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The ABCs of Calculus

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Angelo B. Mingarelli

School of Mathematics and Statistics,

Carleton University

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Canada

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http://www.math.carleton.ca/amingare/calculus/cal104.html

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c 2010 Angelo B. Mingarelli

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by

any means, terrestrial or not, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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Published by the Nolan Company, Ottawa.

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ISBN 978-0-9698889-5-6

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This book is dedicated

to the immutable memory of my father,

Giosafat Mingarelli,

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to my mother, Oliviana Lopez,

who showed a young child of 10

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how to perform long division ...

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Preface to the e-text edition

This e-text is written primarily for students wanting to learn and be good at

Calculus. Indeed, it is meant to be used primarily by students. I tried to present

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the material in a mix of combined verbal, theoretical, practical, numerical, and

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geometrical approaches in an attempt to satisfy as many learning styles as pos-

sible. The presentation is, of course, very personal and it is based upon my

delivery of the material in a large classroom setting (more than 200 students)

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over the past 30 years.

Why the title? I think that there is a need to constantly review basic material

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while working towards a goal that includes the fostering of a feeling for what

Calculus is, what it does, and how you solve the problems it generates correctly.

In order to do this I feel that there is a need to always remind the reader of

what is being done and why we are doing it. . . In my view there are three basic

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tenets when learning something: 1) Dont worry,- life is too short to worry

about this or anything else, 2) Think things out, and 3) Drink coee (or any

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equivalent substitute). Although this may sound funny, Im really serious (up

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to a point). The order in which one proceeds in the application of these tenets

is not important. For example, sometimes 3) may lead to 2) and so 1) may

follow; at other times one may oscillate between 2) and 3) for a while, etc.

All of the the material in the book is based on lectures delivered at the rst-

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year level in a one-term course in Calculus for engineers and scientists both at

Carleton University and at the University of Ottawa dating back to 1978. It

can be used in a high-school setting with students having mastered the basics of

Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry (or at least the Appendices in here). An

optional chapter entitled Advanced Topics at the end introduces the interested

student to the real core of Calculus, with rigorous denitions and epsilon-delta

arguments (which is really the way Calculus should be done). Students not

familiar with Calculus in a high-school setting should rst review the four ap-

pendices A, B, C, D at the very end and be familiar with them (I suggest you do

all the examples therein anyhow, just to be sure). If you ever get to understand

everything in this book then youll be in a position to advance to any upper level

calculus course or even a course in mathematical analysis without any diculty.

The little bonhomme that occasionally makes his appearance in the margins

is my creation. He is there to ease the presentation as it sometimes requires

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patience to master the subject being presented. Then there are the coee

cup problems. These are problems whose level of diculty is reected in the

appearance of a proportionate number of cups of coee (the intent being clear).

Of course, I also decided to include almost all (well, maybe 99%) of the solutions

to every problem/exercise in the text. In this way you can use this book in a

distance learning context or just learn the stu on your own.

Chapters usually begin with a section entitled The Big Picture where a basic

introduction to the material is given in reference to what is already known, and

what one may expect later. This is normally followed by a box entitled Review

where it becomes clear that some skills are more necessary than others for mas-

tery of the subject matter at hand. At various times in the text, Shortcuts are

introduced in an attempt to simplify the solution of a given exercise, or class

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of exercises, or just to show how you can do the problems in a faster algorith-

mic way. Most chapters have individual breaks at a box entitled Snapshots.

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These consist of more examples where I leave out many details and outline the

process. I made a conscious attempt at being repetitive as, in many cases, this

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is a key to remembering material. Each chapter and its sections concludes with

many routine and not so routine exercises that complement the examples. The

matter of specic applications is treated but in a limited form in this e-book

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edition. Students normally see such calculus applications concurrently with this

subject and so undue emphasis on such material is not always necessary. In

many cases, notably in the early chapters, I leave in the most simple of details

in order to reinforce those skills which students may nd nebulous at times.

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The student will nd it useful to know that the Tables listed under the head-

ing List of Tables comprise most of the material and denitions necessary for

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basic mastery of the subject. Finally youll nd STOP signs here and there re-

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quiring the reader to pay particular attention to what is being said at that point.

The choice of topics is of course left to the instructor (if you have one) but the

main breakdown of the course outline may be found on the authors website,

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http://www.math.carleton.ca/amingare/calculus/cal104.html

reinforce the material presented in the text along with links to other websites

(although some of these links may disappear over time :(( but then the Internet

Archives, or its future equivalent, may come in handy in any case). I also intend

to add new material occasionally so check it often! Comments and suggestions

are always encouraged as are any reports of misprints, errors, etc. Just write!

Angelo B. Mingarelli

Ottawa, Canada.

http://www.math.carleton.ca/amingare/

e-mail: amingare@math.carleton.ca

Contents

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1 Functions and Their Properties 1

1.1 The Meaning of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

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1.2 Function Values and the Box Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.3 The Absolute Value of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

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1.4 A Quick Review of Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.4.1 The triangle inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

1.5 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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1.6 Using Computer Algebra Systems (CAS), . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.1 One-Sided Limits of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

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2.3 Important Theorems About Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . 59

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2.6 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

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3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

3.2 Working with Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

3.3 The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

3.4 Implicit Functions and Their Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

3.6 Important Results About Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

3.7 Inverse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

3.8 Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

3.9 Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . 140

3.10 Relating Rates of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

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3.12 LHospitals Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

3.13 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

3.14 Challenge Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

3.15 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

4.1 Exponential Functions and Their Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . 178

4.2 Eulers Number, e = 2.718281828 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

4.3 Eulers Exponential Function and the Natural Logarithm . . . . 189

4.4 Derivative of the Natural Logarithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

4.5 Dierentiation Formulae for General Exponential Functions . . . 196

4.6 Dierentiation Formulae for General Logarithmic Functions . . . 201

4.7 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

4.8 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

4.9 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

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5.1 Solving Polynomial Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

5.2 Solving Rational Function Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

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5.3 Graphing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

5.4 Application of Derivatives to Business and Economics . . . . . . 256

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5.5 Single variable optimization problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

5.6 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

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6 Integration 261

6.1 Antiderivatives and the Indenite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

6.2 Denite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

6.3 The Summation Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

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6.5 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

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7.1 Trigonometric Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

7.2 The Substitution Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

7.3 Integration by Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

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7.3.2 The Product of a Polynomial and an Exponential . . . . . 331

7.3.3 The Product of a Polynomial and a Logarithm . . . . . . 334

7.3.4 The Product of an Exponential and a Sine or Cosine . . . 337

7.4 Partial Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

7.4.1 Review of Long Division of Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . 347

7.4.2 The Integration of Partial Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

7.5 Products of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

7.5.1 Products of Sines and Cosines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

7.5.2 Fourier Coecients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

7.5.3 Products of Secants and Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

7.6 Trigonometric Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

7.6.1 Completing the Square in a Quadratic (Review) . . . . . 386

7.6.2 Trigonometric Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

7.7 Numerical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

7.7.1 The Trapezoidal Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

7.7.2 Simpsons Rule for n Even . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

7.8 Improper Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

CONTENTS xi

7.9.1 Integrating rational functions of trigonometric expressions 432

7.10 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

7.11 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

8.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445

8.2 Finding the Area Between Two Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

8.3 The Volume of a Solid of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464

8.4 Measuring the length of a curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477

8.5 Moments and Centers of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

8.6 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

8.7 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

9.1 Why Study Dierential Equations? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

9.2 First-order Separable Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512

9.3 Laws of Growth and Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518

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9.4 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525

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10 Multivariable Optimization Techniques 527

10.1 Functions of More Than One Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

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10.2 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528

10.2.1 Discontinuity at a point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529

10.3 Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

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10.4 Higher Order Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533

10.5 The Chain Rule for Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535

10.6 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

10.6.1 Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

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10.7 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

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11.1 Innite Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

11.2 Sequences with Innite Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560

11.3 Limits from the Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563

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11.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

11.6 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576

11.7 Limits of Functions at Innity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578

11.8 Innite Limits of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581

11.9 The Epsilon-Delta Method of Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585

14.1 The right-angled isosceles triangle (RT45) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610

14.2 The RT30 triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610

14.3 The basic trigonometric functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611

14.4 Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613

14.4.1 The Law of Sines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614

14.4.2 The Law of Cosines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615

14.4.3 Identities for the sum and dierence of angles . . . . . . . 616

xii CONTENTS

1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627

1.2 Exercise Set 1 (page 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627

1.3 Exercise Set 2 (page 19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627

1.4 Exercise Set 3 (page 28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628

1.5 Chapter Exercises (page 30 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629

Solutions 631

2.1 Exercise Set 4 (page 39) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631

2.2 Exercise Set 5 (page 45) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631

2.2 Exercise Set 6 (page 49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631

2.2 Exercise Set 7 (page 56) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632

2.2 Exercise Set 8 (page 57) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632

2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

2.4 Exercise Set 9 (page 65) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

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2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

2.6 Chapter Exercises (page 76) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

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Solutions 635

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3.1 Exercise Set 10 (page 88) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635

3.2 Exercise Set 11 (page 93) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635

3.3 Exercise Set 12 (page 105) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636

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3.4 Exercise Set 13 (page 112) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

3.5 Exercise Set 14 (page 119) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

3.6 Exercise Set 15 (page 127) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

3.7 Exercise Set 16 (page 134) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639

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3.9 Exercise Set 18 (page 142) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639

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3.12 Exercise Set 20 (page 172) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641

3.13 Chapter Exercises (page 173) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641

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Solutions 643

4.1 Exercise Set 21 (page 183) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643

4.2 Exercise Set 22 (page 188) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643

4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644

4.4 Exercise Set 23 (page 196) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644

4.5 Exercise Set 24 (page 199) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644

4.6 Exercise Set 25 (page 203) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645

4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646

4.8 Chapter Exercises (page 210) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646

Solutions 649

5.1 Exercise Set 26 (page 216) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649

5.2 Exercise Set 27 (page 223) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649

5.3 Exercise Set 28 (page 230) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650

5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652

5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652

5.6 Single variable optimization problems (page 258) . . . . . . . . . 653

5.7 Chapter Exercises: Use Plotter (page 259) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654

CONTENTS xiii

Solutions 657

6.1 Exercise Set 29 (page 275) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657

6.2 Exercise Set 30 (page 289) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657

6.3 Exercise Set 31 (page 284) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659

6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660

6.5 Chapter Exercises (page 304) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660

Solutions 665

7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665

7.2 Exercise Set 32 (page 321) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665

7.3 Exercise Set 33 (page 345) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666

7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667

7.4.1 Exercise Set 34 (page 349) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667

7.4.2 Exercise Set 35 (page 364) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668

7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670

7.5.1 Exercise Set 36 (page 373) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670

7.5.2 Exercise Set 37 (page 385) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671

7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672

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7.6.1 Exercise Set 38 (page 390) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672

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7.6.2 Exercise Set 39 (page 398) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673

7.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675

7.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675

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7.7.2 Exercise Set 40 (page 411) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675

7.8 Exercise Set 41 (page 426) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677

7.9 Chapter Exercises (page 437) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678

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Solutions 693

8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693

8.2 Exercise Set 42 (page 452) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693

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8.3 Exercise Set 44 (page 476) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695

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8.6 Chapter Exercises (page 502) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698

Solutions 701

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9.2 Exercise Set 48 (page 518) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701

9.3 Exercise Set 49 (page 523) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702

Solutions 705

10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

10.4 Exercise Set 50 (page 535) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

10.5 Exercise Set 51 (page 548) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706

10.6 Chapter Exercises (page 551) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707

Solutions 711

11.1 Exercise Set 52 (page 559) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711

11.2 Exercise Set 53 (page 563) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711

11.3 Exercise Set 54 (page 574) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712

11.4 Exercise Set 55 (page 580) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712

11.5 Exercise Set 56 (page 584) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712

11.6 Exercise Set 57 (page 594) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713

xiv CONTENTS

12.1 APPENDIX A - Exercise Set 58 (page 601) . . . . . . . . . . . . 715

12.2 APPENDIX B - Exercise Set 59 (page 607) . . . . . . . . . . . . 716

12.3 APPENDIX C - Exercise Set 60 (page 620) . . . . . . . . . . . . 716

12.4 APPENDIX D - Exercise Set 61 (page 626) . . . . . . . . . . . . 718

Acknowledgments 719

Credits 721

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List of Tables

1.2 Reciprocal Inequalities Among Positive Quantities . . . . . . . . 21

1.3 Another Reciprocal Inequality Among Positive Quantities . . . . 21

1.4 Multiplying Inequalities Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.2 One-Sided Limits From the Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

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2.3 One-Sided Limits From the Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

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2.4 Properties of Limits of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

2.5 SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits From the Right . . . . . . . . . . 45

2.6 SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits From the Left . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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2.7 SUMMARY: Continuity of a Function f at a Point x=a . . . . 46

2.8 Some Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

2.9 Continuity of Various Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . 50

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2.10 Area of a Sector of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

2.11 Limit of (sin 2)/2 as 2 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

2.12 Limit of (1 cos 2)/2 as 2 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

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2.14 Properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

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3.2 Geometrical Properties of the Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

3.3 Dierent Derivatives in Action: See Figure 38 . . . . . . . . . . . 86

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3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

3.6 Rolles Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . 125

3.7 Main Theorems about Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 126

3.8 How to Find the Inverse of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

3.9 The Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

3.10 Signs of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

3.11 Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . 140

3.12 Netwons Method: Denition of the Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . 153

3.13 LHospitals Rule for Indeterminate Forms of Type 0/0. . . . . . 162

3.14 LHospitals Rule for Indeterminate Forms of Type 0/0. . . . . . 169

4.2 Why is loga (2 ) = loga (2) ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

4.3 Properties of ex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

4.4 Properties of the Special Transcendental Functions . . . . . . . . 191

4.5 Half-Life of Radioisotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

4.6 Summary of the Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

xv

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xvi LIST OF TABLES

5.2 Size of SDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

5.3 Filling in an Sign Decomposition Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

5.4 The C Me Hava Pizza Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

5.5 The Graph of sinx x on the Interval (0, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

5.6 The Graph of x2 2x 3 on the Interval (, ). . . . . . . . 251

6.2 Summary of Basic Formulae Regarding Antiderivatives . . . . . . 270

6.3 Properties of the Denite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

6.4 How to Evaluate a Denite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

6.5 Antiderivatives of Power and Exponential Functions . . . . . . . 282

6.6 Antiderivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

6.7 Antiderivatives Related to Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . 283

6.8 Properties of the Summation Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

6.9 The Area Formula for a Positive Integrable Function . . . . . . . 294

6.10 Leibnizs Rule for Dierentiating a Denite Integral . . . . . . . 296

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7.1 Schematic Description of the Table Method . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

7.2 Example of the Table Method: Stopping at the 5th Row . . . . . 327

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7.3 Ecient Integration by Parts Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

7.4 The Result of a Long Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

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7.5 Idea Behind Integrating a Rational Function . . . . . . . . . . . 351

7.6 Finding a Partial Fraction Decomposition in the Case of Simple

Linear Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

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7.7 Powers and Products of Sine and Cosine Integrals . . . . . . . . . 367

7.8 Powers and Products of Secant and Tangent Integrals . . . . . . 382

7.9 The Antiderivative of the Secant and Cosecant Functions . . . . 384

7.10 Completing the Square in a Quadratic Polynomial . . . . . . . . 387

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7.12 Integrating the Square of the Cosine or Sine Function . . . . . . 393

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7.15 Simpsons Rule for Estimating a Denite Integral . . . . . . . . . 408

7.16 The Error Term in Using Simpsons Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

7.17 Rationalizing subtitutions for certain quotients of trigonometric

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functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

8.2 Finding the Area of a Region R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

8.3 Anatomy of a Denite Integral for the Area Between Two Curves 453

8.4 The Area of a Region Between Two Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

8.5 Setting up the Volume Integral for a Solid of Revolution . . . . . 470

9.2 The Half-Life Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

11.2 Denition of the Convergence of an to a Non-Zero Limit. . . . . 557

11.3 Denition of the Convergence of xn to a Positive Innite Limit. . 560

11.4 Denition of the Convergence of xn to a Negative Innite Limit. 560

11.5 Denition of the Limit From the Right of f at a . . . . . . . . . 565

11.6 Graphic Depiction of the Limit From the Right . . . . . . . . . . 566

11.7 Denition of the Limit From the Left of f at a . . . . . . . . . . 569

11.8 Graphic Depiction of Limit From the Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570

LIST OF TABLES xvii

11.10Limits at Innity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579

11.11Denition of the limit of f (x) as x approaches a. . . . . . . . . . 586

11.12Main Theorem on Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596

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Chapter 1

Properties

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The Big Picture Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

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1646 - 1716

This chapter deals with the denition and properties of things we call functions. They

are used all the time in the world around us although we dont recognize them right

away. Functions are a mathematical device for describing an inter-dependence between

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things or objects, whether real or imaginary. With this notion, the original creators

of Calculus, namely, the English mathematician and physicist, Sir Isaac Newton, and

the German philosopher and mathematician, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (see inset),

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were able to quantify and express relationships between real things in a mathematical

way. Most of you will have seen the famous Einstein equation

E = mc2 .

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This expression denes a dependence of the quantity, E, called the energy on m, called

the mass. The number c is the speed of light in a vacuum, some 300,000 kilometers

per second. In this simple example, E is a function of m. Almost all naturally

occuring phenomena in the universe may be quantied in terms of functions and their

relationships to each other. A complete understanding of the material in this chapter

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will enable you to gain a foothold into the fundamental vocabulary of Calculus.

Review

Youll need to remember or learn the following material before you get a thor-

ough understanding of this chapter. Look over your notes on functions and be

familiar with all the basic algebra and geometry you learned and also dont

forget to review your basic trigonometry. Although this seems like a lot,

it is necessary as mathematics is a sort of language, and before you learn any

language you need to be familiar with its vocabulary and its grammar and so

it is with mathematics. Okay, lets start ...

You realize how important it is for you to remember your social security/insurance

number when you want to get a real job! Thats because the employer will associate

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2 1.1. THE MEANING OF A FUNCTION

You can think of a function f as an you with this number on the payroll. This is what a function does ... a function is a

I/O device, much like a computer rule that associates to each element in some set that we like to call the domain (in our

CPU; it takes input, x, works on case, the name of anyone eligible to work) only one element of another set, called the

x, and produces only one output, range (in our case, the set of all social security/insurance numbers of these people

which we call f (x).

eligible to work). In other words the function here associates to each person his/her

social security/insurance number. Each person can have only one such number and

this lies at the heart of the denition of a function.

moment he/she is born. Consider the rule that associates to each person, that persons

age. You can see this depicted graphically in Figure 1. Here A has age a, person B

has age c while persons C, D both have the same age, that is, b. So, by denition,

this rule is a function. On the other hand, consider the rule that associates to each

automobile driver the car he/she owns. In Figure 2, both persons B and C share the

automobile c and this is alright, however note that person A owns two automobiles.

Thus, by denition, this rule cannot be a function.

This association between the domain and the range is depicted graphically in Figure 1

using arrows, called an arrow diagram. Such arrows are useful because they start in

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the domain and point to the corresponding element of the range.

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Example 2. Lets say that Jennifer Black has social security number 124124124.

The arrow would start at a point which we label Jennifer Black (in the domain) and

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end at a point labeled 124124124 (in the range).

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Figure 1.

NOTATION Denition 1. A function f is a rule which associates with each object (say, x)

from one set named the domain, a single object (say, f (x)) from a second set

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Ran (f ) = Range of f

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Rather than replace every person by their photograph, the objects of the domain

of a function are replaced by symbols and mathematicians like to use the symbol

x to mark some unknown quantity in the domain (this symbol is also called an

Objects in the domain of f are re- independent variable), because it can be any object in the domain. If you dont

ferred to as independent variables, like this symbol, you can use any other symbol and this wont change the function.

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while objects in the range are de- The symbol, f (x), is also called a dependent variable because its value generally

pendent variables. depends on the value of x. Below, well use the box symbol, 2 , in many cases

instead of the more standard symbol, x.

with their height. Using a little shorthand we can write this rule as h = f (p) where

p is a particular person, (p is the independent variable) and h is that persons height

(h is the dependent variable). The domain of this function f is the set of all persons,

right? Moreover, the range of this function is a set of numbers (their height, with

some units of measurement attached to each one). Once again, lets notice that many

people can have the same height, and this is okay for a function, but clearly there is

A rule which is NOT a function no one having two dierent heights!

LOOK OUT! When an arrow splits in an arrow diagram (as the arrow

starting from A does in Figure 2) the resulting rule is never a function.

In applications of calculus to the physical and natural sciences the domain and the

range of a function are both sets of real (sometimes complex) numbers. The symbols

Figure 2.

1.1. THE MEANING OF A FUNCTION 3

used to represent objects within these sets may vary though ... E may denote energy,

p the price of a commodity, x distance, t time, etc. The domain and the range of a

function may be the same set or they may be totally unrelated sets of numbers, people,

aardvarks, aliens, etc. Now, functions have to be identied somehow, so rules have

been devised to name them. Usually, we use the lower case letters f, g, h, k, ... to name

the function itself, but you are allowed to use any other symbols too, but try not to

use x as this might cause some confusion ... we already decided to name objects of

the domain of the function by this symbol, x, remember?

Quick Summary Lets recapitulate. A function has a name, a domain and a range.

It also has a rule which associates to every object of its domain only one object in its You need to think beyond the shape

range. So the rule (whose name is) g which associates to a given number its square of an independent variable and just

as a number, can be denoted quickly by g(x) = x2 (Figure 3). You can also represent keep your mind on a generic vari-

this rule by using the symbols g(2 ) = 2 2 where 2 is a box... something that has able, something that has nothing

nothing to do with its shape as a symbol. Its just as good a symbol as x and both to do with its shape.

equations represent the same function.

thats all. We can read o a rule like g(x) = x2 in many ways: The purist

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would say The value of g at x is x2 while some might say, g of x is x2 .

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Whats really important though is that you understand the rule... in this case

we would say that the function associates a symbol with its square regardless

of the shape of the symbol itself, whether it be an x, 2 , , , t, etc.

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Example 4. Generally speaking,

The association between a one-dollar bill and its serial number is a function

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(unless the bill is counterfeit!). Its domain is the collection of all one-dollar bills

while its range is a subset of the natural numbers along with some 26 letters of

the alphabet.

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The association between a CD-ROM and its own serial number is also a function

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Associating a ngerprint with a specic human being is another example of a

function, as is ...

Associating a human being with the person-specic DNA (although this may be

a debatable issue).

The association between the monetary value of a stock, say, x, at time t is also

function but this time it is a function of two variables, namely, x, t. It could be

denoted by f (x, t) meaning that this symbol describes the value of the stock x

at time t. Its graph may look like the one below.

is a function

If the ranges of two functions are subsets of the real numbers then the dierence

between these two functions is also a function. For example, if R(x) = px

4 1.1. THE MEANING OF A FUNCTION

denotes the total revenue function, that is, the product of the number of units,

x, sold at price p, and C(x) denotes the total cost of producing these x units,

then the dierence, P (x) = R(x) C(x) is the prot acquired after the sale of

these x units.

Composition of Functions:

There is a fundamental operation that we can perform on two functions called their

composition.

Lets describe this notion by way of an example. So, consider the domain of all houses

in a certain neighborhood. To each house we associate its owner (well assume that

to each given house there is only one owner). Then the rule that associates to a given

house its owner is a function and we call it f. Next, take the rule that associates

to a given owner his/her annual income from all sources, and call this rule g. Then

the new rule that associates with each house the annual income of its owner is called

the composition of g and f and is denoted mathematically by the symbols g(f (x)).

Think of it . . . if x denotes a house then f (x) denotes its owner (some name, or social

insurance number or some other unique way of identifying that person). Then g(f (x))

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must be the annual income of the owner, f (x).

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Once can continue this exercise a little further so as to dene compositions of more than

just two functions . . . like, maybe three or more functions. Thus, if h is a (hypothetical)

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rule that associates to each annual income gure the total number of years of education

of the corresponding person, then the composition of the three functions dened by

the symbol h(g(f (x))), associates to each given house in the neighborhood the total

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number of years of education of its owner.

In the next section we show how to calculate the values of a composition of two given

functions using symbols that we can put in boxes...so we call this the box method

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for calculating compositions. Basically you should always look at what a function does

to a generic symbol, rather than looking at what a function does to a specic symbol

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like x.

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NOTES:

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1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 5

The function g(x) = x2 and some

of its values.

Now look at the function g dened on the domain of real numbers by the rule g(x) = x2 .

Lets say we want to know the value of the mysterious looking symbols, g(3x+4), which

is really the same as asking for the composition g(f (x)) where f (x) = 3x + 4. How do x g(x)

2 4

we get this? 1 1

0.5 0.25

1.5 2.25

3 9

The Box Method 0.1 0.01

2.5 6.25

5 25

To nd the value of g(3x+4) when g(x) = x2 : We place all the symbols 3x+4 10 100

(i.e., all the stu between the parentheses) in the symbol g(...) inside a box, 3 9

say, 2 , and let the function g take the box 2 to 2 2 (because this is what a

function does to a symbol, regardless of what it looks like, right?). Then we Figure 3.

remove the box , replace its sides by parentheses, and there you are ... whats

left is the value of g(3x + 4).

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We call this procedure the Box Method. NOTATION for Intervals.

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(a, b) = {x : a < x < b}, and this

Example 5. So, if g(x) = x2 , then g(2 ) = 2 2 . So, according to our rule,

is called an open interval. [a, b]

2

g(3x + 4) = g( 3x + 4 ) = 3x + 4 = (3x + 4)2 . This last quantity, when simplied, = {x : a x b}, is called a

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gives us 9x2 + 24x + 16. We have found that g(3x + 4) = 9x2 + 24x + 16. closed interval. (a, b], [a, b) each

denote the sets {x : a < x b} and

Example 6. If f is a new function dened by the rule f (x) = x3 4 then {x : a x < b}, respectively (either

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f (2 ) = 2 4 (regardless of whats in the box!), and

3 one of these is called a semi-open

interval).

3

f (a + h) = f ( a + h ) = a+h 4 = (a + h)3 4 = a3 + 3a2 h + 3ah2 + h3 4.

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Also,

f (2) = 23 4 = 4,

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f (1) = (1)3 4 = 5,

f (a) = a3 4,

where a is another symbol for any object in the domain of f .

1.24x2

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2.63x 1

positive integer.

1.24x2

f (x) =

2.63x 1

1.242 2

f (2 ) =

2.632 1

2

1.24 n+6

f ( n+6 ) =

2.63 n+6 1

2.63(n

2

1.24(n + 6)

f (n + 6) =

+ 6) 1

1.24(n2 + 12n + 36)

=

2.63n + 15.78 1

1.24n2 + 14.88n + 44.64

= .

2.63n + 14.78

6 1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD

function, it was to further some

practical purpose; today one invents Example 8. On the other hand, if f (x) = 2x2 x + 1, and h = 0 is some real

them in order to make incorrect the

reasoning of our fathers, and noth- number, how do we nd the value of the quotient

ing more will ever be accomplished

by these inventions. f (x + h) f (x)

?

h

French mathematician Solution Well, we know that f (2 ) = 22 2 2 + 1. So, the idea is to put the symbols

x + h inside the box, use the rule for f on the box symbol, then expand the whole

thing and subtract the quantity f (x) (and, nally, divide this result by h). Now, the

value of f evaluated at x + h, that is, f (x + h), is given by

2

f( x + h ) = 2 x + h x + h + 1,

= 2(x + h)2 (x + h) + 1

= 2(x2 + 2xh + h2 ) x h + 1

= 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 x h + 1.

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From this, provided h = 0, we get

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f (x + h) f (x) 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 x h + 1 (2x2 x + 1)

=

h h

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4xh + 2h2 h

=

h

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h(4x + 2h 1)

=

h

= 4x + 2h 1.

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f (n), where the symbol n is used to denote an integer. Thus f (1) = 5.5. Now write

an+1

f (n) = an . Calculate the quantity .

an

Solution The Box method tells us that since f (n) = an , we must have f (2 ) = a2 .

Thus, an+1 = f (n + 1). Furthermore, another application of the Box Method gives

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2

an+1 = f (n + 1) = f ( n+1 ) = 6 n+1 0.5 n+1 . So,

= = .

an 6n2 0.5n 6n2 0.5n

3x + 2

f (x) =

3x 2

determine f (x 2).

32 +2

Solution Here, f (2 ) = 32 2

. Placing the symbol x 2 into the box, collecting

terms and simplifying, we get,

3 x-2 + 2 3(x 2) + 2 3x 4

f (x 2) = f ( x-2 ) = = = .

3 x-2 2 3(x 2) 2 3x 8

1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 7

Example 11. If g(x) = x2 + 1 nd the value of g( x 1).

g( x 1) = [ x 1]2 + 1 = [x 1] + 1 = x

2

on account of the fact that 2

2 = 2 , regardless of whats in the box.

f (x + h) f (x h)

.

2h

follows that

2 2

f (x + h) f (x h) 3 x+h 2 x+h + 1 3 x-h 2 x-h + 1

=

= 3 (x + h) (x h) 2 {(x + h) (x h)}

2 2

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= 3(4xh) 2(2h) = 12xh 4h.

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It follows that for h = 0,

f (x + h) f (x h) 12xh 4h

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= = 6x 2.

2h 2h

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Example 13. Let f be dened by

x + 1, if 1 x 0,

f (x) =

x2 , if 0 < x 3,

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a) What is f (1)?

b) Evaluate f (0.70714).

c) Given that 0 < x < 1 evaluate f (2x + 1).

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b) Since f (x) = x2 for any x in the interval 0 < x 3 and x = 0.70714 is in this

interval, it follows that f (0.70714) = (0.70714)2 = 0.50005

c) First we need to know what f does to the symbol 2x + 1, that is, what is the value

of f (2x + 1)? But this means that we have to know where the values of 2x + 1 are

when 0 < x < 1, right? So, for 0 < x < 1 we know that 0 < 2x < 2 and so once we

add 1 to each of the terms in the inequality we see that 1 = 0 + 1 < 2x + 1 < 2 + 1 = 3.

In other words, whenever 0 < x < 1, the values of the expression 2x + 1 must lie in

the interval 1 < 2x + 1 < 3. We now use the Box method: Since f takes a symbol

to its square whenever the symbol is in the interval (0, 3], we can write by denition

f (2 ) = 2 2 whenever 0 < 2 3. Putting 2x + 1 in the box, (and using the fact

2

that 1 < 2x+1 < 3) we nd that f ( 2x+1 ) = 2x+1 from which we deduce

f (2x + 1) = (2x + 1)2 for 0 < x < 1.

8 1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD

Some useful angles expressed in Well need to recall some notions from geometry in the next section.

radians

degrees radians

Dont forget that, in Calculus, we always assume that angles are described in

0 0 radians and not degrees. The conversion is given by

30o /6

45o /4 (Degrees) ()

60o /3 Radians =

90o /2 180

180o

270o 3/2 For example, 45 degrees = 45 /180 = /4 0.7853981633974 radians.

360o 2

NOTES:

Figure 4.

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1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 9

SNAPSHOTS

h(t) = t2 cos(t) and Dom(h) = (, ). Determine the value of h(sin x).

2

Solution We know that h(2 ) = 2 2 cos(2 ). So, h( sin x ) = sin x cos( sin x ).

Removing the box we get, h(sin x) = (sin x)2 cos(sin x), or, equivalently, h(sin x) =

(sin x)2 cos(sin x) = sin2 (x) cos(sin x). The function f (x) = sin x and some

of its values.

Example 15. Let f be dened by the rule f (x) = sin x. Then the function

x (in radians) sin x

whose values are dened by f (x vt) = sin(x vt) can be thought of as representing 0 0

a travelling wave moving to the right with velocity v 0. Here t represents time and /6 1/2 = 0.5

/6 1/2 = 0.5

we take it that t 0. You can get a feel for this motion from the graph below where

we assume that v = 0 and use three increasing times to simulate the motion of the

/3 3/2 0.8660

/3 3/2 0.8660

wave to the right. /2 1

/2 1

2/2 0.7071

y

/4

/4 2/2 0.7071

3/2 1

nl

3/2 1

2 0

O Figure 5.

on

si

Example 16. On the surface of our moon, an object P falling from rest will fall

r

a distance, f (t), of approximately 5.3t2 feet in t seconds. Lets take it for granted

that its, so-called, instantaneous velocity, denoted by the symbol f (t), at time

Ve

Determine its (instantaneous) velocity after 1 second (at t = 1) and after 2.6 seconds

TA

(t = 2.6).

case, f (t) = 5.3t2 , it follows that its instantaneous velocity at t = 1 second is given

by 10.6(1) = 10.6 feet per second, obtained by setting t = 1 in the formula for f (t).

Similarly, f (2.6) = 10.6(2.6) = 27.56 feet per second. The observation here is that

one can conclude that an object falling from rest on the surface of the moon will fall

at approximately one-third the rate it does on earth (neglecting air resistance, here).

x + 1,

2

if 1 x 0,

f (x) =

cos x,

x ,

if

if

0 < x ,

< x 2.

Solution Note that this function is dened in pieces (see Example 13) ... Its domain

is obtained by taking the union of all the intervals on the right side making up one big

interval, which, in our case is the interval 1 x 2. So we see that f (2) = cos(2)

10 1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD

because the number 2 is in the interval 0 < x . On the other hand, f (8) is

not dened because 8 is not within the domain of denition of our function, since

2 6.28.

Now, the value of f (x+1), say, will be dierent depending on where the symbol x+1

is. We can still use the box method to write down the values f (x + 1). In fact, we

replace every occurence of the symbol x by our standard box, insert the symbols

x + 1 inside the box, and then remove the boxes... Well nd

x + 1 + 1,

2

if 1 x + 1 0,

f( x + 1 ) =

cosx +x1+1 ,, if

if

0 < x + 1 ,

< x + 1 2.

or

(x + 1) + 1,

2

if 1 x + 1 0,

f (x + 1) =

cos(x + 1),

(x + 1) ,

if

if

0 < x + 1 ,

< x + 1 2.

y

We now solve the inequalities on the right for the symbol x (by subtracting 1 from

nl

each side of the inequality). This gives us the values

x + 2x + 2,

O

2

if 2 x 1,

f (x + 1) =

cos(x + 1),

x + 1 ,

if

if

1 < x 1,

1 < x 2 1.

on

Note that the graph of the function f (x + 1) is really the graph of the function f (x)

shifted to the left by 1 unit. We call this a translate of f .

si

Exercise Set 1.

r

Ve

Use the method of this section to evaluate the following functions at the indicated

point(s) or symbol.

TA

3. h(z) = z + 2 sin z cos(z + 2). Evaluate h(z 2).

4. k(x) = 2 cos(x ct). Evaluate k(x + 2ct).

5. f (x) = sin(cos x). Find the value of f (/2). [Hint: cos(/2) = 0]

6. f (x) = x2 + 1. Find the value of

f (x + h) f (x)

h

whenever h = 0. Simplify this expression as much as you can!

7. g(t) = sin(t + 3). Evaluate

g(t + h) g(t)

h

whenever h = 0 and simplify this as much as possible.

Hint: Use the trigonometric identity

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

valid for any two angles A, B where we can set A = t + 3 and B = h (just two

more symbols, right?)

