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A Sensorless Vector Control Scheme for Induction Motors using a

Space Phasor based Current Hysteresis Controller.

Ebenezer V. K. Gopakumar V. T. Ranganathan
Member IEEE Senior Member IEEE Senior Member IEEE
CEDT CEDT Electrical Eng. kgopa@,

Phone- (80) 3341810, Fax- (80) 3341808

CEDT ( Centre for Electronics Design and Technology)
IndianInstitute of Science
Bangalore, INDIA

Key words: space phasor based P WM, sensorless control

The whole scheme is implemented using a Space
Abstract: Tlte increasing use of A C machines
Pliasor based Current Hysteresis controller, in which
compared to DC motors in electrical drive the inverter voltage vectors close to the machine back
applications Itas several . reasons. A very emf vector i s selected, withoutmeasuring the back emf
important advaatoge of A C mucltines is their vector. The back emf vector i s sensed indirectly from
simple construction. However, A C drives often the direction of the current error space phasor. A
need meclranical sensors (tuckometers, position single chip solution i s arrived at by using the
encoders) for Jield orientation. In many TMS320F240 DSP from Texas Instruments.
applications these sensors reduce robustness and
incrense costs of a drive considerubly. Tlre 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n
objective of this pnper is to present the practical High dynamic performance drives such. as Field
inrplementation of a Sensorless Vector Control Oriented Control (FOC) schemes require complicated
Scheme for Induction Motors rising a Spnce signal processing and costly encoders for compu!ntioir
of the rotor flux position.]. Sensorless control schemes
Plrasor based Cirrrerrt Hysteresis Controller. This
using motor terminal voltages and currents, works very
scheme measures the stator crtrrent Irysteresis
well at high speeds o f operation, with the assumption
error direction to determine the rotor Jlm that stator drops are negligible. However. the stator
position, during inverter zero vector states. This drops become significant at very low speeds of
measurement of tire rotor Jlu position is done operation, demanding appropriate stator resistance
indirectly by sensing the motor back em5 wlriclr compensation schemes for accurate rotor flux
is ortlrogorral to tire rotorflux position. Tlte basic estimation.
idea is to measure the current liysteresis error Extending the speed range to very low speeds
direction of the stator current on the application including standstill operation, by making use of the
of an inverter zero vector i.e. “short circuit at saliency effects in the rotor, calls for different rotor
muclrine ternrinals”. A generalization is possible construction itself [I]. An accurate estimation o f the
rotor flux position and speed near standstill i s proposed
by a combination of two (dvferent) active states
by J. Jiang and J. Holtz [2] by making use o f the stator
of the inverter. By a linear transformation of the
leakage inductance variation with change in rotor
electrical equations for botlr inverter states, a position.
matlrematical zero state is constructed. The use
of tlris virtualslrort circuit is necessary at higlrer In this paper, a simple rotor flux estimation scheme i s
speeds when the inverter output voltage is fully proposed by measuring the current error space phasor
utilized, However at low speeds the drop across direction of a space phasor based current hysteresis
the stator resistance i.v comparable to the motor controlled PWM drive 141. In the proposed scheme. the
bock cmJ; to i w i ~ r c i i ~ tIri.v
n i ~ II sinrpli. priimctt’r rtikir l l u x posiliiiii i s wiiipiitcd (iiiiii tlic c i i i l r i i l wlor
adaptation scheme is also presented Irere. Tlre space phasor direction during zero iirverter output
proposed sclreme enables a smooth trausiiion to states [3] , I n this scheme the back emf computation i s
performed with the assumption that stator drops are
sir-step mode of operation.
negligible. But at very low speeds of operation stator
drops are comparable to the back emf and rotor flux

0-7803-4879-6/98l$10.00Q 1998 IEEE 26

position estimation is no longer accurate. To overcome
this an effective correction method i s proposed. Thus,
tlie speed range and the high dynamic performance can
be extended to very low speeds o f operation without
any extra hardware. The rotor flux estimation scheme
i s presented in the following section.

