2. M a c h i n e M o d e l
Fig. I shows the steady stale equivalent circuit model o f
the induction macliine . The voltage equritions in a
statororiented reference frame i s
di,
Fig.2 Relafive posifion and
di, dt
Vk = i,R,+ L,+V, (I)
wr
 during zero inverfer vecfor state
  dt 
where, The flux i s quadrature l o tlie motor back enif and hence
v k =applied voltage vectors by inverter, depending on the magnitude of the current errors along
 tlie real and imaginary axes, the rotor flux position can
Vm =machine
 back emfvector be estimated ( cosp and s i n p ). during zero inverter
L,= stator leakage inductance, output vector.
is
 = stator current space phasor 3. R o t o r Flux Detection a t h i g h e r speed ranges
Neglecting tlie stator resistance drop, equation( I ) can
using a r b i t r a r y I n v e r t e r States
he written as
At higher speed o f operation, especially iii the fe id
l
weakening region no zero inverter output states occurs,
and hence the rotor flux position i s estimated by
where for a space pliasor based current hysteresis
~
measuring the current error space pliasors during two
consecutive active inverter output vectors.
dis AI The following voltage equations are valid for two
controller,
, ;==
df AI inverter states (the stator resistance is again neglected)
within a short time period ,in which the flux position
and 1 machine  I refirencce, ( 1 r&ence is
does not change (PI = p2) :
the reference current space phasor)
27
This is a very advantageous strategy for determining phasor based multi axis current hysteresis controller i s
the flux angular position especially at higher speed and proposed, in which the current error along the
i n the fieldweakening range (31. Note that no machine orthogonal axes (jAjBjC) are monitored[4].The
parameters influence the result o f (6). Equation (6) i s current error boundary (Fig.3) i s a hexagon and the
valid on the condition that the voltage drop on the current error is controlled in such a way that, only the
stator resistance and the change o f the rotor flux within three adjacent voltage vectors i n a sector are always
the measurement period can be neglected. It i s also used for the entire speed range [4]. The scheme can be
assumed that the DClink voltage i s constant. implemented using simple look up tables (TableI).
The advantages of the scheme, when compared to other
4. R o t o r Flux Detection at lower speed ranges multi level current hysteresis controllers, i s that only
using simple parameter adaptation the adjacent vectors close to the motor back emf space
At low speeds of operation the drop across the stator phasor voltage, are used for the invelter switching, for
resistance i s comparable to the motor back emf and the the entire speed range (optimum PWM switching). In
stator resistance drop which i s significant at low speeds the present scheme, the selection o f the inverter voltage
of operation has to be taken into account for the correct vectors for optimum P W M switching i s achieved
estimation of the rotor flux position. So eqn.( I)can be
( s3 10 s4 )
written, for zero inverter output vectors, at very low
speed o f operation as,
(7) ( 54 IO ss ) ( s2 10 s3 )
28
TABLEI. Veclorswifclting look up lohlefor llw mulli axis spacepliasor bosed currenl liysleresis conlroller.

1 t o 6 are inverter switching v k t o r s , Z  zero vector, 0 continue with the previous state
When the back emf vector moves t o the next sector, F i g 2 shows tlie motor phase voltage wave form
and if the inverter switching vectors are not chosen obtained from space pliasor based current hysteresis
from the same sector, the current error moves out o f controller for two different speed ranges. Fig.2b shows
the inner hexagonal boundary, and this is detected by the P W M voltage waveform near 50Hz operation. As
the outer hysteresis boundary, and the appropriate the speed increases the zero inverter vector period
sector i s selected [4]. slowly decreases and the inverter switching vectrors
are chosen from the active vectors, forming a sector, in
6. Experimental results which tlie machine back emf i s located. As the speed
becomes close 10 50Hz. the inverter switcliings will
The proposed scheme is implemented with a fixed slowly come to tlie sixstep operation( Fig.2b). Fig.3
point digital signal processor (DSP), the TMS320F240. shows current wave form during acceleration. The
A vector controller scheme i s implemented using the motor speed signal, derived from tlie proposed
proposed rotor flux position estimation scheme, for a sensorless control scheme mid the coiiiputcd rotor flux
IOHP induction motor. The Rotor flux position signal position signal(cosp) are shown i n Fig.(4), during a
(cosp and sinp)for three different speed speed reversal operation. The proposed sensorless
E
P
.
z
?OO O
t;
z
500
r r
I
2
2
4
4
6
6
8
8
10
10
12
Time in secs
12
Time in secs
14
14
16
16
18
18,
20
20
Fig.4 F l u x position signal and illic niotor spccd signid during sliccd trntisiciits
ranges,obtained from the proposed experimental setup, speed control system worked satisfactorly down to a
are shown in Figla, Fig.Ib, and Fig.lc. The motor 3Hz frequency o f operation, with smooth speed
speed i s derived from tlie computed positioii reversals.
signals(cosp and sinp) as explained in appendixA.
29
Fig.la :Flux position signals at 3.3HZ
451
o ai 01 a3 0.4 0.1 O.B ai 0.8 QP
lmbna in s e a
Fi& 5: Motor phase current during acceleration
30
References 2.For a COSINE input of same amplitude and
[ I ] Jansen, P.L., Loren? R.D “Transducerless position frequency, the polar plot of the filter output is also
and velocity Estimation in induction and salient a semi circle with a 90’ phase lead ( Fig.2A)
AC machines”, IEEE Trans. Ind.appl., Vo1.31,
No.2, pp.240247, 1995.
121 Jinsheng Jiang and Joachim Holtz:“ ,An accurate
Estimator of Rotor position and speed ,of induction
motor near stand still”, Int. Conf. IEEE, PEDS97,
pp. 15, Singapore 1997.
~
31