1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 11

8. Let x0 , x1 be two symbols which denote real numbers. In addition, for any real

number x let f (x) = 2x2 cos x.

a) If x0 = 0 and x1 = , evaluate the expression

f (x0 ) + f (x1 )

.

2

Hint: cos() = 1 b) What is the value of the expression If you want to use your calculator

for this question (you dont have

f (x0 ) + 2 f (x1 ) + f (x2 )

to...) dont forget to change your

Hint: cos(2) = 1

x + 1,

9. Let f be dened by

if 1 x 0,

f (x) =

x +x1,, 2

if

if

0 < x 2,

2 < x 6.

a) What is f (0)?

y

b) Evaluate f (0.142857).

nl

c) Given that 0 < x < 1 evaluate f (3x + 2).

O

10. Let f (x) = 2 x2 2 and F (x) = x

2

+ 1. Calculate the values f (F (x)) and

F (f (x)) using the box method of this section. Dont forget to expand completely

and simplify your answers as much as possible.

on

x 1

11. g(x) = x2 2x + 1. Show that g(x + 1) = x2 for every value of x.

2x + 1

12. h(x) = . Show that h = x, for x = 2.

1+x 2x

si

13. Let f (x) = 4x2 5x + 1, and h = 0 a real number. Evaluate the expression

f (x + h) 2f (x) + f (x h)

r

.

h2

Ve

x 1, if 0 x 2,

f (x) =

2x, if 2 < x 4,

TA

The Binomial Theorem states

that, in particular,

(2 + )2 = 22 + 2 2 + 2

Suggested Homework Set 1. Go into a library or the World Wide Web and

come up with ve (5) functions that appear in the literature. Maybe they have for any two symbols 2, repre-

names associated with them? Are they useful in science, engineering or in com-

senting real numbers, functions, etc.

merce? Once you have your functions, identify the dependent and independent

Dont forget the middle terms,

variables and try to evaluate those functions at various points in their domain.

namely, 2 2 in this formula.

NOTES

12 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

One of the most important functions in the study of calculus is the absolute value

function.

Denition of the absolute

value function

Denition 2. The function whose rule is dened by setting

x, if x 0,

|x| =

x, if x < 0.

For example,| 5| = (5) = +5, and |6.1| = 6.1. You see from this Denition

that the absolute value of a number is either that same number (if it is positive) or

the original unsigned number (dropping the minus sign completely). Thus, | 5| =

(5) = 5, since 5 < 0 while |3.45| = 3.45 since 3.45 > 0. Now the inequality

y

(0 ) |2 | (1.1)

nl

between the symbols 2 and is equivalent to (i.e., exactly the same as) the in-

equality

2 . (1.2)

O

where 2 and are any two symbols whatsoever (x, t, or any function of x, etc).

Why is this true? Well, there are only only two cases. That is, 2 0 and 2 0,

right? Lets say 2 0. In this case 2 = |2 | and so (1.1) implies (1.2) immediately

on

since the left side of (1.2) is already negative. On the other hand if 2 0 then, by

(1.1), |2 | = 2 which implies 2 . Furthermore, since 2 0 we have

that 2 2 and this gives (1.2). For example, the inequality |x a| < 1

si

this can be written as

r

Ve

Why? Well, put x a in the box of (1.1) and the number 1 in the triangle. Move

these symbols to (1.2) and remove the box and triangle, then whats left is what you

want. Thats all. Now, adding a to both ends and the middle term of this latest

inequality we nd the equivalent statement

TA

This business of passing from (1.1) to (1.2) is really important in Calculus and

you should be able to do this without thinking (after lots of practice you will, dont

worry).

Example 18. Write down the values of the function f dened by the rule

f (x) = |1 x2 | as a function dened in pieces. That is remove the absolute value

around the 1 x2 .

Solution Looks tough? Those absolute values can be very frustrating sometimes!

Just use the Box Method of Section 1.2. That is, use Denition 2 and replace all

the symbols between the vertical bars by a 2 . This really makes life easy, lets try

it out. Put the symbols between the vertical bars, namely, the 1 x2 inside a

box, 2 . Since, by denition,

2, if 2 0,

|2 |= (1.3)

2 , if 2 < 0,

1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 13

we also have

Solving a square root in-

1 x equality!

2

, if 1 x2 0, If for some real numbers A and

1 x

x, we have

|1 x | = | 1 x

2 2

|=

2

, if 1 x2 < 0. x2 < A,

Removing the boxes and replacing them by parentheses we nd

(1 x2 ), if (1 x2 ) 0,

| x |< A

(1 x2 ), if (1 x2 ) < 0. true if x is replaced by any

other symbol (including func-

tions!), say, 2. That is, if for

some real numbers A and 2, we

Adding x2 to both sides of the inequality on the right we see that the above display have

2

2 < A,

is equivalent to the display

then, it follows that

(1 x2 ), if 1 x2 , |2| <

A

|1 x | =

2

y

(1 x2 ), if 1 < x2 . These results are still true if we

nl

replace < by or if we re-

verse the inequality and A > 0.

Almost done! We just need to solve for x on the right, above. To do this, were

going to use the results in Figure 6 with A = 1. So, if x2 1 then |x| 1 too. Figure 6.

O

Similarly, if 1 < x2 then 1 < |x|, too. Finally, we nd

on

(1 x2 ), if 1 |x|,

| 1 x2 | =

(1 x2 ), if 1 < |x|.

si

In addition, 1 < |x| is equivalent to the double statement either x > 1 or x < 1.

Hence the last display for |1 x2 | may be rewritten as

r

Ve

1 x2 , if 1 x +1,

| 1 x2 | =

x2 1, if x > 1 or x < 1.

Steps in removing

absolute values in a

TA

A glance at this latest result shows that the natural domain of f (see the Appendix) function f

is the set of all real numbers.

Look at that part of f with

the absolute values,

NOTE The procedure described in Example 18 will be referred to as the

Put all the stu between the

process of removing the absolute value. You just cant leave out those vertical bars in a box ,

vertical bars because you feel like it! Other functions dened by absolute

values are handled in the same way. Use the denition of the ab-

solute value, equation 1.3.

Example 19.

Remove the absolute value in the expression f (x) = x 2

+ 2x.

Remove the boxes, and re-

place them by parentheses,

ing x s for the symbol x.

2

Solution We note that since x + 2x is a polynomial it is dened for every value of

x, that is, its natural domain is the set of all real numbers, (, +). Lets use Rewrite f in pieces

the Box Method. Since for any symbol say, 2 , we have by denition,

(See Examples 18 and

20)

2, if 2 0,

|2 |=

2 , if 2 < 0.

Figure 7.

we see that, upon inserting the symbols x2 + 2x inside the box and then removing

14 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

x2 + 2x , x2 + 2x 0,

=

if

2

x + 2x

( x2 + 2x ), if x2 + 2x < 0.

x2 + 2x, if x2 + 2x 0,

| x2 + 2x | =

(x2 + 2x), if x2 + 2x < 0.

x2 + 2x = x(x + 2). Since we want x(x + 2) 0, there are now two cases. Either

both quantities x, x + 2 must be greater than or equal to zero, OR both quantities

Sir Isaac Newton x, x + 2 must be less than or equal to zero (so that x(x + 2) 0 once again). The

1642 - 1727 other case, the one where x(x + 2) < 0, will be considered separately.

Solving x 2

+2 x 0:

y

Case 1: x 0, (x + 2) 0. In this case, it is clear that x 0 (since if x 0 then

x + 2 0 too). This means that the polynomial inequality x2 + 2x 0 has among

nl

its solutions the set of real numbers {x : x 0}.

O

Case 2: x 0, (x + 2) 0. In this case, we see that x + 2 0 implies that x 2.

On the other hand, for such x we also have x 0, (since if x 2 then x 0 too).

This means that the polynomial inequality x2 + 2x 0 has for its solution the set

of real numbers {x : x 2 or x 0}.

on

A similar argument applies to the case where we need to solve x(x + 2) < 0. Once

again there are two cases, namely, the case where x > 0 and x + 2 < 0 and the

si

Solving x 2

+2 x < 0:

r

Ve

Case 1: x > 0 and (x + 2) < 0. This case is impossible since, if x > 0 then x + 2 > 2

and so x + 2 < 0 is impossible. This means that there are no x such that x > 0 and

x + 2 < 0.

Case 2: x < 0 and (x + 2) > 0. This implies that x < 0 and x > 2, which gives

TA

the inequality x2 + 2x < 0. So, the the solution set is {x : 2 < x < 0}.

Combining the conclusions of each of these cases, our function takes the form,

x2 + 2x, if x 2 or x 0,

|x + 2x | =

2

Its graph appears in the margin.

The graph of f (x) = |x2 + 2x|.

Example 20. Rewrite the function f dened by

f (x) = |x 1| + |x + 1|

the absolute value and apply it here. In other words, there are really 4 cases to

consider when we want to remove these absolute values, the cases in question being:

1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 15

is, x 1.

2. x 1 0 and x + 1 0. These two together imply that x 1 and x 1

which is impossible.

3. x 1 0 and x + 1 0. These two together imply that x 1 and x 1, or

1 x 1.

4. x 1 0 and x + 1 0. These two together imply that x 1 and x 1, or

x 1.

Combining these four cases we see that we only need to consider the three cases

where x 1, x 1 and 1 x 1 separately.

|x 1|? Well, since x 1 it follows that x 1 2 < 0. Hence |x 1| = (x 1)

for such x. Combining these two results about the absolute values we get that

f (x) = |x + 1| + |x 1| = (x + 1) (x 1) = 2x,

for x 1.

y

In the second instance, if x 1, then x 1 0 so that |x 1| = x 1. In addition,

nl

since x + 1 2 we see that |x + 1| = x + 1. Combining these two we get

f (x) = |x + 1| + |x 1| = (x + 1) + (x 1) = 2x,

O

for x 1.

on

Furthermore, x 1 0 implies |x 1| = (x 1). Hence we conclude that

f (x) = |x + 1| + |x 1| = (x + 1) (x 1) = 2,

for 1 x 1. Combining these three displays for the pieces that make up f we

si

r

Ve

2x, if x 1,

|x + 1| + |x 1| =

2, if

2x, if

1 x 1.

x 1.

and this completes the description of the function f as required. Its graph consists

of the darkened lines in the adjoining Figure.

TA

Example 21. Remove the absolute value in the function f dened by f (x) =

Solution First, we notice that | cos x| 0 regardless of the value of x, right? So,

the square root of this absolute value is dened for every value of x too, and this

explains the fact that its natural domain is the open interval < x < +. We

use the method in Figure 7.

Lets look at that part of f which has the absolute value signs in it...

In this case, its the part with the | cos x| term in it.

Then, take all the stu between the vertical bars of the absolute value and stick

them in a box ...

Using Denition 2 in disguise namely, Equation 1.3, we see that

cos x , if cos x 0,

| cos x | = | cos x |=

cos x , if cos x < 0.

16 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

Now, remove the boxes, and replace them by parentheses if need be ...

cos x, if cos x 0,

| cos x | =

cos x, if cos x < 0.

Next, solve the inequalities on the right of the last display above for x.

In this case, this means that we have to gure out when cos x 0 and when

cos x < 0, okay? Theres a few ways of doing this... One way is to look at the

graphs of each one of these functions and just nd those intervals where the

graph lies above the x-axis.

Another way involves remembering the trigonometric fact that the cosine func-

tion is positive in Quadrants I and IV (see the margin for a quick recall). Turning

this last statement into symbols means that if x is between /2 and /2, then

cos x 0. Putting it another way, if x is in the interval [/2, +/2] then

cos x 0.

But we can always add positive and negative multiples of 2 to this and get

more and more intervals where the cosine function is positive ... why?. Either

way, we get that cos x 0 whenever x is in the closed intervals [/2, +/2],

[3/2, +5/2], [7/2, +9/2], . . . or if x is in the closed intervals [5/2, 3/2],

y

[9/2, 7/2], . . . (Each one of these intervals is obtained by adding multiples

nl

of 2 to the endpoints of the basic interval [/2, +/2] and rearranging the

numbers in increasing order).

O

Combining these results we can write

cos x,

if x is in [/2, +/2], [3/2, +5/2],

on

[7/2, +9/2], . . . , or if x is in

[5/2, 3/2], [9/2, 7/2], . . .,

| cos x | =

cos x, if x is NOT IN ANY ONE

si

Feed all this information back into the original function to get it in pieces

r

Taking the square root of all the cosine terms above we get

Ve

| cos x|

cos x,

The graph of y =

Figure 8. if x is in [/2, +/2], [3/2, +5/2],

[5/2, 3/2], [9/2, 7/2], . . .,

TA

of the above intervals.

Phew, thats it! Look at Fig. 8 to see what this function looks like.

You shouldnt worry about the minus sign appearing inside the square root sign

above because, inside those intervals, the cosine is negative, so the negative of the

cosine is positive, and so we can take its square root without any problem! Try to

understand this example completely; then youll be on your way to mastering one

of the most useful concepts in Calculus, handling absolute values!

SNAPSHOTS

Example 22. The natural domain of the function h dened by h(x) = x2 9

is the set of all real numbers x such that x2 9 0 or, equivalently, |x| 3 (See

Table 15.1 and Figure 6).

1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 17

Example 23. The function f dened by f (x) = x2/3 9 has its natural domain

given by the set of all real numbers, (, )! No exceptions! All of them...why?

Solution Look at Table 15.1 and notice that, by algebra, x2/3 = ( 3 x) 2 . Since

the natural domain of the cube root function is (, ), the same is true of its

square. Subtracting 9 doesnt change the domain, thats all!

Example 24. Find the natural domain of the the function f dened by

x

f (x) = .

sin x cos x

Solution The natural domain of f is given by the set of all real numbers with the

property that sin x cos x = 0, (cf., Table 15.1), that is, the set of all real numbers x

with x = /2, 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, ..., 0, , 2, 3, 4, ... (as these

are the values where the denominator is zero). Sofya Kovalevskaya

(1850 - 1891)

y

Example 25. The natural domain of the function f given by Celebrated immortal mathemati-

cian, writer, and revolutionary, she

nl

| sin x| was appointed Professor of Mathe-

f (x) = matics at the University of Stock-

1 x2 holm, in Sweden, in 1889, the rst

woman ever to be so honored in

O

is given by the set of all real numbers x with the property that 1 x2 > 0 or, her time and the second such in

Europe (Sophie Germain, being the

equivalently, the open interval |x| < 1, or, 1 < x < +1 (See Equations 1.1 and other one). At one point, she was

1.2). apparently courted by Alfred No-

on

bel and brothers (of Nobel Prize

fame). Author of slightly more than

Example

| sin x|

26. Find the natural domain of the function f dened by f (x) = 10 mathematical papers, she proved

what is now known as the Cauchy-

Kovalevski Theorem, one of the

rst deep results in a eld called

si

Solution The natural domain is given by the set of all real numbers x in the interval area used in the study of airplane

(, ), thats right, all real numbers! Looks weird right, because of the square wings, satellite motion, wavefronts,

r

root business! But the absolute value will turn any negative number inside the

Ve

root into a positive one (or zero), so the square root is always dened, and, as a pears because he had proved a more

consequence, f is dened everywhere too. basic version of this result earlier.

TA

Recall that an identity is an equation which is true for any value of the variable

for which the expressions are dened. So, this means that the identities are true

regardless of whether or not the variable looks like an x, y, [],

, f (x), etc.

Odd-even identities

sin(x) = sin x,

cos(x) = cos x.

Pythagorean identities

sin2 x + cos2 x = 1,

sec x tan x

2 2

= 1.

csc2 x cot2 x = 1,

18 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

Addition identities

cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y.

Double-angle identities

cos(2x) = cos2 x sin2 x,

1 cos(2x)

sin2 x = ,

2

1 + cos(2x)

cos2 x = .

2

You can derive the identities below from the ones above, or ... youll have

to memorize them! Well, its best if you know how to get to them from the ones

above using some basic algebra.

x + y x y

y

tan(x) = tan(x) sin x + sin y = 2 sin cos

nl

2 2

x + y x y

sin x = cos x cos x + cos y = 2 cos cos

O

2 2 2

1

cos x = sin x sin x cos y = [sin(x + y) + sin(x y)]

2 2

on

1

tan x = cot x sin x sin y = [cos(x + y) cos(x y)]

2 2

1

si

2

1 cos x

r

x

cos(2x) = 2 cos2 x 1 sin =

Ve

2 2

tan x + tan y x

1 + cos x

tan(x + y) = cos =

1 tan x tan y 2 2

TA

NOTES:

1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 19

Exercise Set 2.

Use the method of Example 18, Example 20, Example 21 and the discussion following

Denition 2 to remove the absolute value appearing in the values of the functions

dened below. Note that, once the absolute value is removed, the function will be

dened in pieces.

Hint: Put the symbols 3x + 4 in a box and use the idea in Example 18

y

nl

4. f (t) = 1 |t|, for < t < +.

O

5. g(w) = | sin w|, for < w < +.

on

between 0 and radians, 2 and 3 radians, etc.

6.

si

1

f (x) =

|x| x2 1

r

Ve

7. The signum function, whose name is simply sgn (and pronounced the sign of x)

where

TA

x

sgn(x) =

|x|

for x = 0. The motivation for the name comes from the fact that the values of

this function correspond to the sign of x (whether it is positive or negative).

9. f (x) = x x2 , for < x < +.

20 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

3. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1

4. sec2 x tan2 x = 1

5. csc2 x cot2 x = 1

6. cos 2x = cos2 x sin2 x

7. sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x

1 + cos 2x

8. cos2 x =

2

1 cos 2x

9. sin2 x =

2

y

Table 1.1: Useful Trigonometric Identities

nl

O

WHATS WRONG WITH THIS ??

1 1

= 1

on

1

=

1 1

1 1

si

=

1 1

1 1 = 1 1

r

Ve

( 1)2 = ( 1)2

1 = 1

Crazy, right?

TA

1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 21

A Basic Inequality

If

0 < 2 ,

then

1 1

,

2

regardless of the meaning of the box or the triangle or whats in them!

OR

y

nl

If

1 1

0< ,

2

O

then

2 ,

regardless of the meaning of the box or the triangle or whats in them!

on

OR

si

r

Ve

TA

In this section we will review basic inequalities because they are really important

in Calculus. Knowing how to manipulate basic inequalities will come in handy

when we look at how graphs of functions are sketched, in our examination of the

monotonicity of functions, their convexity and many other areas. We leave the

subject of reviewing the solution of basic and polynomial inequalities to Chapter 5.

So, this is one section you should know well!

In this section, as in previous ones, we make heavy use of the generic symbols 2

and , that is, our box and triangle. Just remember that variables dont have to be

called x, and any other symbol will do as well.

Recall that the reciprocal of a number is simply the number 1 divided by the

number. Table 1.2 shows what happens when you take the reciprocal of each

term in an inequality involving two positive terms. You see, you need to reverse

the sign!. The same result is true had we started out with an inequality among

reciprocals of positive quantities, see Table 1.3.

The results mentioned in these tables are really useful! For example,

22 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

1 1

> 2 .

x2 x +1

Solution We know that 0 < x2 < x2 + 1, and this is true regardless of the value

of x, so long as x = 0, which we have assumed anyhow. So, if we put x2 in the box

in Table 1.2 and (make the triangle big enough so that we can) put x2 + 1 in the

triangle, then well nd, as a conclusion, that

1 1

> 2 ,

x2 x +1

and this is true for any value of x = 0, whether x be positive or negative.

Solution Recall that | 2 | < is equivalent to < 2 < for any two symbols

(which we denote by 2 and ). In this case, putting 2x 1 in the box and 3 in the

y

triangle, we see that we are looking for xs such that 3 < 2x 1 < 3. Adding 1 to

nl

all the terms gives 2 < 2x < 4. Finally, dividing by 2 right across the inequality

we get 1 < x < 2 and this is our answer.

A2 A

O

Example 29. Solve the inequality

A>0?

x + 1

2x + 3 < 2

on

2

A<0? for x.

si

A2 A Solution Once again, by denition of the absolute value, this means we are looking

for xs such that

x+1

r

2x + 3

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There now two main cases: Case 1 where 2x + 3 > 0 OR Case 2 where 2x + 3 < 0.

Of course, when 2x + 3 = 0, the fraction is undened (actually innite) and so this

is not a solution of our inequality. We consider the cases in turn:

x >

TA

and keep the inequalities as they are (by the rules in Figure 9). In other words, we

must now have

2(2x + 3) < x + 1 < 2(2x + 3).

Grouping all the xs in the middle and all the constants on the ends we nd the

two inequalities 4x 6 < x + 1 and x + 1 < 4x + 6. Solving for x in both instances

we get 5x > 7 or x > 75 and 3x > 5 or x > 53 . Now what?

Well, lets recapitulate. We have shown that if 2x + 3 > 0 then we must have

x > 75 = 1.4 and x > 35 1.667. On the one hand if x > 1.4 then

x > 1.667 for sure and so the two inequalities together imply that x > 1.4, or

x > 75 . But this is not all! You see, we still need to guarantee that 2x + 3 > 0

(by the main assumption of this case)! That is, we need to make sure that we have

BOTH 2x + 3 > 0 AND x > 75 , i.e., we need x > 32 and x > 57 . These last two

inequalities together imply that

7

x> .

5

x

Case 2: 2 + 3 <0 In this case we still multiply the last display throughout by

2x + 3 but now we must REVERSE the inequalities (by the rules in Figure 9, since

1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 23

Solving for x in both instances we get 5x < 7 or x < 57 and 3x < 5 or x < 35 .

But now, these two inequalities together imply that x < 35 1.667. This result,

combined with the basic assumption that 2x + 3 < 0 or x < 32 = 1.5, gives us

that x < 53 (since 1.667 < 1.5). The solution in this case is therefore given by

the inequality

5

x< .

3

Combining the two cases we get the nal solution as (see the margin)

7 5

1.4 = <x OR x< 1.667.

5 3

In terms of intervals the answer is the set of points x such that

5 7

< x < OR < x < .

3 5

y

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1.4.1 The triangle inequalities

O

Let x, y, a, 2 be any real numbers with a 0. Recall that the statement

|2 | a is equivalent to a2 a (1.4)

on

where the symbols 2 , a may represent actual numbers, variables, function values,

etc. Replacing a here by |x| and 2 by x we get, by (1.4),

|x| x |x|.

si

(1.5)

We get a similar statement for y, that is, There are 2 other really impor-

r

|y| y |y|. gle Inequalities: If 2, are any 2

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functions, etc. then

Since we can add inequalities together we can combine (1.5) and (1.6) to nd

|2 + | |2| + ||,

|x| |y| x+y |x| + |y|, (1.7)

and

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or equivalently

|2 | | |2| || |.

(|x| + |y|) x+y |x| + |y|. (1.8)

Now replace x + y by 2 and |x| + |y| by a in (1.8) and apply (1.4). Then (1.8) is

equivalent to the statement

for any two real numbers x, y. This is called the Triangle Inequality.

the absolute value of a sum of two numbers. To get this we replace x by x y in

(1.9) and re-arrange terms to nd

|x y| |x| |y|.

24 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

|x y| (|x| |y|),

|x| |y| |x y|. (1.10)

y

nl

1 1

.

x |x|

O

Solution If x = 1 the result is clear. Now, everyone believes that, if x > 1, then

2

< x

x . OK, well, we can take the square root of both sides and use Figure 6 to get

on

x < x2 = |x|. From this we get,

1 1

If x > 1, > .

x |x|

si

On the other hand, one has to be careful with the opposite inequality x > x2 if

x < 1 . . . This is true, even though it doesnt seem right!

r

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1 1

.

x x

TA

Solution Once again, if x =1 the result is clear. Using Figure 6 again, we now

nd that if x < 1, then x > x2 = |x|, and so,

1 1 1

If 0 < x < 1, < = .

x |x| x

These inequalities can allow us to es-

timate how big or how small func-

tions can be!

Example 32. We know that 2 < 2 + 1 for any 2 representing a positive

number. The box can even be a function! In other words, we can put a function of x

inside the box, apply the reciprocal inequality of Table 1.2, (where we put the symbols

2 + 1 inside the triangle) and get a new inequality, as follows. Since 2 < 2 + 1,

then

1 1

> .

2 2 +1

Now, put the function f dened by f (x) = x2 + 3x4 + |x| + 1 inside the box. Note

that f (x) > 0 (this is really important!). It follows that, for example,

1 1 1

> 2 = 2 .

x2 + 3x4 + |x| + 1 x + 3x4 + |x| + 1 + 1 x + 3x4 + |x| + 2

1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 25

If A > 0, is any symbol (variable, function, number, fraction, . . . ) and

2 ,

then

A2 A,

If A < 0, is any symbol (variable, function, number, fraction, . . . ) and

2 ,

then

A2 A,

Dont forget to reverse the inequality sign when A < 0 !

y

Table 1.4: Multiplying Inequalities Together

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O

Example 33. How big is the function f dened by f (x) = x2 + cos x if x

is in the interval [0, 1] ?

on

Solution The best way to gure out how big f is, is to try and estimate each term

which makes it up. Lets leave x2 alone for the time being and concentrate on the

cos x term. We know from trigonometry that | cos x| 1 for any value of x. OK,

since cos x | cos x| by denition of the absolute value, and | cos x| 1 it follows

si

that

cos x 1

r

for any value of x. Choosing the plus sign, because thats what we want, we add x2

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Figure 10.

f (x) = x2 + cos x x2 + 1

and this is true for any value of x. But were only given that x is between 0 and 1.

TA

So, we take the right-most term, the x2 + 1, and replace it by something larger.

The simplest way to do this is to notice that, since x 1 (then x2 1 too) and

x2 + 1 12 + 1 = 2. Okay, now we combine the inequalities above to nd that, if

0 x 1,

f (x) = x2 + cos x x2 + 1 2.

This shows that f (x) 2 for such x s and yet we never had to calculate the range

of f to get this ... We just used inequalities! You can see this too by plotting its

graph as in Figure 10.

NOTE: We have just shown that the so-called maximum value of the function

f over the interval [0, 1] denoted mathematically by the symbols

max f (x)

x in [0,1]

max f (x) 2.

x in [0,1]

26 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

Solution We know that, for any value of x, x < x + 1 so, by Table 1.4, with

A = 2 we nd that 2x > 2(x + 1). You see that we reversed the inequality

since we multiplied the original inequality by a negative number! We could also

have multiplied the original inequality by A = x2 0, in which case we nd,

x3 x2 (x + 1) for any value of x, as being true too.

1 1

.

xp x

Solution Let p 1 be any number, (e.g, p = 1.657, p = 2, . . . ). Then youll believe

2. The graph of 1/x1.5 that if p 1 0 and if x 1 then xp1 1 (for example, if x = 2 and p = 1.5,

3. The graph of 1/x2.1 then 21.51 = 20.5 = 21/2 = 2 = 1.414 . . . > 1). Since xp1 1 we can multiply

both sides of this inequality by x > 1, which is positive, and nd, by Figure 9 with

4. The graph of 1/x3.8 A = x, that xp x. From this and Table 1.2 we obtain the result

y

Figure 11. 1 1

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, if p 1, and x 1

xp x

O

Example 36. Show that if p > 1, and 0 < x 1, then

1 1

.

on

xp x

si

that 0 < x 1. In this case we get the opposite inequality, namely, if p > 1then

xp1 1 (e.g., if x = 1/2, p = 1.5, then (1/2)1.51 = (1/2)0.5 = (1/2)1/2 = 1/ 2 =

r

0.707 . . . < 1). Since xp1 1 we can multiply both sides of this inequality by x > 0,

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and nd, by Figure 9 with A = x, again, that xp x. From this and Table 1.2 we

obtain the result (see Fig. 11)

1 1

, if p 1, and 0 < x 1

xp x

TA

Example 37. Show that if 0 < p 1, and x 1, then

2. The graph of 1/x0.65

1 1

3. The graph of 1/x0.43 .

xp x

4. The graph of 1/x0.1

Figure 12.

Solution In this nal example of this type we look at what happens if we change the

p values of the preceding two examples and keep the x-values larger than 1. Okay,

lets say that 0 < p 1 and x 1. Then youll believe that, since p 1 0,

0 < xp1 1, (try x = 2, p = 1/2, say). Multiplying both sides by x and taking

reciprocals we get the important inequality (see Fig. 12),

1 1

, if 0 < p 1, and x 1 (1.11)

xp x

NOTES:

1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 27

SNAPSHOTS

Remember, if

22 2 ,

Example 38. We know that sin x 0 in Quadrants I and II, by trigonometry.

then

Combining this with Equation (1.11), we nd that: If x is an angle expressed in |2| ||,

radians and 1 x then

regardless of the values of the vari-

sin x sin x ables or symbols involved. If 2 > 0,

, 0<p1 this is also true for positive powers,

xp x p, other than 2. So, if, for example,

2 > 0, and

Think about why we had to have some restriction like x here.

p p

2 ,

Example 39. On the other hand, cos x 0 if /2 x (notice that

then

x > 1 automatically in this case, since /2 = 1.57... > 1). So this, combined with |2| ||.

Equation (1.11), gives

cos x cos x This result is not true if 2 < 0 since,

0<p1

xp x for example, (2)3 < 13 but | 2| >

where we had to reverse the inequality (1.11) as cos x 0. |1|.

y

Example 40. There is this really cool (and old) inequality called the AG- in- Figure 13.

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equality, (meaning the Arithmetic-Geometric Inequality). It is an inequality between

the arithmetic mean of two positive numbers, 2 and , and their geometric

mean. By denition, the arithmetic mean of 2 and , is (2 + )/2, or more

O

simply,

their average. The geometric mean of 2 and , is, by denition,

2 . The inequality states that if 2 0, 0, then

2 + 2

on

2

Do you see why this is true? Just start out with the inequality ( 2 )2 0,

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Example 41. For example, if we set x2 in the box and x4 in the triangle

r

and apply the AG-inequality (Example 40) to these two positive numbers we get the

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new inequality

x2 + x4

x3

2

valid for any value of x, something that is not easy to see if we dont use the AG-

TA

inequality.

any positive integer, and 2 is any symbol (a function, the variable x, or a positive

number, or negative, or even zero) then

(1+2 )n = 1+n2 + 2 + 2 + + 2

2! 3! n!

(1.12)

where the symbols that look like 3!, or n!, called factorials, mean that we multiply

all the integers from 1 to n together. For example, 2! = (1)(2) = 2, 3! = (1)(2)(3) =

6, 4! = (1)(2)(3)(4) = 24 and, generally, n factorial is dened by

When n = 0 we all agree that 0! = 1 . . . Dont worry about why this is true right now,

but it has something to do with a function called the Gamma Function, which

will be dened later when we study things called improper integrals. Using this

we can arrive at identities like:

n(n 1) 2 n(n 1) (2)(1) n

(1 x)n = 1 nx + x + (1)n x ,

2! n!

28 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2) n(n 1) (2)(1)

2n = 1+n+ + + +

2! 3! n!

2nx 4n(n 1)x2 2n xn

(2x 3)n = (1)n 3n 1 + + + (1)n n ,

3 9 2! 3

found by noting that

n n n

2x 2x 2x

(2x 3)n = 3(1 ) = (3)n 1 = (1)n 3n 1

3 3 3

3

. In the above

formulae note that

n(n 1) (2)(1)

=1

n!

If you already know something by denition of the factorial symbol.

about improper integrals then the

y

Gamma Function can be written as,

nl

(p) = xp1 ex dx

O

0

Exercise Set 3.

where p 1. One can actually prove

that (n + 1) = n! if n is a positive

on

integer. The study of this function

dates back to Euler.

Determine which of the following 7 statements is true, if any. If the

statement is false give an example that shows this. Give reasons either

si

way.

1. If A < B then A

1 1

r

> B

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2. If A

1

< B then A > B

3. If A < B then A2 < B 2

4. If A > B then 1/A < 1/B

5. If A < B then A < B

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7. If A2 > B 2 and A > 0, then |B| < A

8. Start with the obvious sin x < sin x + 1 and nd an interval of x s in which we

can conclude that

1

csc x >

sin x + 1

9. How big is the function f dened by f (x) = x2 + 2 sin x if x is in the interval

[0, 2]?

10. How big is the function g dened by g(x) = 1/x if x is in the interval [1, 4]?

11. Start with the inequality x > x 1 and conclude that for x > 1, we have

x2 > (x 1)2 .

12. If x is an angle expressed in radians and 1 x show that

sin x

sin x, p 1.

xp1

13. Use the AG-inequality to show that if x 0 then x + x2 x3 . Be careful here,

youll need to use the fact that 2 > 1! Are you allowed to square both sides

of this inequality to nd that, if x 0, (x + x2 )2 x3 ? Justify your answer.

1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 29

like 2 ? Under what conditions on the symbol?

15. Use the ideas surrounding Equation (1.11) to show that, if p 1 and |x| 1,

then

1 1

|x|p |x|

Hint: Note that if |x| 1 then |x|1p 1.

16. In the theory of relativity developed by A. Einstein, H. Lorentz and others at

the turn of this century, there appears the quantity , read as gamma, dened

as a function of the velocity, v, of an object by

1

=

v2

1 c2

where c is the speed of light. Determine the conditions on v which give us that

the quantity is a real number. In other words, nd the natural domain of .

Hint: This involves an inequality and an absolute value. Mathematics is not always done

17. Show that for any integer n 1 there holds the inequalities by mathematicians. For example,

y

Giordano Bruno, 1543-1600, Re-

n

1

2 1+ < 3. naissance Philosopher, once a Do-

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n minican monk, was burned at the

stake in the year 1600 for heresy.

Hint:

O

He wrote around 20 books in many

of which he upheld the view that

Copernicus held, i.e., that of a sun

This is a really hard problem! Use the Binomial Theorem, (1.5), with 2 = 1

n

.

on

But rst of all, get a feel for this result by using your calculator and setting centered solar system (called helio-

n = 2, 3, 4, . . . , 10 and seeing that this works! centric). A statue has been erected

in his honor in the Campo dei Fiori,

in Rome. Awesome. The rest is

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about Bruno is his steadfastness

r

Suggested Homework Set 3. Work out problems 3, 6, 11, 12, 14 in the face of criticism and ulti-

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said that he died without utter-

ing a groan. Few would drive on

Web Links

this narrow road...not even Galileo

Additional information on Functions may be found at: Galilei, 1564 - 1642, physicist, who

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advice of a Franciscan, Galileo re-

For more on inequalities see: tracted his support for the heliocen-

http://math.usask.ca/readin/ineq.html tric theory when called before the

Inquisition. As a result, he stayed

More on the AG- inequality at: under house arrest until his death,

http://www.cut-the-knot.com/pythagoras/corollary.html

in 1642. The theories of Coperni-

cus and Galileo would eventually be

absorbed into Newton and Leibnizs

Calculus as a consequence of the ba-

sic laws of motion. All this falls un-

der the heading of dierential equa-

tions.

30 1.5. CHAPTER EXERCISES

the indicated point(s) or symbol.

2. g(t) = t3 cos t. What is the value of g(x2 + 1)?

3. h(z) = z + 2 sin z cos(z + 2). Evaluate h(z + 3).

4. f (x) = cos x. Find the value of

f (x + h) f (x)

h

whenever h = 0. Simplify this expression as much as you can!

Use a trigonometric identity for cos(A + B) with A = x, B = h.

y

Solve the following inequalities for the stated variable.

nl

3

5. > 6, x

x

6. 3x + 4 0, x

O

3

7. 0, x

2x 1

2

8. x > 5, x

on

9. t2 < 5, t

10. sin2 x 1, x

11. z p 2, z, if p > 0

si

12. x2 9 0, x

r

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Remove the absolute value (see Section 1.3 and Equation 1.3).

13. f (x) = |x + 3|

14. g(t) = |t 0.5|

TA

15. g(t) = |1 t|

16. f (x) = |2x 1|

17. f (x) = |1 6x|

18. f (x) = |x2 4|

19. f (x) = |3 x3 |

20. f (x) = |x2 2x + 1|

21. f (x) = |2x x2 |

22. f (x) = |x2 + 2|

23. If x is an angle expressed in radians and 1 x /2 show that

cos x

cos x, p1

xp1

24. Use your calculator to tabulate the values of the quantity

n

1

1+

n

for n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10 (See Exercise 17 of Exercise Set 3). Do the numbers you

get seem to be getting close to something?

1.6. USING COMPUTER ALGEBRA SYSTEMS (CAS), 31

sin x + cos x

sin 2x.

2

Suggested Homework Set 4. Work out problems 2, 4, 12, 17, 19, 21, 24

Use your favorite Computer Algebra System (CAS), like Maple, MatLab, etc., or

even a graphing calculator to answer the following questions:

y

nl

Evaluate the functions at the following points:

O

1. f (x) = x, for x = 2, 1, 0, 1.23, 1.414, 2.7. What happens when x < 0?

Conclude that the natural domain of f is [0, +).

on

2. g(x) = sin(x 2) + cos(x 3), for x = 4.37, 1.7, 0, 3.1415, 12.154, 16.2. Are

there any values of x for which g(x) is not dened as a real number? Explain.

3. f (t) = 3 t, for t = 2.1, 0, 1.2, 4.1, 9. Most CAS dene power functions only

si

when the base is positive, which is not the case if t < 0. In this case the natural

domain of f is (, +) even though the CAS wants us to believe that it is

[0, ). So, be careful when reading o results using a CAS.

r

x+1

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4. g(x) = . Evaluate g(1), g(0), g(0.125), g(1), g(1.001), g(20), g(1000). De-

x1

termine the behavior of g near x = 1. To do this use values of x just less than

1 and then values of x just larger than 1.

5. Dene a function f by

t + t

TA

,

1, t

if t > 0,

f (t) =

if t = 0.

Evaluate f (1), f (0), f (2.3), f (100.21). Show that f (t) = t + 1 for every value

of t 0.

6. Let f (x) = 1 + 2 cos2 ( x + 2) + 2 sin2 ( x + 2).

b) Explain your results.

c) What is the natural domain of f ?

d) Can you conclude something simple about this function? Is it a constant

function? Why?

7. To solve the inequality |2x 1| < 3 use your CAS to

a) Plot the graphs of y = |2x 1| and y = 3 and superimpose them on one

another

b) Find their points of intersection, and

c) Solve the inequality (see the gure below)

32 1.6. USING COMPUTER ALGEBRA SYSTEMS (CAS),

a) |3x 2| < 5

b) |2x 2| < 4.2

c) |(1.2)x 3| > 2.61

d) |1.3 (2.5)x| = 0.5

e) |1.5 (5.14)x| > 2.1

1

a) |cos x| <

2

b) sin x + 2 cos x < 1

1

c) sin(x 2) cos x > .

2

Hint: Plot the functions on each side of the inequality separately, superim-

pose their graphs, estimate their points of intersection visually, and solve the

y

inequality.

1

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9. Plot the values of

f (x) = x sin

x

O

for small xs such as x = 0.1, 0.001, 0.00001, 0.000001, 0.00000001 etc.

Guess what happens to the values of f (x) as x gets closer and closer to zero

(regardless of the direction, i.e., regardless of whether x > 0 or x < 0.)

on

10. Let f (x) = 4x 4x2 , for 0 x 1. Use the Box method to evaluate the

following terms, called the iterates of f for x = x0 = 0.5:

si

where each term is the image of the preceding term under f . Are these values

r

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0.231, 0.64, . . .) for which these iterations actually seem to be approaching some

specic number? This is an example of a chaotic sequence and is part of an

exciting area of mathematics called Chaos.

11. Plot the graphs of y = x2 , (1.2)x2 , 4x2 , (10.6)x2 and compare these graphs

with those of

TA

1 1 1 1

y = x 2 , (1.2)x 2 , 4x 2 , (10.6)x 2 .

Use this graphical information to guess the general shape of graphs of the form

y = xp for p > 1 and for 0 < p < 1. Guess what happens if p < 0?

12. Plot the graphs of the family of functions f (x) = sin(ax) for a = 1, 10, 20, 40, 50.

(these xs are called zeros of f ).

b) How many are there in each case?

c) Now nd the position and the number of exact zeros of f inside this interval

0 x .

NOTES:

Chapter 2

y

The Big Picture

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The notion of a limit permeates the universe around us. In the simplest cases, the

speed of light, denoted by c, in a vacuum is the upper limit for the velocities of any

O

object. Photons always travel with speed c but electrons can never reach this speed

exactly no matter how much energy they are given. Thats life! In another vein,

lets look at the speed barrier for the 100m dash in Track & Field. World records

on

rebound and are broken in this, the most illustrious of all races. But there must

be a limit to the time in which one can run the 100m dash, right? For example, it

is clear that none will ever run this in a record time of, say, 3.00 seconds! On the

other hand, it has been run in a record time of 9.79 seconds. So, there must be a

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limiting time that no one will ever be able to reach but the records will get closer

and closer to! It is the authors guess that this limiting time is around 9.70 seconds.

In a sense, this time interval of 9.70 seconds between the start of the race and its

r

end, may be considered a limit of human locomotion. We just cant seem to run at

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a constant speed of 100/9.70 = 10.3 meters per second. Of course, the actual speed

limit of any human may sometimes be slightly higher than 10.3 m/sec, but, not

over the whole race. If you look at the Records Table below, you can see why we

could consider this number, 9.70, a limit.

TA

1. Donovan Bailey CAN 9.84 96/07/26 Atlanta, Olympics

2. Leroy Burrell USA 9.85 94/07/06 Lausanne

3. Carl Lewis USA 9.86 91/08/25 Tokyo, Worlds

4. Frank Fredericks NAM 9.86 96/07/03 Lausanne

5. Linford Christie GBR 9.87 93/08/15 Stuttgart, Worlds

6. Ato Boldon TRI 9.89 97/05/10 Modesto

7. Maurice Green USA 9.90 97/06/13 Indianapolis

8. Dennis Mitchell USA 9.91 96/09/07 Milan

9. Andre Cason USA 9.92 93/08/15 Stuttgart, Worlds

10. Tim Montgomery USA 9.92 97/06/13 Indianapolis

On the other hand, in the world of temperature we have another limit, namely,

something called absolute zero equal to 273o C, or, by denition, 0K where K

stands for Kelvin. This temperature is a lower limit for the temperature of any

object under normal conditions. Normally, we may remove as much heat as we want

from an object but well never be able to remove all of it, so to speak, so the object

will never attain this limiting temperature of 0 K.

33

www.math.carleton.ca/~amingare/calculus/cal104.html Protected by Copyright, - DO NOT COPY

34

These are physical examples of limits and long ago some guy called Karl Weier-

strass (1815-1897), decided he would try to make sense out of all this limit stu

mathematically. So he worked really hard and created this method which we now

call the epsilon-delta method which most mathematicians today use to prove that

such and such a number is, in fact, the limit of some given function. We dont always

have to prove it when were dealing with applications, but if you want to know how

to use this method you can look at the Advanced Topics later on. Basically, Karls

idea was that you could call some number L a limit of a given function if the values

of the function managed to get close, really close, always closer and closer to this

number L but never really reach L. He just made this last statement meaningful

using symbols.

In many practical situations functions may be given in dierent formats: that is,

their graphs may be unbroken curves or even broken curves. For example, the

function C which converts the temperature from degrees Centigrade, x, to degrees

Fahrenheit, C(x), is given by the straight line C(x) = 95 x + 32 depicted in Fig. 14.

Figure 14. This functions graph is an unbroken curve and we call such graphs the graph of a

continuous function (as the name describes).

y

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Example 42. If a taxi charges you $3 as a at fee for stepping in and 10

cents for every minute travelled, then the graph of the cost c(t), as a function of

time t (in minutes), is shown in Fig. 15.

O

When written out symbolically this function, c, in Fig. 15 is given by

3,

3.1, 0t<1

on

1t<2

c(t) =

3.2, 2t<3

3.3, 3t<4

si

... ...

r

Ve

n

c(t) = 3 + , if n t n + 1

10

where n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

Figure 15. In this case, the graph of c is a broken curve and this is an example of a discontin-

TA

step-function for obvious reasons.

These two examples serve to motivate the notion of continuity. Sometimes functions

describing real phenomena are not continuous but we turn them into continuous

functions as they are easier to visualize graphically.

Example 43. For instance, in Table 2.1 above we show the plot of the fre-

quency of Hard X-rays versus time during a Solar Flare of 6th March, 1989:

The actual X-ray count per centimeter per second is an integer and so the plot

should consist of points of the form (t, c(t)) where t is in seconds and c(t) is the X-

ray count, which is an integer. These points are grouped tightly together over small

time intervals in the graph and consecutive points are joined by a line segment

(which is quite short, though). The point is that even though these signals are

discrete we tend to interpolate between these data points by using these small line

segments. Its a fair thing to do but is it the right thing to do? Maybe nature doesnt

like straight lines! The resulting graph of c(t) is now the graph of a continuous

function (there are no breaks).

2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 35

ct

As you can gather from Fig. 15, the size of the break in the graph of ( ) is given

c

by subtracting neighbouring values of the function around = . t a

Figure 16.

y

To make this idea more precise we dene the limit from the left and the limit

from the right of function f at the point x = a, see Tables 2.2 & 2.3 (and an

nl

optional chapter for the rigorous denitions).

O

2.1 One-Sided Limits of Functions

on

Limits from the Right

f x a

We say that the function has a limit from the right at = (or the right-

si

by

r

Ve

f (a + 0) = lim f (x) = L

xa+

1. Let x > a and x be very close to x = a.

2. As x approaches a (from the right because x > a), the values of

TA

(For a more rigorous denition see the Advanced Topics, later on.)

1,

For example, the function H dened by

f or x 0

H(x) =

0, f or x < 0

called the Heaviside Function (named after Oliver Heaviside, (1850 - 1925) an

electrical engineer) has the property that

lim H(x) = 1

x0+

Why? This is because we can set a = 0 and f (x) = H(x) in the denition (or in

Table 2.2) and apply it as follows:

36 2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS

b) As x approaches 0 we need to ask the question: What are the values, H(x),

doing?

Well, we know that H(x) = 1 for any x > 0, so, as long as x = 0, the values

H(x) = 1, (see Fig. 17), so this will be true in the limit as x approaches 0.

f x a

We say that the function has a limit from the left at = (or the left-

hand limit of f exists at x = a) and is equal to L and denote this symbolically

by

f (a 0) = lim f (x) = L

xa

1. Let x < a and x be very close to x = a.

y

2. As x approaches a (from the left because x < a), the values of f (x)

nl

approach the value L.

O

Table 2.3: One-Sided Limits From the Left

Returning to our Heaviside function, H(x), (see Fig. 17), dened earlier we see that

on

lim H(x) = 0

x0

si

The graph of the Heaviside Func- Why? In this case we set a = 0, f (x) = H(x) in the denition (or Table 2.3), as

tion, H(x). before:

r

Ve

Figure 17.

a) Let x < 0 and x very close to 0;

b) As x approaches 0 the values H(x) = 0, right? (This is because x < 0, and by

denition, H(x) = 0 for such x). The same must be true of the limit and so

we have

TA

lim H(x) = 0

x0

In practice, the idea is to choose some specic values of x near a (to the right

or to the left of a) and, using your calculator, nd the corresponding values of

the function near a.

values of c(1 + 0), c(2 0) and c(4 0), (See Fig. 15).

Solution By denition, c(1 + 0) = limt1+ c(t). But this means that we want

the values of c(t) as t 1 from the right, i.e., the values of c(t) for t > 1 (just

slightly bigger than 1) and t 1. Referring to Fig. 15 and Example 42 we see

that c(t) = 3.1 for such ts and so c(1 + 0) = 3.1. In the same way we see that

c(2 0) = limt2 c(t) = 3.1 while c(4 0) = limt4 c(t) = 3.3.

2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 37

Example 45.

x + 1, x < 1

f (x) =

2x,

x , 2

1 x +1

x > +1

Evaluate the following limits whenever they exist and justify your answers. Numerical evidence for Example 45,

(iii). You can think of x as being

i) lim f (x); ii) lim f (x); iii) lim f (x) the name of an athlete and f (x)

x1 x0+ x1+

as being their record at running the

Solution i) We want a left-hand limit, right? This means that x < 1 and x should 100 m. dash.

be very close to 1 (according to the denition in Table 2.3).

Now as x approaches 1 (from the left, i.e., with x always less than 1) we see x f (x)

that x + 1 approaches 0, that is, f (x) approaches 0. Thus, 1.5000 2.2500

1.2500 1.5625

y

lim f (x) = 0. 1.1000 1.2100

x1

nl

1.0500 1.1025

ii) We want a right-hand limit here. This means that x > 0 and x must be very 1.0033 1.0067

close to 0 (according to the denition in Table 2.2). Now for values of x > 0 and 1.0020 1.0040

O

close to 0 the value of f (x) is 2x . . . OK, this means that as x approaches 0 then 1.0012 1.0025

2x approaches 0, or, equivalently f (x) approaches 0. So

1.0010 1.0020

1.0001 1.0002

on

lim f (x) = 0

x0+ ... ...

iii) In this case we need x > 1 and x very close to 1. But for such values, f (x) = x2

and so if we let x approach 1 we see that f (x) approaches (1)2 = 1. So,

si

Figure 18.

lim f (x) = 1.

r

x1+

Ve

See Figure 18, in the margin, where you can see the values of our function, f , in

the second column of the table while the xs which are approaching one (from the

right) are in the rst column. Note how the numbers in the second column get

closer and closer to 1. This table is not a proof but it does make the limit we

found believable.

TA

Example 46. Evaluate the following limits and explain your answers.

x+4 x3

f (x) =

6 x>3

x3+ x3

Solution i) We set x > 3 and x very close to 3. Then the values are all f (x) = 6, by

denition, and these dont change with respect to x. So

lim f (x) = 6

x3+

ii) We set x < 3 and x very close to 3. Then the values f (x) = x + 4, by denition,

and as x approaches 3, we see that x + 4 approaches 3 + 4 = 7. So

lim f (x) = 7

x3

38 2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS

x2 x>0

f (x) =

x2 x0

x0 x0+

Solution i) Let x < 0 and x very close to 0. Since x < 0, f (x) = x2 and f (x) is

very close to 02 = 0 since x is. Thus

lim f (x) = 0

x0

ii) Let x > 0 and x very close to 0. Since x > 0, f (x) = x2 and f (x) is very close

to 0 too! Thus

lim f (x) = 0

x0+

y

NOTE: In this example the graph of f has no breaks whatsoever since f (0) = 0.. In

nl

this case we say that the function f is continuous at x = 0. Had there been a break

Figure 19. or some points missing from the graph we would describe f as discontinuous

O

whenever those breaks or missing points occurred.

Example 48. Use the graph in Figure 19 to determine the value of the

on

required limits.

x3 x3+ x18+

si

Solution i) Let x < 3 and let x be very close to 3. The point (x, f (x)) which is

on the curve y = f (x) now approaches a denite point as x approaches 3. Which

r

point? The graph indicates that this point is (3, 6). Thus

Ve

lim f (x) = 6

x3

ii) Let x > 3 and let x be very close to 3. In this case, as x approaches 3, the points

(x, f (x)) travel down towards the point (3, 12). Thus

TA

lim f (x) = 12

x3+

iii) Here we let x > 18 and let x be very close to 18. Now as x approaches 18 the

points (x, f (x)) on the curve are approaching the point (18, 12). Thus

lim f (x) = 12

x18+

2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 39

Exercise Set 4.

x2+ x0+

cos x

2. lim (x2 + 1) 8. lim

x

x 2

x0+ x +

3 lim (1 x2 ) 9. lim

x1 x2+ x+2

1

x

4 lim 10. lim

t2+ t2 x1 |x 1|

x 1

5 lim (x|x|) 11. lim

y

x0+ x1 x+2

x3

nl

x

6 lim 12. lim

x0 |x| x3+ x2 9

(Hint: Factor the denominator)

O

13. Let the function f be dened as follows:

1 |x| x<1

on

f (x) =

x x1

si

x1 x1+

r

Ve

x + 1 2

x<0

1x x 0x1

2

g(x) =

x>1

TA

Evaluate

i). lim g(x) ii). lim g(x)

x0 x0+

x1 x1+

v) Conclude that the graph of g has no breaks at x = 0 but it does have a break at

x = 1.

15. Use the graph in Figure 20 to determine the value of the required limits. (The

function f is composed of parts of 2 functions).

x1+ x1

x1 x1+

40 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

At this point we know how to determine the values of the limit from the left (or

right) of a given function f at a point x = a. We have also seen that whenever

xa+ xa

One of the key mathematical gures holes in the graph of a function is what the notion of continuity is all about.

during the rst millennium was a

monk called Alcuin of York (735 - Denition of the limit of a function at x = a.

804) who was Charlemagnes scribe

and general advisor. He wrote a

very inuential book in Latin which We say that a function f has the (two-sided) limit L as x approaches

contained many mathematical prob- aif

lems passed on from antiquity. In

this book of his youll nd the fol-

lim f (x) = lim f (x) = L

xa+ xa

lowing (paraphrased) problem:

y

When this happens, we write (for brevity)

A dog chases a rabbit who has a

nl

head-start of 150 feet. All you lim f (x) = L

xa

know is that every time the dog

O

leaps 9 feet, the rabbit leaps 7 feet.

and read this as: the limit of f (x) as x approaches a is L (L may be innite

here).

How many leaps will it take for the

dog to pass the rabbit?

on

NOTE: So, in order for a limit to exist both the right- and left-hand limits must

exist and be equal. Using this notion we can now dene the continuity of a function

f at a point x = a.

si

r

Ve

2. lim f (x) = lim f (x) (= L, their common value) and

xa+ xa

3. L = f (a).

TA

continuous at a given point x = a. If any one or more of these conditions is not

satised we say that f is discontinuous at x = a. In other words, we see from

the Denition above (or in Table 2.7) that the one-sided limits from the left and

right must be equal in order for f to be continuous at x = a but that this equality,

in itself, is not enough to guarantee continuity as there are 2 other conditions

that need to be satised as well.

Example 49. Show that the given function is continuous at the given points,

x = 1 and x = 2, where f is dened by

x + 1 0x1

f (x) =

2x

x 2

1<x2

x>2

(according to Table 2.7):

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 41

2. Are the one-sided limits equal? Lets check this: (See Fig. 21)

x1

x1

Moreover,

x1+

x1+

The one-sided limits are equal to each other and their common value is L = 2.

3. Is L

= f (1)? By denition f (1) = 1 + 1 = 2, so OK, this is true, because

L = 2.

y

nl

We proceed in the same fashion for x = 2. Remember, we still have to verify 3

conditions . . .

O

1. Is f dened at x = 2? Yes, because its value is f (2) = 2 2 = 4.

2. Are the one-sided limits equal? Lets see:

on

lim f (x) = lim x2 = 22 = 4

x2+

x2+

si

and

r

lim (2x) = 2 2 = 4

Ve

lim f (x) =

x2 x2

because f (x)=2x for x2 and close to 2

L = f (2)? We know that L = 4 and f (2) = 2 2 = 4 by denition so, OK.

TA

3. Is Figure 21.

Remarks:

is equivalent to a

requiring that both one-sided limits be equal (to each other).

2. The existence of the limit of a function f at x = a doesnt imply that f is

continuous at x = a.

Why? Because the value of this limit may be dierent from f (a), or, worse still,

f (a) may be innite.

3. It follows from (1) that

If lim f (x) = lim f (x), then lim f (x) does not exist,

xa+ xa xa

42 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

Example 50. Show that the function f dened by f (x) = |x3| is continuous

at x = 3 (see Figure 22).

x3 x3

f (x) = |x 3| =

3x x<3

0 where symbol is any expression involving some variable. . . ) OK, now

The function f (x) = |x 3|

lim f (x) = lim (x 3) = 3 3 = 0

x3+ x3+

Figure 22.

and

y

x3 x3

nl

so lim f (x) exists and is equal to 0 (by denition).

x3

O

Is 0 = f (3) ? Yes (because f (3) = |3 3| = |0| = 0). Of course f (3) is dened. We

conclude that f is continuous at x = 3.

on

f is continuous at x = a if

a f (x) = f (a)

si

xlim

r

Ve

whenever all the symbols here have meaning (i.e. the limit exists, f (a) exists etc.).

Example 51. Determine whether or not the following functions have a limit

TA

basic symbols we use today in the

world of mathematics seem to have

a) f (x) = x2 + 1 at x = 0

been accepted in Europe and subse-

b) f (x) = 1 + |x 1| at x = 1

quently in the West, sometime dur-

ing the period 1482-1494, as can

1 for t 0

be evidenced from old merchant c) f (t) = at t = 0

0 for t < 0

records from the era (also known as

1

the High Renaissance in art). Prior d) f (x) = at x = 0

x

to this, merchants and others used

t

Roman numerals (X=10, IX=9, III e) g(t) = at t = 0

t+1

= 3, etc.) in their dealings.

x0+ x0+

x0 x0

x0 x0

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 43

x1+ x1+

= lim (1 + (x 1)) (because |x 1| = x 1 as x > 1)

x1+

= lim x

x1+

= 1

lim f (x) = lim (1 + |x 1|)

x1 x1

= lim (1 + (1 x) (because |x 1| = 1 x as x < 1)

x1

= lim (2 x)

x1

= 21

= 1

Thus lim f (x) exists and is equal to 1, i.e. lim f (x) = 1.

x1 x1

y

t0+ t0+

= 1

nl

lim f (t) = lim (0) (as f (t) = 0 for t < 0)

t0 t0

= 0

O

Since lim f (t) = lim f (t), it follows that lim f (t) does not exist. (In particular,

t0+ t0 t0

f cannot be continuous at t = 0.)

on

1

d) lim f (x) = lim = +

x0+ x0+ x

si

because division by zero does not produce a real number, in general. On the other

hand

r

1

= (since x < 0)

Ve

x0 x0 x

Since limx0+ f (x) = limx0 f (x) the limit does not exist at x = 0. The Sandwich Theorem states

that, if

TA

t 0

e) lim g(t) = lim = =0

t0+ t0+ t + 1 0+1 for all (suciently) large x and for

t 0 some (extended) real number A, and

lim g(t) = lim = =0

t0 t0 t + 1 0+1 lim g(x) = A, lim h(x) = A

xa xa

and so lim g(t) exists and is equal to 0, i.e. lim g(t) = 0.

t0 t0 then f also has a limit at x = a and

The rigorous method of handling these examples is presented in an optional lim f (x) = A

xa

Chapter, Advanced Topics. Use of your calculator will be helpful in deter-

mining some limits but cannot substitute a theoretical proof. The reader is In other words, f is sandwiched

encouraged to consult the Advanced Topics for more details. between two values that are ulti-

mately the same and so f must also

It follows from Table 2.4 that continuous functions themselves have similar proper-

ties, being based upon the notion of limits. For example it is true that:

(at x = a).

44 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

(provided the quotient has a non-zero denominator at x = a).

3. A multiple of two continuous functions (at x = a) is again a continuous function

(at x = a).

following statements hold (but will not be proved here):

Assume lim f (x) and lim g(x) both exist and are nite.

xa xa

Then

lim (f (x) + g(x)) = lim f (x) + lim g(x)

xa xa xa

y

b) The limit of a dierence is the dierence of the limits.

lim (f (x) g(x)) = lim f (x) lim g(x)

nl

xa xa xa

O

If c is any number, then lim cf (x) = c lim f (x)

xa xa

f (x) limxa f (x)

on

If limxa g(x)

= 0 then lim =

xa g(x) limxa g(x)

e) The limit of aproduct is the product

of the limits.

si

xa xa xa

r

xa xa

Ve

Now, the Properties in Table 2.4 and the following Remark allow us to make some

very important observations about some classes of functions, such as polynomials.

TA

How? Well, lets take the simplest polynomial f (x) = x. It is easy to see that for

some given number x = a and setting g(x) = x, Table 2.4 Property (e), implies that

the function h(x) = f (x)g(x) = x x = x2 is also continuous at x = a. In the same

way we can show that k(x) = f (x)h(x) = x x2 = x3 is also continuous at x = a,

and so on.

In this way we can prove (using, in addition, Property (a)), that any polynomial

whatsoever is continuous at x a

= , where a

is any real number. We

summarize this and other such consequences in Table 2.8.

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 45

We say that the function f has a limit from the right at x = a (or

the right-hand limit of f exists at x = a) whose value is L and denote

this symbolically by

lim f (x) = L

xa+

of f (x) approach the value L.

y

nl

SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits from the Left

We say that the function f has a limit from the left at x = a (or

O

the left-hand limit of f exists at x = a) and is equal to L and denote this

symbolically by

on

lim f (x) = L

xa

si

r

Ve

TA

Exercise Set 5.

Determine whether the following limits exist. Give reasons. Nicola Oresme, (1323-1382),

x+2 x0

Bishop of Lisieux, in Normandy,

wrote a tract in 1360 (this is before

1. lim f (x) where f (x) = the printing press) where, for the

x0 x x>0

rst time, we nd the introduction

x + 2

2. lim (x + 3)

x1 of perpendicular xy-axes drawn

on a plane. His work is likely to

3. lim

x2 x have inuenced Rene Descartes

sin (x 1)

4. lim x sin x (1596-1650), the founder of modern

x0

Analytic Geometry.

0x1

5. lim f (x) where f (x) =

x1

x + 1
|x 1| x>1

6. lim

x0

2
x

7. lim

x0 x

46 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

SUMMARY: Continuity of f at x = a.

satised:

xa+ xa

3. L = f (a).

continuous at a given point x = a. If any one or more of these conditions

is not satised we say that f is discontinuous at x = a.

x

8. lim

y

x1 x+1

9. lim (2 + |x 2|)

nl

x2

3 x0

10. lim f (x) where f (x) =

O

x0 2 x>0

11. Are the following functions continuous at 0? Give reasons.

a) f (x) = |x|

on

b) g(t) = t2 + 3t + 2

c) h(x) = 3 + 2|x|

si

2

d) f (x) =

x+1

x2 + 1

r

e) f (x) =

x2 2

Ve

x sin 1

x = 0

f (x) = x

0 x=0

TA

| |x|.

(Hint: Do this in the following steps:

x

1

0 lim x sin

x0

x

0

1

and so

x0 x

1

c) Conclude that lim x sin = 0.

x0 x

d) Verify the other conditions of continuity.)

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 47

Let x = a be a given point.

a) The polynomial p of degree n, with xed coecients, given by

b) The rational function, r, where r(x) = p(x)

q(x)

where p, q are both polyno-

mials is continuous at x = a provided q(a) = 0 or equivalently, provided

x = a is not a root of q(x). Thus

an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0

r(x) =

bm xm + bm1 xm1 + . . . + b0

is continuous at x = a provided the denominator is not equal to zero at

x = a.

c) If f is a continuous function, so is its absolute value function, |f |, and

if

y

lim |f (x)| = 0, then

nl

xa

lim f (x) = 0

O

xa

(The proof of (c) uses the ideas in the Advanced Topics chapter.)

on

Table 2.8: Some Continuous Functions

si

r

Ve

at least one of the three conditions in the denition of continuity (Table 2.7) is not

satised.

Remember, to show that f is continuous requires the verication of all three condi-

TA

tions in Table 2.7 whereas to show some function is discontinuous only requires that

one of the three conditions for continuity is not satised.

somewhere. Give reasons.

x x0

a) f (x) =

3x + 1 x>0

x

b) f (x) = , f (0) = 1

|x|

x 2

x = 0

c) f (x) =

1 x=0

1

d) f (x) = , x = 0

|x|

48 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

x0 x0

while lim f (x) = lim (3x + 1) = 1

x0+ x0+

Thus the lim f (x) does not exist and so f cannot be continuous at x = 0, or, equiv-

x0

alently, f is discontinuous at x = 0.

tinuous at x = a? If any one (or

What about the other points, x = 0?

more) of the following occurs . . .

Well, if x = 0, and x < 0, then f (x) = x is a polynomial, right? Thus f is

1. f (a) is not dened (e.g., it is continuous at each point x where x < 0. On the other hand, if x = 0 and x > 0

innite, or we are dividing by then f (x) = 3x + 1 is also a polynomial. Once again f is continuous at each point

0, or extracting the root of a

negative number, . . . ) (See x where x > 0.

Example 52 (d))

2. If either one of the left- and Conclusion: f is continuous at every point x except at x = 0.

right-limits of f at x = a is

innite (See Example 52 (d))

b) Since f (0) = 1 is dened, lets check for the existence of the limit at x = 0.

3. f (a) is dened but the left- (Youve noticed, of course, that at x = 0 the function is of the form 00 which is

y

and right-limits at x = a are not dened as a real number and this is why an additional condition was added

unequal (See Example 52 (a),

there to make the function dened for all x and not just those x = 0.)

nl

(b))

right-limits are equal to L

Now,

O

but L = x x

lim f (x) = lim = lim = lim (1)

5. f (a) is dened, the left- and

right-limits are equal to L

x0+ x0+ |x|

x0+ x

x0+

but L = f (a) (See Exam-

on

(because x=0)

ple 52 (c))

= 1

Then f is discontinuous at x = a.

x x

si

x0 x0 |x| x0 (x) x0

= 1

r

Ve

(since |x| = x if x < 0 by denition). Since the one-sided limits are dierent it

follows that

x0

TA

Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0.

What about the other points? Well, for x = 0, f is nice enough. For instance,

if x > 0 then

x x

f (x) = = = +1

|x| x

for each such x > 0. Since f is a constant it follows that f is continuous for x > 0.

On the other hand, if x < 0, then |x| = x so that

x x

f (x) = = = 1

|x| (x)

and once again f is continuous for such x < 0.

Figure 23. c) Lets look at f for x = 0 rst, (it doesnt really matter how we start). For x = 0,

f (x) = x2 is a polynomial and so f is continuous for each such x = 0, (Table 2.8).

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 49

What about x

= 0? We are given that f (0) = 1 so f is dened there. What

about the limit of f as x approaches x = 0. Does this limit exist?

Lets see

x0+ x0+

and

x0 x0

x0

x0

and (2) of Table 2.7 are satised the nal condition (3) is not!)

y

lim f (x) = lim f (x) = +

nl

x0+ x0

and f (0) = + as well! Ah, but now f (0) is not dened as a real number (thus

violating condition (1)). Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0 . . . and the other points?

O

Well, for x < 0, f (x) = x1 is a quotient of two polynomials and any x (since x = 0)

is not a root of the denominator. Thus f is a continuous function for such x < 0. A

similar argument applies if x > 0.

on

Conclusion: f is continuous everywhere except at x = 0 where it is discontinuous. The graph of Example 52(c)

We show the graph of the functions dened in (c), (d) in Figure 24.

r si

Exercise Set 6.

Ve

|x|

+ 1 for x = 0 and f (0) = 2

TA

1. f (x) =

x

x x<0

2. g(x) =

1 + x2 x 0

x2 + 3x + 3

3. f (x) =

x2 1

x

(Hint: Find the zeros of the denominator.)

3

+1 x = 0

4. f (x) =

2 x=0

1 1

5. f (x) = + 2 for x = 0, f (0) = +1 The graph of Example 52(d)

x

x

1.62 x<0 Figure 24.

6. f (x) =

2x x0

Before proceeding with a study of some trigonometric limits lets recall some fun-

damental notions about trigonometry. Recall that the measure of angle called the

o

radian is equal to 360

2

57o . It is also that angle whose arc is numerically equal

to the radius of the given circle. (So 2 radians correspond to 360o , radians cor-

respond to 180o , 1 radian corresponds to 57o , etc.) Now, to nd the area of a

50 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

1. The functions f , g dened by f (x) = sin x, g(x) = cos x are continuous

everywhere (i.e., for each real number x).

2. The functions h(x) = tan x and k(x) = sec x are continuous at every point

which is not an odd multiple of 2 . At such points h, k are discontinuous.

(i.e. at 2 , 3

2

, 3

2

, 5

2

,. . . )

3. The functions csc and cot are continuous whenever x is not a multiple

of , and discontinuous whenever x is a multiple of . (i.e. at x = ,

, 2, 5, etc.)

sector of a circle of radius r subtending an angle at the center we note that the

y

area is proportional to this central angle so that

nl

2

O

=

Area of circle Area of sector

Area of sector = (r 2 )

2

on

r2

=

2

si

Figure 25. We conclude that the area of a sector subtending an angle at the center is given

r

2

by r2 where is in radians and summarize this in Table 2.10.

Ve

circle of radius r is given by

TA

r2

Area of a sector = 2

very important limit in the study of calculus.

radians at its center, labelled O. Label the extremities of the sector along the arc

by A and B as in the adjoining gure, Fig. 27.

segment. The gure now looks like Figure 28.

We call the triangle whose side is the arc AB and having sides AO, OB a curvi-

linear triangle for brevity. (It is also a sector!)

Figure 27.

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 51

> Area of ABO

1 1

Now the area of ACO = (1)|AC| = tan x

2 2

Area of curvilinear triangle = Area of the sector with central angle x

1 2

= (1 ) x (because of Table 2.10 above)

2

x

=

2

1 Figure 28.

Area of triangle ABO = (altitude from base AO)(base length)

2

1 1

= (length of BD) (1) = (sin x) (1)

2 2

sin x

=

y

2

nl

(by denition of the sine of the angle x.) Combining these inequalities we get

1 x sin x

O

tan x > > (for 0 < x < , remember?)

2 2 2 2

or

on

sin x < x < tan x

si

sin x

r

x 2

Ve

TA

sin x

lim cos x lim lim 1

x0+ x0+ x

x0+

1 1

sin x

lim =1

x0+ x

If, on the other hand, 2 < x < 0 (or x is a negative angle) then, writing x = x0 ,

we have 2 > x0 > 0. Next

= = =

x x0 x0 x0

52 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

where we have used the relation sin(x0 ) = sin x0 valid for any angle x0 (in

radians, as usual). Hence

sin x
sin x0

lim = lim

x0 x x0 x0

sin x0

= lim

x0 0 x0

sin x0

= lim (because if x0 < 0 then x0 > 0

x0 0+ x0

and x0 approaches 0+ )

= 1.

sin x

lim =1

x0 x

Another important limit like the one in Table 2.11 is obtained by using the basic

y

If the symbol 2 represents any continuous function then, so long as we can let

nl

2 0, we have

sin 2

lim =1

O

2 0 2

on

Table 2.11: Limit of (sin 2)/2 as 2 0

identity

si

1 cos2 sin2

1 cos = =

1 + cos 1 + cos

r

Ve

=

1 + cos

Now, we know that

TA

1 cos 2

lim = 0.

2 0 2

sin

lim =1

0

and

sin

lim

0 1 + cos

exists (because it is the limit of the quotient of 2 continuous functions, the denomi-

nator not being 0 as 0). Furthermore it is easy to see that

sin

sin 0 0

lim = = =0

0 1 + cos 1 + cos 0 1+1

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 53

1 cos

sin

sin

lim = lim lim = 10

0 0 0 1 + cos

= 0

1 cos

lim =0

0

If you want, you can replace by x in the above formula or any other symbol

as in Table 2.11. Hence, we obtain Table 2.12,

NOTES:

y

nl

O

on

r si

Ve

TA

54 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

sin (3x)

a) lim

x0 x

1 cos (2x)

b) lim

x0 x

sin (2x)

c) lim

x0 sin (3x)

sin ( x)

d) lim

x0+ x

One of the rst complete introduc-

tions to Trigonometry was writ-

ten by one Johannes Muller of

Solution a) We use Table 2.11. If we let 2 = 3x, we also need the symbol 2 in the

denominator, right? In other words, x = 23 and so

Konigsberg, (1436 - 1476), also

known as Regiomontanus. The sin 3x sin (2 ) sin (2 )

= =3

work, written in Latin, is entitled x ( 23 ) 2

De Triangulis omnimodus rst ap-

Now, as x 0 it is clear that, since 2 = 3x, 2 0 as well. Thus

y

peared in 1464.

sin (3x) sin (2 )

nl

lim = lim 3

x0 x 2 0 2

sin (2 )

= 3 lim (by Table 2.4(c))

O

2 0 2

= 3 1 (by Table 2.11)

= 3

on

2

b) We use Table 2.12 because of the form of the problem for 2 = 2x then x = 2

.

So

si

= 2

=2

x 2

2

r

Ve

lim = lim (2 )

x0 x 2 0 2

1 cos (2 )

= 2 lim ( )=20= 0

2 0 2

TA

c) This type of problem is not familiar at this point and all we have is Table 2.11 as

reference . . . The idea is to rewrite the quotient as something that is more familiar.

For instance, using plain algebra, we see that

sin 2x sin 2x 2x 3x

=( )( )( ),

sin 3x 2x 3x sin 3x

so that some of the 2xs and 3x-cross-terms cancel out leaving us with the original

expression.

sin 2x sin 2x 2x 3x

lim = ( lim )( lim )( lim )

x0 sin 3x x0 2x x0 3x 3x0 sin 3x

(because the limit of a product is the product of the limits cf., Table 2.4.) There-

fore

sin 2x sin 2x 2x 3x

lim = ( lim ) lim ( lim )

x0 sin 3x x0 2x x0 3x 3x0 sin 3x

2 2

= 1 1=

3 3

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 55

3x

= 2

3

since x = 0.

Using the Box method we can rewite this argument more briey as follows: We

have two symbols, namely 2x and 3x, so if we are going to use Table 2.11 we need

to introduce these symbols into the expression as follows: (Remember, 2 and

are just symbols. . . ).

sin 2x sin 2 sin 2 2

= =( )( )( )

sin 3x sin 2 sin

So that 2 s and s cancel out leaving the original expression.

sin 2x sin 2 2

lim = ( lim )( lim )( lim )

x0 sin 3x 2 0 2 x0 0 sin

(because the limit of a product is the product of the limits , cf., Table 2.4.)

y

Therefore

sin 2x sin 2 2x

nl

lim = ( lim ) lim ( lim )

x0 sin 3x 2

2 0 x0 3x 0 sin

2 2

= 1 1=

O

3 3

(by Tables 2.11& 2.4).

on

d) In this problem we let 2 = x. As x 0+ we know that x 0+ as well.

Thus

sin x sin 2

lim = lim =1

si

x0+ x 2 0+ 2

r

Ve

Philosophy:

Learning mathematics has a lot to do with learning the rules of the interaction

between symbols, some recognizable (such as 1, 2, sin x, . . . ) and others not

(such as 2 , , etc.) Ultimately these are all symbols and we need to recall

TA

Sometimes it is helpful to replace the commonly used symbols y, z , etc.

for variables, by other, not so commonly used ones, like 2 , or squiggle

etc. It doesnt matter how we denote something, whats important is how it

interacts with other symbols.

NOTES:

56 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

You want to nd

lim f (x).

xa

evaluate the expression (function) at that value, i.e.

f (a).

A , with A

= 0 and the question

a) You obtain a number like B

is answered (if the function is continuous at x = a), the

answer being BA.

b) You get B0 , with B

= 0 which implies that the limit exists

and is plus innity (+) if B > 0 and minus innity ()

if B < 0.

y

c) You obtain something like 00 which means that the limit

nl

being sought may be in disguise and we need to move

onto Option 2 below.

O

Option 2 If the limit is of the form 00 proceed as follows:

We need to play around with the expression, that is you may

have to factor some terms, use trigonometric identities, sub-

on

stitutions, simplify, rationalize the denominator, multiply and

divide by the same symbol, etc. until you can return to Option

1 and repeat the procedure there.

si

Option 3 If 1 and 2 fail, then check the left and right limits.

r

Ve

b) If they are unequal, the limit does not exist. Stop here,

thats your answer.

TA

Exercise Set 7.

sin x

1. lim

x x

(Hint: Write 2 = x . Note that x = 2 + and as x , 2 0.)

2. lim (x )tan x

x 2 2

(x 2 )

(Hint: (x )tan x = sin x. Now set 2 = x 2 ,so that x = 2 +

2

2 cos x

and note that, as x 2 , 2 0.)

sin (4x)

3. lim

x0 2x

2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 57

1 cos (3x)

4. lim

x0 4x

sin (4x)

5. lim

x0 sin (2x)

sin x 1

6. lim

x1+ x1

Web Links

en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Calculus/Limits

www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/onesided/learn.htm

y

www.plu.edu/heathdj/java/calc1/Epsilon.html (a neat applet)

nl

www.ping.be/ping1339/limth.htm

O

www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/addition/learn.htm

www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/conmult/learn.htm

on

www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/divide/learn.htm

www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/multiply/learn.htm

r si

Ve

Exercise Set 8.

TA

x2

1. lim 6. lim sin (x)

x2 x x2

sin (3x)

2. lim x cos x 7. lim

x0+ x0 x

x3
cos x

3. lim 8. lim

x3 x2 9 x + x

cos x

4. lim x sec x 9. lim

x 2 2 x x

2x

5. lim 10. lim x | x |

x 2 cos x x0+

Hints:

3) Factor the denominator (Table 2.13, Option 2).

4) Write 2 = x 2 , x = 2 + 2 and simplify (Table 2.13, Option 2).

58 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

5) Let 2 = x 2 , x = 2 + 2 and use a formula for the cosine of the sum of two

angles.

9) See Table 2.13, Option 1(b).

cos x

11. f (x) =

x

sin x

x = 0

1

12. f (x) = x

x=0

13. f (x) = x + x 1

3 2

x2 + 1

14. f (x) =

x2 1

x2

15. f (x) =

| x2 4 |

y

Evaluate the following limits, whenever they exist. Explain.

nl

cos x cos 2x

16. lim

x2

O

x0

A + B A B

on

cos A cos B = 2 sin sin

2 2

tan x sin x

si

17. lim

x0 x2

r

(Hint: Factor the term tan x out of the numerator and use Tables 2.11 &

Ve

2.12.)

x2 + 1

18. lim

x1 (x 1)2

TA

ax + b

lim =

x 2 sin x 4

(Hint: It is necessary that a + b = 0, why? Next, use the idea of Exercise Set 7

#1.)

1

20. lim

x0+ x+1 x

2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 59

tions

There are two main results (one being a consequence of the other) in the basic

study of continuous functions. These are based on the property that the graph of a

continuous function on a given interval has no breaks in it.

Basically one can think of such a graph as a string which joins 2 points, say (a, f (a))

to (b, f (b)) (see Figure 29).

In Figure 29(a), the graph may have sharp peaks and may also look smooth

and still be the graph of a continuous function (as is Figure 29(b)).

The Intermediate Value Theorem basically says that if you are climbing a

mountain and you stop at 1000 meters and you want to reach 5000 meters, then

at some future time you will pass, say the 3751 meter mark! This is obvious, isnt

it? But this basic observation allows you to understand this deep result about

y

continuous functions.

nl

For instance, the following graph may represent the uctuations of your local Stock (a)

Exchange over a period of 1 year.

O

on

r si

Ve

TA

(b)

Assume that the index was 7000 points on Jan. 1, 1996 and that on June 30 it was Figure 29.

7900 points. Then sometime during the year the index passed the 7513 point mark

at least once . . .

1. f (a) = f (b);

2. Let z be a point between f (a) and f (b).

Then there is at least one value of c between a and b such that

f (c) = z

60 2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

The idea behind this Theorem is that any horizontal line that intersects the graph

of a continuous function must intersect it at a point of its domain! This sounds

and looks obvious (see Figure 30), but its NOT true if the graph is NOT that of a

continuous function (see Example 31). One of the most important consequences of

this Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) is sometimes called Bolzanos Theorem

(after Bernhard Bolzano (1781-1848) mathematician, priest and philosopher).

point x in [a, b]). If f (a)f (b) < 0, then there is at least one point c between a and b

such that f (c) = 0.

polynomials or general (continuous) functions. Better still, it is also helpful in

determining where the graphs of functions intersect each other.

For example, at which point(s) do the graphs of the functions given by y = sin x

and y = x2 intersect? In order to nd this out you need to equate their values, so

y

that sin x = x2 which then means that x2 sin x = 0 so the points of intersection

are roots of the function whose values are given by y = x2 sin x.

nl

Figure 30.

O

Example 54. Show that there is one root of the polynomial p(x) = x3 + 2 in

the interval 2 x 1.

on

Bolzanos Theorem. Since p(2) < 0 and p(1) > 0 it follows that p(x0 ) = 0 for

some x0 in [2, 1] which is what we needed to show.

si

Remark:

r

Ve

If youre not given the interval where the root of the function may be you need

to nd it! Basically you look for points a b

and where ( ) fa < 0 and

fb >

( ) 0 and then you can rene your estimate of the root by narrowing

down your interval.

TA

Figure 31.

Example 55. The distance between 2 cities A and B is 270 km. Youre driving

along the superhighway between A and B with speed limit 100 km/h hoping to get

to your destination as soon as possible. You quickly realize that after one and one-

half hours of driving youve travelled 200 km so you decide to stop at a rest area

to relax. All of a sudden a police car pulls up to yours and the ocer hands you a

speeding ticket! Why?

Solution Well, the ocer didnt actually see you speeding but saw you leaving A.

Had you been travelling at the speed limit of 100 km/h it should have taken you

2 hours to get to the rest area. The ocer quickly realized that somewhere along the

200 km

highway you must have travelled at speeds of around 133 km/hr = 60min .

90min

As a check notice that if you were travelling at a constant speed of say 130 km/h

then you would have travelled a distance of only 130 1.5 = 195 km short of your

mark.

A typical graph of your journey appears in Figure 32. Note that your speed

must be related to the amount of steepness of the graph. The faster you go, the

2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 61

steeper the graph. This motivates the notion of a derivative which youll see in

the next chapter.

Philosophy

Actually one uses a form of the Intermediate Value Theorem almost daily. For

instance, do you nd yourself asking: Well, based on this and that, such and such

must happen somewhere between this and that ?

When youre driving along in your car you make decisions based on your speed, Figure 32.

right? Will you get to school or work on time? Will you get to the store on time?

Youre always assuming (correctly) that your speed is a continuous function of

time (of course youre not really thinking about this) and you make these quick Another result which you know

mental calculations which will verify whether or not youll get there on time. about continuous functions is this:

y

Basically you know what time you started your trip and you have an idea about If f is continuous on a closed in-

nl

when it should end and then gure out where you have to be in between. . . terval [a, b], then it has a max-

imum value and a minimum

O

value, and these values are at-

tained by some points in [a, b].

on

r si

Ve

TA

Since total distance travelled is a continuous function of time it follows that there

exists at least one time t at which you were at the video store (this is true) and

some other time t at which you were speeding on your way to your destination

(also true!). . . all applications of the IVT.

Finally, we should mention that since the denition of a continuous function depends

on the notion of a limit it is immediate that many of the properties of limits should

reect themselves in similar properties of continuous functions. For example, from

Table 2.4 we see that sums, dierences, and products of continuous functions are

continuous functions. The same is true of quotients of continuous functions provided

the denominator is not zero at the point in question!

62 2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

Web Links

http://hadm.sph.sc.edu/Courses/Econ/irr/irr.html

www.cut-the-knot.com/Generalization/ivt.html

www.cut-the-knot.com/fta/brodie.html

NOTES:

y

nl

O

on

r si

Ve

TA

2.4. EVALUATING LIMITS AT INFINITY 63

In this section we introduce some basic ideas as to when the variable tends to plus

innity (+) or minus innity (). Note that limits at innity are always

one-sided limits, (why?). This section is intended to be a prelude to a later section

on LHospitals Rule which will allow you to evaluate many of these limits by a

neat trick involving the functions derivatives.

For the purposes of evaluating limits at innity, the symbol has the following

properties:

PROPERTIES

1. It is an extended real number (same for ).

2. For any real number c (including 0), and r > 0,

c

lim =0

x xr

y

(Think of this as saying that c

r

= 0 and r = for r > 0.)

nl

3. The symbol

is undened and can only be dened in the limiting

sense using the procedure in Table 2.13, Stage 2, some insight and maybe

a little help from your calculator. Well be using this procedure a little

O

later when we attempt to evaluate limits at using extended real

numbers.

on

Table 2.14: Properties of

Basically, the limit symbol x means that the real variable x can be made

si

A similar denition applies to the symbol x except that now the real

r

Ve

variable x may be made smaller than any real number. The next result is very

useful in evaluating limits involving oscillating functions where it may not be easy

to nd the limit.

The Sandwich Theorem (mentioned earlier) is also valid for limits at in-

TA

for all (suciently) large x and for some (extended) real number A,

x x

lim f (x) = A

x

sin(2x)

a) lim

x x

64 2.4. EVALUATING LIMITS AT INFINITY

3x2 2x + 1

b) lim

x x2 + 2

1

c) lim

d) lim (

x

x x3 + 1

2 + x + 1 x)

x

sin(2x) | sin(2x)| 1

Solution a) Let f (x) = . Then |f (x)| = and |f (x)| since

x x x

| sin(2x)| 1 for every real number x. Thus

1

0 lim |f (x)| lim =0

x x x

1

(where we have set g(x) = 0 and h(x) = in the statement of the Sandwich

x

Theorem.) Thus,

lim |f (x)| = 0

x

y

which means that

nl

lim f (x) = 0

x

O

(See Table 2.8 (c)).

on

3x2 2x + 1 x2 (3 x2 + x12 )

=

x2 + 2 x2 (1 + x22 )

(3 x2 + x12 )

si

=

(1 + x22 )

r

Now

Ve

lim

x

3x2 2x + 1

x2 + 2

=

limx 3 x2 + x12

limx 1 + x22

(because the limit of a quotient is the quotient of the limits )

30+0

=

TA

1+0

= 3

1

c) Let f (x) = . We claim lim f (x) = 0 . . . Why?

x3 + 1 x

x3 +1 too (remember, this is true because x ). OK, now x3 +1

which means (x3 + 1)1 0 as x .

x2 + x + 1 as x . So we have to calculate a dierence of two innities

i.e.,

f (x) = x2 + x + 1 x

as x as x

2.4. EVALUATING LIMITS AT INFINITY 65

There is no way of doing this so we have to simplify the expression (see Table 2.13,

Stage 2) by rationalizing the expression . . . So,

x2 + x + 1 x =

( x2 + x + 1 x)( x2 + x + 1 + x)

x2 + x + 1 + x

(x + x + 1) x2

2

=

x2 + x + 1 + x

x+1

=

x2 + x + 1 + x

The form still isnt good enough to evaluate the limit directly. (We would be getting

a form similar to

if we took limits in the numerator and denominator separately.)

OK, so we keep simplifying by factoring out xs from both numerator and denomi-

nator . . . Now,

x 2 +x+1x =

x+1

x2 +x+1+x

y

= x(1 + x1 )

nl

1 1

x 1+ x

+ x2

+1

1

1+ x

O

=

1 1

1+ x

+ x2

+1

on

OK, now we can let x and we see that

lim (

x 2 + x + 1 x) = lim

1+ 1

x

x x

si

1 1

1+ x

+ x2

+1

1+0

=

r

1+0+0+1

Ve

1

=

2

As a quick check lets use a calculator and some large values of x: e.g. x = 10,

100, 1000, 10000, . . . This gives the values: f (10) = 0.53565, f (100) = 0.50373,

TA

appears to be 0.500... = 12 , which is our theoretical result.

Exercise Set 9.

sin(3x)

1. lim (Remember: x is in radians here.)

x 2x

x

2. lim

x x3 + 2

x3 + 3x 1

3. lim

x x3 + 1

4. lim x( x + 1 x)

x

cos x

5. lim

x x2

66 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

lim sin x

x

(Hint: Use the ideas developed in the Advanced Topics to prove this theo-

retically.)

We waited for this part until you learned about limits in general. Here well show

you a quick and quite reliable way of guessing or calculating some limits at innity

(or minus innity). Strictly speaking, you still need to prove that your guess is

right, even though it looks right. See Table 2.16. Later on, in Section 3.12, we will

see a method called LHospitals Rule that can be used eectively, under some mild

conditions, to evaluate limits involving indeterminate forms.

y

OK, now just a few words of caution before you start manipulating innities. If an

operation between innities and reals (or another innity) is not among those listed

nl

in Table 2.16, it is called an indeterminate form.

O

The most common indeterminate forms are:

0

on

0 (), , , ()0 , 1 , , 00

0

si

When you meet these forms in a limit you cant do much except simplify, rationalize,

factor, etc. and then see if the form becomes determinate.

r

Ve

Lets have a closer look at these indeterminate forms: They are called indeterminate

because we cannot assign a single real number (once and for all) to any one of those

expressions. For example,

TA

Question 1: Why cant we dene

= 1? After all, this looks okay . . .

2x

lim = 1,

x x

but this is impossible because, for any real number x no matter how large,

2x

= 2,

x

and so, in fact,

2x

lim = 2,

x x

and so we cant dene = 1. Of course, we can easily modify this example to show

that if r is any real number, then

rx

lim = r,

x x

2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 67

= r. But r is also arbitrary, and so these numbers r

cant all be equal because we can choose the rs to be dierent! This shows that we

cannot dene the quotient

. Similar reasoning shows that we cannot dene the

quotient

.

Answer 2: No. The reason for this is that there is an innite number of 1s here

and this statement about multiplying 1s together is only true if there is a nite

number of 1s. Here, well give some numerical evidence indicating that 1 = 1,

necessarily.

Let n 1 be a positive integer and look at some of the values of the expression

1

n

1+ , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., 10, 000

n

y

1 +

nl

1 n

n n

value

O

1 +

1 +

1 1

n=1 1

2

1 +

1 2

n=2 2.25

on

2

1 +

1 3

n=3 3

2.37

1 4

n=4 4

2.44

11++

1 5

n=5 5

2.48

si

1 10

n = 10 10

2.59

11++

1 50

n = 50 50

2.69

100

r

1

n = 100 100

2.7048

11++

Ve

1 1000

n = 1, 000 1000

2.7169

1 10000

n = 10, 000 10000

2.71814

... ... ...

TA

Well, you can see that the values do not appear to be approaching 1! In fact, they

seem to be getting closer to some number whose value is around 2.718. More on this

special number later, in Chapter 4. Furthermore, we saw in Exercise 17, of Exercise

Set 3, that these values must always lie between 2 and 3 and so, once again cannot

converge to 1. This shows that, generally speaking, 1 = 1. In this case one can

show that, in fact,

1

n

lim 1+ = 2.7182818284590...

n n

Answer 3: No. This isnt true either since, to be precise, is NOT a real number,

and so we cannot apply real number properties to it. The simplest example that

shows that this dierence between two innities is not zero is the following. Let n

be an integer (not innity), for simplicity. Then

68 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

= lim [n (n 1)]

n

= lim [n n + 1]

n

= lim 1

n

= 1.

The same argument can be used to nd examples where = r, where r is any

given real number. It follows that we cannot assign a real number to the expression

and so this is an indeterminate form.

0

Question 4: Isnt it true that 0

= 0?

Answer 4: No, this isnt true either. See the example in Table 2.11 and the

discussion preceding it. The results there show that

0 sin 0

=

0 0

sin x

= lim

y

x0 x

= 1

nl

in this case. So we cannot assign a real number to the quotient zero over zero.

O

Question 5: Okay, but it must be true that 0 = 1!?

done using the methods in Chapter 4.

on

The Numerical Estimation of a Limit

si

calculations. See Example 59, below for their theoretical, rather than numerical

r

calculation.

Ve

Example 57. Guess the value of each of the following limits at innity:

sin(2x)

a) lim

x x

TA

x2

b) lim

c) lim

x x2 + 1

x+1 x

x

Solution a) Since x , we only need to try out really large values of x. So,

just set up a table such as the one below and look for a pattern . . .

sin 2x

Some values of x The values of f (x) =

x

10 .0913

100 .00873

1, 000 0.000930

10, 000 0.0000582

100, 000 0.000000715

1, 000, 000 0.000000655

... ...

2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 69

We note that even though the values of f (x) here alternate in sign, they are always

getting smaller. In fact, they seem to be approaching f (x) = 0, as x . This is

our guess and, on this basis, we can claim that

sin 2x

lim = 0.

x x

Below youll see a graphical depiction (made by using your favorite software pack-

age or the Plotter included with this book), of the function f (x) over the interval

[10, 100].

y

nl

O

on

si

Note that the oscillations appear to be dying out, that is, they are getting smaller

and smaller, just like the oscillations of your car as you pass over a bump! We guess

r

Ve

b) Now, since x , we only need to try out really small (and negative) values

of x. So, we set up a table like the one above and look for a pattern in the values.

TA

x2

Some values of x The values of f (x) =

x2+1

10 0.9900990099

100 0.9999000100

1, 000 0.9999990000

10, 000 0.9999999900

100, 000 0.9999999999

1, 000, 000 1.0000000000

... ...

In this case the values of f (x) all have the same sign, they are always positive.

Furthermore, they seem to be approaching f (x) = 1, as x . This is our guess

and, on this numerical basis, we can claim that

x2

lim = 1.

x x2 +1

70 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

A graphical depiction of this function f (x) over the interval [100, 10] appears

below.

y

nl

In this example, the values of the function appear to increase steadily towards the

O

line whose equation is y = 1. So, we guess that the value of this limit is 1.

c) Once again x +, we only need to try out really large (and positive) values

of x. Our table looks like:

on

Some values of x The values of f (x) = x+1 x

r si

10 0.15434713

Ve

100 0.04987562

1, 000 0.01580744

10, 000 0.00499999

100, 000 0.00158120

1, 000, 000 0.00050000

TA

... ...

In this case the values of f (x) all have the same sign, they are always positive.

Furthermore, they seem to be approaching f (x) = 0, as x . We can claim that

lim

x + 1 x = 0.

x

See Example 59 d), for another way of seeing this. A graphical depiction of this

function f (x) over the interval [10, 100] appears below.

Note that larger values of x are not necessary since we have a feeling that theyll

just be closer to our limit. We can believe that the values of f (x) are always getting

closer to 0 as x gets larger. So 0 should be the value of this limit. In the graph

below we see that the function is getting smaller and smaller as x increases but it

2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 71

always stays positive. Nevertheless, its values never reach the number 0 exactly, but

only in the limiting sense we described in this section.

y

Watch out!

nl

This numerical way of guessing limits doesnt always work! It works well

O

when the function has a limit, but it doesnt work if the limit doesnt exist (see

the previous sections).

on

For example, the function f (x) = sin x has NO limit as x . But how do you

know this? The table could give us a hint;

si

r

Ve

10 0.5440211109

100 0.5063656411

1, 000 +0.8268795405

10, 000 0.3056143889

TA

1, 000, 000 0.3499935022

... ...

As you can see, these values do not seem to have a pattern to them. They dont

seem to converge to any particular value. We should be suspicious at this point

and claim that the limit doesnt exist. But remember: Nothing can replace a

rigorous (theoretical) argument for the existence or non-existence of a

limit! Our guess may not coincide with the reality of the situation as the next

example will show!

Now, well manufacture a function with the property that, based on our nu-

merical calculations, it seems to have a limit (actually = 0) as x

, but,

in reality, its limit is SOME OTHER NUMBER!

1

lim + 1012 .

x x

72 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

1

Some values of x The values of f (x) = + 1012

x

10 0.100000000

100 0.010000000

1, 000 0.001000000

10, 000 0.000100000

100, 000 0.000001000

999, 999, 999 0.000000001

... ...

Well, if we didnt know any better we would think that this limit should be 0. But

this is only because we are limited by the number of digits displayed upon

y

our calculator! The answer, based upon our knowledge of limits, should be the

number 1012 (but this number would display as 0 on most hand-held calculators).

nl

Thats the real problem with using calculators for nding limits. You must be

careful!!

O

Web Links

on

More (solved) examples on limits at innity at:

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/Classes/CalcI/LimitsAtInnityI.aspx

http://www.sosmath.com/calculus/limcon/limcon04/limcon04.html

r si

Ve

TA

2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 73

arithmetic among innite quantities! In other words, well dene addition and mul-

tiplication of innities and then use these ideas to actually nd limits at (plus or

minus) innity. This material is not standard in Calculus Texts and so can be omit-

ted if so desired. However, it does oer an alternate method for actually guessing

limits correctly every time! If you think that adding and multi-

plying innity is nuts, you should

Operations on the Extended Real Number Line look at the work of Georg Can-

tor (1845-1918), who actually de-

The extended real number line is the collection of all (usual) real numbers veloped an arithmetic of transnite

plus two new symbols, namely, (called extended real numbers) which cardinal numbers, (or numbers that

have the following properties: are innite). He showed that dier-

ent innities exist and actually set

Let x be any real number. Then

up rules of arithmetic for them. His

a) x + (+) = (+) + x = + work appeared in 1833.

b) x + () = () + x =

y

As an example, the totality of all the

c) x (+) = (+) x = + if x > 0 integers (one type of innite num-

nl

d) x () = () x = if x > 0 ber), is dierent from the totality of

O

(another larger innity). In a very

f) x () = () x = + if x < 0

specic sense, there are more real

The operation 0 () is undened and requires further investigation. numbers than integers.

and

on

Operations between +

g) (+) + (+) = +

h) () + () =

si

i) (+) (+) = + = () ()

j) (+) () = = () (+)

r

Ve

x

k) = 0 for any real x

r>0

l) r =

0 r<0

TA

a>1

m) a =

0 0 a<1

The extended real number line is, by denition, the ordinary (positive and

negative) real numbers with the addition of two idealized points denoted by

(and called the points at innity). The way in which innite quantities interact with

each other and with real numbers is summarized briey in Table 2.16 above.

It is important to note that any basic operation that is not explicitly mentioned in

Table 2.16 is to be considered an indeterminate form, unless it can be derived from

one or more of the basic axioms mentioned there.

74 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

lim f (x)

x

This is an expression involving innities which you simplify (if you can) using the

rules of arithmetic of the extended real number system listed in Table 2.16. If you

get an indeterminate form you need to factor, rationalize, simplify, separate terms

etc. until you get something more manageable.

sin 2x

y

a) lim

x x

x2

nl

b) lim 2

x x + 1

x3 + 1

O

c) lim

x x3 1

d) lim x + 1 x

x

x

on

e) lim

x0+ sin x

sin(2x) sin(2)

si

x

previous page. Even though sin(2) doesnt really have a meaning, we can safely

take it that the sin(2) is something less than or equal to 1, because the sine of

r

something

Ve

Table 2.16.

TA

sin 2x

lim =0

x x

Remember: This is just an educated guess; you really have to prove this to

be sure. This method of guessing is far better than the numerical approach of

the previous subsection since it gives the right answer in case of Example 58,

where the numerical approach failed!

2

b) Let f (x) = x2x+1 . Then f () =

by properties (l) and (a) in Table 2.16. So

we have to simplify, etc. There is no other recourse . . . Note that

x2 1

f (x) = =1 2

x2 +1 x +1

1

So lim f (x) = lim 1 2

x x x +1

1

= 1 (by property (l) and (a))

= 1 0 (by property (k))

= 1

2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 75

x3 + 1

c) Let f (x) = . Then

x3 1

()3 + 1 3 + 1 + 1

f () = = = = =

()3 1 3 1 1

denominator using long division, we get

x3 + 1 2

= 1+

x3 1 x3 1

x3 + 1 2

Hence lim = lim (1 + )

x x3 1 x x3 1

2

= 1+ (by property (e) and (a))

= 1 + 0 (by property (k), in Table 2.16)

= 1

y

d) Let f (x) = x+1 x. Then

nl

f () = +1

= (by property (a))

O

= (by property (k), in Table 2.16)

the numerator we know that

on

(x + 1) x

x+1 x =

x+1+ x

si

1

= .

x+1+ x

r

So,

Ve

1

lim f (x) = lim

x x x+1+ x

1

=

+1+

TA

1

= (by property (a))

+

1

= (by property (h))

+

1

= (by property (g))

= 0 (by property (k))

d) In this case the function can be seen to be of more than one indeterminate form:

For example,

1 1

0 = 0 = 0 ,

sin 0 0

which is indeterminate (by denition), or

0 0

= ,

sin 0 0

which is also indeterminate. But we have already seen in Table 2.11 that when this

indeterminate form is interpreted as a limit, it is equal to 1.

76 2.6. CHAPTER EXERCISES

Use the methods of this Chapter to decide the continuity of the following

functions at the indicated point(s).

1. f (x) = 3x2 2x + 1, at x = 1

2. g(t) = t3 cos(t), at t = 0

3. h(z) = z + 2 sin(z) cos(z + 2) at z = 0

4. f (x) = 2 cos(x) at x =

5. f (x) = |x + 1| at x = 1

Evaluate the limits of the functions from Exercises 1-5 above and justify

your conclusions.

6. lim (3x2 2x + 1)

x1

y

7. lim t3 cos(t)

t0

nl

8. lim (z + 2 sin(z) cos(z + 2))

z0

9. lim 2 cos(x)

O

x

10. lim |x + 1|

x1

on

Evaluate the following limits

t 2

si

11. lim

t2+

t +x 2 4

r

12. lim

x 1
16

2

Ve

x4+

13. lim

t2+

tx2 1

14. lim

x1+

|x 11|

TA

15. lim 1+

x0+ x3

x + 1

2

x<0

g(x) =

1x |x| 0x1

x>1

Evaluate

i). lim g(x) ii). lim g(x)

x0 x0+

x1 x1+

v) Conclude that the graph of g has no breaks at x = 0 but it does have a break at

x = 1.

2.6. CHAPTER EXERCISES 77

2x x0

17. lim f (x) where f (x) =

x0 x+1 x>0

18. lim |x 3|

x1

x + 2

19. lim

x2 x+1

2

20. lim x sin x

x0

sin (x 1)

x1 , 0x<1

21. lim f (x)

x1

where f (x) =

1, x=1

|x 1| x>1

|x|

1 for x = 0 and f (0) = 1

y

22. f (x) =

x

x

nl

x<0

|x|

23. g(x) =

1 + x 2

x0

O

x 3x + 2

2

24. f (x) = , f or x = 1; f (1) = 1/3.

x3 1

x

on

4

1 x = 0

25. f (x) =

0.99 x=0

1

26. f (x) = 1.65 + for x = 0, f (0) = +1

si

x2

r

their values in the extended real numbers.

Ve

sin (ax)

27. lim , where a = 0, b = 0

x0 bx

cos (2x)

28. lim

TA

x0 |x|

x sin (x)

29. lim

x0 sin (2x)

sin 3 x

30. lim

x3 3x

bx

31. lim , where a = 0, b = 0

x0 sin (ax)

cos 3x

32. lim

x 4x

33. lim x sin x

x

34. lim

x 2 +1x

x

35.Use Bolzanos Theorem and your pocket calculator to prove that the function f

dened by f (x) = x sin x + cos x has a root in the interval [5, 1].

36. Use Bolzanos Theorem and your pocket calculator to prove that the function

f dened by f (x) = x3 3x + 2 has a root in the interval [3, 0]. Can you nd it?

78 2.6. CHAPTER EXERCISES

Are there any others? (Idea: Find smaller and smaller intervals and keep applying

Bolzanos Theorem)

of the curves y = x2 and y = sin x. Later on, when we study Newtons Method

youll see how to calculate these intersection points very accurately.

interval (you need to nd it).

y

nl

O

on

r si

Ve

TA

Chapter 3

The Derivative of a

Function

y

nl

The Big Picture

O

This chapter contains material which is fundamental to the further study of Calculus.

Its basis dates back to the great Greek scientist Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) who

rst considered the problem of the tangent line. Much later, attempts by the key

on

historical gures Kepler (1571-1630), Galileo (1564-1642), and Newton (1642-1727)

among others, to understand the motion of the planets in the solar system and thus

the speed of a moving body, led them to the problem of instantaneous velocity which

translated into the mathematical idea of a derivative. Through the geometric notion

si

function, itself another function with certain properties. Its interpretations in the

r

physical world are so many that this book would not be sucient to contain them

Ve

all. Once we know what a derivative is and how it is used we can formulate many

problems in terms of these, and the natural concept of an ordinary dierential

equation arises, a concept which is central to most applications of Calculus to the

sciences and engineering. For example, the motion of every asteroid, planet, star,

comet, or other celestial object is governed by a dierential equation. Once we can

TA

solve these equations we can describe the motion. Of course, this is hard in general,

and if we cant solve them exactly we can always approximate the solutions which

give the orbits by means of some, so-called, numerical approximations. This is

the way its done these days ... We can send probes to Mars because we have a very

good idea of where they should be going in the rst place, because we know the

mass of Mars (itself an amazing fact) with a high degree of accuracy.

Most of the time we realize that things are in motion and this means that certain

physical quantities are changing. These changes are best understood through the

derivative of some underlying function. For example, when a car is moving its

distance from a given point is changing, right? The rate at which the distance

changes is the derivative of the distance function. This brings us to the notion

of instantaneous velocity. Furthermore, when a balloon is inated, its volume is

changing and the rate at which this volume is changing is approximately given

by the derivative of the original volume function (its units would be meters3 /sec).

In a dierent vein, the stock markets of the world are full of investors who delve

into stock options as a means of furthering their investments. Central to all this

business is the Black-Sholes equation, a complicated dierential equation, which

won their discoverer(s) a Nobel Prize in Economics a few years ago.

79

www.math.carleton.ca/~amingare/calculus/cal104.html Protected by Copyright, - DO NOT COPY

80 3.1. MOTIVATION

Review

Look over your notes on functions in Chapter 1, especially the whole thing

dealing with functions f being evaluated at abstract symbols other than x, like

f (x + 2). To really understand derivatives you should review Chapter 2, in

particular the part on the denition of continuity and right/left- handed limits.

3.1 Motivation

itself another function with certain properties.

First, well dene the notion of a tangent to a curve. In the phrase that describes

it, a tangent at a given point P on the graph of the curve y = f (x) is a straight line

segment which intersects the curve y = f (x) at P and is tangent to it (think of the

ordinary tangents to a circle, see Figure 33).

y

Figure 33. Find the equation of the line tangent to the curve y = x2 at

nl

Example 60.

the point (1, 1).

O

Solution Because of the shape of this curve we can see from its graph that every

straight line crossing this curve will do so in at most two points, and well actually

show this below. Lets choose a point P, say, (1, 1) on this curve for ease of exposition.

on

Well nd the equation of the tangent line to P and well do this in the following

steps:

si

2. Show that there exists, among this set of lines, a unique line which is tangent

to P.

r

Ve

OK, the equation of every line through P(1, 1) has the form

y = m(x 1) + 1

where m is its slope, right? (Figure 34).

TA

Figure 34. Since we want the straight line to intersect the curve y = x2 , we must set y = x2 in

the preceding equation to nd

x2 = m(x 1) + 1

or the quadratic

x2 mx + (m 1) = 0

Finding its roots gives 2 solutions (the two x-coordinates of the point of intersection

we spoke of earlier), namely,

x = m 1 and x = 1

The second root x = 1 is clear to see as all these straight lines go through P(1, 1).

The rst root x = m 1 gives a new root which is related to the slope of the

straight line through P(1, 1).

OK, we want only one point of intersection, right? (Remember, were looking

for a tangent). This means that the two roots must coincide! So we set m 1 = 1

(as the two roots are equal) and this gives m = 2.

3.1. MOTIVATION 81

y = 2(x 1) + 1 = 2x 1

is the equation of the line tangent to P(1, 1) for the curve y = x2 . Remember that

at the point (1, 1) this line has slope m = 2. This will be useful later.

OK, but this is only an example of a tangent line to a curve . . . . How do you dene

this in general?

Well, lets take a function f , look at its graph and choose some point P(x0 , y0 ) on

its graph where y0 = f (x0 ). Look at a nearby point Q(x0 + h, f (x0 + h)). What is

the equation of the line joining P to Q? Its form is

y y0 = m(x x0 )

But y0 = f (x0 ) and m, the slope, is equal to the quotient of the dierence between

the y-coordinates and the x-coordinates (of Q and P), that is,

y

m= = .

(x0 + h) x0 h

nl

OK, so the equation of this line is

O

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )

y={ }(x x0 ) + f (x0 )

h

From this equation you can see that the slope of this line must change with h.

on

So, if we let h approach 0 as a limit, this line may approach a limiting line and

it is this limiting line that we call the tangent line to the curve y fx

= ( ) at

P x ,y

( 0 0 ) (see the gure in the margin on the right). The slope of thistangent

si

r

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )

Ve

m = lim

h0 h

(whenever this limit exists and is nite) is called the derivative of f at x0 .

It is a number!!

TA

Notation for Derivatives The following notations are all adopted universally for

the derivatives of f at x0 :

df

f (x0 ), (x0 ), Dx f (x0 ), Df (x0 )

dx

All of these have the same meaning.

Consequences!

This graph has a vertical tangent

line, namely x = 0, at the origin.

1. If the limit as h 0 does not exist as a two-sided limit or it is innite we say

that the derivative does not exist. This is equivalent to saying that there is

no uniquely dened tangent line at (x0 , f (x0 )), (Example 63).

2. The derivative, f (x0 ) when it exists, is the slope of the tangent line at

(x0 , f (x0 )) on the graph of f .

3. Theres nothing special about these tangent lines to a curve in the sense that

the same line can be tangent to other points on the same curve. (The

simplest example occurs when f (x) = ax + b is a straight line. Why?)

82 3.1. MOTIVATION

In this book we will use the symbols f (x0 ), Df (x0 ) to mean the derivative

of f at x0 where

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )

f (x0 ) = lim

h0 h

= The slope of the tangent line at x = x0

= The instantaneous rate of change of f at x = x0 .

4. If either one or both one-sided limits dened by f (x0 ) is innite, the tangent

line at that point P(x0 , f (x0 )) is vertical and given by the equation x = x0 ,

(See the margin).

y

The key idea in nding the derivative using Table 3.1, here, is always to

nl

SIMPLIFY rst, THEN pass to the LIMIT

O

The concept of a left and right-

derivative of f at x = x0 is dened

by the left and right limits of the

on

expression on the right in Table 3.1. Example 61. In Example 60 we showed that the slope of the tangent line

So, for example, 2

to the curve y = x at (1, 1) is equal to 2. Show that the derivative of f where

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) f (x) = x2 at x = 1 is also equal to 2 (using the limit denition of the derivative,

f (x0 ) = lim ,

h0 h Table 3.1).

si

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )

f+ (x0 ) = lim ,

h0+ h Solution By denition, the derivative of f at x = 1 is given by

r

f (1 + h) f (1)

dene the left and right-derivative

f (x) = lim

Ve

of f at x = x0 respectively, when- h0 h

ever these limits exist and are nite. provided this limit exists and is nite. OK, then calculate

f (1 + h) f (1) (1 + h)2 12

=

h h

TA

1 + 2h + h2 1

=

h

= 2+h

f (1 + h) f (1)

lim = lim (2 + h)

h0 h h0

= 2

and so f (1) = 2, as well. Remember, this also means that the slope of the tangent

line at x = 1 is equal to 2, which is what we found earlier.

Example 62. Find the slope of the tangent line at x = 2 for the curve whose

equation is y = 1/x.

Solution OK, we set f (x) = 1/x. As we have seen above, the slopes value, mtan ,

is given by

f (2 + h) f (2)

mtan = lim .

h0 h

3.1. MOTIVATION 83

who has appeared in a recent lm

Remember to simplify this ratio as much as possible (without the lim symbol). on Cinderella, is the ideal of the

For h = 0 we have, Italian Risorgimento, the Renais-

sance: Painter, inventor, scientist,

f (2 + h) f (2)

1

(2+h)

1

2

= engineer, mathematician, patholo-

h h gist etc., he is widely accepted as a

2

2(2+h)

(2+h)

2(2+h) universal genius, perhaps the great-

=

h est ever. What impresses me the

2 (2 + h) most about this extremely versa-

=

2h(2 + h) tile man is his ability to assimilate

h nature into a quantiable whole,

=

2h(2 + h) his towering mind, and his insa-

1 tiable appetite for knowledge. He

= , since h = 0.

2(2 + h) drew the regular polytopes (three-

dimensional equivalents of the reg-

Since this is true for each h = 0, we can pass to the limit to nd,

ular polygons) for his friend Fra

f (2 + h) f (2) Luca Pacioli, priest and mathe-

y

mtan = lim matician, who included the hand-

h0 h

nl

1 drawn sketches at the end of the

= lim

h0 2(2 + h) original manuscript of his book on

1

O

the golden number entitled De div-

= .

4 ina proportione, published in 1509,

and now in Torino, Italy.

on

Example 63. We give examples of the following:

si

(innite derivative at x = 0, i.e., both one-sided limits of the derivative exist

r

Ve

derivative is equal to zero in this case).

Solution a) Let

TA

x if x 0

f (x) =

x if x < 0

This function is the same as f (x) = |x|, the absolute value of x, right? The idea is

that in order for the two-sided (or ordinary) limit of the derivative to exist at some

point, it is necessary that both one-sided limits (from the right and the left) each

exist and both be equal, remember? The point is that this functions derivative

has both one-sided limits existing at x = 0 but unequal. Why? Lets use

Table 3.1 and try to nd its limit from the right at x = 0.

For this we suspect that we need h > 0, as we want the limit from the right,

and were using the same notions of right and left limits drawn from the theory of

continuous functions.

f (0 + h) f (0) f (h) f (0)

=

h h

h0

= (because f (h) = h if h > 0)

h

= 1, (since h = 0).

84 3.1. MOTIVATION

f (h) f (0)

lim = 1,

h0+ h

and so this limit from the right, also called the right derivative of at = 0, f x

exists and is equal to 1. This also means that as h 0, the slope of the tangent

line to the graph of y = |x| approaches the value 1.

OK, now lets nd its limit from the left at x = 0. For this we want h < 0, right?

Now

f (0 + h) f (0) f (h) f (0)

=

h h

h 0

= (because f (h) = h if h < 0)

h

= 1 (since h = 0)

f (h) f (0)

lim = 1.

y

h0 h

This, so-called, left-derivative of f at x = 0 exists and its value is 1, a dierent

nl

value than 1 (which is the value of the right derivative of our f at x = 0). Thus

O

lim

h0 h

does not exist as a two-sided limit. The graph of this function is shown in Figure

35. Note the cusp/ sharp point/v-shape at the origin of this graph. This graphical

on

phenomenon guarantees that the derivative does not exist there.

and y = x should qualify, so there is no actual tangent line).

si

r

say, so that its tangent line is x = 0 (if its derivative is innite at x = x0 , then its

Ve

SIMPLIFY rst, then

GO to the LIMIT Dene f by

x, x 0,

f (x) =

TA

x, x < 0.

f (0 + h) f (0) f (h) f (0)

=

h h

h 0

= ( because f (h) = h if h < 0)

h

h

=

(h)

1

= .

h

So we obtain,

lim = lim

h0 h h0 h

= +,

3.1. MOTIVATION 85

f

(x0 ) Tangent Line Direction Remarks

f (0 + h) f (0) 1

lim

y

lim =

h0+ h h0 +

h

= +.

nl

Finally, we see that

O

f (0 + h) f (0) f (0 + h) f (0) Figure 37.

lim = lim

h0 h h0+ h

both exist and are equal to +.

on

Note: The line x = 0 acts as the tangent line to the graph of f at x = 0.

si

point (i.e. f (x) = 0 at, say, x = 0) consider f dened by f (x) = x2 at x = 0, see

Figure 37. Its derivative f (0) is given by

r

f (0 + h) f (0)

Ve

f (0) = lim =0

h0 h

and since the derivative of f at x = 0 is equal to the slope of the tangent line there,

it follows that the tangent line is horizontal, and given by y = 0.

TA

Example 64. On the surface of our moon, an object P falling from rest will fall

a distance of approximately 5.3t2 feet in t seconds. Find its instantaneous velocity

at t = a sec, t = 1 sec, and at t = 2.6 seconds.

Solution Well need to calculate its instantaneous velocity, lets call it, v, at t = a

seconds. Since, in this case, f (t) = 5.3t2 , we have, by denition,

f (a + h) f (a)

v = lim .

h0 h

Now, for h = 0,

f (a + h) f (a) 5.3(a + h)2 5.3a2

=

h h

5.3a2 + 10.6ah + 5.3h2 5.3a2

=

h

= 10.6a + 5.3h

So,

h0

86 3.1. MOTIVATION

f

(x0 ) does not exist (right and left derivatives not equal)

f

(x1 ) = 0, (horizontal tangent line).

f

(x2 ) does not exist (left derivative at x = x2 is innite).

f

(x3 ) < 0, (tangent line falls)

f

(x4 ) = 0, (horizontal tangent line)

f

(x5 ) > 0, (tangent line rises).

feet per second. It follows that its instantaneous velocity at t = 1 second is given

by (10.6) (1) = 10.6 feet per second, obtained by setting a = 1 in the formula for

v. Similarly, v = (10.6) (2.6) = 27.56 feet per second. From this and the preceding

discussion, you can conclude that an object falling from rest on the surface of the

y

moon will fall at approximately one-third the rate it does on earth (neglecting air

resistance, here).

nl

Figure 38. Example 65. How long will it take the falling object of Example 64 to reach

O

an instantaneous velocity of 50 feet per second?

on

50

want 10.6a = 50 we get a = 10.6 = 4.72 seconds.

Example 66. Dierent derivatives in action, see Figure 38, and Table 3.3.

si

r

5x + 1 at x = 3.

Ve

Solution By denition,

f (3 + h) f (3)

TA

f (3) = lim .

h0 h

For h = 0,

f (3 + h) f (3)

5(3 + h) + 1 5(3) + 1

=

h h

16 + 5h 4

= .

h

the numerator (by multiplying

Think BIG here: Remember that ra- both the numerator and denominator by 16 + 5h + 4). Then well nd,

tionalization gives

2 16 + 5h 4 16 + 5h 4 16 + 5h + 4

2 = = { }{ }

2+ h h 16 + 5h + 4

16 + 5h 16

for any two positive symbols, 2, . =

h( 16 + 5h + 4)

5

= , since h = 0.

16 + 5h + 4

3.1. MOTIVATION 87

We cant simplify this any more, and now the expression looks good if we set

h = 0 in it, so we can pass to the limit as h 0, to nd,

f (3 + h) f (3)

f (3) = lim

h0 h

5

= lim

h0 16 + 5h + 4

5

=

16 + 4

5

= .

8

Summary

df

dx

(a), or Df (a), is dened by the two equivalent denitions

y

f (a + h) f (a)

f (a)

nl

= lim

h0 h

f (x) f (a)

= lim .

xa

O

xa

whenever either limit exists (in which case so does the other). You get the second

denition from the rst by setting h = x a, so that the statement h 0 is the

same as x a.

on

SIMPLIFY rst, then

The right-derivative (resp. left-derivative) is dened by the right- (resp. left- GO to the LIMIT

hand) limits

si

f (a + h) f (a)

f+ (a) = lim

h

r

h0+

f (x) f (a)

Ve

= lim ,

xa+ xa

and

f (a + h) f (a)

f (a) = lim

TA

h0 h

f (x) f (a)

= lim .

xa xa

NOTES

88 3.1. MOTIVATION

f (2 + h) f (2)

1. lim where f (x) = x2

h0 h

f (1 + h) f (1)

2. lim where f (x) = |x|

h0 h

0 x=0

f (0 + h) f (0)

3. lim where f (x) = 1

h0 h x = 0

x

f (1 + h) f (1)

4.a) lim

h0 h

f (1 + h) f (1) x+1

x1

b) lim wheref (x) =

h0+ h x 0x<1

f (2 + h) f (2)

5. lim where f (x) = x

h0 h

y

HINT : Rationalize the numerator and simplify.

f (2 + h) f (2)

where f (x) = x2

nl

6. lim

h0 h

O

Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at the given point.

7. f (x) = 3x + 2 at x = 1

on

8. f (x) = 3 4x at x = 2

9. f (x) = x2 at x = 3

10. f (x) = |x| at x = 1

si

HINT: Consider the left and right derivatives separately.

r

1 x0

12. f (x) = (at x = 0. Remember Heavisides function?)

Ve

0 x<0

Determine whether or not the following functions have a derivative at the indicated

point. Explain.

TA

1 x0

13. f (x) = at x = 0

1 x<0

14. f (x) = x + 1 at x = 1

HINT: Graphing this function may help.

15. f (x) = |x2 | at x = 0

16. f (x) = 6 2x at x = 1

1

17. f (x) = x2

at x = 1

x

18. A function f is dened by

0x<1

f (x) =

8x + x2 2

1x<2

2 x < 3.

a) What is f (1)? Explain.

b) Does f (2) exist? Explain.

c) Evaluate f ( 52 ).

NOTES:

3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES 89

By now you know how to nd the derivative of a given function (and you can

actually check to see whether or not it has a derivative at a given point). You also

understand the relationship between the derivative and the slope of a tangent line

to a given curve (otherwise go to Section 3.1).

f (x) f (a)

f (a) = lim (3.1)

xa xa

provided the (two-sided) limit exists and is nite. Do you see why this denition is

equivalent to

f (a + h) f (a)

f (a) = lim ?

h0 h

Simply replace the symbol h by x a and simplify. As h 0 it is necessary

that x a 0 or x a.

y

nl

Notation

When a given function f has a derivative at x = a we say that f is dierentiable

O

at x = a or briey f is dierentiable at a.

on

If f is dierentiable at every point x of a given interval, I, we say that f is dier-

entiable on I.

si

on the real line (i.e., at each real number) and its derivative at x is given by f (x) =

2x.

r

Ve

Example 69. The Power Rule. The function g dened by g(x) = xn where

n 0 is any given integer is dierentiable at every point x. If n < 0 then it is

dierentiable everywhere except at x = 0. Show that its derivative is given by

d n

x = nxn1 .

TA

dx

n(n 1) n2 2

(x + h)n = xn + nxn1 h + x h + + nxhn1 + hn

2

for some integer n whenever n 1, (there are (n + 1) terms in total). From this we

get the well-known formulae

(x + h)2 = x2 + 2xh + h2 ,

(x + h)3 = x3 + 3x2 h + 3xh2 + h3 ,

4

(x + h) = x4 + 4x3 h + 6x2 h2 + 4xh3 + h4 .

2

x h + + nxhn1 + hn

=

h h

n(n 1) n2

= nx n1

+ x h + + nxhn2 + hn1 .

2

90 3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES

Since n 1 it follows that (because the limit of a sum is the sum of the limits),

lim (nxn1 + h + + hn1 )

lim = x

h0 h h0 2

n(n 1) n2

= nxn1 + lim x h + + hn1

h0 2

= nxn1 + 0

= nxn1 .

Remark! Actually, more is true here. It is the case that for every number a

(integer or not), but a is NOT a variable like x, sin x, ...,

y

d a

x = axa1 if x > 0.

nl

dx

O

This formula is useful as it gives a simple expression for the derivative of any power

on

of the independent variable, in this case, x.

QUICKIES

si

= t1 , so f (t) = (1)t2 = t12

r

1

b) f (t) = t

Ve

c) g(z) = 1

z2

= z 2 , so g (z) = (2)z 3 = z23

1 1

d) f (x) = x = x 2 , so f (x) = 12 x 2 = 1

2 x

2 5

e) f (x) = x 3 ; f (x) = 23 x 3

TA

Quick summary

Notation:

whose values are given by

a

A function f is said to be dierentiable at the point if its derivative f (a) exists

there. This is equivalent to saying that both the left- and right-hand derivatives exist

(cf )(x) = cf (x) at a and are equal. A function f is said to be dierentiable everywhere if it is

dierentiable at every point a of the real line.

where c is a constant.

2. By the symbols f + g we For example, the function f dened by the absolute value of x, namely, f (x) = |x|,

mean the function whose val- is dierentiable at every point except at x = 0 where f (0) = 1 and f+ (0) = 1. On

ues are given by

the other hand, the function g dened by g(x) = x|x| is dierentiable everywhere.

(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) Can you show this ?

Let f, g be two dierentiable functions at x and let c be a constant. Then cf , f g,

f g are all dierentiable at x and

3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES 91

d df

a) (cf ) = c = cf (x), c is a constant.

dx dx

d df dg

(f g) = , Sum/Dierence Rule

b) dx dx dx

= f (x) g (x)

d

c) (f g) = f (x) g(x) + f (x) g (x), Product Rule

dx

y

d) If for some x, the value g(x) = 0 then f

g

is dierentiable at x and

nl

Note that the formula

d f f (x) g(x) f (x) g (x) d

(f g) =

df dg

= , Quotient Rule

O

dx g g 2 (x) dx dx dx

example, if f (x) = x, g(x) = 1, then

on

where all the derivatives are evaluated at the point x. Hints to the proofs or f (x)g(x) = x and so (f g) (x) = 1.

verication of these basic Rules may be found at the end of this section. They On the other hand, f (x)g (x) = 0,

are left to the reader as a Group Project. and so this formula cannot be true.

r si

Ve

Solution We use Example 69 and Properties (a) and (b) to see that

d d d d d

f (x) = (2x3 ) + (5x) + (1) = 2 (x3 ) + (5) (x) + 0

dx dx dx dx dx

TA

= 2 3x2 + (5) 1

= 6x2 5.

f (1) = 6 (1)2 5 = 6 5 = 1.

Example 71. Given that f (x) = 3

x+ 3

2 1 nd f (x) at x = 1.

Figure 39.

Solution We rewrite all roots as powers and then use the Power Rule. So,

d

f (x) x+ 21

3 3

=

dx

d d d

= x1/3 + 21/3 1 = x1/3 + 21/3 1

dx dx dx

1 31 1

= x +00

3

1 23

= x .

3

92 3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES

Finally, f (1) =

1 2

(1) 3 =

1 3

1

2 1

= (1)2 = .

1

3 3 3 3

Example 72. Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve dened by

the function h(x) = (x2 + 1)(x 1) at the point (1, 0) on its graph.

Solution Using the geometrical interpretation of the derivative (cf., Table 3.1),

we know that this slope is equal to h (1). So, we need to calculate the derivative

of h and then evaluate it at x = 1. Since h is made up of two functions

we can use the Product Rule (Property (c), above). To this end we write

f (x) = (x2 + 1) and g(x) = x 1. Then h(x) = f (x)g(x) and we want h (x).

So, using the Product Rule we see that

d

h (x) = f (x)g(x) = f (x) g(x) + f (x) g (x)

=

dx

d

x2 + 1 (x 1) + (x2 + 1)

d

(x 1)

dx dx

= (2x + 0) (x 1) + (x2 + 1) (1 0) = 2x(x 1) + x2 + 1

= 3x2 2x + 1.

y

nl

The graph of the function h and its Example 73. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve dened

tangent line at x = 1. The slope of by

t

O

this straight line is equal to 2

h(t) =

t2 + 1

Figure 40.

at the point (0, 0) on its graph.

on

Solution Since the function h is a quotient of two functions we may use the

Quotient Rule, (d). To this end, let f (t) = t and g(t) = t2 + 1. The idea is that

we have to nd h (t) at t = 0 since this will give the slope of the tangent line

at t = 0, and then use the general equation of a line in the form y = mx + b

si

in order to get the actual equation of our tangent line passing through (0, 0).

OK, now

r

h (t)

Ve

=

g 2 (t)

(1) (t2 + 1) (t) (2t)

=

(t2 + 1)2

1 t2

= .

TA

(t2 + 1)2

Next, it is clear that h (0) = 1 and so the tangent line must have the equation

y = x + b for an appropriate point (x, y) on it. But (x, y) = (0, 0) is on it,

The tangent line y = x through

by hypothesis. So, we set x = 0, y = 0 in the general form, solve for b, and

conclude that b = 0. Thus, the required equation is y = x + 0 = x, i.e., y = x,

(0, 0) for the function h in Exam-

see Figure 41.

ple 73.

Figure 41. Example 74. At which points on the graph of y = x3 + 3x does the

tangent line have slope equal to 9?

Solution This question is not as direct as the others, above. The idea here is

to nd the expression for the derivative of y and then set this expression equal

2 2

to 9 and then solve for x. Now, y (x) = 3x + 3 and so 9 = y (x) = 3x + 3

implies that 3x = 6 or x = 2. Note the two roots here. So there are two

2

the slope is equal to 9. The ycoordinates

are

then given by setting

x

= 2 into

the expression

for y. We nd the points

( 2, 5 2) and ( 2, 5 2), since ( 2)3 = 2 2.

3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES 93

Solution Instead of using the Product Rule we can simply expand the product

noting that f (x) = (x2 x + 1)(x2 + x + 1) = x4 + x2 + 1. So, f (x) = 4x3 + 2x

by the Power Rule, and thus, f (0) = 0, f (1) = 6.

Find the derivative of each of the following functions using any one

of the Rules above: Show specically which Rules you are using at

each step. There is no need to simplify your nal answer.

x0.3

Example: If f (x) = , then

x+1

f (x) = , by the Quotient Rule,

(x + 1)2

y

(0.3)x0.7 (x

+ 1) x0.3 (1)

= , by the Power Rule with a = 2/3

nl

(x + 1) 2

(0.3)x0.7 (x

+ 1) x0.3

= .

O

(x + 1)2 on

1. f (x) = x1.5

2. f (t) = t2

si

3. g(x) = 6

2

r

4. h(x) = x 3

Ve

1

5. k(t) = t 5

6. f (x) = 4.52

7. f (t) = t4

8. g(x) = x3

TA

9. f (x) = x1

10. f (x) = x

11. f (t) = t2 6

12. f (x) = 3x2 + 2x 1

13. f (t) = (t 1)(t2 + 4)

14. f (x) = x 3x2 + 1

x0.5

15. f (x) =

2x + 1

x1

16. f (x) =

x+1

x3 1

17. f (x) =

x2 +x1

2

x3

18. f (x) = 3

x + 3x 4

94 3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES

Prove the Dierentiation Rules in Section 3.2 using the denition of the derivative as

a limit, the limit properties in Table 2.4, and some basic algebra. Assume throughout

that f and g are dierentiable at x and g(x) = 0. In order to prove the Properties

proceed as follows using the hints given:

1. Property a)

f (x + h) f (x)

(cf ) (x) = c lim ,

h0 h

and complete the argument.

2. Property b) The Sum/Dierence Rule: Show that for a given x and h = 0,

y

(f + g)(x + h) (f + g)(x) f (x + h) f (x) g(x + h) g(x)

= + .

h h h

nl

Then use Table 2.4, a) and the denition of the derivatives.

3. Property c) The Product Rule: Show that for a given x and h = 0,

O

(f g)(x + h) (f g)(x) f (x + h) f (x) g(x + h) g(x)

= g(x) + f (x + h) .

h h h

on

Then use Table 2.4 e),the denition of the derivatives, and the continuity of f

at x.

4. Property d) The Quotient Rule: First, show that for a given x and any h,

f
f

si

f (x + h) f (x)

(x + h) (x) = .

g g g(x + h) g(x)

r

Ve

= ,

g(x + h) g(x) g(x + h)g(x)

and then rewrite it as,

TA

f (x + h)g(x) f (x)g(x + h)

=

g(x + h)g(x)

.

g(x + h)g(x)

Now, let h 0 and use Table 2.4, d) and e), the continuity of g at x, and the

denition of the derivatives.

3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 95

This section is about a method that will enable you to nd the derivative of com-

plicated looking expressions, with some speed and simplicity. After a few examples

youll be using it without much thought ... It will become very natural. Many ex-

amples in nature involve variables which depend upon other variables. For example,

the speed of a car depends on the amount of gas being injected into the carburator,

and this, in turn depends on the diameter of the injectors, etc. In this case we could

ask the question: How does the speeed change if we vary the size of the injectors

only ? and leave all the other variables the same. We are then led naturally to a

study of the composition (not the same as the product), of various functions and

their derivatives.

We recall the composition of two functions, (see Chapter 1), and the limit-

denition of the derivative of a given function from Section 3.2. First, lets see

if we can discover the form of the Rule that nds the derivative of the composition

of two functions in terms of the individual derivatives. That is, we want an explicit

Rule for nding

y

d d

(f g)(x) = f (g(x)),

nl

dx dx

in terms of f and g(x).

O

We assume that f and g are both dierentiable at some point that we call x0 (and

so g is also continuous there). Furthermore, we must assume that the range of g is

contained in the domain of f (so that the composition makes sense). Now look at

on

the quantity

k(x) = f (g(x)),

which is just shorthand for this composition. We want to calculate k (x0 ). So, we

si

r

Ve

= ,

h h

and see what happens when we let h 0. Okay, now lets assume that is not g

identically a constant function near x x

= 0 . This means that g(x) = g(x0 )

for any x in a small interval around x0 . Now,

TA

=

h h

f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 )) g(x0 + h) g(x0 )

= .

g(x0 + h) g(x0 ) h

g(x0 + h) g(x0 )

g (x0 ),

h

f (g(x0 ))

g(x0 + h) g(x0 )

a = g(x0 ) to see this). It now follows by the theory of limits that

96 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

lim = lim ,

h0 h h0

g(x0 + h) g(x0 )

f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 ))

h

= lim

h0

g(x

g(x0 + h) g(x0 )

0 + h) g(x0 )

lim ,

h0 h

= f (g(x0 )) g (x0 ),

= k (x0 ).

and this is the formula we wanted. Its called the Chain Rule.

y

Let f, g be two dierentiable functions with g dierentiable at x and g(x) in

the domain of f . Then y = f g is dierentiable at x and

nl

The Chain Rule also says

d d

(f g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f (g(x)) g (x)

O

dx dx

Df (2) = f

(2) D2 ,

on

can read this as: Dee of f of box Lets see what this means. When the composition (f g) is dened (and the range

is f prime box dee box. We call of g is contained in the domain of f ) then (f g) exists and

this the Box formulation of the

d df

Chain Rule. (f g)(x) = (g(x)) g (x)

si

dx dx

d

f (g(x)) g (x)

f (g(x)) =

r

dx

Ve

function rst, (here, f ), evaluating its derivative, (here f ), at the inside function,

TA

(here, g(x)), and nally multiplying this number, f (g(x)), by the derivative of g at

x.

The Chain Rule is one of the most useful and important rules in the theory of dif-

ferentiation of functions as it will allow us to nd the derivative of very complicated-

looking expressions with ease. For example, using the Chain Rule well be able to

show that

d

(x + 1)3 = 3(x + 1)2 .

dx

Without using the Chain Rule, the alternative is that we have to expand

(x + 1)3 = x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1

using the Binomial Theorem and then use the Sum Rule along with the Power Rule

to get the result which, incidentally, is identical to the stated one since

d 3

(x + 3x2 + 3x + 1) = 3x2 + 6x + 3 = 3(x + 1)2 .

dx

3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 97

Replace the symbol g(x) by our box symbol, 2 . Then the Chain Rule says that

d

f (2) 2

f (2 ) =

dx

derivative of a composition derivative of f at 2 derivative of 2 at x

where the 2 may represent (or even contain) any other function(s) you wish. In

words, it can be remembered by saying that the

y

Consequences of the Chain Rule! Its NOT TRUE that

nl

Let g be a dierentiable function with g(x) = 0. Then 1

is dierentiable and by the

Quotient Rule,

g

Df (g(x)) = f

(x) g

(x),

O

d

1

1

1. = g (x), or,

dx g(x) (g(x))2

on

d

2. (g(x))a = a(g(x))a1 g (x) The Generalized Power Rule

dx

si

whenever a is a real number and g(x) > 0. This Generalized Power Rule follows

easily from the Chain Rule, above, since we can let f (x) = xa , g(x) = 2 . Then the

composition (f g)(x) = g(x)a = 2 a . According to the Chain Rule,

r

Ve

d

f (2 ) = f (2 ) 2 .

dx

But, by the ordinary Power Rule, Example 69, we know that f (x) = axa1 . Okay,

now since f (2 ) = a2 a1 , and 2 = g (x), the Chain Rule gives us the result.

TA

An easy way to remember these formulae, once and for all, is by writing

D 2 power

1

= power 2 (power)1 D 2

1

Generalized Power Rule

D = D 2, Reciprocal Rule

2 (2 )2

where 2 may be some dierentiable function of x, and we have used the modern

notation D for the derivative with respect to x. Recall that the reciprocal of

something is, by denition, 1 divided by that something.

The Chain Rule can take on dierent forms. For example, let y = f (u) and assume

that the variable u is itself a function of another variable, say x, and we write this

as u = g(x). So y = f (u) and u = g(x). So y must be a function of x and it

is reasonable to expect that y is a dierentiable function of x if certain additional

conditions on f and g are imposed. Indeed, let y be a dierentiable function of u

98 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

of x. Now the question is:

How does y vary with x? The result looks like this ...

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

or

y (x) = f (u) g (x)

where we must replace all occurrences of the symbol in the above by u

gx

the symbol ( ) after the dierentiations are made.

1

Sophie Germain, 1776-1831, was Example 76. Let f be dened by f (x) = 6x 2 + 3. Find f (x).

the second of three children of a

1

middle-class Parisian family. Some- Solution We know f (x) = 6x 2 + 3. So, if we let x = 2 we get

what withdrawn, she never married,

d 1/2 d

and by all accounts lived at home f (x) = 6 2 + 3 (by Properties (a) and (b)),

dx dx

where she worked on mathematical

1

= 6 2 1/2 + 0,

y

problems with a passion. Of the

2

3x1/2

many stories which surround this

=

nl

gifted mathematician, there is this 3

one ... Upon the establishment of = .

x

O

the Ecole Polytechnique in 1795,

women were not allowed to attend

the lectures so Sophie managed to Example 77. Let g be dened by g(t) = t5 4t3 2. What is g (0), the

derivative of g evaluated at t = 0?

on

get the lecture notes in mathemat-

ics by befriending students. She

then had some great ideas and wrote Solution

d 5 d d

this big essay called a memoire and g (t) = (t ) 4 (t3 ) 2 (by Property (b))

si

name) to one of the great French = 5t4 4(3)t2 0 (Power Rule)

r

Ve

But g (0) is g (t) with t = 0, right? So, g (0) = 5(0)4 12(0)2 = 0.

vice and opinion. Lagrange found

much merit in the work and wished

Example 78. Let y be dened by y(x) = (x2 3x + 1)(2x + 1). Evaluate

to meet its creator. When he did

y (1).

nally meet her he was delighted

TA

Solution Let f (x) = x2 3x + 1, g(x) = 2x + 1. Then y(x) = f (x)g(x) and we want

a woman, and went on to intro-

y (x). . . So, we can use the Product Rule (or you can multiply the polynomials

duce her to the great mathemati- out, collect terms and then dierentiate each term). Now,

cians of the time. She won a prize

in 1816 dealing with the solution of

y (x) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x)

a problem in two-dimensional har- = (2x 3 + 0)(2x + 1) + (x2 3x + 1)(2 + 0)

monic motion, yet remained a lone = (2x 3)(2x + 1) + 2(x2 3x + 1), so,

genius all of her life.

= 5.

x2 + 4

Example 79. Let y be dened by y(x) = . Find the slope of the

x3 4

tangent line to the curve y = y(x) at x = 2.

f (x)

Solution We write y(x) = where f (x) = x2 + 4, g(x) = x3 4. We also need

g(x)

f (x) and g (x), since the Quotient Rule will come in handy here.

3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 99

The next Table may be useful as we always need these 4 quantities when using the

Quotient Rule:

x2 + 4 2x x3 4 3x2

y (x) =

(g(x))2

2x(x3 4) (x2 + 4)(3x2 )

= .

(x3 4)2

No need to simplify here. Were really asking for y (2), right? Why? Think slope

of tangent line derivative. Thus,

4(4) 8(12)

y

y (2) =

16

nl

= 5

O

6

Example 80. Let y(x) = x2 . Evaluate y (0).

x4

on

Solution Now

d 2 d 1

y (x) = (x ) 6 ( )

dx dx x 4

si

(where we used Property (a), the Power Rule, and Consequence 1.)

1 d

r

= 2x 6 (x 4)

(x 4)2 dx

1
1

Ve

d 1 d

since ( )= = 2

dx x-4 dx 2 22

where 2 = (x 4).

All right, now

TA

6

y (x) = 2x + ,

(x 4)2

and so

6

y (0) = 2(0) + ,

(4)2

3

= .

8

4 x2

Example 81. Let y be dened by y(x) = . Evaluate y (x) at

x2 2x 3

x = 1.

f (x)

Solution Write y(x) = . We need y (1), right ? OK, now we have the table . . .

g(x)

4 x2 2x x2 2x 3 2x 2

100 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

y (1) =

(g(1))2

(2)(1 2 3) (3)(2 2)

=

(1 2 3)2

80

=

16

1

= .

2

1.6

Example 82. Let y be dened by y(x) = . Evaluate y (0).

(x + 1)100

Solution Write y(x) = (1.6)(x + 1)100 = 1.6f (x)100 where f (x) = x + 1 (or,

replace f (x) by 2 ). Now use Property (a) and Consequence (2) to nd that

y

= 160(x + 1)101 (1)

160

nl

= ,

(x + 1)101

so y (0) = 160.

O

On the other hand, you could have used Consequence (1) to get the result. . . For

on

example, write y(x) as y(x) = f1.6

(x)

where f (x) = (x + 1)100 . Then

1.6

y (x) = f (x) (by Consequence (1))

(f (x))2

si

1.6

= (100(x + 1)99 (1)) (by Consequence (2))

(x + 1)200

r

160

= (x + 1)99

Ve

(x + 1)200

160

=

(x + 1)101

and so y (0) = 160, as before.

TA

Solution Here f (u) = u5 and g(x) = x2 4. Now f (u) = 5u4 by the Power Rule

and g (x) = 2x. . . So,

= 5u4 2x

= 10xu4

= 10x(x2 4)4 , since u = x2 4.

At x = 1 we get

y (1) = 10(1)(3)4

= 810.

Since this value is large for a slope the actual tangent line is very steep, close to

vertical at x = 1.

3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 101

SHORTCUT

Write y = 2 5 , then y = 5 2 4 2 , by the Generalized Power Rule. Replacing

the 2 by x2 4 we nd, y = 5 (x2 4) 2x = 10x(x2 4)4 , as before.

4

The point is, you dont have to memorize another formula. The Box formula

basically gives all the dierent variations of the Chain Rule.

interpret your result geometrically.

Whenever you see a function raised to the power of some number (NOT a vari-

able), then put everything between the outermost parentheses, so to speak,

in a box, 2 . The whole thing then looks like just a box raised to some power,

and you can use the box formulation of the Chain Rule on it.

y

nl

Chain Rule approach: Write y = u3 where u = x2 + 3x + 2. OK, now y = f (u)

and u = g(x) where f (u) = u3 and g(x) = x2 + 3x + 2. Then the Chain Rule gives

O

y (x) = f (u)g (x)

= 3u2 (2x + 3)

= 3(x2 + 3x + 2)2 (2x + 3).

on

Since u = x2 + 3x + 2, we have to replace each u by the original x2 + 3x + 2. Dont

worry, you dont have to simplify this. Finally,

y (0) = 3(3)(2)2

si

= 36

r

Ve

and this is the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = y(x) at x = 0.

Then

y (x) 32 2 2

TA

=

= 3(x2 + 3x + 2)2 (2x + 3)

and so y (0) = 36, as before.

Example 85. Let y be dened by y(x) = (x + 2)2 (2x 1)4 . Evaluate y (2).

Solution We have a product and some powers here. So we expect to use a combi-

nation of the Product Rule and the Power Rule. OK, we let f (x) = (x + 2)2 and

g(x) = (2x 1)4 , use the Power Rule on f, g, and make the table:

y (x) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x)

= 2(x + 2)(2x 1)4 + 8(x + 2)2 (2x 1)3

102 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

f (x) where

f (x) > 0 is dierentiable.

Solution OK, this square root is really a power so we think Power Rule. We can

speed things up by using boxes, so write 2 = f (x). Then, the Generalized Power

Rule gives us,

d 1

y (x) = 2 2

dx

1 12 1

= 2 2 (PowerRule)

2

1 12

= 2 2

2

1

= 1 2

22 2

2

=

2 2

y

= f (x)

nl

2 f (x)

O

SNAPSHOTS

on

Example 87. f (x) = (x2/3 + 1)2 , f (x) ?

si

D(2 2 )

D(2 )

r

Ve

4

= (x2/3 + 1) x1/3

3

4

= (x1/3 + x1/3 ).

3

TA

Example 88. f (x) = x + 1. Evaluate f (x).

Solution Let 2 = ( x + 1) = x1/2 + 1. Then f (x) = 2 so

D( 2 ) D(2 )

1/2

f (x) = (1/2) (x + 1) 1/2

(1/2) x1/2

1

= (x1/2 + 1)1/2 x1/2

4

= 1

4 x (1 + x)

x

Example 89. f (x) = . Find f (1).

1 + x2

Solution Simplify this rst. Note that

x x

= = 2 1/2

1 + x2 1 + x2

3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 103

x

where 2 = . So f (x) = 2 , and

1 + x2

x (x

D(2 )

D( 2 )

1/2

2

+ 1) 1 (x) (2x)

f (x) = (1/2) ( )

1 + x2 (1 + x2 )2

x 1/2 1 x2

= (1/2) ( )

1 + x2 (1 + x2 )2

x1/2 (1 x2 )

= ,

2 (1 + x2 )3/2

where we used the Generalized Power Rule to get D( 2 ) and the Quotient Rule

to evaluate D(2 ). So, f (1) = 0.

1
2.718

Example 90. f (x) = , where = 3.14159.... Find f (1).

x

Solution Simplify this rst, in the sense that you can turn negative exponents

into positive ones by taking the reciprocal of the expression, right? In this case,

note that (1/x)2.718 = x2.718 . So the question now asks us to nd the derivative

y

of f (x) = x2.718 . The Power Rule gives us f (x) = (2.718) x1.718 . So,

nl

f (1) = (2.718) = 8.53882.

O

Example 91. Find an expression for the derivative of y = f (x3 ) where f is

dierentiable.

Solution This looks mysterious but it really isnt. If you dont see an x for the

on

variable, replace all the symbols between the outermost parentheses by 2 . Then

The Generalized Power Rule takes

y = f (2 ) and you realize quickly that you need to dierentiate a composition of the form

two functions. This is where the Chain Rule comes into play. So,

si

d r d

2 = r 2r1 2,

y (x) = Df (2 ) dx dx

r

f (x3 )

Ve

= (x ) (because 2 = x3 ) function of x.

dx

= f (x3 ) 3x2

So, we have shown that any function f for which y = f (x3 ) has a derivative y (x) =

3x2 f (x3 ) which is the desired expression. Remember that f (x3 ) means that you

TA

3

Lets look at the function f , say, dened by f (x) = (x2 + 1)10 . Since f (2 ) =

(2 2 + 1)10 it follows that f (x3 ) = ((x3 )2 + 1)10 = (x6 + 1)10 , where we replaced 2

by x3 (or you put x3 IN the box, remember the Box method? ).

The point is that this new function y = f (x3 ) has a derivative given by

y (x) = 3x2 f (x3 ),

which means that we nd f (x), replace each one of the xs by x3 , and simplify (as

much as possible) to get y (x). Now, we write f (2 ) = 2 10 , where 2 = x2 + 1. The

Generalized Power Rule gives us

f (x) = D(2 10 ) = (10)2 9 (d2 ) = (10)(x2 + 1)9 (2x),

= (20x)(x2 + 1)9 . So,

y (x) = 3x2 f (x3 ) = (3x2 ) (20 x3 ) (x6 + 1)9

= 60 x5 (x6 + 1)9 .

104 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

able (since the original x is replaced by x3 ) and such transformations appear

within the context of dierential equations where they can be used to simplify

very dicult looking dierential equations to simpler ones.

More importantly though, examples like the last one appear in the study of

dierential equations which are equations which, in some cases called linear,

look like polynomial equations

an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x1 + a0 = 0

n

and each x is replaced by a symbol D = dx d

where the related symbol Dn = dx

d

n

th d

means the operation of taking the n derivative. This symbol, D = dx , has a

special name: its called a dierential operator and its domain is a collection

of functions while it range is also a collection of functions. In this sense, the

concept of an operator is more general than that of a function. Now, the symbol

D2 is the derivative of the derivative and it is called the second derivative; the

y

derivative of the second derivative is called the third derivative and denoted

by D3 , and so on. The coecients am above are usually given functions of the

nl

independent variable, x.

O

Symbolically, we write these higher-order derivatives using Leibnizs notation:

d2 y d dy

= = y (x)

dx2 dx dx

on

for the second derivative of y,

d3 y d d2 y

= = y (x)

si

dx 3 dx dx2

for the third derivative of y, and so on. These higher order derivatives are very

r

Ve

Example 92. Let f be a function with the property that f (x) + f (x) = 0

for every x. Well meet such functions later when we discuss Eulers constant,

e 2.71828..., and the corresponding exponential function.

TA

Show that the new function y dened by y(x) = f (x3 ) satises the dierential

equation y (x) + 3x2 y(x) = 0.

Solution We use Example 91. We already know that, by the Chain Rule, y(x) =

f (x3 ) has its derivative given by y (x) = 3x2 f (x3 ). So,

= 3x2 (f (x3 ) + f (x3 ))

But f (x) + f (x) = 0 means that f () + f () = 0, right? (Since it is true for any

x and so for any symbol ). Replacing by x3 gives f (x3 ) + f (x3 ) = 0 as a

consequence, and the conclusion now follows . . .

The function y dened by y(x) = f (x3 ), where f is any function with f (x) + f (x) =

0, satises the equation y (x) + 3x2 y(x) = 0.

Example 93. Find the second derivative f (x) given that f (x) = (2x + 1)101 .

Evaluate f (1).

3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 105

Solution We can just use the Generalized Power Rule here. Let 2 = 2x + 1. Then

2 = 2 and so f (x) = 101 2 100 2 = 101 2 100 2 = 202 2 100 . Doing this one

more time, we nd f (x) = (202) (100) 2 2 99 = 40, 400 2 99 = 40, 400 (2x + 1)99 .

Finally, since (1)odd number = 1, we see that f (1) = 40, 400(1)99 = 40, 400.

Example 94. Find the second derivative f (x) of the function dened by

3 1

f (x) = (1 + x ) . Evaluate f (0).

Solution Use the Generalized Power Rule again. Let 2 = x3 + 1. Then 2 = 3x2

and so f (x) = (1) 2 2 2 = (1) 2 2 (3x2 ) = (3x2 ) 2 2 = (3x2 )

2

(1 + x3 ) . To nd the derivative of THIS function we can use the Quotient Rule.

So,

f (x) = { }

(1 + x3 )4

6x 18x4

= +

(1 + x3 )2 (1 + x3 )3

y

6x (2x3 1)

=

nl

(1 + x3 )3

O

on

Find the indicated derivatives.

si

1. f (x) = , f (x) =?

2. f (t) = 3t 2, f (0) =?

r

2

3. g(x) = x 3 , g (x) =? at x = 1

(x 4) , y (x) =?

Ve

3

4. y(x) =

1

5. f (x) = , f (x) =?

t

x5

TA

+ t 2, g (t) =?

3 2

6. g(t) =

d2 f

7. f (x) = 3x2 , =?

dx2

8. f (x) = x(x + 1)4 , f (x) =?

x2 x + 3

9. y(x) = , y (1) =?

x

10. y(t) = (t + 2)2 (t 1), y (t) =?

2

11. f (x) = 16x2 (x 1) 3 , f (x) =?

12. y(x) = (2x + 3)105 , y (x) =?

13. f (x) = x + 6, f (x) =?

14. f (x) = x3 3x2 + 3x 1, f (x) =?

1

15. y(x) = + x2 1, y (x) =?

x

1

16. f (x) = , f (x) =?

1+ x

17. f (x) = (x 1)2 + (x 2)3 , f (0) =?

106 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

d

19. Let f be a dierentiable function for every real number x. Show that f (x2 ) =

dx

2xf (x2 ).

d 3

20. Let g be a dierentiable function for every x with g(x) > 0.

g(x) = 3

g (x)

.

Show that

dx 3 g(x)2

21. Let f be a function with the property that f is dierentiable and

f (x) + f (x) = 0.

y (x) + 2xy(x) = 0.

22. Let y = f (x) and assume f is dierentiable for each x in (0, 1). Assume that

f has an inverse function, F , dened on its range, so that f (F (x)) = x for

every x, 0 < x < 1. Show that F has a derivative satisfying the equation

y

1

F (x) = at each x, 0 < x < 1.

nl

f (F (x))

(Hint: Dierentiate both sides of f (F (x)) = x.)

dy

O

23. Let y = t3 and t = u + 6. Find when u = 9.

du

24. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve y = (x2 3)8 at the point

(x, y) = (2, 1).

on

25. Given y(x) = f (g(x)) and that g (2) = 1, g(2) = 0 and f (0) = 1. What is the

value of y (2)?

2

si

r

dy

.

r

dt

Ve

df

27. Hard. Let f (x) = x + x. Evaluate f (9). If x = t2 , what is ?

dt

28. Use the denition of x2 as x2 = |x| for each x, to show that the function

x

y = |x| has a derivative whenever x = 0 and y (x) = for x = 0.

|x|

TA

at x = x0 . (Hint: You can try a proof by contradiction, that is you assume

the conclusion is false and, using a sequence of logically correct arguments, you

deduce that the original claim is false as well. Since, generally speaking, a state-

ment in mathematics cannot be both true and false, (aside from undecidable

statements) it follows that the conclusion has to be true. So, assume f is not

continuous at x = x0 , and look at each case where f is discontinuous (unequal

one-sided limits, function value is innite, etc.) and, in each case, derive a

contradiction.)

Alternately, you can prove this directly using the methods in the Advanced

Topics chapter. See the Solution Manual for yet another method of showing

this.

3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 107

Web Links

www.math.hmc.edu/calculus/tutorials/chainrule/

www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/derivative/chainap.html

math.ucdavis.edu/kouba/CalcOneDIRECTORY/chainrulesoldirectory/

(contains more than 20 solved examples)

NOTES:

y

nl

O

on

r si

Ve

TA

108 3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

You can imagine the variety of dierent functions in mathematics. So far, all the

functions weve encountered had this one thing in common: You could write them as

y = f (x) (or x = F (y) ) in which case you know that x is the independent variable

and y is the dependent variable. We know which variable is which. Sometimes it is

not so easy to see which variable is which especially if the function is written as,

say,

x2 2xy + tan(xy) 2 = 0.

What do we do? Can we solve for either one of these variables at all? And if we can,

do we solve for x in terms of y, or y in terms of x? Well, we dont always have to

solve for any variable here, and well still be able to nd the derivative so long as we

agree on which variable x, or y is the independent one. Actually, Newton was the

In his Method of Fluxions, (1736), rst person to perform an implicit dierentiation. Implicit functions appear very

Isaac Newton was one of the rst often in the study of general solutions of dierential equations. Well see later

to use the procedure of this sec-

tion, namely, implicit dierentia- on that the general solution of a separable dierential equation is usually given by

tion. He used his brand of deriva- an implicit function. Other examples of implicit functions include the equation of

y

tives though, things he called ux-

ions and he got into big trouble

closed curves in the xy-plane (circles, squares, ellipses, etc. to mention a few of the

nl

because they werent well dened. common ones).

In England, one famous philosopher

by the name of Bishop Berkeley

criticized Newton severely for his

Review

O

inability to actually explain what

these uxions really were. Nev-

erthless, Newton obtained the right You should review the Chain Rule and the Generalized Power Rule in

answers (according to our calcula- the preceding section. A mastery of these concepts and the usual rules for

tions). What about Leibniz? Well,

on

even Leibniz got into trouble with dierentiation will make this section much easier to learn.

his, so-called, dierentials because

he really couldnt explain this stu

well, either! His nemesis in this

case was one Bernard Nieuwen-

si

We can call our usual functions explicit because their values are given explicitly

tijt of Amsterdam (1694). Appar-

ently, neither Berkeley nor Nieuwen- (i.e., we can write them down) by solving one of the variables in terms of the other.

tijt could put the Calculus on a rig- This means that for each value of x there is only one value of y. But this is the

r

same as saying that y is a function of x, right? An equation involving two variables,

Ve

would take another 150 years un- say, x, y, is said to be an explicit relation if one can solve for y (or x) uniquely in

til Weierstrass and others like him terms of x (or y).

would come along and make sense

out of all this Calculus business with

rigorous denitions (like those in the Example 95. For example, the equation 2y = 2x6 4x is an explicit relation

Advanced Topics chapter).

because we can easily solve for y in terms of x. In fact, it reduces to the rule

TA

example is given by the function y whose values are given by y(x) = x + x whose

values are easily calculated: Each value of x gives a value of y = x + x and so

on, and y can be found directly using a calculator. Finally, 3x + 6 9y 2 = 0 also

denes an explicit relation because now we can solve for x in terms of y and nd

x = 3y 2 2.

In the same spirit we say that an equation involving two variables, say, x, y, is said

to be an implicit relation if it is not explicit.

Example 96. For example, the relation dened by the rule y 5 + 7y = x3 cos x

is implicit. Okay, you can isolate the y, but whats left still involves y and x, right?

The equation dened by x2 y 2 + 4 sin(xy) = 0 also denes an implicit relation.

Such implicit relations are useful because they usually dene a curve in the xy-

plane, a curve which is not, generally speaking, the graph of a function. In fact,

you can probably believe the statement that a closed curve (like a circle, ellipse,

etc.) cannot be the graph of a function. Can you show why? For example, the circle

dened by the implicit relation x2 + y 2 = 4 is not the graph of a unique function,

3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES 109

2 = 0, then it is not easy to solve for y given a value of x; in other words, it

would be very dicult to isolate the ys on one side of the equation and group the

xs together on the other side. In this case y is said to be dened implicitly or y is

an implicit function of x. By the same token, x may be considered an implicit

function of y and it would equally dicult to solve for x as a function of y. Still, it is

possible to draw its graph by looking for those points x, y that satisfy the equation,

see Figure 42.

(x2)2 (y6)2

9

+ 16

=1 An ellipse centered at (2, 6).

(x 3)2 (y 4)2 = 5 A hyperbola.

y

An approximate plot of the implicit

itly?

nl

relation

x2 2xy + tan(xy) 2 = 0.

1. Assume, say y, is a dierentiable function of x, (or x is a dierentiable function This plot fails the vertical line test

O

of y).

and so it cannot be the graph of a

2. Write y = y(x) (or x = x(y)) to show the dependence of y on x, (even though function.

we really dont know what it looks like).

Figure 42.

on

3. Dierentiate the relation/expression which denes y implicitly with respect to

x (or y - this expression is a curve in the xy-plane.)

dy

4. Solve for the derivative dx

explicitly, yes, explicitly!

si

Note: It can be shown that the 4 steps above always produce an expression

for dy

dx which can be solved

r

dy

Ve

given implicitly, the function dx is explicit, that is, given a point P(x, y) on the

dy

dening curve described in (3) we can actually solve for the term dx .

This note is based on the assumption that we already know that y can be written

as a dierentiable function of x. This assumption isnt obvious, and involves an

TA

important result called the Implicit Function Theorem which we wont study here

but which can be found in books on Advanced Calculus. One of the neat things

about this implicit function theorem business is that it tells us that, under certain

conditions, we can always solve for the derivative dy/dx even though we cant solve

for y! Amazing, isnt it?

dy

Example 97. Find the derivative of y with respect to x, that is, dx

, when

x, y are related by the expression xy y = 6. 2

y = y(x) and y is dierentiable. Then the relation between x, y above really says

that

xy(x) y(x)2 = 6.

OK, since this is true for all x under consideration (the xs were not specied, so

dont worry) it follows that we can take the derivative of both sides and still get

equality, i.e.

d d

(xy(x) y(x)2 ) = (6).

dx dx

110 3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

d

Now, dx

(6) = 0 since the derivative of a constant is always 0 and

d d d

(xy(x) y(x)2 ) xy(x) y(x)2

=

dx dx dx

dy d(x) dy

= x + y(x) 2y(x)

dx dx dx

dy

= [x 2y(x)] + y(x)

dx

where we used a combination of the Product Rule and the Generalized Power Rule

(see Example 86 for a similar argument). So, we have

dy d

[x 2y(x)] + y(x) = (6) = 0,

dx dx

dy

and solving for dx

we get

dy y(x)

= .

dx x 2y(x)

y(x)

= .

y

2y(x) x

nl

dy

OK, so we have found dx

in terms of x and y(x) that is, since y = y(x),

dy y

O

=

dx 2y x

a curve in the xy-plane. This last display then describes the values of the derivative

on

y (x) along this curve for a given point P(x,y) on it.

To nd the slope of the tangent line to a point P(x0 , y0 ) on this curve we calculate

si

dy y0

=

dx 2y0 x0

r

Ve

where x0 y0 y02 = 6, thats all. So, for example the point (7, 1) is on this curve

because x0 = 7, y0 = 1 satises x0 y0 y02 = 6. You see that the derivative at this

point (7, 1) is given by

dy 1 1

= =

2(1) 7

TA

dx 5

Find x (1).

take the derivative of both sides (with respect to y this time!). We see that

dx dx

3x2 +7 = 3y 2 ,

dy dy

since

d 3 dx

x = 3x2

dy dy

by the Generalized Power Rule. We can now solve for the expression dx/dy and nd

a formula for the derivative, namely,

dx 3y 2

= .

dy 3x2 + 7

3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES 111

Now we can nd the derivative easily at any point (x, y) on the curve x3 + 7x = y 3 .

For instance, the derivative at the point (1, 2) on this curve is given by substituting

the values x = 1, y = 2 in the formula for the derivative just found, so that

dx (3)(2)2 12 6

= = = .

dy (3)(1)2 + 7 10 5

For a geometrical interpretation of this derivative, see Figure 43 on the next page.

Example 99. Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = y(x) given

implicitly by the relation x2 + 4y 2 = 5 at the point (1, 1).

Solution First, you should always check that the given point (1, 1) is on this curve,

otherwise, there is nothing to do! Let x0 = 1, y0 = 1 and P(x0 , y0 ) =P(1, 1). We

see that (1)2 + 4(1)2 = 5 and so the point P(1, 1) is on the curve.

Since we want the slope of a tangent line to the curve y = y(x) at x = x0 , we need

to nd its derivative y (x) and evaluate it at x = x0 .

y

OK, now

nl

d 2 d

(x + 4y(x)2 ) = (5)

dx dx

d

(y(x)2 )

O

2x + 4 = 0

dx

2x + 4 2y(x) y (x) = 0

on

2x x

y (x) = = , (if y(x) = 0)

8y(x) 4y(x)

and this gives the value of the derivative, y (x) at any point (x, y) on the curve, that

si

is y = 4y

x

where (x, y) is on the curve (remember y = y(x)). It follows that at

(1, 1), this derivative is equal to

r

(1) 1

Ve

y (1) = (1) = .

4(1) 4

Example 100.

A curve in the xy-plane is given by the set of all points (x, y)

TA

dy

at the point (x, y) = (3, 1).

Solution Verify that (3, 1) is, indeed, on the curve. This is true since 15 +

(3)2 (1)3 = 10, as required. Next, we assume that x = x(y) is a dierentiable

function of y. Then

d 5 d

(y + x2 y 3 ) = (10)

dy dy

(where we used the Power Rule and the Product Rule). Isolating the term x (y) = dx

dy

gives us the required derivative,

dx 3x2 y 2 5y 4

= .

dy 2xy 3

When x = 3, y = 1 so,

dx 27 5 16

= = .

dy 6 3

112 3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

dy 3

Remark If we were to nd dx at (3, 1) we would obtain 16 ; the reciprocal of

dx

dy

. Is this a coincidence? No. It turns out that if y is a dierentiable function

of x and x is a dierentiable function of y then their derivatives are related by

the relation

dy 1

= dx .

dx dy

if dx

dy

= 0, at the point P(x, y) under investigation. This is another consequence

of the Implicit Function Theorem and a result on Inverse Functions.

dy

O.K., we know what dx means geometrically, right ? Is there some geometric mean-

ing for dy ? Yes, the value of dx

dx

dy

at P(x, y) on the given curve is equal to the negative

of the slope of the line perpendicular to the tangent line through P. For

example, the equation of the tangent line through P(3, 1) in Example 100 is given

by y = (3x + 25)/16, while the equation of the line perpendicular to this tangent

line and through P is given by y = (16x + 51)/3. This last (perpendicular) line is

y

called the normal line through P. See Figure 43.

Figure 43. Geometric mean-

nl

dx

ing of dy

Exercise Set 13.

O

Use implicit dierentiation to nd the required derivative.

on

dy

1. x2 + xy + y 2 = 1, dx

at (1, 0)

2. 2xy 2 y 4 = x3 , dy

dx

and dx

dy

dy

3. x + y + xy = 4, at (16, 0)

si

dx

4. x y 2 = 4, dy

dx

dy

5. x2 + y 2 = 9, at (0, 3)

r

dx

Ve

Find the equation of the tangent line to the given curve at the given point.

6. 2y 2 x2 = 1, at (1, 1)

7. 2x = xy + y 2 , at (1, 1)

TA

8. x2 + 2x + y 2 4y 24 = 0, at (4, 0)

9. (x + y)3 x3 y 3 = 0, at (1, 1)

Web Links

www.math.ucdavis.edu/kouba/CalcOneDIRECTORY/implicitdidirectory/

www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/derivative/implicit.html

(the above site requires a Java-enabled browser)

NOTES:

3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 113

Our modern world runs on electricity. In these days of computers, space travel and

robots we need to have a secure understanding of the basic laws of electricity and

its uses. In this realm, electric currents both alternating (as in households), and

direct (as in a ashlight battery), lead one to the study of sine and cosine functions

and their interaction. For example, how does an electric current vary over time?

We need its rate of change with respect to time, and this can be modeled using its

derivative.

An integrated circuits board

In another vein, so far weve encountered the derivatives of many dierent types of

functions; polynomials, rational functions, roots of every kind, and combinations of

such functions. In many applications of mathematics to physics and other physical

and natural sciences we need to study combinations of trigonometric functions and

other changes, the shapes of their graphs and other relevant data. In the simplest

of these applications we can mention the study of wave phenomena. In this area

we model incoming or outgoing waves in a uid (such as a lake, tea, coee, etc.)

as a combination of sine and cosine waves, and then study how these waves change

y

over time. Well, to study how these waves change over time we need to study

their derivatives, right? This, in turn, means that we need to be able to nd the

nl

derivatives of the sine and cosine functions and thats what this section is all about.

O

There are two fundamental limits that we need to recall here from an earlier chapter,

namely

on

sin x

lim = 1, (3.2)

x0 x

1 cos x

lim = 0, (3.3)

x0 x

r si

Ve

All angles, A, B and x are in radians in the Table above, and this is customary in

calculus.

180

Recall that 1 radian =

degrees.

TA

I2 cos(A + B) = cos(A) cos(B) sin(A) sin(B)

I3 sin2 x + cos2 x = 1

I4 sec2 x tan2 x = 1

I5 csc2 x cot2 x = 1

I6 cos 2x = cos2 x sin2 x

I7 sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x

I8 cos2 x = 1+cos 2x

2

I9 sin2 x = 1cos 2x

2

114 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

The rst result is that the derivative of the sine function is the cosine function, that

is,

d

sin x = cos x.

dx

This is not too hard to show; for example, assume that h = 0. Then

= , (by I1)

h h

cos h 1 sin h

= sin x + cos x , (re-arranging terms)

h h

Now we use a limit theorem from Chapter 2: Since the last equation is valid for

each h = 0 we can pass to the limit and nd

lim = sin x lim ( ) + cos x lim ( )

h0 h h0 h h0 h

= (sin x) (0) + (cos x) (1), (by (3.3) and (3.2))

y

= cos x.

nl

A similar derivation applies to the next result;

O

d

cos x = sin x

dx

on

For example,

si

= , (by I2)

h h

cos h 1 sin h

sin x (re arranging terms)

r

= cos x ,

h h

Ve

As before, since this last equation is valid for each h = 0 we can pass to the limit

and nd

cos(x + h) cos x cos h 1 sin h

lim = cos x lim ( ) sin x lim ( )

h0 h h0 h h0 h

TA

= sin x.

Since these two limits dene the derivative of each trigonometric function we get

the boxed results, above.

OK, now that we know these two fundamental derivative formulae for the sine and

cosine functions we can derive all the other such formulae (for tan, cot, sec, and csc)

using basic properties of derivatives.

d 1

tan x =

dx cos2 x

or, since 1

cos2 x

= sec2 x, we get

d

tan x = sec2 x

dx

3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 115

sin x

as well. To see this we use the Quotient Rule and recall that since tan x = cos x

,

d d sin x

tan x = ( ) (by denition)

dx dx cos x

cos x dx (sin x) ( dx

d d

cos x) sin x

= (Quotient Rule)

cos2 x

2 2

cos x + sin x

= (just derived above)

cos2 x

1

= (by I3).

cos2 x

By imitating this argument its not hard to show that

d 1

cot x = 2 ,

dx sin x

or, equivalently,

y

d

cot x = csc2 x

nl

dx

There are two more formulae which need to be addressed, namely, those involving

the derivative of the secant and cosecant functions. These are:

O

on

d

sec x = sec x tan x

dx

d

si

dx

r

Each can be derived using the Quotient Rule. Now armed with these formulae and

Ve

the Chain Rule we can derive formulae for derivatives of very complicated looking

functions, see Table 3.5.

Example 101.

Find the derivative of f where f (x) = sin2 x + 6x.

TA

d d

f (x) = (sin x)2 + (6x)

dx dx

d

= (sin x)2 + 6

dx

Now let 2 = sin x. We want d

dx

22 so well need to use the Generalized Power Rule

here. . . So,

d d 2

(sin x)2 = 2

dx dx

d2

= 22 1 (Power Rule)

dx

= 22 2

= 2 (sin x) (cos x), (since 2 = cos x)

= sin 2x, (by I7)

116 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Example 102. d

Evaluate 1 + cos x at x = 0.

dx

Solution We write f (x) = 1 + cos x and convert the root to a power (always do

Joseph Louis (Comte de) La- this so you can use the Generalized Power Rule).

grange, 1736 -1813, was born in

1 1

Torino, Italy and died in Paris, We get f (x) = (1 + cos x) 2 = 2 2 if we set 2 = 1 + cos x so that we can put the

France. His main contributions to original function into a more recognizable form. So far we know that

mathematics were in the elds of

1

analysis where he studied analytical f (x) = 1 + cos x = 2 2

he excelled in everything that he So, by the Power Rule, we get

studied. In 1766, Lagrange became

1 12

the successor of Euler in the Berlin f (x) = 2 2

Academy of Science, and during the 2

next year he was awarded the rst

where 2 is the derivative of 1 + cos x (without the root), i.e.

of his many prizes for his studies

on the irregularities of the motion

d

y

of the moon. He helped to found 2 = (1 + cos x)

dx

nl

the Academy of Science in Torino in d d

1757, and the Ecole Polytechnique

= (1) + (cos x)

dx dx

in 1795. He also helped to create = 0 sin x

O

the rst commission on Weights and = sin x

Measures and was named to the Le-

gion dHonneur by Napoleon and Combining these results we nd

on

elevated to Count in 1808.

1 1

f (x) = (1 + cos x) 2 ( sin x)

2

sin x

si

=

2 1 + cos x

r

Ve

sin 0 0

f (0) = =

2 1 + cos 0 2 2

= 0

TA

Evaluate ( ).

dx 1 + sin x

Solution Write f (x) = cos x, g(x) = 1 + sin x. We need to nd the derivative of the

quotient fg and so we can think about using the Quotient Rule.

(f (g(x)) =

dx g(x)2

In our case,

3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 117

d cos x ( sin x)(1 + sin x) (cos x)(cos x)

( ) =

dx 1 + sin x (1 + sin x)2

sin x (sin2 x + cos2 x)

=

(1 + sin x)2

1 + sin x

= (by I3)

(1 + sin x)2

1

= .

1 + sin x

Example 104. 3

Let the function be dened by f (t) = . Evaluate f ( 4 ).

sin(t)

use the Power Rule (or the Quotient Rule, either way youll get the same answer).

So, lets write f (t) = 32 1 where 2 = sin(t) then

f (t) = (1) 3 2 2 2

y

nl

by the Generalized Power Rule. But we still need 2 , right? Now 2 = sin(t), so

2 = cos t. Combining these results we nd

O

f (t) = 3(sin t)2 (cos t)

cos t

= 3 .

(sin t)2

on

Note that this last expression is also equal to 3 csc t cot t. At t = ( 4 ), (which is

45 degrees expressed in radians), cos( 4 ) = sin( 4 ) = 12 and so

( 12 ) 1 ( 2)2

si

f ( ) = 3 = 3 ,

4 ( 12 )2 2 1

r

= 3 2.

Ve

3

Note: Notice that we could have written f (t) = sin(t) as f (t) = 3 csc t and use the

derivative formula for csc t mentioned above. This would give f (t) = 3 csc t cot t

and we could then continue as we did above.

TA

Example 105.

Lets look at an example which can be solved in two dierent

ways. Consider the implicit relation

y + sin2 y + cos2 y = x.

We want y (x).

The easy way to do this is to note that, by trigonometry (I3), sin2 y + cos2 y = 1

regardless of the value of y. So, the original relation is really identical to y + 1 = x.

From this we observe that dy/dx = 1.

But what if you didnt notice this identity? Well, we dierentiate both sides as is the

case whenever we use implicit dierentiation. The original equation really means

y + {sin(y)}2 + {cos(y)}2 = x.

dy d d

+ 2{sin(y)}1 sin(y) + 2{cos(y)}1 cos(y) = 1,

dx dx dx

118 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Let 2 denote any dierentiable function, and D denote the operation of dier-

entiation. Then

D tan 2 = sec2 2 D2 D cot 2 = csc2 2 D2

D sec 2 = sec 2 tan 2 D2 D csc 2 = csc 2 cot 2 D2

or

dy dy dy

+ 2{sin(y)}1 cos(y) + 2{cos(y)}1 ( sin(y)) = 1.

dx dx dx

But the second and third terms cancel out, and we are left with

dy

= 1,

y

dx

as before. Both methods do give the same answer as they should.

nl

Example 106.

Evaluate the following derivatives using the rules of this Chap-

O

ter and Table 3.5.

on

a) f (x) = sin(2x2 + 1)

b) f (x) = cos 3x sin x

c) f (t) = (cos 2t)2 , at t = 0

si

d) f (x) = cos(sin x) at x = 0

t

e) h(t) = at t = /4

r

sin 2t

Ve

want D sin 2 , right? Now, since 2 = 2x2 + 1, we know that D2 = 4x, and so

Table 3.5 gives

D sin 2 cos 2 D2

TA

=

= cos(2x2 + 1) 4x

= 4x cos(2x2 + 1).

f (x) = D(cos 3x) sin x + cos(3x) D sin x

cos( x)

= (3 sin(3x)) (sin x) + cos(3x) ,

2 x)

since D sin x = cos( x) D( x) = cos( x) ((1/2) x1/2 ) = cos( x)/(2 x).

c) Let 2 = cos 2t. The Generalized Power Rule comes to mind, so, use of Table 3.5

shows that

f (t) = 22 D2 ,

= (2 cos 2t) (2 sin 2t)

= 4 cos 2t sin 2t

= 2 sin 4t, (where we use Table 3.4, (I7), with x = 2t).

3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 119

So f (0) = 2 sin(0) = 0.

d) We need to nd the derivative of something that looks like cos 2 . So, let 2 =

sin x. We know that D2 = D sin x = cos x, and once again, Table 3.5 shows that

f (x) = sin 2 D2 ,

= sin(sin x) cos x,

= cos x sin(sin x).

e) We see something that looks like a quotient so we should be using the Quotient

Rule, right? Write f (t) = t, g(t) = sin 2t. We need to nd the derivative of the

quotient fg . Now, recall that this Rule says that (replace the xs by ts)

y

nl

d f (t)g(t) f (t)g (t)

O

(f (g(t)) = .

dt g(t)2

on

In our case,

si

f (t) g (t)

r

f (t) g(t)

Ve

t 1 sin 2t 2 cos 2t

TA

d 1 sin 2t t 2 cos 2t

(f (g(t)) = ,

dt (sin 2t)2

sin 2t 2t cos 2t

= .

(sin 2t)2

At /4, sin(/4) = 2/2, so, sin(2 /4) = 1, cos(2 /4) = 0, and the required

derivative is equal to 1.

Evaluate the derivative of the functions whose values are given below, at the indi-

120 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

cated point.

x+1

1. sin x, at x = 1 11. , at x = /2

sin x

cos x

4. 14. cot(3x 2)

1 sin x

2x + 3

5. 1 + sin t, at t = 0 15.

sin x

7. x2 cos 3x 17. x sec( x)

y

9. cot(2 + x + sin x) 19. cos2 (x 6) + csc(2x)

nl

10. (sin 3x)1 20. (cos 2x)2

O

21. Let y be dened by

sin x

tan x x = 0

on

y(x) =

1 x=0

,

si

b) Show that y is dierentiable at x = 0 and,

r

Ve

TA

3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 121

This section is about things we call theorems. Theorems are truths about things

mathematical ... They are statements which can be substantiated (or proved) using

the language of mathematics and its underlying logic. Its not always easy to prove

something, whether it be mathematical or not. The point of a proof is that it

makes everything youve learned come together, so to speak, in a more logical,

coherent fashion.

The results here form part of the cornerstones of basic Calculus. One of them, the

Mean Value Theorem will be used later when we dene the, so-called, anti-

derivative of a function and the Riemann integral.

We will motivate this rst theorem by looking at a sample real life situation. Figure 44.

everyone that the ball will reach a maximum height and then begin to fall again,

hopefully in the hands of an inelder. Since the motion of the ball is smooth (not

y

jerky) we expect the trajectory produced by the ball to be that of a dierentiable

nl

function (remember, there are no sharp corners on this ight path). OK, now since

the trajectory is dierentiable (as a functions graph) there must be a (two-sided)

derivative at the point where the ball reaches its maximum, right? What do you

O

think is the value of this derivative? Well, look at an idealized trajectory. . . it has to

be mainly parabolic (because of gravity) and it looks like the path in the margin.

on

Tangent lines to the left (respectively, right) of the point where the maximum height

is reached have positive (respectively, negative) slope and so we expect the tangent

line to be horizontal at M (the point where the maximum value is reached). This

is the key point, a horizontal tangent line means a zero derivative mathe-

si

matically. Why? Well, you recall that the derivative of f at a point x is the slope

of the tangent line at the point P (x, f (x)) on the graph of f . Since a horizontal line

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OK, now lets translate all this into the language of mathematics. The curve has an

equation y = f (x) and the ball leaves the hand of the outelder at a point a with

a height of f (a) (meters, feet, . . . we wont worry about units here). Lets say that

the ball needs to reach b at a height f (b), where f (b) = f (a), above the ground.

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The fastest way of doing this, of course, is by throwing the ball in a straight line

path from point to point (see Figure 45), but this is not realistic! If it were, the

tangent line along this ight path would still be horizontal since f (a) = f (b), right!?

So, the ball cant really travel in a straight line from a to b, and will always reach Figure 45.

a maximum in our case, a maximum where necessarily y (M ) = 0, as there is

a horizontal tangent line there, see Figure 45. OK, now lets look at all possible

(dierentiable) curves from x = a to x = b, starting at height f (a) and ending at

height f (b) = f (a), (as in Figure 46). We want to know Is there always a point

between a and b at which the curve reaches its maximum value ?

A straight line from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)), where f (b) = f (a), is one curve whose

maximum value is the same everywhere, okay? And, as we said above, this is

necessarily horizontal, so this line is the same as its tangent line (for each point x

between a and b). As can be seen in Figure 46, all the other curves seem to have

a maximum value at some point between a and b and, when that happens, there is

a horizontal tangent line there.

122 3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES

an interval I = (a, b) (recall (a, b) = {x : a < x < b}) and f (a) = f (b) then f (c) = 0

for some c between a and b; at least one c, but there may be more than one. Actually,

this mathematical statement is true! The result is called Rolles Theorem and it

is named after Michel Rolle, (1652-1719), a French mathematician.

Of course we havent proved this theorem of Rolle but it is believable! Its proof

can be found in more advanced books in Analysis, a eld of mathematics which

includes Calculus.)

Let f be a continuous function on [a, b] and let f be dierentiable at each point

in (a, b). If f (a) = f (b), then there is at least one point c between a and b at

which f (c) = 0.

y

Remark

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1. Remember that the point c, whose existence is guaranteed by the theorem, is

not necessarily unique. There may be lots of them. . . but there is always at

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least one. Unfortunately, the theorem doesnt tell us where it is so we

need to rely on graphs and other techniques to nd it.

2. Note that whenever the derivative is zero it seems that the graph of the function

on

has a peak or a sink at that point. In other words, such points appear to be

related to where the graph of the function has a maximum or minimum value.

This observation is very important and will be very useful later when we study

the general problem of sketching the graph of a general function.

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Example 107.

Show that the function whose values are given by f (x) = sin(x)

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on the interval [0, ] satises the assumptions of Rolles Theorem. Find the required

value of c explicitly.

Figure 46. Solution We know that sin as well as its derivative, cos, are continuous every-

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apply Rolles Theorem and nd that y (c) = 0 where c is somewhere in between 0

and . So, this means that cos c = 0 for some value of c. This is true! We can

choose c = /2 and see this c exactly.

We have seen Rolles Theorem in action. Now, lets return to the case where the

baseball goes from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)) but where f (a) = f (b) (players of dierent

heights!). What can we say in this case?

Well, we know that there is the straight line path from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)) which,

unfortunately, does not have a zero derivative anywhere as a curve (see Figure 47).

But look at all possible curves going from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)). This is only a

thought experiment, OK? They are dierentiable (lets assume this) and they bend

this way and that as they proceed from their point of origin to their destination.

Look at how they turn and compare this to the straight line joining the origin

and destination. It looks like you can always nd a tangent line to any one

of these curves which is parallel to the line joining ( a, f a

( )) to ( b, f b

( ))!

(see Figure 48). Its almost like Rolles Theorem (graphically) but it is not Rolles

Theorem because f (a) = f (b). Actually, if you think about it a little, youll see that

Figure 47. its more general than Rolles Theorem. It has a dierent name . . . and it too is a

3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 123

true mathematical statement! We call it the Mean Value Theorem and it says

the following:

Let f be continuous on the interval a x b and dierentiable on the interval

a < x < b. Then there is a point c between a and b at which

f (b) f (a)

= f (c).

ba

(a)

is really the

slope of the line pointing from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)). Moreover, f (c) is the slope of

the tangent line through some point (c, f (c)) on the graph of f . Since these slopes

are equal, the corresponding lines must be parallel, which is what we noticed above.

Example 108.

Show that the function whose values are given by f (x) = cos 2x

y

on the interval [0, /2] satises the assumptions of the Mean Value Theorem. Show

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that there is a value of c such that sin 2c = 2/.

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Solution Here, cos 2x as well as its derivative, 2 sin 2x, are continuous every-

where. Also, cos(0) = 1 and cos() = 1. So, if we let a = 0, b = /2, we see that

we can apply the Mean Value Theorem and nd that y (c) = 0 where c is somewhere

in between 0 and /2. This means that 2 sin 2c = 4/, or for some value of c,

on

we must have sin 2c = 2/. We may not know what this value of c is,

exactly, but it does exist! In fact, in the next section well show you how to nd

this value of c using inverse trigonometric functions.

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Applications

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Example 109.

Let y be continuous in the interval a x b and a dierentiable

function on an interval (a, b) whose derivative is equal to zero at each point x, a <

x < b. Show that y(x) = constant for each x, a < x < b. i.e. If y (x) = 0 for all

x then the values y(x) are equal to one and the same number (or, y is said to be a

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constant function).

Solution This is one very nice application of the Mean Value Theorem. OK, let

t be any point in (a, b). Since y is continuous at x = a, y(a) is nite. Re-reading

the statement of this example shows that all the assumptions of the Mean Value

Theorem are satised. So, the quotient

y(t) y(a)

= y (c)

ta

where a < c < t is the conclusion. But whatever c is, we know that y (c) = 0 (by

hypothesis, i.e. at each point x the derivative at x is equal to 0). It follows that

y (c) = 0 and this gives y(t) = y(a). But now look, t can be changed to some other

number, say, t . We do the same calculation once again and we get

y(t ) y(a)

= y (c )

t a

where now a < c < t , and c is generally dierent from c. Since y (c ) = 0 (again,

by hypothesis) it follows that y(t ) = y(a) as well. OK, but all this means that

y(t) = y(t ) = y(a). So, we can continue like this and repeat this argument for

124 3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES

every possible value of t in (a, b), and every time we do this we get that y(t) = y(a).

It follows that for any choice of t, a < t < b, we must have y(t) = y(a). In other

words, we have actually proved that y(t) = constant (= y(a)), for t in a < t < b.

Since y is continuous at each endpoint a, b, it follows that y(b) must also be equal

to y(a). Finally, we see that y(x) = y(a) for every x in [a, b].

Example 110.

The function dened by y = |x| has y(1) = y(1) but yet

y (c) = 0 for any value of c. Explain why this doesnt contradict Rolles

Theorem.

Solution All the assumptions of a theorem need to be veried before using the

theorems conclusion. In this case, the function f dened by f (x) = |x| has no

derivative at x = 0 as we saw earlier, and so the assumption that f be dierentiable

over (1, 1) is not true since it is not dierentiable at x = 0. So, we cant use the

Theorem at all. This just happens to be one of the many functions that doesnt

satisfy the conclusion of this theorem. You can see that theres no contradiction to

Rolles Theorem since it doesnt apply.

y

Figure 48. Example 111.

The function f is dened by

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x, 2 x 0

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f (x) =

1 x, 0 < x 3.

In this example, the function f is dened on [2, 3] by the 2 curves in the graph

on

and f (3)f (2)

3(2)

= 45 but there is no value of c, 2 < c < 3 such that f (c) = 54 ,

because f (c) = 1 at every c except c = 0 where f (0) is not dened. Does this

contradict the Mean Value Theorem?

si

Solution No, there is no contradiction here. Once again, all the assumptions of

the Mean Value Theorem must be veried before proceeding to its conclusion. In

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this example, the function f dened above is not continuous at x = 0 because its

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these limits are dierent f is not continuous at x = 0. Since f is not continuous at

x = 0, it cannot be continuous on all of [2, 3]. So, we cant apply the conclusion.

So, theres nothing wrong with this function or Rolles Theorem.

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Example 112.

Another very useful application of the Mean Value Theorem/Rolles

Theorem is in the theory of dierential equations which we spoke of earlier.

continuous in [a, b] = {x : a x b}. Assume that y has the property that for

every number x in (a, b),

dy

+ y(x)2 + 1 = 0.

dx

Show that this function y cannot have two zeros (or roots) in the interval [a, b].

Solution Use Rolles Theorem and show this result by assuming the contrary. This

is called a a proof by contradiction, remember? Assume that, if possible, there

are two points A, B in the interval [a, b] where y(A) = y(B) = 0. Then, by Rolles

Theorem, there exists a point c in (A, B) with y (c) = 0. Use this value of c in the

equation above. This means that

dy

(c) + y(c)2 + 1 = 0,

dx

3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 125

Summary

Rolles Theorem

Let f be continuous at each point of a closed interval [a, b] and dier-

entiable at each point of (a, b). If f (a) = f (b), then there is a point c

between a and b at which f

(c) = 0.

Remark Dont confuse this result with Bolzanos Theorem (Chapter 2).

Bolzanos Theorem deals with the existence of a root of a continuous

function f while Rolles Theorem deals with the existence of a root of the

derivative of a function.

Mean Value Theorem

Let f be continuous on the interval a x b and dierentiable on the

interval a < x < b. Then there is a point c between a and b at which

f (b)f (a)

ba = f

(c).

y

Table 3.6: Rolles Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem

nl

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right? Now, since y (c) = 0, it follows that y(c)2 + 1 = 0. But y(c)2 0. So, this

is an impossibility, it can never happen. This last statement is the contradiction.

The original assumption that there are two points A, B in the interval [a, b] where

on

y(A) = y(B) = 0 must be false. So, there cant be two such points. It follows

that y cannot have two zeros in a x b.

si

yx

dont know what ( ) looks like either explicitly or implicitly but still, we can

get some information about its graph! In the preceding example we showed that

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y(x) could not have two zeros, for example. This sort of analysis is part of an area

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Note The function y dened by y(x) = tan(c x) where c is any xed number,

dy

has the property that dx + y(x)2 + 1 = 0. If c = , say, then y(x) = tan( x)

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Note that this function has lots of zeros! Why does this graph not contradict

the result of Example 112? Its because on this interval, [0, ] the function f

is not dened at x = /2 (so it not continuous on [0, ]), and so Example 112

does not apply.

Example 113.

In a previous example we saw that if y is a dierentiable function

on [a, b] and y (x) = 0 for all x in (a, b) then y(x) must be a constant function.

The same ideas may be employed to show that if y is a twice dierentiable function Figure 49.

on (a, b) (i.e. the derivative itself has a derivative), y and y are each continuous on

[a, b] and if y (x) = 0 for each x in (a, b) then y(x) = mx + b, for each a < x < b,

for some constants m and b. That is, y must be a linear function.

Solution We apply the Mean Value Theorem to the function y rst. Look at the

interval [a, x]. Then y (x)y

xa

(a)

= y (c) where a < c < x. But y (c) = 0 (regardless

of the value of c) so this means y (x) = y (a) = constant. Since x can be any

126 3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES

Let f be continuous at each point of a closed interval [a, b] = {x : a

x b}. Assume,

1. f (a)

= f (b)

Then there is at least one value of c between a and b such that f (c) = z

Remark This result is very useful in nding the root of certain equations,

or the points of intersection of two or more curves in the plane.

Bolzanos Theorem

Let f be continuous on a closed interval [a, b] (i.e., at each point x

in [a, b]).

If f (a)f (b) < 0, then there is at least one point c between a and b such

that f (c) = 0. In other words there is at least one root of f in the

interval (a, b).

y

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Table 3.7: Main Theorems about Continuous Functions

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number, x > a, and the constant above does not change (it is equal to y (a)), it

follows that y (x) = y (a) for any x in (a, b).

on

Now, apply the Mean Value Theorem to y, NOT y . . . Then

y(x) y(a)

= y (c)

si

xa

where a < c < x (not the same c as before, though). But we know that y (c) = y (a)

r

(from what we just proved) so this means that y(x) y(a) = y (a)(x a) or

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= mx + b

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Two other big theorems of elementary Calculus are the Intermediate Value Theorem

and a special case of it called Bolzanos Theorem, both of which we saw in our chapter

on Limits and Continuity. We recall them here.

Example 114.

Show that there is a root of the equation f (x) = 0 in the interval

Bernhard Bolzano, 1781-1848, [0, ], where f (x) = x sin x + cos x .

Czechoslovakian priest and mathe-

matician who specialized in Analysis Solution OK, whats this question about? The key words are root and function

where he made many contributions and at this point, basing ourselves on the big theorems above, we must be dealing

to the areas of limits and continuity with an application of Bolzanos Theorem, you see? (Since it deals with roots

and, like Weierstrass, he produced

of functions, see Table 3.7.) So, let [a, b] = [0, ] which means that a = 0 and

b = . Now the function whose values are given by x sin x is continuous (as it is

a method (1850) for constructing a

the product of two continuous functions) and since cos x is continuous it follows

continuous function which has no

that x sin x + cos x is continuous (as the sum of continuous functions is, once again

derivative anywhere! He helped to

continuous). Thus f is continuous on [a, b] = [0, ].

establish the tenet that mathemat-

ical truth should rest on rigorous What about f (0)? Well, f (0) = 1 (since 0 sin 0 + cos 0 = 0 + (+1) = +1).

proofs rather than intuition.

3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 127

So, f () = 1 < 0 < f (0) = 1 which means that f (a)f (b) = f (0)f () < 0. So, all

the hypotheses of Bolzanos theorem are satised. This means that the conclusion

follows, that is, there is a point c between 0 and so that f (c) = 0.

Well, we need more techniques to solve this problem, and there is one, very useful

method, called Newtons method which well see soon, (named after the same

Newton mentioned in Chapter 1, one of its discoverers.)

Use Bolzanos theorem to show that each of the given functions has a root in the

given interval. Dont forget to verify the assumption of continuity in each

case. You may want to use your calculator. In the rst few exercises show 1)

y

that the function is continuous,

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and 2) that there are two points

1. y(x) = 3x 2, 0 x 2

a, b inside the given interval with

2. y(x) = x2 1, 2 x 0 f (a)f (b) < 0. Then use Bolzanos

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3. y(x) = 2x2 3x 2, 0 x 3 Theorem.

4. y(x) = sin x + cos x, 0 x

5. y(x) = x cos x + sin x, 0 x

on

6. The function y has the property that y is three-times dierentiable in (a, b) and

continuous in [a, b]. If y (x) = 0 for all x in (a, b) show that y(x) is of the form

y(x) = Ax2 + Bx + C for a suitable choice of A, B, and C.

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dy

7. The following function y has the property that dx + y(x)4 + 2 = 0 for x in (a, b).

Show that y(x) cannot have two zeros in the interval [a, b].

r

8. Use the Mean Value Theorem to show that sin x x for any x in the interval

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[0, ].

9. Use Rolles Theorem applied to the sine function on [0, ] to show that the cosine

function must have a root in this interval.

10. Apply the Mean Value Theorem to the sine function on [0, /2] to show that

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11. Use a calculator to nd that value c in the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem

for the following two functions:

a) f (x) = x2 + x 1, [a, b] = [0, 2]

b) g(x) = x2 + 3, [a, b] = [0, 1]

Hint In (a) calculate the number f (b)f ba

(a)

explicitly. Then nd f (c) as a

function of c, and, nally, solve for c.

12. An electron is shot through a 1 meter wide plasma eld and its time of travel

is recorded at 0.3 108 seconds on a timer at its destination. Show, using the

Mean Value Theorem, that its velocity at some point in time had to exceed the

speed of light in that eld given approximately by 2.19 108 m/sec. (Note

This eect is actually observed in nature!)

128 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

One of the most important topics in the theory of functions is that of the inverse

of a function, a function which is NOT the same as the reciprocal (or 1 divided

by the function). Using this new notion of an inverse we are able to back-track in

a sense, the idea being that we interchange the domain and the range of a function

when dening its inverse and points in the range get associated with the point in

the domain from which they arose. These inverse functions are used everywhere

in Calculus especially in the topic of nding the area between two curves, or

calculating the volume of a solid of revolution two topics which we will address

later. The two main topics in Calculus namely, dierentiation and integration of

functions, are actually related. In the more general sense of an inverse of an op-

erator, these operations on functions are almost inverses of one another. Knowing

how to manipulate and nd inverse functions is a necessity for a thorough under-

standing of the methods in Calculus. In this section we will learn what they are,

how to nd them, and how to sketch them.

Review

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You should be completely familiar with Chapter 1, and especially how to nd

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the composition of two functions using the box method or any other method.

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We recall the notion of the composition of two functions here: Given two func-

tions, f, g where the range of g is contained in the domain of f , (i.e., R=Ran(g)

f g

Dom(f)=D) we dene the composition of and , denoted by the symbol f g,

on

a new function whose values are given by (f g)(x) = f (g(x)) where x is in the

domain of g (denoted briey by D).

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Example 115.

Let f (x) = x2 + 1, g(x) = x 1. Find (f g)(x) and (g f )(x).

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we know that f (2 ) = 2 2 + 1. So,

2 2

f ( g(x) ) = g(x) + 1 = (x-1) + 1 = (x 1)2 + 1 = x2 2x + 2.

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On the other hand, when the same idea is applied to (gf )(x), we get (gf )(x) = x2 .

Note: This shows that the operation of composition is not commutative, that

is, (g f )(x) = (f g)(x), in general. The point is that composition is not the

same as multiplication.

Let f be a given function with domain, D=Dom(f), and range, R=Ran(f). We say

that the function F is the inverse of f if all these four conditions hold:

Dom(F ) = Ran(f )

Dom(f ) = Ran(F )

(F f )(x) = x, for every x in Dom(f)

(f F )(x) = x, for every x in Dom(F)

Thus, the inverse functions domain is R. The inverse function of f is usually written

f 1 whereas the reciprocal function of f is written as f1 so that ( f1 )(x) = f (x)

1

=

1

f (x). This is the source of much confusion!

3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 129

Example 116.

Find the composition of the functions f, g where f (x) = 2x + 3,

2

while

So we see that

(f g)(x) = (g f )(x)

Show that the functions f, F dened by f (x) = 2x + 3 and

y

F (x) = x3

2

are inverse of one another. That is, show that F is the inverse of f and

f is the inverse of F .

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Solution As a check we note that Dom(F) = Ran(f) = (, ) and

O

x3

f (F (x)) = 2F (x) + 3 = 2( ) + 3 = x,

2

which means that (f F )(x) = x. On the other hand, Dom(f) = Ran(F) = (, )

on

and

f (x) 3 (2x + 3) 3

F (f (x)) = = = x,

2 2

si

which now means that (F f )(x) = x. So, by denition, these two functions are

inverse functions of one another.

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How can we tell if a given function has an inverse function?. In order that

two functions f, F be inverses of one another it is necessary that each function be

one-to-one on their respective domains. This means that the only solution of the

equation f (x) = f (y) (resp. F (x) = F (y)) is the solution x = y, whenever x, y are

in Dom(f ), (resp. Dom(F )). The simplest geometrical test for deciding whether

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a given function is one-to-one is the so-called Horizontal Line Test. Basically, one

looks at the graph of the given function on the xy-plane, and if every horizontal line

through the range of the function intersects the graph at only one point, then the

function is one-to-one and so it has an inverse function, see Figure 50. The moral

here is Not every function has an inverse function, only those that are one-to-one!

Example 118.

Show that the function f (x) = x2 has no inverse function if we

take its domain to be the interval [1, 1].

Solution This is because the Horizontal Line Test shows that every horizontal

line through the range of f intersects the curve at two points (except at (0,0),

see Figure 51). Since the Test fails, f is not one-to-one and this means that f

cannot have an inverse. Can you show that this function does have an inverse if

its domain is restricted to the smaller interval [0, 1] ?

Example 119.

Figure 51.

Find the form of the inverse function of the function f dened

by f (x) = 2x + 3, where x is real.

130 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

1. Write y = f (x)

Then x = F (y) where F is the inverse.

This gives y = F (x) where F is the inverse.

ing the graph of f about the line y = x. More on this later.

y

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Table 3.8: How to Find the Inverse of a Function

O

Solution Use Table 3.8. Write y = f (x) = 2x + 3. We solve for x in terms of y.

Then

y3

on

y = 2x + 3 means x = = F (y).

2

x3

Now interchange x and y. So the inverse of f is given by F where F (x) = .

2

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Example 120.

f (x) = x4 , x 0, what is its inverse function F (x) (also denoted

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by f 1 (x)) ?

The graph of f (x) = x4 . If x 0 Solution Lets use Table 3.8, once again. Write y = x4 . From the graph of f

(Figure 52) we see that it is one-to-one if x 0. Solving for x in terms of y, we get

this function is one-to-one.It is not

x = 4 y since x is real, and y 0. So f 1 (y) = F (y) = 4 y or f 1 (x) = F (x) = 4 x

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is the inverse function of f .

main of f contains negative points,

since in this case there are horizon-

Example 121.

tal lines that intersect the graph in If f (x) = x3 + 1, what is its inverse function, f 1 (x)?

TWO points.

= 3 y 1 (and y can

or x be any real numberhere). Interchanging x and y we get

y = 3 x 1, or f 1 (x) = 3 x 1, or F (x) = 3 x 1

the derivative of f by means of the next formula

dF df 1 1 1

(x) = (x) = 1 = (3.4)

dx dx f (f (x)) f (F (x))

where the symbol f (f 1 (x)) means that the derivative of f is evaluated at the point

f 1 (x), where x is given. Why?

3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 131

The simplest reason is that the Chain Rule tells us that since f (F (x)) = x we can

dierentiate the composition on the left using the Box Method (with F (x) in the

box...). By the Chain Rule we know that

Df (2 ) = f (2 ) D(2 ).

x = f (F (x))

Dx = Df (F (x)) = Df (2 )

1 = f (2 ) D(2 )

= f (F (x)) F (x).

Now solving for the symbol F (x) in the last display (because this is what we want)

we obtain

1

F (x) = ,

f (F (x))

where F (x) = f 1 (x) is the inverse of the original function f (x). This proves our

claim.

y

Another, more geometrical, argument proceeds like this: Referring to Figure 53 in

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the margin let (x, y) be a point on the graph of y = f 1 (x). We can see that the

tangent line to the graph of f has equation y = mx + b where m, its slope, is also

the derivative of f at the point in question (i.e., f (y)). On the other hand, its

O

reection is obtained by interchanging x, y, and so the equation of its counterpart

(on the other side of y = x) is x = my + b. Solving for y in terms of x in this one

we get y = m x

mb

. This means that it has slope equal to the reciprocal of the rst

on

one. Since these slopes are actually derivatives this means that

1 1

(f 1 ) (x) = = 1

f (y) f (f (x))

si

since our point (x, y) lies on the graph of the inverse function, y = f 1 (x).

r

Example 122. df 1

Ve

For Example 120 above, what is (16)? i.e., the derivative The two tangents are reections of

dx one another, and so their slopes

of the inverse function of f at x = 16? must be the reciprocal of one an-

other (see the text).

Solution Using Equation 3.4, we have

TA

1 Figure 53.

(f 1 ) (16) =

f (f 1 (16))

But f 1 (x) = 4 x means that f 1 (16) = 4 16 = 2. So, (f 1 ) (16) = f 1(2) and

now we need f (2). But f (x) = x4 , so f (2) = 4(2)3 = 32. Finally, we nd that

(f 1 ) (16) = 32

1

.

Example 123.

A function f with an inverse function denoted by F has the

property that F (0) = 1 and f (1) = 0.2. Calculate the value of F (0).

Solution We dont have much given here but yet we can actually nd the answer

as follows: Since

1

F (0) =

f (F (0))

by (3.4) with x = 0, we set F (0) = 1, and note that f (F (0)) = f (1). But since

f (1) = 0.2 we see that

1 1 1

F (0) = = = = 5.

f (F (0)) f (1) 0.2

132 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

Example 124.

Let g be a function dened by

x+2

g(x) =

x2

with Dom(g) = {x : x = 2}. Show that g has an inverse function, G, nd its form,

and describe its Domain and Range.

Solution Lets denote its inverse function by G. The rst question you should be

asking yourself is: How do we know that there is an inverse function at all? In

other words, we have to show that the graph of g satises the Horizontal Line Test

mentioned above (see Fig. 50), or, in other words, g is one-to-one. To do this we can

do one of two things: We can either draw the graph as in Fig. 54 (if you have that

much patience), or check the condition algebraically by showing that if g(x) = g(y)

then x = y must be true (for any points x, y in the domain of g). Since the graph

is already given in the margin we are done, but lets look at this using the algebraic

test mentioned here.

y

In order to prove that g is one-to-one algebraically, we have to show that if g(x) =

nl

g(y) then x = y. Basically, we use the denitions, perform some algebra, simplify

and see if we get x = y at the end. If we do, were done. Lets see.

O

The graph of the function g in Ex- We assume that g(x) = g(y) (here y is thought of as an independent variable, just

ample 124. Note that any horizon-

like x). Then, by denition, this means that

on

tal line intersects the graph of g in x+2 y+2

=

only one point! This means that g is x2 y2

one-to-one on its domain. The ver-

for x, y = 2. Multiplying both sides by (x 2)(y 2) we get (x + 2)(y 2) =

si

(y + 2)(x 2). Expanding these expressions we get

called a vertical asymptote (a line

on which the function becomes in- xy + 2y 2x 4 = yx + 2x 2y 4

r

Ve

from which we easily see that x = y. Thats all. So g is one-to-one. Thus, its inverse

function G exists.

Figure 54.

Next, to nd its values, G(x), we replace all the xs by ys and solve for y in terms

of x, (cf., Table 3.8). Replacing all the xs by ys (and the only y by x) we get

TA

y+2

x= .

y2

Multiplying both sides by (y 2) and simplifying we get

2x + 2

y= .

x1

This is G(x).

Dom(g) = {x : x = 2} by denition of the inverse.

Now that we know how to nd the form of the inverse of a given (one-to-one)

function, the natural question is: What does it look like?. Of course, it is simply

another one of those graphs whose shape may be predicted by means of existing

computer software or by the old and labor intensive method of nding the critical

points of the function, the asymptotes, etc. So, why worry about the graph of an

inverse function? Well, one reason is that the graph of an inverse function is

related to the graph of the original function (that is, the one for which it is

the inverse). How? Lets have a look at an example.

3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 133

Example 125.

Lets look at the graph of the function f (x) = x, for x in

2

(0, 4), and its inverse, the function, F (x) = x , for x in (0, 2), Figure 55.

When we study these graphs carefully, we note, by denition of the inverse function,

that the domain and the range are interchanged. So, this means that if we

interchanged the x-axis (on which lies the domain of f ) and the y-axis, (on which

we nd the range of f ) we would be in a position to graph the inverse function of f .

This graph of the inverse function is simply the reection of the graph for y = x,

about the line y = x. Try it out ! Better still, check out the following experiment!

EXPERIMENT:

1. Make a copy of the graph of f (x) = x, below, by tracing it onto some

tracing paper (so that you can see the graph from both sides). Label the

axes, and ll in the domain and the range of f by thickening or thinning

the line segment containing them, or, if you prefer, by colouring them in.

2. Now, turn the traced image around, clockwise, by 90 degrees so

y

that the x-axis is vertical (but pointing down) and the y-axis is horizontal

(and pointing to the right). Figure 55.

nl

The graphs of y =

3. Next, ip the paper over onto its back without rotating the x2 and its inverse, y = x super-

paper! What do you see? The graph of the inverse function of imposed on one another

O

f (x) = x, that is, F (x) = x2 .

on

REMARK This technique of making the graph of the inverse function by rotating

the original graph clockwise by 90 degrees and then ipping it over always works!

You will always get the graph of the inverse function on the back side (verso), as if

si

it had been sketched on the x and y axes as usual (once you interchange x and y).

Heres a visual summary of the construction . . .

r

Ve

TA

Why does this work? Well, theres some Linear Algebra involved. (The au-

thors module entitled The ABCs of Calculus: Module on Inverse Functions has a

thorough explanation!)

134 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

by applying the above construction to the original graph

or, equivalently,

by reecting the original graph of f about the line y = x and eliminating the

original graph.

Example 126.

We sketch the graphs of the function f , and its inverse, F , given

7

, where Dom(f ) = , where = (, +). The

graphs of f and its inverse superimposed on the same axes are shown in Figure 56.

NOTE THAT if you are given the graph of the inverse function, F (x), of a

function f (x), you can nd the graph of f (x) by applying the preceding rule of

thumb with f and F interchanged. Furthermore, the inverse of the inverse function

of a function f (so, were looking for the inverse) is f itself. Why? Use the denition

of the inverse! We know that F (f (x)) = x, for each x in Dom(f ), and x = f (F (x))

for each x in Dom(F ); together, these relations say that F is the inverse of f . If

y

we interchange the symbols F and f in this equation we get the same equation

nl

with the interpretation f is the inverse of F , which is what we wanted!

O

Exercise Set 16.

on

Sketch the graphs of the following functions and their inverses. Dont

forget to indicate the domain and the range of each function.

si

f (x) = 7x + 4 and its inverse 1. f (x) = 4 x2 , 0x2

r

x4 1

F (x) = 7 superimposed on one 2. g(x) = (x 1) , 1<x<

Ve

another.

3. f (z) = 2 z ,

3

< z <

4. h(x) = 5 + 2x, 52 x <

1

5. f (y) = (2 + y) 3 , 2 < y <

TA

F , dened on (another symbol for the real line) also.

(iv) Given that f (2) = 8 , what is the solution y, of F (y) = 2? Are there

any other solutions ??

(v) We know that f (1) = 6. Are there any other points, x, such that

f (x) = 6?

7. Given that f is such that its inverse F exists, f (2.1) = 4, F (1) = 2.1,

nd the value of the derivative of F at x = 1.

3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 135

Find the form of the inverse of the given functions on the given domain

and determine the Domain and the Range of the inverse function. Dont

forget to show that each is one-to-one rst.

1

9. f (x) = , x = 0

x

10. f (x) = x3 , < x < +

11. f (t) = 7t + 4, 0t1

1

12. g(x) = 2x + 1, x

2

1

13. g(t) = 1 4t2 , 0t

2

2 + 3x 3

14. f (x) = , x =

3 2x 2

1

15. g(y) = y 2 + y, y < +

2

y

nl

O

Suggested Homework Set 11. Work out problems 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15.

on

Web Links

si

library.thinkquest.org/2647/algebra/ftinvers.htm

r

Ve

www.sosmath.com/algebra/invfunc/fnc1.html

www.math.wpi.edu/Course Materials/MA1022B95/lab3/node5.html

(The above site uses the software Maple)

www.math.duke.edu/education/ccp/materials/intcalc/inverse/index.html

TA

NOTES:

136 3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

When you think of the graph of a trigonometric function you may have the general

feeling that its very wavy. In this case, the Horizontal Line Test should fail as

horizontal lines through the range will intersect the graph quite a lot! So, how can

they have an inverse? The only way this can happen is by making the domain small

enough. It shouldnt be surprising if it has an inverse on a suitable interval. So,

every trigonometric function has an inverse on a suitably dened interval.

The graphical properties of the sine function indicate that it has an inverse when

Dom(sin) = [/2, /2]. Its inverse is called the Arcsine function and it is dened

for 1 x 1 by the rule that

y = Arcsin(x) means that y is an angle whose sine is x.

Since sin(/2) = 1, it follows that Arcsin(1) = /2. The cosine function with

Dom(cos) = [0, ] also has an inverse and its called the Arccosine function, This

y

Arccosine function is dened for 1 x 1, and its rule is given by y = Arccos(x)

which means that y is an angle whose cosine is x. Thus, Arccos(1) = 0, since

nl

cos(0) = 1. Finally, the tangent function dened on (/2, /2) has an inverse

called the Arctangent function and its dened on the interval (, +) by

O

the statement that y = Arctan(x) only when y is an angle in (/2, /2) whose

tangent is x. In particular, since tan(/4) = 1, Arctan(1) = /4. The remaining

inverse trigonometric functions can be dened by the relations y = Arccot(x), the

Arccotangent function, which is dened only when y is an angle in (0, ) whose

on

cotangent is x (and x is in (, +)). In particular, since cot(/2) = 0, we see

that Arccot(0) = /2. Furthermore, y = Arcsec(x), the Arcsecant function, only

when y is an angle in [0, ], dierent from /2, whose secant is x (and x is outside

si

the open interval (1, 1)). In particular, Arcsec(1) = 0, since sec(0) = 1. Finally,

y = Arccsc(x), the Arccosecant function, only when y is an angle in [/2, /2],

dierent from 0, whose cosecant is x (and x is outside the open interval (1, 1)). In

r

Ve

NOTE: sin, cos are dened for all x (in radians) but this is not true for their

inverses, arcsin (or Arcsin), arccos (or Arccos). Remember that the inverse of a

function is always dened on the range of the original function.

TA

Example 127.

Evaluate Arctan(1).

So y = Arctan(1) means tan y = 1 or y = .

4

y = Arcsin x 1 x +1 2 y + 2

y = Arccos x 1 x +1 0y

y = Arctan x < x < + 2 < y < + 2

y = Arccot x < x < + 0<y<

y = Arcsec x | x | 1 0 y , y = 2

y = Arccsc x | x | 1 2 y + 2 , y = 0

3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 137

Example 128. 1

Evaluate Arcsin( ).

2

1

Solution By denition, we are looking for an angle in radians whose sine is . So

2

1 1

y = Arcsin( ) means sin y = or y = (see Figure 57).

2 2 6

Example 129. 1

Evaluate Arccos( ).

2

Figure 57.

1

Solution By denition, we seek an angle in radians whose cosine is . So y =

2

1 1

Arccos( ) means cos y = or y = .

2 2 4

Example 130.

Evaluate Arcsec( 2).

y

Solution By denition,we are looking for anangle in radians whose secant is 2.

So y = Arcsec( 2) means sec y = 2 (= 12 ). The other side has length s2 =

nl

( 2)2 12 = 2 1 = 1. So s = 1. Therefore, the is isosceles and y = (see

4

Figure 58).

O

Example 131. 2

Find the value of sin(Arccos( )).

2

on

Figure 58.

2 2

Solution Let y = Arccos( ) then cos y = . But we want sin y. So, since

2 2

2 2

si

1 cos 1 1

sin y = y= 1 = .

r

2

2 2

Ve

Hence

2 1 2

sin(Arccos( )) = (= ).

2 2 2

TA

Example 132. 1

Find sec(Arctan( )).

2

1 1

Solution Now y = Arctan( ) means tan y = but we want sec y. Since sec2 y

2 2

tan2 y = 1 this means sec y = 1 + tan2 y = 1 + 14 = 54 = 25 . Now we

use Table 3.10, above.

Now, if we have an angle whose tangent is 12 then the angle is either in II or IV.

But the angle must be in the interval ( 2 , 0) of the domain of denition ( 2 , 2 )

of tangent. Hence it is in IV and so its secant is > 0. Thus, sec y = 5/2 and were

done.

Example 133. 1

Find the sign of sec(Arccos( )).

2

1 1

Solution Let y = Arccos( ) cos y = > 0, therefore y is in I or IV. By denition,

2 2

138 3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

I + + + + + +

II + - - - - +

III - - + + - -

IV - + - - + -

Arccos( 21 ) is in [0, ]. Therefore y is in I or II, but this means that y must be in I.

1

So, sec y > 0 by Table 3.10, and this forces sec Arccos = sec y > 0.

2

Example 134.

Determine the sign of the number csc(Arcsec(2)).

y

Solution Let y = Arcsec(2). Then sec y = 2 > 0. Therefore y is in I or IV. By

nl

denition, Arcsec(2) is in I or II. Therefore y is in I, and from the cosecant property,

csc y > 0 if y is in [0, 2 ). So, csc(Arcsec(2)) = csc y > 0.

O

Example 135. 1

Find the sign of tan(Arcsin( )).

2

on

1

Solution Let y = Arcsin( ). Then sin y = 12 y in III or IV. By denition

2

1

of Arcsin; But, y = Arcsin( ) must be in I or IV. Therefore y is in IV. So

2

si

1

tan(Arcsin( )) < 0 (because tan < 0 in IV).

2

r

Ve

CAREFUL!!

Many authors of Calculus books use the following notations for the inverse

trigonometric functions:

TA

Arcsin x sin1 x

Arccos x cos1 x

Arctan x tan1 x

Arccot x cot1 x

Arcsec x sec1 x

Arccsc x csc1 x

The reason we try to avoid this notation is because it makes too many readers

associate it with the reciprocal of those trigonometric functions and not their

inverses. The reciprocal and the inverse are really dierent! Still, you should

be able to use both notations interchangeably. Its best to know what

the notation means, rst.

NOTE: The inverse trigonometric functions we dened here in Table 3.9, are called

the principal branch of the inverse trigonometric function, and we use the notation

with an upper case letter A for Arcsin, etc. to emphasize this. Just about every-

3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 139

thing you ever wanted know about the basic theory of principal and non-principal

branches of the inverse trigonometric functions may be found in the authors Mod-

ule on Inverse Functions in the series The ABCs of Calculus, The Nolan Company,

Ottawa, 1994.

Finally, we emphasize that since these functions are inverses then for any symbol,

2 , representing some point in the domain of the corresponding inverse function (see

Table 3.9), we always have

sin(Arcsin 2 ) = 2 cos(Arccos 2 ) = 2

tan(Arctan 2 ) = 2 cot(Arccot 2 ) = 2

sec(Arcsec 2 ) = 2 csc(Arccsc 2 ) = 2

1

cos(Arcsin(0)) 3. sec(sin1 ( ))

y

1. sin(Arccos(0.5)) 2.

2

nl

1 3

4. csc(tan1 ( )) 5. sec(sin1 ) 6. Arcsin(tan(/4))

2 2

O

NOTES:

on

r si

Ve

TA

140 3.9. DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

tions

Now that we know what these inverse trigonometric functions are, how do we nd

the derivative of the inverse of, say, the Arcsine (sin1 ) function? Well, we know

from equation 3.4 that

dF 1

(x) =

dx f (F (x))

where F (x) = f 1 (x) is the more convenient notation for the inverse of f . Now let

f (x) = sin x, and F (x) = Arcsin x be its inverse function. Since f (x) = cos x, we

see that

d dF

Arcsin x = (x)

dx dx

1

=

f (F (x))

y

1

=

cos(F (x))

nl

1

=

cos(Arcsin x)

O

Now, let = Arcsin x, where is a lowercase Greek letter pronounced thay-ta. It is

used to denote angles. Then, by denition, sin = x, and were looking for the

value

of cos , right? But since sin2 () + cos2 () = 1, this means that cos = 1 x2 .

on

So, which is it? There are two choices, here.

Figure 59. Look at the denition of the Arcsin function in Table 3.9. Youll see that this

function is dened only when the domain of the original sin function is restricted

si

cos = cos Arcsin x 0 because Arcsin x is in the interval [/2, /2] and the cos

r

function is either 0 or positive in there. So we must choose the + sign. Good. So,

1 x .

Ve

cos(Arcsin x) = 2

d 1

TA

Arcsin x =

dx cos(Arcsin x)

1

= .

1 x2

d 1 du d 1 du

sin1 (u) = cos1 (u) = , | u |< 1,

dx 1 u2 dx dx 1 u2 dx

d 1 du d 1 du

tan1 (u) = cot1 (u) =

dx 1 + u2 dx dx 1 + u2 dx

d 1 du d 1 du

sec1 (u) = , csc1 (u) = , | u |> 1

dx | u | u2 1 dx dx | u | u2 1 dx

3.9. DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 141

If we let u = u(x) = 2 be any dierentiable function, then we can use the basic

derivative formulae and derive very general ones using the Chain Rule. In this way

we can obtain Table 3.11.

Example 136. 1

Evaluate the derivative of y = cos1 ( ), (or Arccos( x1 )).

x

Solution You can use any method here, but it always comes down to the Chain

1 du 1

Rule. Let u = , then = 2 . By Table 3.11,

x dx x

dy d 1 du

= cos1 u =

dx dx 1 u dx

2

1

1 1 x2

= ( )=

1 ( x1 )2 x2 1 1

x2

1 x2

= =

1 |x|2

x2 1

y

1

x2 x2

|x|

nl

=

|x|2 x2 1

1

O

= , (|x| > 1).

|x| x2 1

on

Example 137.

Evaluate the derivative of y = cot1 ( x).

du 1

si

dx 2 x

r

dy d 1 du

= cot1 u =

Ve

dx dx 1 + u2 dx

1 1 1

= = .

1 + ( x)2 2 x 2 x(1 + x)

TA

Example 138.

If y = csc1 ( x + 1) , what is y (x)?

du 1

Solution Let u = x + 1, then = . So,

dx 2 x+1

dy d 1 du

= csc1 u =

dx dx | u | u2 1 dx

1 1

=

x + 1( x + 1 1) 2 x + 1

1

= .

2(x + 1) x

NOTES:

142 3.9. DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Use Table 3.11 and the Chain Rule to nd the derivatives of the functions

whose values are given here.

1. Arcsin(x2 ), at x = 0 6. sec1 x

3. tan1 ( x) 8. cos(sin1 (4x))

1

4. Arcsin(cos x) 9.

Arctanx

sin1 x

5. 10. x3 Arcsec(x3 )

sin x

y

nl

Suggested Homework Set 12. Do problems 1, 4, 5, 7, 9

Web Links

O

on

On the topic of Inverse Trigonometric Functions see:

si

www.math.ucdavis.edu/kouba/CalcOneDIRECTORY/

invtrigderivdirectory/InvTrigDeriv.html

r

Ve

NOTES:

TA

3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 143

There are many situations in life where things depend on other things which in turn

depend upon time. For example, the rate at which a balloon grows depends upon

the rate at which we blow into it, among other things. Similarly, the rate at which

we can stop an automobile by braking depends upon our reaction rate; these rates

are clearly related although it may be dicut to quantify them. In order to get

an understanding on how to model such situations we need to develop some basic

knowledge about how to model it rst! Lets start with an example.

Example 139.

As a spherical balloon is being inated with Helium gas it is

noted that its radius is increasing at the rate of 1 in./sec. How fast is its volume

changing when its radius is 5 in.?

Solution In order to model this and come up with a solution we need to relate the

quantities given (its the whole point of this section!). For example, we are talking

about a spherical balloon, that is one shaped like a sphere, at all times! We are

y

asking a question about its volume; so this means that we need to rst know what

its volume is, in general. We recall that the volume of a sphere is V = 43 r 3 , where

nl

r is its radius. The question asked is about the quantity dV dt

, in other words, we

want to know how fast the volume is changing.

O

Okay, now another part of the question deals with the fact that the radius is in-

creasing at the rate .... This tells us that we know something about the derivative,

on

dr

dt

, too! Lets put all this together. We know the volume V is a function of time

t and so r is a function of time too. Since both V and r are functions of t we can

dierentiate both sides of the volume formula with respect to t! Lets see... From

si

4 3

V = r

3

r

Ve

dV 4 dr dr

= 3 r2 = 4 r2 ,

dt 3 dt dt

since the implicit derivative of r 3 is really 3r 2 dr

dt

and NOT just 3r2 . Watch out for

this, its just the Chain Rule, remember?

TA

Now, lets see if we can get any further. Lets look at the expression

dV dr

= 4 r2 .

dt dt

We are given that the quantity drdt

= 1 (inch per second) and we need to nd the

rate of change of the volume. This means we still need the quantity r, but this is

given too! You see, we are asking for these rates of change at the time t when r = 5

(inches). So, thats about it. We just insert r = 5 and dr

dt

= 1 into the last display

and we get the required volume rate ... that is,

dV

= 4 (5)2 1 = 100 314 in3 /sec.

dt

Note The neat thing about this previous example is that we could have replaced

the word balloon by a red giant and determine the rate of expansion of such a

144 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

dying star at times t in the future! An example of such a star is Betelgeuse (one of

the stars at the corner of the Orion constellation; it even looks red, check it out!).

In working on problems involving such rates of change we need to think about how

to relate the quantities and rates given. To do this we need to be able to recall

some basic formulae about geometry, or just have some common sense. Ultimately

though, all we do is we relate what we want to what is given, use some

formulae, then usually an application of the Chain Rule, then use some

logic, and nally the ideas in this section.

Example 140.

A swimming pool is being drained through an opening at its

deepest end and it is noticed that it will take about 960 minutes to drain the pool

if its volume is 10, 000 gallons. Now, the volume V of water left in the pool after t

minutes is given by Torricellis Law:

t

2

V = 10, 000 1 .

y

960

nl

How fast is the water draining from the pool after 30 minutes?

Solution This one isnt hard. The point is that we are asking the question, How

O

fast is the water draining from the pool .... This is really a question about how

the volume of water is changing, you see? That is, these words at the end of the

problem are really asking us to compute the derivative dVdt

at time t = 30 minutes,

on

thats all. In our case,

dV

t

1

= 2 (10, 000) 1 .

dt 960 960

si

1

r

dV 30

Ve

= 2 (10, 000) 1 ,

dt 960 960

31 1

= 20, 000

32 960

= 20.182 gallons per minute.

TA

Example 141.

A sunbather is lying on a tropical beach, with her head 1 m

away from a palm tree whose height is 4 m. The sun is rising behind the tree as it

casts a shadow on the sunbather (see the gure in the margin). Experience indicates

that the angle between the beach surface and the tip of the shadow is changing at

the rate of 36 rads/hr. At what rate is the shadow of the palm tree moving across

the sunbather when = 6 ?

Solution Now, lets analyze this problem carefully. You can see that this question

is about a triangle, right? Actually, we are really asking how the angle of the

triangle is changing with time. We are given the height (call it y, so that y = 4) of

the palm tree (or, the length of the opposite side of the triangle), and we need to

know the distance of the tip of the shadow from the base of the tree (we call this

x, and we know it varies with t). We also know that the required angle is called .

So, we have to relate x, the height of the palm tree and . How? Use trigonometry.

We know that y = x tan or equivalently,

x = y cot = 4 cot .

3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 145

From this we see that we require some information about the rate dx/dt, since

this gives information on the rate of the motion of the shadow. So, using implicit

dierentiation and the Chain Rule we get,

dx d

= 4 csc2 .

dt dt

But we know that d/dt = /36 and we want information about dx/dt when =

/6. Feeding this information into the last display we get

dx 4

= 4 csc2 = 4(4) = 1.4 m/hr.

dt 6 36 36 9

Example 142.

A strip of hard bristle board is rolled up into a cylinder and

held together temporarily by means of a rubber band. Once released, the bristle

board expands and the rubber band exes in a circular fashion. Determine how fast

the length of the band is changing when its length is 30 cm and the rate of change

of the cross sectional area of the bristle board cylinder is 60 cm2 .

y

Solution Now this problem looks tough because there are so many words and so

nl

few formulae, or even numbers for that matter! Lets analyze the data carefully and

see if we can work this through logically.

O

A picture like the one in the margin (or a similar experiment that is also easy to

on

perform) will help us understand the event. Basically, we roll up some board, try

to hold it together using a rubber band but it doesnt work well because the rubber

band isnt strong enough to hold it together. So, it starts to unravel forcing the

band to expand in a circular fashion. OK, this makes sense and we can imagine

si

this.

r

Ve

We note that we are given that the length of the band (or its perimeter) at some

TA

time t (unknown to us) is equal to 30. We can write this mathematically using the

formula P = 30, where P stands for the perimeter of the band at that particular

time. Furthermore, we are given that the cross-sectional area of the cylindrical

board is changing at the rate of 60. Mathematically, this is saying that

dA

= 60,

dt

where A is approximately equal to the area of the circle outlined by the rubber

band. Now what? We have to nd how fast the length of the band is changing, that

is, what is the quantity

dP dA

equal to, when P = 30 and = 60?

dt dt

This means we have to relate all these quantities somehow. . . . That is, we

need to nd some formula that relates the perimeter of a circle to its area when

each one of these in turn depends upon time. Well, the only formulae we can think

of right now are the obvious ones that relate P and A but in terms of the radius!

In other words, we know that A = r 2 and P = 2 r. Now we need to write A in

terms of P (we relate A to P ). We can do this if we eliminate the variable r

146 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

from these two simple equations! Its easy to see that this elimination of the usual

variable r gives us the new relation

P2

A= .

4

Of course, you see that this isnt a formula we usually learn in school, but it can be

found using formulae we already know!

Now both A and P depend upon t so we can nd the derivative of both sides of the

last display with respect to t (using implicit dierentiation). We then nd,

dA

=

1 d

P2 =

P dP

.

dt 4 dt 2 dt

Thats it!! We have found a relation between the three main quantities in this

problem, P, dP/dt, dA/dt! All we have to do now is feed in what is known, and solve

for what is unknown. Solving for dP/dt (the unknown) we get

dP 2 dA

= .

y

dt P dt

nl

But P = 30 and dA/dt = 60, so the required rate of change of the perimeter (at

that unspecied moment in time t) is equal to 4 12.57 cm/sec.

O

Example 143.

An economic concept called the Earnback Period was intro-

duced by Reijo Ruuhela back in 1987. Basically, this is the number of years required

on

for a company with a constant growth rate to earn back its share price. Now, this

quantity, lets call it R, is a function of E, its expected earnings; P , the price of a

stock at some specic time, usually t = 0; and G, its expected growth rate (usually

given by a quantity called the ROE: its return on equity). The relationship between

si

P

ln 1 + g E

R= .

r

ln(1 + g)

Ve

Lets assume that the P/E ratio varies with time (it usually does). Then R is

essentially a function of the one variable P/E (since g is assumed constant in the

model).

TA

Determine the rate at which the Earnback Period changes when g = 38%, P/E =

27.3 and the rate of change of P/E = 0.6 (This is actual data drawn from a famous

cellular telephone manufacturer).

implicitly with respect to t. This gives

1 + g

P

dR g d E

= P

dt E

ln(1 + g) dt

(0.38)

= (0.6)

(1 + (0.38)(27.3)) ln(1 + 0.38)

= 0.57608

This quantity, being positive, means it will take longer for the company to earnback

its original share price under these conditions.

NOTE: For this company, the actual earnback ratio for the given data above, was

equal to 7.54. This means that it would take about seven and one-half years for it

to earn back its stock price (assuming this expected constant growth rate).

3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 147

antiparticle collide. One such attempt was undertaken by the Nobel Prize-winning

physicist, Carlo Rubbia. His experimental work veried the theoretically predicted

particles called the Z and W particles predicted by others. the unication of the

electromagnetic force with the weak nuclear force, the rst step towards a grand

unication of the fundamental forces of nature.

Example 144.

An electron and a positron (a positively charged electron) are

approaching a common target along straight line paths that are perpendicular to

each other. If the electron is 1000 meters away from the target and is travelling

at a speed of 299, 000, 000 meters/sec while the positron is 900 meters away and

travelling at a speed of 272, 727, 000 meters/sec, determine how fast the distance

between them is changing as they approach the target.

Solution Lets think about this: We are given that the two particles are travelling

along the sides of a right-angled triangle towards the vertex containing the right

angle (see the gure). Their distance from each other is simply the length of the

y

hypotenuse of this imaginary triangle and we want to nd out how fast this distance

nl

is changing. Lets call y the vertical distance and x the horizontal distance from

the target. Lets also denote by D, the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle

formed by the two particles and their common target. In other words, we are given

O

x, the speed x = dx/dt, the distance y and the speed y = dy/dt. We really want

dD/dt. This means we have to relate this time derivative of D to x and y and their

derivatives.

on

Lets see. We have a right triangle, we have its two sides and we want its hypotenuse.

This must have something to do with Pythagoras Theorem! Lets try it. The

si

relation

D 2 = x2 + y 2

r

must hold for all time t, by hypothesis, since the particles are assumed to be moving

Ve

in a straight line. But now, each one of these quantities is varying with t, so we can

takwe the implict derivative of each side to nd:

dD dx dy

2D = 2x + 2y ,

dt dt dt

TA

dx dy

dD x dt

+y dt

= .

dt D

Substituting the values given above should do it. But wait! Were missing D here.

Anyhow, this isnt bad because we know (from Pythagoras) that D = x2 + y 2 =

(1000)2 + (900)2 = 1345.36 meters at the given moment of our calculation. Fi-

nally, we get

dD (900) (272, 727, 000) + (1000) (299, 000, 000)

= = 4.047 108 meters/sec.

dt 1345.36

Example 145.

We recall the Ideal Gas Law from chemistry texts. It says that

for an ideal gas,

P V = nRT

where R is the ideal gas constant (0.08206 liter-atmospheres/mole/degree Kelvin,

and T is the temperature in Kelvins), P is the pressure (in atmospheres), V is its

148 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

volume (in liters), and n is the number of moles of the gas. Generally, all these

variables, P, V, n, T , can vary with time with the exception of R. If there is a

constant 2 moles of gas; the pressure is 5 atmospheres and is increasing at the rate

of 0.02 atmospheres per hour; the volume is decreasing at the rate of 0.05 liters per

hour; the temperature is given to be 300K and is decreasing at the rate of 1.5K per

hour, nd the volume V of gas at this time.

Solution You can see that theres a lot of data here. The rates being discussed

are all rates of change with respect to time (given in hours). This tells us that we

should be looking at our Law and dierentiate it with respect to time so that we

can use the information given. You cant use the original Law (P V = nRT ) to nd

V because this is a dynamic problem; all the quantities are generally changing with

time (except for n, R in this case). Okay, so lets dierentiate everything in the basic

Law to nd

P V + P V = nR T .

Solving for the volume, V , we get a formula like

nRT P V

V = .

P

y

Now we just substitute in all the given information, but be careful with the rate

of change of temperature and volume: T = 1.5 (note the negative sign!) and

nl

V = 0.05. In the end we nd,

2 (0.08206) (1.5) 5 (0.05)

V = 0.191 liters.

O

0.02

Example 146.

A senior league baseball eld is in the form of a square whose

on

sides are 90 ft long. During a game a player attempts to steal third base by sprinting

at a constant speed of 9.2 ft/sec. At what rate is the players distance from home

plate changing when the player is 20 ft from third base?

si

Solution A picture will be helpful here (see the margin). Let y denote the distance

r

from the second base (denoted by the point A) to the player (denoted by the point

Ve

B) at a given time and x be the distance from the player to home plate (denoted

by the point O). We are given that y = 9.2 and that the player is 90 20 = 70 ft

from second base so that y = 70. Now we want some information about x . This

means that we have to relate x and its derivative to y and its derivative. Looks like

well have to use some basic trigonometry in order to relate x to y. To do this, we

base to home plate and look at ABO. Since angle

TA

BAO = /4 and AO = 16, 200 127.28 (by Pythagoras) we can use the Cosine

Law to nd x. How? Recall that the Cosine Law is a more general form of the

theorem of Pythagoras. When the Law is applied to ABO we get

x2 = (AO)2 + y 2 2 (AO) y cos(/4),

or

2

x2 = 16, 200 + y 2 2 (127.28) y

2

= 16, 200 + y 2 180y.

We have just derived the basic formula relating x to y. Now we can nd the derivative

of both sides:

2 x x = 2 y y 180y ,

and solve for x . This gives

(y 90) y

x = .

x

But we know y = 70 and y = 9.2 so all we need is to nd x. But this is easy because

of Pythagoras again. In other words, it is easy to see that x2 = (20)2 + (90)2 . Thus,

x 92.2 ft. It follows that x = (7090)

92.2

(9.2)

2 ft/sec..

3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 149

How fast is its volume changing when the radius is 2 cm?

2. A large cubical room in an old pyramid is being compressed uniformly from all

sides in such a way that its volume is changing at the rate of 6 m3 /min. How

fast is the length of one of its walls changing when it is equal to 2 m.?

3. A rectangular screen saver is changing, while maintaining its shape, in such a

way that, at all times, the ratio of its sides is equal to the Golden number,

51

= .

2

How fast is its area changing when one of its sides varies at the rate of 2.1 cm/sec

and that same sides length is 6.2 cm?

4. Two Formula 1 racing cars are at rest and facing away from each other at a

cross-shaped intersection on a desert highway. As the race begins they quickly

reach top speeds of 281 and 274 km/hr, respectively. How fast is the distance

y

between them changing when they are 4 and 6.7 km away from the intersection,

nl

respectively?

5. The area of a plane circular region is changing at the rate of 25 cm2 /sec. How

fast is its circumference changing when it is equal to 67 cm?

O

6. A rotating star (or our own planet) can be more accurately modelled by means

of a solid object called an oblate spheroid. This solid can be thought of as

a tangible sphere compressed from its poles thus forcing its equatorial section

on

out. In the case of a rotating sar (or the Earth) this bulging out at the equator

is caused by its rapid rotation rate and the inherent tidal forces.

The resulting object has an equatorial radius given by a and a polar radius, c.

si

Now, the volume of an oblate spheroid with polar radius c and equatorial radius

a is given by

r

4

V = a2 c.

Ve

3

If a star rotates in such a way that its polar radius is a constant 50, 000 km while

its equatorial radius is changing at the rate of 1300 km/hr, determine the rate

at which its volume is changing when a = 50, 500 km.

TA

7. Two airplanes at the same altitude are moving towards an airport along straight

line ight paths at a constant angle of 120o = 2

3

rads and at speeds of 790 and

770 mph respectively. How fast is the distance between them changing when

they are respectively, 30 and 46 miles away from the airport?

8. A computer manufacturer found the cost of manufacturing x computers to be

given approximately by the function

Find the rate of change in cost over time given that dx/dt = 10 PC s/wk and

x = 100 P C s.

9. PROJECT.

In the gravitational 3 body problem in Celestial Mechanics there is a concept

known as a central conguration. It is clear that any three point masses (such

as spherical planets, or stars) form a triangle.

When this triangle (or system of three bodies) has the property that if the three

masses are released with zero initial velocity subject only to Newtons Laws of

motion, then they all collide at the center of mass simultaneously, we call such

a triangle a central conguration in the problem of three bodies. Of

course, this is bad news if you happen to live on one of them!

150 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

who discovered the fact that any three point masses at the vertices of an

equilateral triangle is necessarily a central conguration. When was this

discovered?

b) At a xed time t, three massive spherical bodies are positioned at the ver-

tices of a large equilateral triangle in space. Given that the area enclosed

by this celestial triangle is decreasing at the rate of 237, 100 km2 /sec, de-

termine the rate at which their mutual distances is changing when the

enclosed area is 500, 000 km2 .

y

nl

O

on

r si

Ve

TA

3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS 151

In many applications of Calculus to mathematics and the real world well need to nd

out where things are: For instance, if we have two curves which may be describing

some complicated trajectory for a system of two particles, we may want to know at

which point they will meet (if ever). If they do meet, where do they meet? Its not

always possible to do this theoretically meaning that we need to resort to some sort

of numerical procedure (using a computer or a calculator) to estimate their location.

Recently, many Hollywood movies have been produced whose subject matter deals

with an imminent collision of an asteroid with the earth. Thats just one such

example. Each one of these celestial bodies moves according to Newtons Laws of

Motion and their trajectories are usually well known to astronomers. If there is a

collision then it must happen at some point along their mutual trajectories and this

means that their curves will intersect! The nding of the roots of a poly-

nomial equation is a very old prob-

The method which well be studying below is due to Sir Isaac Newton and is dated lem. Everyone knows the quadratic

y

1669 in an unpublished work of his where he applied the technique to nding the formula for a quadratic (or polyno-

roots of a cubic equation (by hand, no calculator!). In fact, if the polynomial is of

nl

mial of degree two), but few know

degree greater than or equal to 5 then there is no general formula for nding its or can remember the formula for the

roots. Newtons method, however, can be used to estimate its real roots. Another

roots of a cubic equation! The for-

O

application of this method can be found in the study of populations. The decline of

mula for the roots of some special

the species Amospitza Maritima Nigrescens, known as the Seaside Dusky Sparrow

cases of the cubic had been found by

can be modelled, in hindsight, by a power function P where P (t), the total world

population of Duskies at time t, is given by Omar Khayyam (ca. 1079) and ob-

on

tained generally by Nicolo Tartaglia

sin(10t) + 3

P (t) = 1000 , (ca. 1543) and Hieronimo Cardano

(1 + 32t )

(1501-1576). The formula for the

so that, in 1955, there were, lets say, approximately 3000 Duskies. The Dusky

si

Sparrow was a local species of sparrows which thrived near St. Johns River close to

degree 4) was discovered by Lu-

Cape Canaveral, the cradle of the U.S. Space Program. This species became extinct

dovico Ferrari (1522-1565) and Raf-

r

with the the passing of Orange Band (whose name was inspired by a distinctive

faello Bombelli (ca. 1530 - 1572?)

Ve

marking around one of its legs), the last remaining Dusky Sparrow, in 1986, at

Disney World, Florida, alone, behind a cage. If the model were right and you needed while the impossibility of nding a

to predict the extinction date you would need to solve an equation like P (t) = 0.99 formula for the roots of the gen-

or, equivalently, you would need to nd a root of the equation P (t) 0.99 = 0. eral quintic is due to Evariste Galois

Models like this one can be used to make predictions about the future development (1811-1832) and Niels Abel (1802-

TA

of populations of any kind and this is where the method we will study will lead to 1829). In this case we have to use

some numerical results with hopefully less disastrous consequences. Newtons Method or something

similar in order to nd the actual

Review real roots.

Review the methods for nding a derivative and Bolzanos Theorem (in

Chapter 2) and check your calculator batterys charge, youll really need to

use it in this section! Think BIG, in the sense that youll be making many

numerical calculations but only the last one, is the one you care about. It is

helpful if you can develop a feel for what the answer should be, and well

point out some ways of doing this.

The idea behind this method is that it uses our knowledge of a function and its

derivative in order to estimate the value of a so-called zero (or root) of the

function, that is, a point x where f (x) = 0. So, the rst thing to remember is

that this method applies only to dierentiable functions and wont work for

functions that are only continuous (but not dierentiable).

Remark Newtons method is based on the simple geometrical fact that if the

152 3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS

graph of a dierentiable function has a zero at x = a (i.e., f (a) = 0), then its tangent

line at the point P(a, f (a)) must cross the xaxis at x = a too! In other words,

the tangent line must also have a zero at x = a. If the tangent line happens to be

horizontal at a zero, then it must coincide with the x-axis itself! (see Figure 60).

OK, so lets see what this simple remark tells us about the graph and about the

root, itself. We know that the equation of this tangent line at a generic point

P(xm , ym ) = P (xm , f (xm )) along the graph of f is given by

y = ym + (slope) (x xm ),

= f (xm ) + f (xm ) (x xm ),

since the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at the point xm is equal to the

derivative of f at xm . Now, for this tangent line to cross the xaxis we must set

y = 0, (because the point in question must look like (a, 0) there). Setting y = 0 in

the last display and solving for x, the root were looking for, we nd x = xm ff(x m)

(xm )

,

or, since x = a is our root,

f (xm )

xm (if f (xm ) = 0)

y

a = ,

f (xm )

nl

is the value of the root we need. The problem with this is we dont know the value

of xm . The way this is resolved is by starting with some arbitrary value which

x

O

we call 0 . Ideally, you should choose x0 close to the root x = a, that youre trying

to approximate.

x

Next, you use this value of 0 to dene a new value, which we call x1 , (and

on

which depends on x0 ). This new value of x1 is dened explicitly by

f (x0 )

x1 = x0 ,

f (x0 )

si

so youll need your calculator to nd it. OK, once youve done this, you now realize

r

you have two values, namely, x0 , x1 . Now, using our calculator once again, well

Ve

x2 = x1 .

x2 showing its tangent at x = 0 f (x1 )

TA

Since you just found x1 , youll be able to nd x2 . Alright, now you found three

values, x0 , x1 , x2 . Youre probably getting the general idea, here. So, we continue

this method by dening another value x3 by

f (x2 )

x3 = x2 .

f (x2 )

This now gives us the four values x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 . We just keep doing this until the

numbers in the sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , . . . seem to level o, i.e., the last ones in

this list are very close together numerically. Of course, we can only do this a nite

number of times and this is OK, since an approximation which is accurate to 15

decimal places is accurate enough for the most precise applications. In general, the

(m + 1)st number we generated using this technique called an iteration is dened

by using the previous m numbers by, you guessed it, Table 3.12, above.

m = 0 1 2 3 4 converges to a value

say, L, (see the Advanced Topics chapter for a precise meaning to this), then we can

3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS 153

f (xm )

xm+1 = xm ,

f

(xm )

sequence, which is denoted by {xm }, for brevity.

f (xm )

L = lim xm+1 = lim {xm },

m m f (xm )

limm f (xm )

= lim xm

y

m limm f (xm )

f (L)

nl

= L ,

f (L)

O

since both f, f are continuous everywhere in their domain, and so at x = L.

on

Remark 1. This last equation shows that if

si

lim xm = L,

r

m

Ve

then L is a root of f , that is, f (L) = 0. But it doesnt have to be the root we

are actually looking for! This is one of the problems with this method: When the

sequence {xm }, dened in Table 3.12, converges to a value (i.e., it has a nite limit

as m ) that value is not necessarily equal to a, UNLESS we know something

TA

Remark 2. If you think about this preamble carefully and you remember the stu

we learned in Chapter 2, then youll realize that the above arguments should work on

functions that have a derivative which is continuous over some interval I containing

the root. In addition, we should require that the root be a so-called, simple root.

This means that the derivative of f evaluated at the root is not zero. The reason

for this is to avoid those crazy results which occur when you try to divide by 0 in

the formula for some iterate xm .

For this we refer to Figure 61 in the margin. There we have sketched the graph

of the function y = x4 1 over the interval [0, 5] in an attempt to understand the

nature of the iterates, or the points x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 . . . dened by the process outlined

in Table 3.12, above. Now we know that the zero of this function is at x = 1, so it

must be the case that xn 1 as n .

154 3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS

f (x0 )

x1 = x0

f (x0 )

f (5)

= 5

f (5)

624

= 5

500

3.75.

Now, at this point x1 = 3.75 we draw a perpendicular which intersects the graph at

P : (x1 , f (x1 )). Draw the tangent line at P . We claim that this line now intersects

the xaxis at x2 . It must, really! This is because the equation of the tangent line

at P is given by

y f (x1 ) = (slope)(x x1 )

y

= f (x1 )(x x1 )

f (x1 ) + f (x1 )(x x1 ).

nl

y =

O

This tangent line intersects the xaxis when y = 0, and so, solving for x, we nd

that

Figure 61. f (x1 )

x = x1 = x2 ,

f (x1 )

on

by denition. So x2 is the zero of this tangent line and its value is given by

si

f (x1 )

x2 = x1

f (x1 )

r

f (3.75)

= 3.75

Ve

f (3.75)

196.7

= 3.75

210.9

2.82.

TA

Now we just keep doing this over and over again. At this point x2 = 2.82 we draw

a perpendicular which intersects the graph at Q : (x2 , f (x2 )). Draw the tangent

line at Q and we claim that this line intersects the xaxis at x3 . Use the same

argument as the one above to convince yourself of this. So, you see, the string of

iterates x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . is really a string of roots of a collection of tangent lines to

the graph of f . When this sequence converges, it converges to a root of the original

function, f .

Example 147.

Find an approximation to the root of the polynomial given by

Solution Why the interval [0.75, 2]? We chose this one because f (0.75) f (2) =

(0.125) 3 = 0.375 < 0 and so by Bolzanos Theorem (Chapter 2), it follows that

f has a root in this interval. For a starting value, x0 , well choose the point half-way

between the end-points of our interval, namely the point x0 = (0.75 + 2)/2 = 1.375.

3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS 155

1 1.1125 0.1378 1.45 1.0175

2 1.0175 0.0181 1.0698 1.0006

3 1.0006 0.0006 1.0023 1.0000

4 1.0000 .0000 1.0000 1.0000

... ... ... ... ...

Column 3

Column 5

ware to verify the numbers in

Lets look at how this table was generated in the rst place. The rest of the examples

this Table!

follow a similar procedure. In this case, f (x) = 2 x2 3 x + 1, while f (x) = 4x 3.

Substituting these values into Table 3.12 and expanding the terms on the right well

nd,

f (xm ) 2 xm 2 3 xm + 1

xm+1 = xm = xm , f or m 0.

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