2. M a c h i n e M o d e l
Fig. I shows the steady stale equivalent circuit model o f
the induction macliine . The voltage equritions in a
stator-oriented reference frame i s
Fig.2 Relafive posifion -and
di, dt
Vk = i,R,+ L,-+V, (I)
- during zero inverfer vecfor state
- - dt -
where, The flux i s quadrature l o tlie motor back enif and hence
v k =applied voltage vectors by inverter, depending on the magnitude of the current errors along
- tlie real and imaginary axes, the rotor flux position can
Vm =machine
- back emfvector be estimated ( cosp and s i n p ). during zero inverter
L,= stator leakage inductance, output vector.
- = stator current space phasor 3. R o t o r Flux Detection a t h i g h e r speed ranges
Neglecting tlie stator resistance drop, equation( I ) can
using a r b i t r a r y I n v e r t e r States
he written as
At higher speed o f operation, especially iii the fe id
weakening region no zero inverter output states occurs,
and hence the rotor flux position i s estimated by
where for a space pliasor based current hysteresis
measuring the current error space pliasors during two
consecutive active inverter output vectors.
dis AI The following voltage equations are valid for two
, ;==
df AI inverter states (the stator resistance is again neglected)
within a short time period ,in which the flux position
and 1 machine - I refirencce, ( 1 r&ence is
does not change (PI = p2) :
the reference current space phasor)

In equations (4) and (5) the rotor flux derivative i s

assumed to be the same during two consecutive lion
Fig1 : Space Phusor based equivalenr circuif of zero inverter output vector states and
fhe induclion machine ijz
3.Rotor Flux Detection using I n v e r t e r Z e r o vk/ e
vk2 = -
- 3 . Thus from eqn.(lO) and eqn.(i I)
States the rotor flux position(>) can be computed, and is
During inverter zero output states i.e. short circuit at given as
the inachinc terminals the cquntion (2) can be rewritten

This is a very advantageous strategy for determining phasor based multi axis current hysteresis controller i s
the flux angular position especially at higher speed and proposed, in which the current error along the
i n the field-weakening range (31. Note that no machine orthogonal axes (jAjBjC) are monitored[4].The
parameters influence the result o f (6). Equation (6) i s current error boundary (Fig.3) i s a hexagon and the
valid on the condition that the voltage drop on the current error is controlled in such a way that, only the
stator resistance and the change o f the rotor flux within three adjacent voltage vectors i n a sector are always
the measurement period can be neglected. It i s also used for the entire speed range [4]. The scheme can be
assumed that the DC-link voltage i s constant. implemented using simple look up tables (Table-I).
The advantages of the scheme, when compared to other
4. R o t o r Flux Detection at lower speed ranges multi level current hysteresis controllers, i s that only
using simple parameter adaptation the adjacent vectors close to the motor back emf space
At low speeds of operation the drop across the stator phasor voltage, are used for the invelter switching, for
resistance i s comparable to the motor back emf and the the entire speed range (optimum PWM switching). In
stator resistance drop which i s significant at low speeds the present scheme, the selection o f the inverter voltage
of operation has to be taken into account for the correct vectors for optimum P W M switching i s achieved
estimation of the rotor flux position. So eqn.( I)can be
( s3 10 s4 )
written, for zero inverter output vectors, at very low
speed o f operation as,

(7) ( 54 IO ss ) ( s2 10 s3 )

N o w during zero inverter output period the currents are

sampled at two instants ( r , and r2) and from this the
eqn.(7) can be written as ( using backward
Fig.) Current error spacephasor buumbry
v , , , / R ,=-ik+l--( LU (ik+/-ik)/72 ) (9)
- Rs - - without any computation o f the machine voltage space
phasor, for the full speed range o f the drive system.
Assuming that the v,l,does
- not change, during The scheme i s self adapting, as far as the motor space
( 7 1 and 7 2 ) , from eqn.(8)and(9) phasor voltage i s concerned, and also maintains the
controller simplicity and quick response features of a
hysteresis current controller[4]. In Figure(3) the current
hysteresis boundary i s shown, for the proposed
scheme. I n choosing the inverter states, for switching
in various sectors, i t is taken care of that (a) only,
Eqn.(lO) i s computed during zero interval period and
adjacent vectors, close to the machine voltage space
substituted in eqn.('l)to find the rotor flux position.
Since the machine parameters do not change very
phasor (b),
are always chosen for current control, (b)
among the adjacent vectors, the vector which gives the
rapidly, the value LJRs can be averaged out over a
maximum current error change in the opposite
time range say over 2 min. and can be updated in that
direction, is chosen for the next switching. Taking all
time step. To begin with one can start with the cold
this into account, the vector states, which gives
parameter values o f the machine given and update it
optimum P W M vector selection, in a sector are chosen.
subsequently after the first averaging is made.
as shown in Table-I. The outer hysteresis
boundary( AI' ) i s for the sector selection in which the
5. Space Phasor based Current Hysteresis
Controller motor back emf i s situated. For an inverter oulpul
I n conventional three phase current hysteresis vector, there is a definite current error spacer direction,
controllers, the current error along the three phase axes along which the current error space phasor approaches
are independently controlled. This w i l l result in the hexagonal boundary (Fig.3)[4]. This i s detected for
random selection o f switching vectors causing high the vector forming a triangular sector in which the back
inverter switching losses. In this scheme, a space emf vector is situated.

TABLE-I. Veclorswifclting look up lohlefor llw mulli axis spacepliasor bosed currenl liysleresis conlroller.
1 t o 6 are inverter switching v k t o r s , Z - zero vector, 0 continue with the previous state

When the back emf vector moves t o the next sector, F i g 2 shows tlie motor phase voltage wave form
and if the inverter switching vectors are not chosen obtained from space pliasor based current hysteresis
from the same sector, the current error moves out o f controller for two different speed ranges. Fig.2b shows
the inner hexagonal boundary, and this is detected by the P W M voltage waveform near 50Hz operation. As
the outer hysteresis boundary, and the appropriate the speed increases the zero inverter vector period
sector i s selected [4]. slowly decreases and the inverter switching vectrors
are chosen from the active vectors, forming a sector, in
6. Experimental results which tlie machine back emf i s located. As the speed
becomes close 10 50Hz. the inverter switcliings will
The proposed scheme is implemented with a fixed slowly come to tlie six-step operation( Fig.2b). Fig.3
point digital signal processor (DSP), the TMS320F240. shows current wave form during acceleration. The
A vector controller scheme i s implemented using the motor speed signal, derived from tlie proposed
proposed rotor flux position estimation scheme, for a sensorless control scheme mid the coiiiputcd rotor flux
IOHP induction motor. The Rotor flux position signal position signal(cosp) are shown i n Fig.(4), during a
(cosp and sinp)for three different speed speed reversal operation. The proposed sensorless


r r





Time in secs

Time in secs





Fig.4 F l u x position signal and illic niotor spccd signid during sliccd trntisiciits
ranges,obtained from the proposed experimental setup, speed control system worked satisfactorly down to a
are shown in Figla, Fig.Ib, and The motor 3Hz frequency o f operation, with smooth speed
speed i s derived from tlie computed positioii reversals.
signals(cosp and sinp) as explained in appendix-A.

29 :Flux position signals at 3.3HZ

Fig.2a: Motor phase voltage- Low speed range

o ai 01 a3 0.4 0.1 O.B ai 0.8 QP
lmbna in s e a
Fi& 5: Motor phase current during acceleration

References 2.For a COSINE input of same amplitude and
[ I ] Jansen, P.L., Loren? R.D “Transducerless position frequency, the polar plot of the filter output is also
and velocity Estimation in induction and salient a semi circle with a 90’ phase lead ( Fig.2A)
AC machines”, IEEE Trans. Ind.appl., Vo1.31,
No.2, pp.240-247, 1995.
121 Jinsheng Jiang and Joachim Holtz:“ ,An accurate
Estimator of Rotor position and speed ,of induction
motor near stand still”, Int. Conf. IEEE, PEDS-97,
pp. 1-5, Singapore 1997.

[3] Schroedl, M., Wieser, R.S.: “ E.M.F. -;based Rotor

Flux Detection in Induction Motors Using Virtual
Short Circuits”, IEEE Conf. IAS-96, pip.229-233.
[4] Mistry,V., Waikar, S.P., Umanand, L., Gopakumar,
K., Ranganathan, V.T.: “A Multi #xis Space
Phasor Based Current Hysteresis Co,ntroller For
PWM Inverters”, Int. Conf. IEEE, PEDS-97, pp.
480-486, Singapore - 1997.


Speed Signal Computation
When the cosp and sinp signals are passed
The computed cosp and sinp signals .are passed
through the filter, the filtered out put signals have
through a low pass filter. The transfer function of
the same amplitudes and same phase shifts with
the low pass filter is
respect to the input signals. ie.,

= X+jY, where, X= Iand

y,= -07
(2.4) Now from Fig.lA ,Fig.ZA and using the identities
[Sin WT ASin(wT-4) +
1. Sinusoidal inout to the filter I
= A C O S=~
When the sinusoidal input (sinp) :with unit l+02T2
amplitude is passed through the filter; the polar
plot of the signal from the filter output traces a (3.4)
semicircle as shown in Fig. 1A. [Sin WTACos(wT-4) -
CoswT ASin(wT-+)I = Asin+ = -OT
I + w2T2

Now eqn. 4(A) +eqn.3(A) is ‘-wT’,where T i s the

UT filter time constant. Thus the speed signal can be
derived using simple first order filter circuit.
. Fig; 1A
I wT= 1