as well.

FOOD PRESERVATION CHEMICAL METHODS


FOOD SMOKING
The practice attained high levels of quality in several cultures,
notably the smoking of fish in Scandinavia and northwestern North
America and the production of smoked hams in Europe and US
There are two types of smoking:
Cold smoking
the food is heated to a temperature between 20C and 45C, and
the treatment is prolonged for days or weeks
Hot smoking
the food is heated to a temperature between 50C and 90C for a
short period of time, generally a few hours
The smoking process is often preceded by salting, which increases the
dehydration, inactivates microorganisms and gives more flavor. The
smoke has antiseptic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Food's
aspect and taste is extensively modified in a characteristic and
functional way.

FOOD SMOKING
Food most frequently submitted to smoking:
1. MEAT (sausages, frankfurters, sausages, Prague ham,
bacon)
2. FISH (salmon, herring, mackerel, swordfish)
3. CHEESES (mozzarella, ricotta, provolone).

The smoked food has more concentrated nutrients than the fresh
food: 100 grams of smoked salmon provide 25.4 grams of
protein compared with the same weight of fresh that provide
18.5 grams.

Smoking is a discussed treatment for the action of the


substances present in the smoke (phenol and volatile
compounds).

FOOD SMOKING
To avoid these harmful substances, which can be present in the
smoke, such as benzopyrene, considered a carcinogen, the food
industry has looked for other solutions, such as the use of smoke
flavorings or liquid smoke.
LIQUID SMOKE is produced by condensing
wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of
sawdust or wood chips followed by removal
of the carcinogenic polyaromatic
hydrocarbons. The main products of wood
pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic
acids which are responsible for the flavor,
color and antimicrobial properties of liquid
smoke.

LIQUID SMOKE
SOLPHYTES (E221-228)

SORBIC ACID (E200)

NITRATES E NITRITES (E249-252)

BENZOIC ACID AND SALTS (E210-213)

ASCORBIC ACID (E 300)

FOOD PRESERVATION CHEMICAL METHODS


CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES