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The ABCs of Calculus

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Angelo B. Mingarelli
School of Mathematics and Statistics,
Carleton University
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Canada
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http://www.math.carleton.ca/amingare/calculus/cal104.html
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May 17, 2011


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c 2010 Angelo B. Mingarelli

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, terrestrial or not, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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Published by the Nolan Company, Ottawa.

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ISBN 978-0-9698889-5-6
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This book is dedicated
to the immutable memory of my father,
Giosafat Mingarelli,
and

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to my mother, Oliviana Lopez,
who showed a young child of 10

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how to perform long division ...

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Preface to the e-text edition

This e-text is written primarily for students wanting to learn and be good at
Calculus. Indeed, it is meant to be used primarily by students. I tried to present

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the material in a mix of combined verbal, theoretical, practical, numerical, and

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geometrical approaches in an attempt to satisfy as many learning styles as pos-
sible. The presentation is, of course, very personal and it is based upon my
delivery of the material in a large classroom setting (more than 200 students)

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over the past 30 years.
Why the title? I think that there is a need to constantly review basic material
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while working towards a goal that includes the fostering of a feeling for what
Calculus is, what it does, and how you solve the problems it generates correctly.
In order to do this I feel that there is a need to always remind the reader of
what is being done and why we are doing it. . . In my view there are three basic
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tenets when learning something: 1) Dont worry,- life is too short to worry
about this or anything else, 2) Think things out, and 3) Drink coee (or any
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equivalent substitute). Although this may sound funny, Im really serious (up
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to a point). The order in which one proceeds in the application of these tenets
is not important. For example, sometimes 3) may lead to 2) and so 1) may
follow; at other times one may oscillate between 2) and 3) for a while, etc.
All of the the material in the book is based on lectures delivered at the rst-
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year level in a one-term course in Calculus for engineers and scientists both at
Carleton University and at the University of Ottawa dating back to 1978. It
can be used in a high-school setting with students having mastered the basics of
Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry (or at least the Appendices in here). An
optional chapter entitled Advanced Topics at the end introduces the interested
student to the real core of Calculus, with rigorous denitions and epsilon-delta
arguments (which is really the way Calculus should be done). Students not
familiar with Calculus in a high-school setting should rst review the four ap-
pendices A, B, C, D at the very end and be familiar with them (I suggest you do
all the examples therein anyhow, just to be sure). If you ever get to understand
everything in this book then youll be in a position to advance to any upper level
calculus course or even a course in mathematical analysis without any diculty.
The little bonhomme that occasionally makes his appearance in the margins
is my creation. He is there to ease the presentation as it sometimes requires

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viii

patience to master the subject being presented. Then there are the coee
cup problems. These are problems whose level of diculty is reected in the
appearance of a proportionate number of cups of coee (the intent being clear).
Of course, I also decided to include almost all (well, maybe 99%) of the solutions
to every problem/exercise in the text. In this way you can use this book in a
distance learning context or just learn the stu on your own.
Chapters usually begin with a section entitled The Big Picture where a basic
introduction to the material is given in reference to what is already known, and
what one may expect later. This is normally followed by a box entitled Review
where it becomes clear that some skills are more necessary than others for mas-
tery of the subject matter at hand. At various times in the text, Shortcuts are
introduced in an attempt to simplify the solution of a given exercise, or class

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of exercises, or just to show how you can do the problems in a faster algorith-
mic way. Most chapters have individual breaks at a box entitled Snapshots.

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These consist of more examples where I leave out many details and outline the
process. I made a conscious attempt at being repetitive as, in many cases, this

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is a key to remembering material. Each chapter and its sections concludes with
many routine and not so routine exercises that complement the examples. The
matter of specic applications is treated but in a limited form in this e-book
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edition. Students normally see such calculus applications concurrently with this
subject and so undue emphasis on such material is not always necessary. In
many cases, notably in the early chapters, I leave in the most simple of details
in order to reinforce those skills which students may nd nebulous at times.
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The student will nd it useful to know that the Tables listed under the head-
ing List of Tables comprise most of the material and denitions necessary for
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basic mastery of the subject. Finally youll nd STOP signs here and there re-
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quiring the reader to pay particular attention to what is being said at that point.

The choice of topics is of course left to the instructor (if you have one) but the
main breakdown of the course outline may be found on the authors website,
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Finally, my website (so long as it lasts) is a source of information that will


reinforce the material presented in the text along with links to other websites
(although some of these links may disappear over time :(( but then the Internet
Archives, or its future equivalent, may come in handy in any case). I also intend
to add new material occasionally so check it often! Comments and suggestions
are always encouraged as are any reports of misprints, errors, etc. Just write!
Angelo B. Mingarelli
Ottawa, Canada.
http://www.math.carleton.ca/amingare/
e-mail: amingare@math.carleton.ca

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Contents

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Preface to the e-text edition vii

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1 Functions and Their Properties 1
1.1 The Meaning of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

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1.2 Function Values and the Box Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 The Absolute Value of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

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1.4 A Quick Review of Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.4.1 The triangle inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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1.6 Using Computer Algebra Systems (CAS), . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2 Limits and Continuity 33


2.1 One-Sided Limits of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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2.2 Two-Sided Limits and Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


2.3 Important Theorems About Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . 59
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2.4 Evaluating Limits at Innity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


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2.5 How to Guess a Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66


2.6 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

3 The Derivative of a Function 79


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3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.2 Working with Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.3 The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.4 Implicit Functions and Their Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.6 Important Results About Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.7 Inverse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
3.8 Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3.9 Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . 140
3.10 Relating Rates of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

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x CONTENTS

3.11 Newtons Method for Calculating Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151


3.12 LHospitals Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
3.13 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
3.14 Challenge Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
3.15 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

4 Exponentials and Logarithms 177


4.1 Exponential Functions and Their Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . 178
4.2 Eulers Number, e = 2.718281828 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
4.3 Eulers Exponential Function and the Natural Logarithm . . . . 189
4.4 Derivative of the Natural Logarithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
4.5 Dierentiation Formulae for General Exponential Functions . . . 196
4.6 Dierentiation Formulae for General Logarithmic Functions . . . 201
4.7 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
4.8 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
4.9 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

5 Curve Sketching 213

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5.1 Solving Polynomial Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.2 Solving Rational Function Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

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5.3 Graphing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
5.4 Application of Derivatives to Business and Economics . . . . . . 256

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5.5 Single variable optimization problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
5.6 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
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6 Integration 261
6.1 Antiderivatives and the Indenite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
6.2 Denite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
6.3 The Summation Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
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6.4 Area and the Riemann Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291


6.5 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
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7 Techniques of Integration 309


7.1 Trigonometric Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
7.2 The Substitution Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
7.3 Integration by Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
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7.3.1 The Product of a Polynomial and a Sine or Cosine . . . . 328


7.3.2 The Product of a Polynomial and an Exponential . . . . . 331
7.3.3 The Product of a Polynomial and a Logarithm . . . . . . 334
7.3.4 The Product of an Exponential and a Sine or Cosine . . . 337
7.4 Partial Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
7.4.1 Review of Long Division of Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . 347
7.4.2 The Integration of Partial Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
7.5 Products of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
7.5.1 Products of Sines and Cosines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
7.5.2 Fourier Coecients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
7.5.3 Products of Secants and Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
7.6 Trigonometric Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
7.6.1 Completing the Square in a Quadratic (Review) . . . . . 386
7.6.2 Trigonometric Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
7.7 Numerical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
7.7.1 The Trapezoidal Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
7.7.2 Simpsons Rule for n Even . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
7.8 Improper Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

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7.9 Rationalizing Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429


7.9.1 Integrating rational functions of trigonometric expressions 432
7.10 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
7.11 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

8 Applications of the Integral 445


8.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
8.2 Finding the Area Between Two Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
8.3 The Volume of a Solid of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
8.4 Measuring the length of a curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
8.5 Moments and Centers of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
8.6 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
8.7 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

9 Simple Dierential Equations 505


9.1 Why Study Dierential Equations? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
9.2 First-order Separable Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
9.3 Laws of Growth and Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518

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9.4 Using Computer Algebra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525

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10 Multivariable Optimization Techniques 527
10.1 Functions of More Than One Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

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10.2 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
10.2.1 Discontinuity at a point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
10.3 Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
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10.4 Higher Order Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
10.5 The Chain Rule for Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
10.6 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
10.6.1 Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
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10.6.2 The method of Lagrange multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . 544


10.7 Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
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11 Advanced Topics 553


11.1 Innite Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
11.2 Sequences with Innite Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
11.3 Limits from the Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
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11.4 Limits from the Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569


11.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
11.6 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
11.7 Limits of Functions at Innity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
11.8 Innite Limits of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
11.9 The Epsilon-Delta Method of Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585

12 Appendix A: Review of Exponents and Radicals 597

13 Appendix B: The Straight Line 603

14 Appendix C: A Quick Review of Trigonometry 609


14.1 The right-angled isosceles triangle (RT45) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
14.2 The RT30 triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
14.3 The basic trigonometric functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
14.4 Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
14.4.1 The Law of Sines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
14.4.2 The Law of Cosines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
14.4.3 Identities for the sum and dierence of angles . . . . . . . 616

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xii CONTENTS

15 Appendix D: The Natural Domain of a Function 623

Solutions Manual 627


1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
1.2 Exercise Set 1 (page 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
1.3 Exercise Set 2 (page 19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
1.4 Exercise Set 3 (page 28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
1.5 Chapter Exercises (page 30 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629

Solutions 631
2.1 Exercise Set 4 (page 39) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
2.2 Exercise Set 5 (page 45) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
2.2 Exercise Set 6 (page 49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
2.2 Exercise Set 7 (page 56) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
2.2 Exercise Set 8 (page 57) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
2.4 Exercise Set 9 (page 65) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

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2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
2.6 Chapter Exercises (page 76) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

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Solutions 635

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3.1 Exercise Set 10 (page 88) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
3.2 Exercise Set 11 (page 93) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
3.3 Exercise Set 12 (page 105) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
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3.4 Exercise Set 13 (page 112) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
3.5 Exercise Set 14 (page 119) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
3.6 Exercise Set 15 (page 127) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
3.7 Exercise Set 16 (page 134) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
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3.8 Exercise Set 17 (page 139) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639


3.9 Exercise Set 18 (page 142) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
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3.10 Special Exercise Set (page 149) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640


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3.11 Exercise Set 19 (page 160) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640


3.12 Exercise Set 20 (page 172) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
3.13 Chapter Exercises (page 173) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
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Solutions 643
4.1 Exercise Set 21 (page 183) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
4.2 Exercise Set 22 (page 188) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
4.4 Exercise Set 23 (page 196) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
4.5 Exercise Set 24 (page 199) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
4.6 Exercise Set 25 (page 203) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646
4.8 Chapter Exercises (page 210) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646

Solutions 649
5.1 Exercise Set 26 (page 216) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649
5.2 Exercise Set 27 (page 223) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649
5.3 Exercise Set 28 (page 230) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650
5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
5.6 Single variable optimization problems (page 258) . . . . . . . . . 653
5.7 Chapter Exercises: Use Plotter (page 259) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654

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CONTENTS xiii

Solutions 657
6.1 Exercise Set 29 (page 275) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
6.2 Exercise Set 30 (page 289) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
6.3 Exercise Set 31 (page 284) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660
6.5 Chapter Exercises (page 304) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660

Solutions 665
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
7.2 Exercise Set 32 (page 321) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
7.3 Exercise Set 33 (page 345) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667
7.4.1 Exercise Set 34 (page 349) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667
7.4.2 Exercise Set 35 (page 364) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
7.5.1 Exercise Set 36 (page 373) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
7.5.2 Exercise Set 37 (page 385) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672

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7.6.1 Exercise Set 38 (page 390) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672

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7.6.2 Exercise Set 39 (page 398) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
7.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
7.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675

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7.7.2 Exercise Set 40 (page 411) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
7.8 Exercise Set 41 (page 426) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
7.9 Chapter Exercises (page 437) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
on
Solutions 693
8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693
8.2 Exercise Set 42 (page 452) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693
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8.2.1 Exercise Set 43 (page 462) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694


8.3 Exercise Set 44 (page 476) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
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8.4 Exercise Set 45 (page 487) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696


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8.5 Exercise Set 46 (page 500) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697


8.6 Chapter Exercises (page 502) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698

Solutions 701
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9.1 Exercise Set 47 (page 511) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701


9.2 Exercise Set 48 (page 518) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701
9.3 Exercise Set 49 (page 523) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702

Solutions 705
10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
10.4 Exercise Set 50 (page 535) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
10.5 Exercise Set 51 (page 548) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
10.6 Chapter Exercises (page 551) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707

Solutions 711
11.1 Exercise Set 52 (page 559) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
11.2 Exercise Set 53 (page 563) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
11.3 Exercise Set 54 (page 574) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
11.4 Exercise Set 55 (page 580) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
11.5 Exercise Set 56 (page 584) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
11.6 Exercise Set 57 (page 594) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713

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xiv CONTENTS

Solutions to Problems in the Appendices 715


12.1 APPENDIX A - Exercise Set 58 (page 601) . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
12.2 APPENDIX B - Exercise Set 59 (page 607) . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
12.3 APPENDIX C - Exercise Set 60 (page 620) . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
12.4 APPENDIX D - Exercise Set 61 (page 626) . . . . . . . . . . . . 718

Acknowledgments 719

Credits 721

About the Author 723

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List of Tables

1.1 Useful Trigonometric Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


1.2 Reciprocal Inequalities Among Positive Quantities . . . . . . . . 21
1.3 Another Reciprocal Inequality Among Positive Quantities . . . . 21
1.4 Multiplying Inequalities Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.1 The Mathematics of Solar Flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


2.2 One-Sided Limits From the Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

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2.3 One-Sided Limits From the Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

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2.4 Properties of Limits of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.5 SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits From the Right . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.6 SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits From the Left . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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2.7 SUMMARY: Continuity of a Function f at a Point x=a . . . . 46
2.8 Some Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.9 Continuity of Various Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . 50
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2.10 Area of a Sector of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.11 Limit of (sin 2)/2 as 2 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.12 Limit of (1 cos 2)/2 as 2 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
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2.13 Three Options to Solving Limit Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


2.14 Properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
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2.15 The Sandwich Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


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2.16 Properties of Extended Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

3.1 Denition of the Derivative as a Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


3.2 Geometrical Properties of the Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.3 Dierent Derivatives in Action: See Figure 38 . . . . . . . . . . . 86
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3.4 Useful Trigonometric Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.6 Rolles Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . 125
3.7 Main Theorems about Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 126
3.8 How to Find the Inverse of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
3.9 The Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3.10 Signs of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
3.11 Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . 140
3.12 Netwons Method: Denition of the Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . 153
3.13 LHospitals Rule for Indeterminate Forms of Type 0/0. . . . . . 162
3.14 LHospitals Rule for Indeterminate Forms of Type 0/0. . . . . . 169

4.1 Properties of the Logarithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180


4.2 Why is loga (2 ) =  loga (2) ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
4.3 Properties of ex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
4.4 Properties of the Special Transcendental Functions . . . . . . . . 191
4.5 Half-Life of Radioisotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
4.6 Summary of the Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

xv
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xvi LIST OF TABLES

5.1 The Sign Decomposition Table of x4 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217


5.2 Size of SDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
5.3 Filling in an Sign Decomposition Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
5.4 The C Me Hava Pizza Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
5.5 The Graph of sinx x on the Interval (0, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
5.6 The Graph of x2 2x 3 on the Interval (, ). . . . . . . . 251

6.1 The Basic Property of an Antiderivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263


6.2 Summary of Basic Formulae Regarding Antiderivatives . . . . . . 270
6.3 Properties of the Denite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
6.4 How to Evaluate a Denite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
6.5 Antiderivatives of Power and Exponential Functions . . . . . . . 282
6.6 Antiderivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
6.7 Antiderivatives Related to Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . 283
6.8 Properties of the Summation Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
6.9 The Area Formula for a Positive Integrable Function . . . . . . . 294
6.10 Leibnizs Rule for Dierentiating a Denite Integral . . . . . . . 296

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7.1 Schematic Description of the Table Method . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
7.2 Example of the Table Method: Stopping at the 5th Row . . . . . 327

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7.3 Ecient Integration by Parts Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
7.4 The Result of a Long Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

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7.5 Idea Behind Integrating a Rational Function . . . . . . . . . . . 351
7.6 Finding a Partial Fraction Decomposition in the Case of Simple
Linear Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
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7.7 Powers and Products of Sine and Cosine Integrals . . . . . . . . . 367
7.8 Powers and Products of Secant and Tangent Integrals . . . . . . 382
7.9 The Antiderivative of the Secant and Cosecant Functions . . . . 384
7.10 Completing the Square in a Quadratic Polynomial . . . . . . . . 387
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7.11 Trigonometric Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392


7.12 Integrating the Square of the Cosine or Sine Function . . . . . . 393
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7.13 The Trapezoidal Rule for Estimating a Denite Integral . . . . . 402


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7.14 The Error Term in Using the Trapezoidal Rule . . . . . . . . . . 404


7.15 Simpsons Rule for Estimating a Denite Integral . . . . . . . . . 408
7.16 The Error Term in Using Simpsons Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
7.17 Rationalizing subtitutions for certain quotients of trigonometric
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functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

8.1 Finding the Number of Typical Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451


8.2 Finding the Area of a Region R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
8.3 Anatomy of a Denite Integral for the Area Between Two Curves 453
8.4 The Area of a Region Between Two Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
8.5 Setting up the Volume Integral for a Solid of Revolution . . . . . 470

9.1 Finding the General Solution of a Separable Equation . . . . . . 514


9.2 The Half-Life Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

11.1 Symbolic Denition of the Limit of a Sequence Converging to Zero.555


11.2 Denition of the Convergence of an to a Non-Zero Limit. . . . . 557
11.3 Denition of the Convergence of xn to a Positive Innite Limit. . 560
11.4 Denition of the Convergence of xn to a Negative Innite Limit. 560
11.5 Denition of the Limit From the Right of f at a . . . . . . . . . 565
11.6 Graphic Depiction of the Limit From the Right . . . . . . . . . . 566
11.7 Denition of the Limit From the Left of f at a . . . . . . . . . . 569
11.8 Graphic Depiction of Limit From the Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570

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LIST OF TABLES xvii

11.9 Denition of continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576


11.10Limits at Innity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
11.11Denition of the limit of f (x) as x approaches a. . . . . . . . . . 586
11.12Main Theorem on Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596

14.1 Basic trigonometric functions and their values . . . . . . . . . . . 613

15.1 The Natural Domain of Some Basic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 624

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Chapter 1

Functions and Their


Properties

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The Big Picture Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

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1646 - 1716
This chapter deals with the denition and properties of things we call functions. They
are used all the time in the world around us although we dont recognize them right
away. Functions are a mathematical device for describing an inter-dependence between
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things or objects, whether real or imaginary. With this notion, the original creators
of Calculus, namely, the English mathematician and physicist, Sir Isaac Newton, and
the German philosopher and mathematician, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (see inset),
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were able to quantify and express relationships between real things in a mathematical
way. Most of you will have seen the famous Einstein equation
E = mc2 .
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This expression denes a dependence of the quantity, E, called the energy on m, called
the mass. The number c is the speed of light in a vacuum, some 300,000 kilometers
per second. In this simple example, E is a function of m. Almost all naturally
occuring phenomena in the universe may be quantied in terms of functions and their
relationships to each other. A complete understanding of the material in this chapter
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will enable you to gain a foothold into the fundamental vocabulary of Calculus.

Review
Youll need to remember or learn the following material before you get a thor-
ough understanding of this chapter. Look over your notes on functions and be
familiar with all the basic algebra and geometry you learned and also dont
forget to review your basic trigonometry. Although this seems like a lot,
it is necessary as mathematics is a sort of language, and before you learn any
language you need to be familiar with its vocabulary and its grammar and so
it is with mathematics. Okay, lets start ...

1.1 The Meaning of a Function

You realize how important it is for you to remember your social security/insurance
number when you want to get a real job! Thats because the employer will associate

1
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2 1.1. THE MEANING OF A FUNCTION

You can think of a function f as an you with this number on the payroll. This is what a function does ... a function is a
I/O device, much like a computer rule that associates to each element in some set that we like to call the domain (in our
CPU; it takes input, x, works on case, the name of anyone eligible to work) only one element of another set, called the
x, and produces only one output, range (in our case, the set of all social security/insurance numbers of these people
which we call f (x).
eligible to work). In other words the function here associates to each person his/her
social security/insurance number. Each person can have only one such number and
this lies at the heart of the denition of a function.

Example 1. In general everybody as an age counted historically from the


moment he/she is born. Consider the rule that associates to each person, that persons
age. You can see this depicted graphically in Figure 1. Here A has age a, person B
has age c while persons C, D both have the same age, that is, b. So, by denition,
this rule is a function. On the other hand, consider the rule that associates to each
automobile driver the car he/she owns. In Figure 2, both persons B and C share the
automobile c and this is alright, however note that person A owns two automobiles.
Thus, by denition, this rule cannot be a function.

This association between the domain and the range is depicted graphically in Figure 1
using arrows, called an arrow diagram. Such arrows are useful because they start in

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the domain and point to the corresponding element of the range.

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Example 2. Lets say that Jennifer Black has social security number 124124124.
The arrow would start at a point which we label Jennifer Black (in the domain) and

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end at a point labeled 124124124 (in the range).

Okay, so heres the formal denition of a function ...


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Figure 1.

NOTATION Denition 1. A function f is a rule which associates with each object (say, x)
from one set named the domain, a single object (say, f (x)) from a second set
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Dom (f ) = Domain of f called the range. (See Figure 1 )


Ran (f ) = Range of f
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Rather than replace every person by their photograph, the objects of the domain
of a function are replaced by symbols and mathematicians like to use the symbol
x to mark some unknown quantity in the domain (this symbol is also called an
Objects in the domain of f are re- independent variable), because it can be any object in the domain. If you dont
ferred to as independent variables, like this symbol, you can use any other symbol and this wont change the function.
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while objects in the range are de- The symbol, f (x), is also called a dependent variable because its value generally
pendent variables. depends on the value of x. Below, well use the box symbol, 2 , in many cases
instead of the more standard symbol, x.

Example 3. Let f be the (name of the) function which associates a person


with their height. Using a little shorthand we can write this rule as h = f (p) where
p is a particular person, (p is the independent variable) and h is that persons height
(h is the dependent variable). The domain of this function f is the set of all persons,
right? Moreover, the range of this function is a set of numbers (their height, with
some units of measurement attached to each one). Once again, lets notice that many
people can have the same height, and this is okay for a function, but clearly there is
A rule which is NOT a function no one having two dierent heights!

LOOK OUT! When an arrow splits in an arrow diagram (as the arrow
starting from A does in Figure 2) the resulting rule is never a function.

In applications of calculus to the physical and natural sciences the domain and the
range of a function are both sets of real (sometimes complex) numbers. The symbols

Figure 2.

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1.1. THE MEANING OF A FUNCTION 3

used to represent objects within these sets may vary though ... E may denote energy,
p the price of a commodity, x distance, t time, etc. The domain and the range of a
function may be the same set or they may be totally unrelated sets of numbers, people,
aardvarks, aliens, etc. Now, functions have to be identied somehow, so rules have
been devised to name them. Usually, we use the lower case letters f, g, h, k, ... to name
the function itself, but you are allowed to use any other symbols too, but try not to
use x as this might cause some confusion ... we already decided to name objects of
the domain of the function by this symbol, x, remember?

Quick Summary Lets recapitulate. A function has a name, a domain and a range.
It also has a rule which associates to every object of its domain only one object in its You need to think beyond the shape
range. So the rule (whose name is) g which associates to a given number its square of an independent variable and just
as a number, can be denoted quickly by g(x) = x2 (Figure 3). You can also represent keep your mind on a generic vari-
this rule by using the symbols g(2 ) = 2 2 where 2 is a box... something that has able, something that has nothing
nothing to do with its shape as a symbol. Its just as good a symbol as x and both to do with its shape.
equations represent the same function.

Remember ... x is just a symbol for what we call an independent variable,


thats all. We can read o a rule like g(x) = x2 in many ways: The purist

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would say The value of g at x is x2 while some might say, g of x is x2 .

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Whats really important though is that you understand the rule... in this case
we would say that the function associates a symbol with its square regardless
of the shape of the symbol itself, whether it be an x, 2 , , , t, etc.

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Example 4. Generally speaking,

The association between a one-dollar bill and its serial number is a function
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(unless the bill is counterfeit!). Its domain is the collection of all one-dollar bills
while its range is a subset of the natural numbers along with some 26 letters of
the alphabet.
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The association between a CD-ROM and its own serial number is also a function
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(unless the CD was copied!).


Associating a ngerprint with a specic human being is another example of a
function, as is ...
Associating a human being with the person-specic DNA (although this may be
a debatable issue).
The association between the monetary value of a stock, say, x, at time t is also
function but this time it is a function of two variables, namely, x, t. It could be
denoted by f (x, t) meaning that this symbol describes the value of the stock x
at time t. Its graph may look like the one below.

The correspondence between a patent number and a given (patented) invention


is a function
If the ranges of two functions are subsets of the real numbers then the dierence
between these two functions is also a function. For example, if R(x) = px

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4 1.1. THE MEANING OF A FUNCTION

denotes the total revenue function, that is, the product of the number of units,
x, sold at price p, and C(x) denotes the total cost of producing these x units,
then the dierence, P (x) = R(x) C(x) is the prot acquired after the sale of
these x units.

Composition of Functions:
There is a fundamental operation that we can perform on two functions called their
composition.

Lets describe this notion by way of an example. So, consider the domain of all houses
in a certain neighborhood. To each house we associate its owner (well assume that
to each given house there is only one owner). Then the rule that associates to a given
house its owner is a function and we call it f. Next, take the rule that associates
to a given owner his/her annual income from all sources, and call this rule g. Then
the new rule that associates with each house the annual income of its owner is called
the composition of g and f and is denoted mathematically by the symbols g(f (x)).
Think of it . . . if x denotes a house then f (x) denotes its owner (some name, or social
insurance number or some other unique way of identifying that person). Then g(f (x))

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must be the annual income of the owner, f (x).

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Once can continue this exercise a little further so as to dene compositions of more than
just two functions . . . like, maybe three or more functions. Thus, if h is a (hypothetical)

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rule that associates to each annual income gure the total number of years of education
of the corresponding person, then the composition of the three functions dened by
the symbol h(g(f (x))), associates to each given house in the neighborhood the total
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number of years of education of its owner.

In the next section we show how to calculate the values of a composition of two given
functions using symbols that we can put in boxes...so we call this the box method
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for calculating compositions. Basically you should always look at what a function does
to a generic symbol, rather than looking at what a function does to a specic symbol
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like x.
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NOTES:
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1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 5

1.2 Function Values and the Box Method


The function g(x) = x2 and some
of its values.
Now look at the function g dened on the domain of real numbers by the rule g(x) = x2 .
Lets say we want to know the value of the mysterious looking symbols, g(3x+4), which
is really the same as asking for the composition g(f (x)) where f (x) = 3x + 4. How do x g(x)
2 4
we get this? 1 1
0.5 0.25
1.5 2.25
3 9
The Box Method 0.1 0.01
2.5 6.25
5 25
To nd the value of g(3x+4) when g(x) = x2 : We place all the symbols 3x+4 10 100
(i.e., all the stu between the parentheses) in the symbol g(...) inside a box, 3 9
say, 2 , and let the function g take the box 2 to 2 2 (because this is what a
function does to a symbol, regardless of what it looks like, right?). Then we Figure 3.
remove the box , replace its sides by parentheses, and there you are ... whats
left is the value of g(3x + 4).

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We call this procedure the Box Method. NOTATION for Intervals.

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(a, b) = {x : a < x < b}, and this
Example 5. So, if g(x) = x2 , then g(2 ) = 2 2 . So, according to our rule,
is called an open interval. [a, b]
2
g(3x + 4) = g( 3x + 4 ) = 3x + 4 = (3x + 4)2 . This last quantity, when simplied, = {x : a x b}, is called a

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gives us 9x2 + 24x + 16. We have found that g(3x + 4) = 9x2 + 24x + 16. closed interval. (a, b], [a, b) each
denote the sets {x : a < x b} and
Example 6. If f is a new function dened by the rule f (x) = x3 4 then {x : a x < b}, respectively (either
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f (2 ) = 2 4 (regardless of whats in the box!), and
3 one of these is called a semi-open
interval).
3
f (a + h) = f ( a + h ) = a+h 4 = (a + h)3 4 = a3 + 3a2 h + 3ah2 + h3 4.
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Also,
f (2) = 23 4 = 4,
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and
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f (1) = (1)3 4 = 5,
f (a) = a3 4,
where a is another symbol for any object in the domain of f .

1.24x2
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Example 7. Let f (x) = . Find the value of f (n + 6) where n is a


2.63x 1
positive integer.

Solution The Box Method gives


1.24x2
f (x) =
2.63x 1
1.242 2
f (2 ) =
2.632 1
2
1.24 n+6
f ( n+6 ) =
2.63 n+6 1

2.63(n
2
1.24(n + 6)
f (n + 6) =
+ 6) 1
1.24(n2 + 12n + 36)
=
2.63n + 15.78 1
1.24n2 + 14.88n + 44.64
= .
2.63n + 14.78

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6 1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD

Formerly, when one invented a new


function, it was to further some
practical purpose; today one invents Example 8. On the other hand, if f (x) = 2x2 x + 1, and h = 0 is some real
them in order to make incorrect the
reasoning of our fathers, and noth- number, how do we nd the value of the quotient
ing more will ever be accomplished
by these inventions. f (x + h) f (x)
?
h

Henri Poincare, 1854 - 1912


French mathematician Solution Well, we know that f (2 ) = 22 2 2 + 1. So, the idea is to put the symbols
x + h inside the box, use the rule for f on the box symbol, then expand the whole
thing and subtract the quantity f (x) (and, nally, divide this result by h). Now, the
value of f evaluated at x + h, that is, f (x + h), is given by

2
f( x + h ) = 2 x + h x + h + 1,
= 2(x + h)2 (x + h) + 1
= 2(x2 + 2xh + h2 ) x h + 1
= 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 x h + 1.

y
From this, provided h = 0, we get

nl
f (x + h) f (x) 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 x h + 1 (2x2 x + 1)
=
h h

O
4xh + 2h2 h
=
h
on
h(4x + 2h 1)
=
h

= 4x + 2h 1.
r si

Example 9. Let f (x) = 6x2 0.5x. Write the values of f at an integer by


Ve

f (n), where the symbol n is used to denote an integer. Thus f (1) = 5.5. Now write
an+1
f (n) = an . Calculate the quantity .
an

Solution The Box method tells us that since f (n) = an , we must have f (2 ) = a2 .
Thus, an+1 = f (n + 1). Furthermore, another application of the Box Method gives
TA

2
an+1 = f (n + 1) = f ( n+1 ) = 6 n+1 0.5 n+1 . So,

an+1 6(n + 1)2 0.5(n + 1) 6n2 + 11.5n + 5.5


= = .
an 6n2 0.5n 6n2 0.5n

Example 10. Given that

3x + 2
f (x) =
3x 2
determine f (x 2).

32 +2
Solution Here, f (2 ) = 32 2
. Placing the symbol x 2 into the box, collecting
terms and simplifying, we get,

3 x-2 + 2 3(x 2) + 2 3x 4
f (x 2) = f ( x-2 ) = = = .
3 x-2 2 3(x 2) 2 3x 8

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1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 7


Example 11. If g(x) = x2 + 1 nd the value of g( x 1).

Solution Since g(2 ) = 2 2 + 1 it follows that



g( x 1) = [ x 1]2 + 1 = [x 1] + 1 = x
2
on account of the fact that 2
2 = 2 , regardless of whats in the box.

Example 12. If f (x) = 3x2 2x + 1 and h = 0, nd the value of

f (x + h) f (x h)
.
2h

Solution We know that since f (x) = 3x2 2x + 1 then f (2 ) = 32 2 22 + 1. It

   
follows that
2 2
f (x + h) f (x h) 3 x+h 2 x+h + 1 3 x-h 2 x-h + 1
 
=

= 3 (x + h) (x h) 2 {(x + h) (x h)}
2 2

y
= 3(4xh) 2(2h) = 12xh 4h.

nl
It follows that for h = 0,
f (x + h) f (x h) 12xh 4h

O
= = 6x 2.
2h 2h
on
Example 13. Let f be dened by
 x + 1, if 1 x 0,
f (x) =
x2 , if 0 < x 3,
si

This type of function is said to be dened in pieces, because it takes on dierent


r

values depending on where the x is...


Ve

a) What is f (1)?
b) Evaluate f (0.70714).
c) Given that 0 < x < 1 evaluate f (2x + 1).

Solution a) Since f (x) = x + 1 for any x in the interval 1 x 0 and x = 1 is in


TA

this interval, it follows that f (1) = (1) + 1 = 0.

b) Since f (x) = x2 for any x in the interval 0 < x 3 and x = 0.70714 is in this
interval, it follows that f (0.70714) = (0.70714)2 = 0.50005

c) First we need to know what f does to the symbol 2x + 1, that is, what is the value
of f (2x + 1)? But this means that we have to know where the values of 2x + 1 are
when 0 < x < 1, right? So, for 0 < x < 1 we know that 0 < 2x < 2 and so once we
add 1 to each of the terms in the inequality we see that 1 = 0 + 1 < 2x + 1 < 2 + 1 = 3.
In other words, whenever 0 < x < 1, the values of the expression 2x + 1 must lie in
the interval 1 < 2x + 1 < 3. We now use the Box method: Since f takes a symbol
to its square whenever the symbol is in the interval (0, 3], we can write by denition
f (2 ) = 2 2 whenever 0 < 2 3. Putting 2x + 1 in the box, (and using the fact
2
that 1 < 2x+1 < 3) we nd that f ( 2x+1 ) = 2x+1 from which we deduce
f (2x + 1) = (2x + 1)2 for 0 < x < 1.

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8 1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD

Some useful angles expressed in Well need to recall some notions from geometry in the next section.
radians

degrees radians
Dont forget that, in Calculus, we always assume that angles are described in
0 0 radians and not degrees. The conversion is given by
30o /6
45o /4 (Degrees) ()
60o /3 Radians =
90o /2 180
180o
270o 3/2 For example, 45 degrees = 45 /180 = /4 0.7853981633974 radians.
360o 2

NOTES:

Figure 4.

y
nl
O
on
r si
Ve
TA

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1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 9

SNAPSHOTS

Example 14. This example requires knowledge of trigonometry. Given that


h(t) = t2 cos(t) and Dom(h) = (, ). Determine the value of h(sin x).

2
Solution We know that h(2 ) = 2 2 cos(2 ). So, h( sin x ) = sin x cos( sin x ).
Removing the box we get, h(sin x) = (sin x)2 cos(sin x), or, equivalently, h(sin x) =
(sin x)2 cos(sin x) = sin2 (x) cos(sin x). The function f (x) = sin x and some
of its values.
Example 15. Let f be dened by the rule f (x) = sin x. Then the function
x (in radians) sin x
whose values are dened by f (x vt) = sin(x vt) can be thought of as representing 0 0
a travelling wave moving to the right with velocity v 0. Here t represents time and /6 1/2 = 0.5
/6 1/2 = 0.5
we take it that t 0. You can get a feel for this motion from the graph below where
we assume that v = 0 and use three increasing times to simulate the motion of the
/3 3/2 0.8660
/3 3/2 0.8660
wave to the right. /2 1
/2 1
2/2 0.7071

y
/4
/4 2/2 0.7071
3/2 1

nl
3/2 1
2 0

O Figure 5.
on
si

Example 16. On the surface of our moon, an object P falling from rest will fall
r

a distance, f (t), of approximately 5.3t2 feet in t seconds. Lets take it for granted
that its, so-called, instantaneous velocity, denoted by the symbol f  (t), at time
Ve

t = t0 0 is given by the expression

Instantaneous velocity at time t = f  (t) = 10.6 t.

Determine its (instantaneous) velocity after 1 second (at t = 1) and after 2.6 seconds
TA

(t = 2.6).

Solution We calculate its instantaneous velocity, at t = t0 = 1 second. Since, in this


case, f (t) = 5.3t2 , it follows that its instantaneous velocity at t = 1 second is given
by 10.6(1) = 10.6 feet per second, obtained by setting t = 1 in the formula for f  (t).
Similarly, f  (2.6) = 10.6(2.6) = 27.56 feet per second. The observation here is that
one can conclude that an object falling from rest on the surface of the moon will fall
at approximately one-third the rate it does on earth (neglecting air resistance, here).

Example 17. Now lets say that f is dened by


x + 1,
2
if 1 x 0,
f (x) =
cos x,
x ,
if
if
0 < x ,
< x 2.

Find an expression for f (x + 1).

Solution Note that this function is dened in pieces (see Example 13) ... Its domain
is obtained by taking the union of all the intervals on the right side making up one big
interval, which, in our case is the interval 1 x 2. So we see that f (2) = cos(2)

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10 1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD

because the number 2 is in the interval 0 < x . On the other hand, f (8) is
not dened because 8 is not within the domain of denition of our function, since
2 6.28.

Now, the value of f (x+1), say, will be dierent depending on where the symbol x+1
is. We can still use the box method to write down the values f (x + 1). In fact, we
replace every occurence of the symbol x by our standard box, insert the symbols
x + 1 inside the box, and then remove the boxes... Well nd
x + 1 + 1,
2
if 1 x + 1 0,
f( x + 1 ) =
cosx +x1+1 ,, if
if
0 < x + 1 ,
< x + 1 2.

or

(x + 1) + 1,
2
if 1 x + 1 0,
f (x + 1) =
cos(x + 1),
(x + 1) ,
if
if
0 < x + 1 ,
< x + 1 2.

y
We now solve the inequalities on the right for the symbol x (by subtracting 1 from

nl
each side of the inequality). This gives us the values

x + 2x + 2,

O
2
if 2 x 1,
f (x + 1) =
cos(x + 1),
x + 1 ,
if
if
1 < x 1,
1 < x 2 1.
on
Note that the graph of the function f (x + 1) is really the graph of the function f (x)
shifted to the left by 1 unit. We call this a translate of f .
si

Exercise Set 1.
r
Ve

Use the method of this section to evaluate the following functions at the indicated
point(s) or symbol.

1. f (x) = x2 + 2x 1. What is f (1)? f (0)? f (+1)? f (1/2)?


TA

2. g(t) = t3 sin t. Evaluate g(x + 1).


3. h(z) = z + 2 sin z cos(z + 2). Evaluate h(z 2).
4. k(x) = 2 cos(x ct). Evaluate k(x + 2ct).
5. f (x) = sin(cos x). Find the value of f (/2). [Hint: cos(/2) = 0]
6. f (x) = x2 + 1. Find the value of
f (x + h) f (x)
h
whenever h = 0. Simplify this expression as much as you can!
7. g(t) = sin(t + 3). Evaluate
g(t + h) g(t)
h
whenever h = 0 and simplify this as much as possible.
Hint: Use the trigonometric identity
sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
valid for any two angles A, B where we can set A = t + 3 and B = h (just two
more symbols, right?)

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1.2. FUNCTION VALUES AND THE BOX METHOD 11

8. Let x0 , x1 be two symbols which denote real numbers. In addition, for any real
number x let f (x) = 2x2 cos x.
a) If x0 = 0 and x1 = , evaluate the expression

f (x0 ) + f (x1 )
.
2
Hint: cos() = 1 b) What is the value of the expression If you want to use your calculator
for this question (you dont have
f (x0 ) + 2 f (x1 ) + f (x2 )
to...) dont forget to change your

if we are given that x0 = 0, x1 = , and x2 = 2 .? angle settings to radians!

Hint: cos(2) = 1

x + 1,
9. Let f be dened by

if 1 x 0,
f (x) =
x +x1,, 2
if
if
0 < x 2,
2 < x 6.

a) What is f (0)?

y
b) Evaluate f (0.142857).

nl
c) Given that 0 < x < 1 evaluate f (3x + 2).

Hint Use the ideas in Example 17.




O
10. Let f (x) = 2 x2 2 and F (x) = x
2
+ 1. Calculate the values f (F (x)) and
F (f (x)) using the box method of this section. Dont forget to expand completely
and simplify your answers as much as possible.
on
x 1
11. g(x) = x2 2x + 1. Show that g(x + 1) = x2 for every value of x.
2x + 1
12. h(x) = . Show that h = x, for x = 2.
1+x 2x
si

13. Let f (x) = 4x2 5x + 1, and h = 0 a real number. Evaluate the expression

f (x + h) 2f (x) + f (x h)
r

.
h2
Ve

14. Let f be dened by


 x 1, if 0 x 2,
f (x) =
2x, if 2 < x 4,
TA

Find an expression for f (x + 1) when 1 < x 2.


The Binomial Theorem states
that, in particular,

(2 + )2 = 22 + 2 2 + 2
Suggested Homework Set 1. Go into a library or the World Wide Web and
come up with ve (5) functions that appear in the literature. Maybe they have for any two symbols 2,  repre-
names associated with them? Are they useful in science, engineering or in com-
senting real numbers, functions, etc.
merce? Once you have your functions, identify the dependent and independent
Dont forget the middle terms,
variables and try to evaluate those functions at various points in their domain.
namely, 2 2 in this formula.

NOTES

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12 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

1.3 The Absolute Value of a Function

One of the most important functions in the study of calculus is the absolute value
function.
Denition of the absolute
value function
Denition 2. The function whose rule is dened by setting
 x, if x 0,
|x| =
x, if x < 0.

is called the absolute value function.

For example,| 5| = (5) = +5, and |6.1| = 6.1. You see from this Denition
that the absolute value of a number is either that same number (if it is positive) or
the original unsigned number (dropping the minus sign completely). Thus, | 5| =
(5) = 5, since 5 < 0 while |3.45| = 3.45 since 3.45 > 0. Now the inequality

y
(0 ) |2 |  (1.1)

nl
between the symbols 2 and  is equivalent to (i.e., exactly the same as) the in-
equality
 2 . (1.2)

O
where 2 and  are any two symbols whatsoever (x, t, or any function of x, etc).
Why is this true? Well, there are only only two cases. That is, 2 0 and 2 0,
right? Lets say 2 0. In this case 2 = |2 | and so (1.1) implies (1.2) immediately
on
since the left side of (1.2) is already negative. On the other hand if 2 0 then, by
(1.1), |2 | = 2  which implies 2 . Furthermore, since 2 0 we have
that 2 2  and this gives (1.2). For example, the inequality |x a| < 1
si

means that the distance from x to a is at most 1 and, in terms of an inequality,


this can be written as
r

|x a| < 1 is equivalent to 1 < x a < +1.


Ve

Why? Well, put x a in the box of (1.1) and the number 1 in the triangle. Move
these symbols to (1.2) and remove the box and triangle, then whats left is what you
want. Thats all. Now, adding a to both ends and the middle term of this latest
inequality we nd the equivalent statement
TA

|x a| < 1 is also equivalent to a 1 < x < a + 1.

This business of passing from (1.1) to (1.2) is really important in Calculus and
you should be able to do this without thinking (after lots of practice you will, dont
worry).

Example 18. Write down the values of the function f dened by the rule
f (x) = |1 x2 | as a function dened in pieces. That is remove the absolute value
around the 1 x2 .

Solution Looks tough? Those absolute values can be very frustrating sometimes!
Just use the Box Method of Section 1.2. That is, use Denition 2 and replace all
the symbols between the vertical bars by a 2 . This really makes life easy, lets try
it out. Put the symbols between the vertical bars, namely, the 1 x2 inside a
box, 2 . Since, by denition,

 2, if 2 0,
|2 |= (1.3)
2 , if 2 < 0,

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1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 13

we also have
Solving a square root in-
1 x equality!
2
, if 1 x2 0, If for some real numbers A and

1 x
x, we have
|1 x | = | 1 x
2 2
|=
2
, if 1 x2 < 0. x2 < A,

then, it follows that


Removing the boxes and replacing them by parentheses we nd
 (1 x2 ), if (1 x2 ) 0,
| x |< A

|1 x2 | = | (1 x2 ) | = More generally, this result is


(1 x2 ), if (1 x2 ) < 0. true if x is replaced by any
other symbol (including func-
tions!), say, 2. That is, if for
some real numbers A and 2, we
Adding x2 to both sides of the inequality on the right we see that the above display have
2
2 < A,
is equivalent to the display
then, it follows that

 (1 x2 ), if 1 x2 , |2| <

A
|1 x | =
2

y
(1 x2 ), if 1 < x2 . These results are still true if we

nl
replace < by or if we re-
verse the inequality and A > 0.
Almost done! We just need to solve for x on the right, above. To do this, were
going to use the results in Figure 6 with A = 1. So, if x2 1 then |x| 1 too. Figure 6.

O
Similarly, if 1 < x2 then 1 < |x|, too. Finally, we nd


on
(1 x2 ), if 1 |x|,
| 1 x2 | =
(1 x2 ), if 1 < |x|.

Now by (1.1)-(1.2) the inequality |x| 1 is equivalent to the inequality 1 x 1.


si

In addition, 1 < |x| is equivalent to the double statement either x > 1 or x < 1.
Hence the last display for |1 x2 | may be rewritten as
r


Ve

1 x2 , if 1 x +1,
| 1 x2 | =
x2 1, if x > 1 or x < 1.
Steps in removing
absolute values in a
TA

A glance at this latest result shows that the natural domain of f (see the Appendix) function f
is the set of all real numbers.
Look at that part of f with
the absolute values,
NOTE The procedure described in Example 18 will be referred to as the
Put all the stu between the
process of removing the absolute value. You just cant leave out those vertical bars in a box ,
vertical bars because you feel like it! Other functions dened by absolute
values are handled in the same way. Use the denition of the ab-
solute value, equation 1.3.

Example 19.

Remove the absolute value in the expression f (x) = x 2

+ 2x.
Remove the boxes, and re-
place them by parentheses,

Solve the inequalities involv-


ing x s for the symbol x.
2
Solution We note that since x + 2x is a polynomial it is dened for every value of
x, that is, its natural domain is the set of all real numbers, (, +). Lets use Rewrite f in pieces

the Box Method. Since for any symbol say, 2 , we have by denition,

(See Examples 18 and
20)
2, if 2 0,
|2 |=
2 , if 2 < 0.
Figure 7.
we see that, upon inserting the symbols x2 + 2x inside the box and then removing

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14 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

its sides, we get

  x2 + 2x , x2 + 2x 0,
  =
if


2
x + 2x
( x2 + 2x ), if x2 + 2x < 0.

So the required function dened in pieces is given by


 x2 + 2x, if x2 + 2x 0,
| x2 + 2x | =
(x2 + 2x), if x2 + 2x < 0.

where we need to solve the inequalities x2 + 2x 0 and x2 + 2x < 0, for x. But


x2 + 2x = x(x + 2). Since we want x(x + 2) 0, there are now two cases. Either
both quantities x, x + 2 must be greater than or equal to zero, OR both quantities
Sir Isaac Newton x, x + 2 must be less than or equal to zero (so that x(x + 2) 0 once again). The
1642 - 1727 other case, the one where x(x + 2) < 0, will be considered separately.

Solving x 2
+2 x 0:

y
Case 1: x 0, (x + 2) 0. In this case, it is clear that x 0 (since if x 0 then
x + 2 0 too). This means that the polynomial inequality x2 + 2x 0 has among

nl
its solutions the set of real numbers {x : x 0}.

O
Case 2: x 0, (x + 2) 0. In this case, we see that x + 2 0 implies that x 2.
On the other hand, for such x we also have x 0, (since if x 2 then x 0 too).
This means that the polynomial inequality x2 + 2x 0 has for its solution the set
of real numbers {x : x 2 or x 0}.
on
A similar argument applies to the case where we need to solve x(x + 2) < 0. Once
again there are two cases, namely, the case where x > 0 and x + 2 < 0 and the
si

separate case where x < 0 and x + 2 > 0. Hence,

Solving x 2
+2 x < 0:
r
Ve

Case 1: x > 0 and (x + 2) < 0. This case is impossible since, if x > 0 then x + 2 > 2
and so x + 2 < 0 is impossible. This means that there are no x such that x > 0 and
x + 2 < 0.

Case 2: x < 0 and (x + 2) > 0. This implies that x < 0 and x > 2, which gives
TA

the inequality x2 + 2x < 0. So, the the solution set is {x : 2 < x < 0}.

Combining the conclusions of each of these cases, our function takes the form,

x2 + 2x, if x 2 or x 0,
|x + 2x | =

2

(x2 + 2x), if 2 < x < 0.


Its graph appears in the margin.
The graph of f (x) = |x2 + 2x|.
Example 20. Rewrite the function f dened by

f (x) = |x 1| + |x + 1|

for < x < +, as a function dened in pieces.

Solution How do we start this? Basically we need to understand the denition of


the absolute value and apply it here. In other words, there are really 4 cases to
consider when we want to remove these absolute values, the cases in question being:

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1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 15

1. x 1 0 and x + 1 0. These two together imply that x 1 and x 1, that


is, x 1.
2. x 1 0 and x + 1 0. These two together imply that x 1 and x 1
which is impossible.
3. x 1 0 and x + 1 0. These two together imply that x 1 and x 1, or
1 x 1.
4. x 1 0 and x + 1 0. These two together imply that x 1 and x 1, or
x 1.

Combining these four cases we see that we only need to consider the three cases
where x 1, x 1 and 1 x 1 separately.

In the rst instance, if x 1, then x + 1 0 and so |x + 1| = (x + 1). What about


|x 1|? Well, since x 1 it follows that x 1 2 < 0. Hence |x 1| = (x 1)
for such x. Combining these two results about the absolute values we get that
f (x) = |x + 1| + |x 1| = (x + 1) (x 1) = 2x,
for x 1.

y
In the second instance, if x 1, then x 1 0 so that |x 1| = x 1. In addition,

nl
since x + 1 2 we see that |x + 1| = x + 1. Combining these two we get
f (x) = |x + 1| + |x 1| = (x + 1) + (x 1) = 2x,

O
for x 1.

In the third and nal instance, if 1 x 1 then x + 1 0 and so |x + 1| = x + 1.


on
Furthermore, x 1 0 implies |x 1| = (x 1). Hence we conclude that
f (x) = |x + 1| + |x 1| = (x + 1) (x 1) = 2,
for 1 x 1. Combining these three displays for the pieces that make up f we
si

can write f as follows:


r
Ve

2x, if x 1,
|x + 1| + |x 1| =
2, if
2x, if
1 x 1.
x 1.
and this completes the description of the function f as required. Its graph consists
of the darkened lines in the adjoining Figure.
TA

The graph of f (x) = |x + 1| + |x 1|.

| cos x| for < x < +.


Example 21. Remove the absolute value in the function f dened by f (x) =

Solution First, we notice that | cos x| 0 regardless of the value of x, right? So,
the square root of this absolute value is dened for every value of x too, and this
explains the fact that its natural domain is the open interval < x < +. We
use the method in Figure 7.

Lets look at that part of f which has the absolute value signs in it...
In this case, its the part with the | cos x| term in it.
Then, take all the stu between the vertical bars of the absolute value and stick
them in a box ...
Using Denition 2 in disguise namely, Equation 1.3, we see that
cos x , if cos x 0,
| cos x | = | cos x |=
cos x , if cos x < 0.

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16 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

Now, remove the boxes, and replace them by parentheses if need be ...
 cos x, if cos x 0,
| cos x | =
cos x, if cos x < 0.
Next, solve the inequalities on the right of the last display above for x.
In this case, this means that we have to gure out when cos x 0 and when
cos x < 0, okay? Theres a few ways of doing this... One way is to look at the
graphs of each one of these functions and just nd those intervals where the
graph lies above the x-axis.

Another way involves remembering the trigonometric fact that the cosine func-
tion is positive in Quadrants I and IV (see the margin for a quick recall). Turning
this last statement into symbols means that if x is between /2 and /2, then
cos x 0. Putting it another way, if x is in the interval [/2, +/2] then
cos x 0.
But we can always add positive and negative multiples of 2 to this and get
more and more intervals where the cosine function is positive ... why?. Either
way, we get that cos x 0 whenever x is in the closed intervals [/2, +/2],
[3/2, +5/2], [7/2, +9/2], . . . or if x is in the closed intervals [5/2, 3/2],

y
[9/2, 7/2], . . . (Each one of these intervals is obtained by adding multiples

nl
of 2 to the endpoints of the basic interval [/2, +/2] and rearranging the
numbers in increasing order).

O
Combining these results we can write
cos x,
if x is in [/2, +/2], [3/2, +5/2],

on
[7/2, +9/2], . . . , or if x is in
[5/2, 3/2], [9/2, 7/2], . . .,
| cos x | =

cos x, if x is NOT IN ANY ONE
si

of the above intervals.


Feed all this information back into the original function to get it in pieces
r

Taking the square root of all the cosine terms above we get
Ve

| cos x|
cos x,
The graph of y =


Figure 8. if x is in [/2, +/2], [3/2, +5/2],

| cos x | = [7/2, +9/2], . . . , or if x is in


[5/2, 3/2], [9/2, 7/2], . . .,

TA

cos x, if x is NOT IN ANY ONE


of the above intervals.

Phew, thats it! Look at Fig. 8 to see what this function looks like.

You shouldnt worry about the minus sign appearing inside the square root sign
above because, inside those intervals, the cosine is negative, so the negative of the
cosine is positive, and so we can take its square root without any problem! Try to
understand this example completely; then youll be on your way to mastering one
of the most useful concepts in Calculus, handling absolute values!

SNAPSHOTS


Example 22. The natural domain of the function h dened by h(x) = x2 9
is the set of all real numbers x such that x2 9 0 or, equivalently, |x| 3 (See
Table 15.1 and Figure 6).

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1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 17

Example 23. The function f dened by f (x) = x2/3 9 has its natural domain
given by the set of all real numbers, (, )! No exceptions! All of them...why?

Solution Look at Table 15.1 and notice that, by algebra, x2/3 = ( 3 x) 2 . Since
the natural domain of the cube root function is (, ), the same is true of its
square. Subtracting 9 doesnt change the domain, thats all!

Example 24. Find the natural domain of the the function f dened by

x
f (x) = .
sin x cos x

Solution The natural domain of f is given by the set of all real numbers with the
property that sin x cos x = 0, (cf., Table 15.1), that is, the set of all real numbers x
with x = /2, 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, ..., 0, , 2, 3, 4, ... (as these
are the values where the denominator is zero). Sofya Kovalevskaya
(1850 - 1891)

y
Example 25. The natural domain of the function f given by Celebrated immortal mathemati-
cian, writer, and revolutionary, she

nl
| sin x| was appointed Professor of Mathe-
f (x) = matics at the University of Stock-
1 x2 holm, in Sweden, in 1889, the rst
woman ever to be so honored in

O
is given by the set of all real numbers x with the property that 1 x2 > 0 or, her time and the second such in
Europe (Sophie Germain, being the
equivalently, the open interval |x| < 1, or, 1 < x < +1 (See Equations 1.1 and other one). At one point, she was
1.2). apparently courted by Alfred No-
on
bel and brothers (of Nobel Prize
fame). Author of slightly more than

Example
| sin x|
26. Find the natural domain of the function f dened by f (x) = 10 mathematical papers, she proved
what is now known as the Cauchy-
Kovalevski Theorem, one of the
rst deep results in a eld called
si

Partial Dierential Equations, an


Solution The natural domain is given by the set of all real numbers x in the interval area used in the study of airplane
(, ), thats right, all real numbers! Looks weird right, because of the square wings, satellite motion, wavefronts,
r

uid ow, among many other appli-


root business! But the absolute value will turn any negative number inside the
Ve

cations. A. L. Cauchys name ap-


root into a positive one (or zero), so the square root is always dened, and, as a pears because he had proved a more
consequence, f is dened everywhere too. basic version of this result earlier.

List of Important Trigonometric Identities


TA

Recall that an identity is an equation which is true for any value of the variable
for which the expressions are dened. So, this means that the identities are true
regardless of whether or not the variable looks like an x, y, [],
, f (x), etc.

YOUVE GOT TO KNOW THESE!

Odd-even identities

sin(x) = sin x,
cos(x) = cos x.

Pythagorean identities

sin2 x + cos2 x = 1,
sec x tan x
2 2
= 1.
csc2 x cot2 x = 1,

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18 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

Addition identities

sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y,


cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y.

Double-angle identities

sin(2x) = 2 sin x cos x,


cos(2x) = cos2 x sin2 x,
1 cos(2x)
sin2 x = ,
2
1 + cos(2x)
cos2 x = .
2

You can derive the identities below from the ones above, or ... youll have
to memorize them! Well, its best if you know how to get to them from the ones
above using some basic algebra.
x + y x y

y
tan(x) = tan(x) sin x + sin y = 2 sin cos

nl
2 2
  x + y x y
sin x = cos x cos x + cos y = 2 cos cos

O
2 2 2
  1
cos x = sin x sin x cos y = [sin(x + y) + sin(x y)]
2 2
 
on
1
tan x = cot x sin x sin y = [cos(x + y) cos(x y)]
2 2
1
si

cos(2x) = 1 2 sin2 x cos x cos y = [cos(x + y) + cos(x y)]


2
 1 cos x
r

x
cos(2x) = 2 cos2 x 1 sin =
Ve

2 2

tan x + tan y x
 1 + cos x
tan(x + y) = cos =
1 tan x tan y 2 2
TA

NOTES:

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1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION 19

Exercise Set 2.

Use the method of Example 18, Example 20, Example 21 and the discussion following
Denition 2 to remove the absolute value appearing in the values of the functions
dened below. Note that, once the absolute value is removed, the function will be
dened in pieces.

1. f (x) = |x2 1|, for < x < +.

2. g(x) = |3x + 4|, for < x < +.

Hint: Put the symbols 3x + 4 in a box and use the idea in Example 18

3. h(x) = x|x|, for < x < +.

y
nl
4. f (t) = 1 |t|, for < t < +.

O
5. g(w) = | sin w|, for < w < +.

Hint: sin w 0 when w is in Quadrants I and II, or, equivalently, when w is


on
between 0 and radians, 2 and 3 radians, etc.

6.
si

1
f (x) =
|x| x2 1
r
Ve

for |x| > 1.

7. The signum function, whose name is simply sgn (and pronounced the sign of x)
where
TA

x
sgn(x) =
|x|

for x = 0. The motivation for the name comes from the fact that the values of
this function correspond to the sign of x (whether it is positive or negative).

8. f (x) = x + |x|, for < x < +.


9. f (x) = x x2 , for < x < +.

Suggested Homework Set 2. Do problems 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 17, 23, above.

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20 1.3. THE ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

1. sin(A + B) = sin A cos(B) + cos A sin B

2. cos(A + B) = cos A cos(B) sin A sin B

3. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1
4. sec2 x tan2 x = 1
5. csc2 x cot2 x = 1
6. cos 2x = cos2 x sin2 x
7. sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x
1 + cos 2x
8. cos2 x =
2
1 cos 2x
9. sin2 x =
2

y
Table 1.1: Useful Trigonometric Identities

nl
O
WHATS WRONG WITH THIS ??

 1  1
= 1
on
1
=
1 1

1 1
si

=
1 1

1 1 = 1 1
r


Ve

( 1)2 = ( 1)2
1 = 1
Crazy, right?
TA

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1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 21

A Basic Inequality

If
0 < 2 ,
then
1 1
,
2 
regardless of the meaning of the box or the triangle or whats in them!

OR

You reverse the inequality when you take reciprocals !

Table 1.2: Reciprocal Inequalities Among Positive Quantities

Inequalities among reciprocals

y
nl
If
1 1
0< ,
2 

O
then
2 ,
regardless of the meaning of the box or the triangle or whats in them!
on
OR
si

You still reverse the inequality when you take reciprocals !


r
Ve

Table 1.3: Another Reciprocal Inequality Among Positive Quantities

1.4 A Quick Review of Inequalities


TA

In this section we will review basic inequalities because they are really important
in Calculus. Knowing how to manipulate basic inequalities will come in handy
when we look at how graphs of functions are sketched, in our examination of the
monotonicity of functions, their convexity and many other areas. We leave the
subject of reviewing the solution of basic and polynomial inequalities to Chapter 5.
So, this is one section you should know well!

In this section, as in previous ones, we make heavy use of the generic symbols 2
and , that is, our box and triangle. Just remember that variables dont have to be
called x, and any other symbol will do as well.

Recall that the reciprocal of a number is simply the number 1 divided by the
number. Table 1.2 shows what happens when you take the reciprocal of each
term in an inequality involving two positive terms. You see, you need to reverse
the sign!. The same result is true had we started out with an inequality among
reciprocals of positive quantities, see Table 1.3.

The results mentioned in these tables are really useful! For example,

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22 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

Example 27. Show that given any number x = 0,

1 1
> 2 .
x2 x +1

Solution We know that 0 < x2 < x2 + 1, and this is true regardless of the value
of x, so long as x = 0, which we have assumed anyhow. So, if we put x2 in the box
in Table 1.2 and (make the triangle big enough so that we can) put x2 + 1 in the
triangle, then well nd, as a conclusion, that
1 1
> 2 ,
x2 x +1
and this is true for any value of x = 0, whether x be positive or negative.

Example 28. Solve the inequality |2x 1| < 3 for x.

Solution Recall that | 2 | <  is equivalent to  < 2 <  for any two symbols
(which we denote by 2 and ). In this case, putting 2x 1 in the box and 3 in the

y
triangle, we see that we are looking for xs such that 3 < 2x 1 < 3. Adding 1 to

nl
all the terms gives 2 < 2x < 4. Finally, dividing by 2 right across the inequality
we get 1 < x < 2 and this is our answer.
A2 A

O
Example 29. Solve the inequality
 A>0?
 x + 1 
 2x + 3  < 2
on
2

 A<0? for x.
si

A2 A Solution Once again, by denition of the absolute value, this means we are looking
for xs such that
x+1
r

Figure 9. 2 < < 2.


2x + 3
Ve

There now two main cases: Case 1 where 2x + 3 > 0 OR Case 2 where 2x + 3 < 0.
Of course, when 2x + 3 = 0, the fraction is undened (actually innite) and so this
is not a solution of our inequality. We consider the cases in turn:

x >
TA

Case 1: 2 + 3 0 In this case we multiply the last display throughout by 2x + 3


and keep the inequalities as they are (by the rules in Figure 9). In other words, we
must now have
2(2x + 3) < x + 1 < 2(2x + 3).
Grouping all the xs in the middle and all the constants on the ends we nd the
two inequalities 4x 6 < x + 1 and x + 1 < 4x + 6. Solving for x in both instances
we get 5x > 7 or x > 75 and 3x > 5 or x > 53 . Now what?

Well, lets recapitulate. We have shown that if 2x + 3 > 0 then we must have
x > 75 = 1.4 and x > 35 1.667. On the one hand if x > 1.4 then
x > 1.667 for sure and so the two inequalities together imply that x > 1.4, or
x > 75 . But this is not all! You see, we still need to guarantee that 2x + 3 > 0
(by the main assumption of this case)! That is, we need to make sure that we have
BOTH 2x + 3 > 0 AND x > 75 , i.e., we need x > 32 and x > 57 . These last two
inequalities together imply that
7
x> .
5

x
Case 2: 2 + 3 <0 In this case we still multiply the last display throughout by
2x + 3 but now we must REVERSE the inequalities (by the rules in Figure 9, since

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1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 23

now A = 2x + 3 < 0). In other words, we must now have

2(2x + 3) > x + 1 > 2(2x + 3).

As before we can derive the two inequalities 4x 6 > x + 1 and x + 1 > 4x + 6.


Solving for x in both instances we get 5x < 7 or x < 57 and 3x < 5 or x < 35 .
But now, these two inequalities together imply that x < 35 1.667. This result,
combined with the basic assumption that 2x + 3 < 0 or x < 32 = 1.5, gives us
that x < 53 (since 1.667 < 1.5). The solution in this case is therefore given by
the inequality
5
x< .
3
Combining the two cases we get the nal solution as (see the margin)
7 5
1.4 = <x OR x< 1.667.
5 3
In terms of intervals the answer is the set of points x such that
5 7
< x < OR < x < .
3 5

y
nl
1.4.1 The triangle inequalities

O
Let x, y, a, 2 be any real numbers with a 0. Recall that the statement

|2 | a is equivalent to a2 a (1.4)
on
where the symbols 2 , a may represent actual numbers, variables, function values,
etc. Replacing a here by |x| and 2 by x we get, by (1.4),

|x| x |x|.
si

(1.5)

We get a similar statement for y, that is, There are 2 other really impor-
r

tant inequalities called the Trian-


|y| y |y|. gle Inequalities: If 2,  are any 2
Ve

(1.6) symbols representing real numbers,


functions, etc. then
Since we can add inequalities together we can combine (1.5) and (1.6) to nd
|2 + | |2| + ||,
|x| |y| x+y |x| + |y|, (1.7)
and
TA

or equivalently
|2 | | |2| || |.
(|x| + |y|) x+y |x| + |y|. (1.8)

Now replace x + y by 2 and |x| + |y| by a in (1.8) and apply (1.4). Then (1.8) is
equivalent to the statement

|x + y| |x| + |y|, (1.9)

for any two real numbers x, y. This is called the Triangle Inequality.

The second triangle inequality is just as important as it provides a lower bound on


the absolute value of a sum of two numbers. To get this we replace x by x y in
(1.9) and re-arrange terms to nd

|x y| |x| |y|.

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24 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

Similarly, replacing y in (1.9) by y x we obtain

|y x| |y| |x| = (|x| |y|).

But |x y| = |y x|. So, combining the last two displays gives us

|x y| (|x| |y|),

and this statement is equivalent to the statement

 
|x| |y| |x y|. (1.10)

We may call this the second triangle inequality.

Example 30. Show that if x is any number , x 1, then

y
nl
1 1
.
x |x|

O
Solution If x = 1 the result is clear. Now, everyone believes that, if x > 1, then
2
< x
x . OK, well, we can take the square root of both sides and use Figure 6 to get
on
x < x2 = |x|. From this we get,
1 1
If x > 1, > .
x |x|
si

On the other hand, one has to be careful with the opposite inequality x > x2 if
x < 1 . . . This is true, even though it doesnt seem right!
r
Ve

Example 31. Show that if x is any number, 0 < x 1, then

1 1
.
x x
TA

Solution Once again, if x =1 the result is clear. Using Figure 6 again, we now
nd that if x < 1, then x > x2 = |x|, and so,
1 1 1
If 0 < x < 1, < = .
x |x| x
These inequalities can allow us to es-
timate how big or how small func-
tions can be!
Example 32. We know that 2 < 2 + 1 for any 2 representing a positive
number. The box can even be a function! In other words, we can put a function of x
inside the box, apply the reciprocal inequality of Table 1.2, (where we put the symbols
2 + 1 inside the triangle) and get a new inequality, as follows. Since 2 < 2 + 1,
then
1 1
> .
2 2 +1
Now, put the function f dened by f (x) = x2 + 3x4 + |x| + 1 inside the box. Note
that f (x) > 0 (this is really important!). It follows that, for example,
1 1 1
> 2 = 2 .
x2 + 3x4 + |x| + 1 x + 3x4 + |x| + 1 + 1 x + 3x4 + |x| + 2

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1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 25

Multiplying inequalities by an unknown quantity


If A > 0, is any symbol (variable, function, number, fraction, . . . ) and

2 ,

then
A2 A,
If A < 0, is any symbol (variable, function, number, fraction, . . . ) and

2 ,

then
A2 A,
Dont forget to reverse the inequality sign when A < 0 !

y
Table 1.4: Multiplying Inequalities Together

nl
O
Example 33. How big is the function f dened by f (x) = x2 + cos x if x
is in the interval [0, 1] ?
on
Solution The best way to gure out how big f is, is to try and estimate each term
which makes it up. Lets leave x2 alone for the time being and concentrate on the
cos x term. We know from trigonometry that | cos x| 1 for any value of x. OK,
since cos x | cos x| by denition of the absolute value, and | cos x| 1 it follows
si

that
cos x 1
r

for any value of x. Choosing the plus sign, because thats what we want, we add x2
Ve

to both sides and this gives


Figure 10.
f (x) = x2 + cos x x2 + 1

and this is true for any value of x. But were only given that x is between 0 and 1.
TA

So, we take the right-most term, the x2 + 1, and replace it by something larger.
The simplest way to do this is to notice that, since x 1 (then x2 1 too) and
x2 + 1 12 + 1 = 2. Okay, now we combine the inequalities above to nd that, if
0 x 1,
f (x) = x2 + cos x x2 + 1 2.
This shows that f (x) 2 for such x s and yet we never had to calculate the range
of f to get this ... We just used inequalities! You can see this too by plotting its
graph as in Figure 10.

NOTE: We have just shown that the so-called maximum value of the function
f over the interval [0, 1] denoted mathematically by the symbols

max f (x)
x in [0,1]

is not greater than 2, that is,

max f (x) 2.
x in [0,1]

For a owchart interpretation of Table 1.4 see Figure 9 in the margin.

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26 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

Example 34. Show that if x is any real number, then x3 x2 (x + 1).

Solution We know that, for any value of x, x < x + 1 so, by Table 1.4, with
A = 2 we nd that 2x > 2(x + 1). You see that we reversed the inequality
since we multiplied the original inequality by a negative number! We could also
have multiplied the original inequality by A = x2 0, in which case we nd,
x3 x2 (x + 1) for any value of x, as being true too.

Example 35. Show that if p 1, and x 1, then

1 1
.
xp x

1. The graph of 1/x


Solution Let p 1 be any number, (e.g, p = 1.657, p = 2, . . . ). Then youll believe
2. The graph of 1/x1.5 that if p 1 0 and if x 1 then xp1 1 (for example, if x = 2 and p = 1.5,
3. The graph of 1/x2.1 then 21.51 = 20.5 = 21/2 = 2 = 1.414 . . . > 1). Since xp1 1 we can multiply
both sides of this inequality by x > 1, which is positive, and nd, by Figure 9 with
4. The graph of 1/x3.8 A = x, that xp x. From this and Table 1.2 we obtain the result

y
Figure 11. 1 1

nl
, if p 1, and x 1
xp x

O
Example 36. Show that if p > 1, and 0 < x 1, then

1 1
.
on
xp x
si

Solution In this example we change the preceding example slightly by requiring


that 0 < x 1. In this case we get the opposite inequality, namely, if p > 1then
xp1 1 (e.g., if x = 1/2, p = 1.5, then (1/2)1.51 = (1/2)0.5 = (1/2)1/2 = 1/ 2 =
r

0.707 . . . < 1). Since xp1 1 we can multiply both sides of this inequality by x > 0,
Ve

and nd, by Figure 9 with A = x, again, that xp x. From this and Table 1.2 we
obtain the result (see Fig. 11)
1 1
, if p 1, and 0 < x 1
xp x
TA

1. The graph of 1/x


Example 37. Show that if 0 < p 1, and x 1, then
2. The graph of 1/x0.65
1 1
3. The graph of 1/x0.43 .
xp x
4. The graph of 1/x0.1

Figure 12.
Solution In this nal example of this type we look at what happens if we change the
p values of the preceding two examples and keep the x-values larger than 1. Okay,
lets say that 0 < p 1 and x 1. Then youll believe that, since p 1 0,
0 < xp1 1, (try x = 2, p = 1/2, say). Multiplying both sides by x and taking
reciprocals we get the important inequality (see Fig. 12),
1 1
, if 0 < p 1, and x 1 (1.11)
xp x

NOTES:

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1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 27

SNAPSHOTS
Remember, if

22 2 ,
Example 38. We know that sin x 0 in Quadrants I and II, by trigonometry.
then
Combining this with Equation (1.11), we nd that: If x is an angle expressed in |2| ||,
radians and 1 x then
regardless of the values of the vari-
sin x sin x ables or symbols involved. If 2 > 0,
, 0<p1 this is also true for positive powers,
xp x p, other than 2. So, if, for example,
2 > 0, and
Think about why we had to have some restriction like x here.
p p
2  ,
Example 39. On the other hand, cos x 0 if /2 x (notice that
then
x > 1 automatically in this case, since /2 = 1.57... > 1). So this, combined with |2| ||.
Equation (1.11), gives
cos x cos x This result is not true if 2 < 0 since,
0<p1
xp x for example, (2)3 < 13 but | 2| >
where we had to reverse the inequality (1.11) as cos x 0. |1|.

y
Example 40. There is this really cool (and old) inequality called the AG- in- Figure 13.

nl
equality, (meaning the Arithmetic-Geometric Inequality). It is an inequality between
the arithmetic mean of two positive numbers, 2 and , and their geometric
mean. By denition, the arithmetic mean of 2 and , is (2 + )/2, or more

O
simply,
their average. The geometric mean of 2 and , is, by denition,
2 . The inequality states that if 2 0,  0, then
2 + 2 
on

2

Do you see why this is true? Just start out with the inequality ( 2 )2 0,
si

expand the terms, rearrange them, and then divide by 2.

Example 41. For example, if we set x2 in the box and x4 in the triangle
r

and apply the AG-inequality (Example 40) to these two positive numbers we get the
Ve

new inequality
x2 + x4
x3
2
valid for any value of x, something that is not easy to see if we dont use the AG-
TA

inequality.

We recall the general form of the Binomial Theorem. It states that if n is


any positive integer, and 2 is any symbol (a function, the variable x, or a positive
number, or negative, or even zero) then

n(n 1) 2 n(n 1)(n 2) 3 n(n 1) (2)(1) n


(1+2 )n = 1+n2 + 2 + 2 + + 2
2! 3! n!
(1.12)
where the symbols that look like 3!, or n!, called factorials, mean that we multiply
all the integers from 1 to n together. For example, 2! = (1)(2) = 2, 3! = (1)(2)(3) =
6, 4! = (1)(2)(3)(4) = 24 and, generally, n factorial is dened by

n! = (1)(2)(3) (n 1)(n) (1.13)

When n = 0 we all agree that 0! = 1 . . . Dont worry about why this is true right now,
but it has something to do with a function called the Gamma Function, which
will be dened later when we study things called improper integrals. Using this
we can arrive at identities like:
n(n 1) 2 n(n 1) (2)(1) n
(1 x)n = 1 nx + x + (1)n x ,
2! n!

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28 1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES

obtained by setting 2 = x in (1.12) or even


n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2) n(n 1) (2)(1)
2n = 1+n+ + + +
2! 3! n!

(just let 2 = 1 in the Binomial Theorem), and nally,


2nx 4n(n 1)x2 2n xn

(2x 3)n = (1)n 3n 1 + + + (1)n n ,
3 9 2! 3


found by noting that
n n n
2x 2x 2x
(2x 3)n = 3(1 ) = (3)n 1 = (1)n 3n 1
3 3 3

and then using the boxed formula (1.12) above with 2 = 2x


3
. In the above
formulae note that
n(n 1) (2)(1)
=1
n!
If you already know something by denition of the factorial symbol.
about improper integrals then the

y
Gamma Function can be written as,

nl

(p) = xp1 ex dx

O
0
Exercise Set 3.
where p 1. One can actually prove
that (n + 1) = n! if n is a positive
on
integer. The study of this function
dates back to Euler.
Determine which of the following 7 statements is true, if any. If the
statement is false give an example that shows this. Give reasons either
si

way.

1. If A < B then A
1 1
r

> B
Ve

2. If A
1
< B then A > B
3. If A < B then A2 < B 2
4. If A > B then 1/A < 1/B
5. If A < B then A < B
TA

6. If A2 < B 2 and A > 0, then A < B


7. If A2 > B 2 and A > 0, then |B| < A
8. Start with the obvious sin x < sin x + 1 and nd an interval of x s in which we
can conclude that
1
csc x >
sin x + 1
9. How big is the function f dened by f (x) = x2 + 2 sin x if x is in the interval
[0, 2]?
10. How big is the function g dened by g(x) = 1/x if x is in the interval [1, 4]?
11. Start with the inequality x > x 1 and conclude that for x > 1, we have
x2 > (x 1)2 .
12. If x is an angle expressed in radians and 1 x show that
sin x
sin x, p 1.
xp1

13. Use the AG-inequality to show that if x 0 then x + x2 x3 . Be careful here,
youll need to use the fact that 2 > 1! Are you allowed to square both sides
of this inequality to nd that, if x 0, (x + x2 )2 x3 ? Justify your answer.

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1.4. A QUICK REVIEW OF INEQUALITIES 29

14. Can you replace the x s in the inequality x2 2x 1 by an arbitrary symbol,


like 2 ? Under what conditions on the symbol?
15. Use the ideas surrounding Equation (1.11) to show that, if p 1 and |x| 1,
then
1 1

|x|p |x|
Hint: Note that if |x| 1 then |x|1p 1.
16. In the theory of relativity developed by A. Einstein, H. Lorentz and others at
the turn of this century, there appears the quantity , read as gamma, dened
as a function of the velocity, v, of an object by
1
=
v2
1 c2

where c is the speed of light. Determine the conditions on v which give us that
the quantity is a real number. In other words, nd the natural domain of .
Hint: This involves an inequality and an absolute value. Mathematics is not always done

17. Show that for any integer n 1 there holds the inequalities by mathematicians. For example,

y
Giordano Bruno, 1543-1600, Re-
n
1
2 1+ < 3. naissance Philosopher, once a Do-

nl
n minican monk, was burned at the
stake in the year 1600 for heresy.
Hint:

O
He wrote around 20 books in many
of which he upheld the view that
Copernicus held, i.e., that of a sun
This is a really hard problem! Use the Binomial Theorem, (1.5), with 2 = 1
n
.
on
But rst of all, get a feel for this result by using your calculator and setting centered solar system (called helio-

n = 2, 3, 4, . . . , 10 and seeing that this works! centric). A statue has been erected
in his honor in the Campo dei Fiori,
in Rome. Awesome. The rest is
si

history...What really impresses me


about Bruno is his steadfastness
r

Suggested Homework Set 3. Work out problems 3, 6, 11, 12, 14 in the face of criticism and ulti-
Ve

mate torture and execution. It is


said that he died without utter-
ing a groan. Few would drive on
Web Links
this narrow road...not even Galileo
Additional information on Functions may be found at: Galilei, 1564 - 1642, physicist, who
TA

http://www.coolmath.com/func1.htm came shortly after him. On the


advice of a Franciscan, Galileo re-
For more on inequalities see: tracted his support for the heliocen-
http://math.usask.ca/readin/ineq.html tric theory when called before the
Inquisition. As a result, he stayed
More on the AG- inequality at: under house arrest until his death,
http://www.cut-the-knot.com/pythagoras/corollary.html
in 1642. The theories of Coperni-
cus and Galileo would eventually be
absorbed into Newton and Leibnizs
Calculus as a consequence of the ba-
sic laws of motion. All this falls un-
der the heading of dierential equa-
tions.

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30 1.5. CHAPTER EXERCISES

1.5 Chapter Exercises

Use the methods of this Chapter to evaluate the following functions at


the indicated point(s) or symbol.

1. f (x) = 3x2 2x + 1. What is f (1)? f (0)? f (+1)? f (1/2)?


2. g(t) = t3 cos t. What is the value of g(x2 + 1)?
3. h(z) = z + 2 sin z cos(z + 2). Evaluate h(z + 3).
4. f (x) = cos x. Find the value of
f (x + h) f (x)
h
whenever h = 0. Simplify this expression as much as you can!
Use a trigonometric identity for cos(A + B) with A = x, B = h.

y
Solve the following inequalities for the stated variable.

nl
3
5. > 6, x
x
6. 3x + 4 0, x

O
3
7. 0, x
2x 1
2
8. x > 5, x

on
9. t2 < 5, t
10. sin2 x 1, x
11. z p 2, z, if p > 0
si

12. x2 9 0, x
r
Ve

Remove the absolute value (see Section 1.3 and Equation 1.3).
13. f (x) = |x + 3|
14. g(t) = |t 0.5|
TA

15. g(t) = |1 t|
16. f (x) = |2x 1|
17. f (x) = |1 6x|
18. f (x) = |x2 4|
19. f (x) = |3 x3 |
20. f (x) = |x2 2x + 1|
21. f (x) = |2x x2 |
22. f (x) = |x2 + 2|
23. If x is an angle expressed in radians and 1 x /2 show that
cos x
cos x, p1
xp1


24. Use your calculator to tabulate the values of the quantity
n
1
1+
n
for n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10 (See Exercise 17 of Exercise Set 3). Do the numbers you
get seem to be getting close to something?

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1.6. USING COMPUTER ALGEBRA SYSTEMS (CAS), 31

25. Use the AG-inequality to show that if 0 x /2, then


sin x + cos x
sin 2x.
2

Suggested Homework Set 4. Work out problems 2, 4, 12, 17, 19, 21, 24

1.6 Using Computer Algebra Systems (CAS),

Use your favorite Computer Algebra System (CAS), like Maple, MatLab, etc., or
even a graphing calculator to answer the following questions:

y
nl
Evaluate the functions at the following points:

O

1. f (x) = x, for x = 2, 1, 0, 1.23, 1.414, 2.7. What happens when x < 0?
Conclude that the natural domain of f is [0, +).

on
2. g(x) = sin(x 2) + cos(x 3), for x = 4.37, 1.7, 0, 3.1415, 12.154, 16.2. Are
there any values of x for which g(x) is not dened as a real number? Explain.

3. f (t) = 3 t, for t = 2.1, 0, 1.2, 4.1, 9. Most CAS dene power functions only
si

when the base is positive, which is not the case if t < 0. In this case the natural
domain of f is (, +) even though the CAS wants us to believe that it is
[0, ). So, be careful when reading o results using a CAS.
r

x+1
Ve

4. g(x) = . Evaluate g(1), g(0), g(0.125), g(1), g(1.001), g(20), g(1000). De-
x1
termine the behavior of g near x = 1. To do this use values of x just less than
1 and then values of x just larger than 1.
5. Dene a function f by
t + t
TA

,
1, t
if t > 0,
f (t) =
if t = 0.


Evaluate f (1), f (0), f (2.3), f (100.21). Show that f (t) = t + 1 for every value
of t 0.

6. Let f (x) = 1 + 2 cos2 ( x + 2) + 2 sin2 ( x + 2).

a) Evaluate f (2), f (0.12), f (1.6), f (3.2), f (7).


b) Explain your results.
c) What is the natural domain of f ?
d) Can you conclude something simple about this function? Is it a constant
function? Why?
7. To solve the inequality |2x 1| < 3 use your CAS to
a) Plot the graphs of y = |2x 1| and y = 3 and superimpose them on one
another
b) Find their points of intersection, and
c) Solve the inequality (see the gure below)

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32 1.6. USING COMPUTER ALGEBRA SYSTEMS (CAS),

The answer is: 1 < x < 2.

Evaluate the following inequalities graphically using a CAS:

a) |3x 2| < 5
b) |2x 2| < 4.2
c) |(1.2)x 3| > 2.61
d) |1.3 (2.5)x| = 0.5
e) |1.5 (5.14)x| > 2.1

8. Find an interval of xs such that


1
a) |cos x| <
2
b) sin x + 2 cos x < 1
1
c) sin(x 2) cos x > .
2
Hint: Plot the functions on each side of the inequality separately, superim-
pose their graphs, estimate their points of intersection visually, and solve the

y
inequality.
1

nl
9. Plot the values of
f (x) = x sin
x

O
for small xs such as x = 0.1, 0.001, 0.00001, 0.000001, 0.00000001 etc.
Guess what happens to the values of f (x) as x gets closer and closer to zero
(regardless of the direction, i.e., regardless of whether x > 0 or x < 0.)
on
10. Let f (x) = 4x 4x2 , for 0 x 1. Use the Box method to evaluate the
following terms, called the iterates of f for x = x0 = 0.5:

f (0.5), f (f (0.5)), f (f (f (0.5))), f (f (f (f (0.5)))), . . .


si

where each term is the image of the preceding term under f . Are these values
r

approaching any specic value? Can you nd values of x = x0 (e.g., x0 =


Ve

0.231, 0.64, . . .) for which these iterations actually seem to be approaching some
specic number? This is an example of a chaotic sequence and is part of an
exciting area of mathematics called Chaos.
11. Plot the graphs of y = x2 , (1.2)x2 , 4x2 , (10.6)x2 and compare these graphs
with those of
TA

1 1 1 1
y = x 2 , (1.2)x 2 , 4x 2 , (10.6)x 2 .
Use this graphical information to guess the general shape of graphs of the form
y = xp for p > 1 and for 0 < p < 1. Guess what happens if p < 0?
12. Plot the graphs of the family of functions f (x) = sin(ax) for a = 1, 10, 20, 40, 50.

a) Estimate the value of those points in the interval 0 x where f (x) = 0


(these xs are called zeros of f ).
b) How many are there in each case?
c) Now nd the position and the number of exact zeros of f inside this interval
0 x .

NOTES:

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Chapter 2

Limits and Continuity

y
The Big Picture

nl
The notion of a limit permeates the universe around us. In the simplest cases, the
speed of light, denoted by c, in a vacuum is the upper limit for the velocities of any

O
object. Photons always travel with speed c but electrons can never reach this speed
exactly no matter how much energy they are given. Thats life! In another vein,
lets look at the speed barrier for the 100m dash in Track & Field. World records
on
rebound and are broken in this, the most illustrious of all races. But there must
be a limit to the time in which one can run the 100m dash, right? For example, it
is clear that none will ever run this in a record time of, say, 3.00 seconds! On the
other hand, it has been run in a record time of 9.79 seconds. So, there must be a
si

limiting time that no one will ever be able to reach but the records will get closer
and closer to! It is the authors guess that this limiting time is around 9.70 seconds.
In a sense, this time interval of 9.70 seconds between the start of the race and its
r

end, may be considered a limit of human locomotion. We just cant seem to run at
Ve

a constant speed of 100/9.70 = 10.3 meters per second. Of course, the actual speed
limit of any human may sometimes be slightly higher than 10.3 m/sec, but, not
over the whole race. If you look at the Records Table below, you can see why we
could consider this number, 9.70, a limit.
TA

0. Maurice Greene USA 9.79 99/06/16 Athens, Invitational


1. Donovan Bailey CAN 9.84 96/07/26 Atlanta, Olympics
2. Leroy Burrell USA 9.85 94/07/06 Lausanne
3. Carl Lewis USA 9.86 91/08/25 Tokyo, Worlds
4. Frank Fredericks NAM 9.86 96/07/03 Lausanne
5. Linford Christie GBR 9.87 93/08/15 Stuttgart, Worlds
6. Ato Boldon TRI 9.89 97/05/10 Modesto
7. Maurice Green USA 9.90 97/06/13 Indianapolis
8. Dennis Mitchell USA 9.91 96/09/07 Milan
9. Andre Cason USA 9.92 93/08/15 Stuttgart, Worlds
10. Tim Montgomery USA 9.92 97/06/13 Indianapolis

On the other hand, in the world of temperature we have another limit, namely,
something called absolute zero equal to 273o C, or, by denition, 0K where K
stands for Kelvin. This temperature is a lower limit for the temperature of any
object under normal conditions. Normally, we may remove as much heat as we want
from an object but well never be able to remove all of it, so to speak, so the object
will never attain this limiting temperature of 0 K.

33
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34

These are physical examples of limits and long ago some guy called Karl Weier-
strass (1815-1897), decided he would try to make sense out of all this limit stu
mathematically. So he worked really hard and created this method which we now
call the epsilon-delta method which most mathematicians today use to prove that
such and such a number is, in fact, the limit of some given function. We dont always
have to prove it when were dealing with applications, but if you want to know how
to use this method you can look at the Advanced Topics later on. Basically, Karls
idea was that you could call some number L a limit of a given function if the values
of the function managed to get close, really close, always closer and closer to this
number L but never really reach L. He just made this last statement meaningful
using symbols.

In many practical situations functions may be given in dierent formats: that is,
their graphs may be unbroken curves or even broken curves. For example, the
function C which converts the temperature from degrees Centigrade, x, to degrees
Fahrenheit, C(x), is given by the straight line C(x) = 95 x + 32 depicted in Fig. 14.

Figure 14. This functions graph is an unbroken curve and we call such graphs the graph of a
continuous function (as the name describes).

y
nl
Example 42. If a taxi charges you $3 as a at fee for stepping in and 10
cents for every minute travelled, then the graph of the cost c(t), as a function of
time t (in minutes), is shown in Fig. 15.

O
When written out symbolically this function, c, in Fig. 15 is given by
3,
3.1, 0t<1
on
1t<2
c(t) =
3.2, 2t<3
3.3, 3t<4
si

... ...

or, more generally, as:


r
Ve

n
c(t) = 3 + , if n t n + 1
10
where n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

Figure 15. In this case, the graph of c is a broken curve and this is an example of a discontin-
TA

uous function (because of the breaks it cannot be continuous). It is also called a


step-function for obvious reasons.

These two examples serve to motivate the notion of continuity. Sometimes functions
describing real phenomena are not continuous but we turn them into continuous
functions as they are easier to visualize graphically.

Example 43. For instance, in Table 2.1 above we show the plot of the fre-
quency of Hard X-rays versus time during a Solar Flare of 6th March, 1989:

The actual X-ray count per centimeter per second is an integer and so the plot
should consist of points of the form (t, c(t)) where t is in seconds and c(t) is the X-
ray count, which is an integer. These points are grouped tightly together over small
time intervals in the graph and consecutive points are joined by a line segment
(which is quite short, though). The point is that even though these signals are
discrete we tend to interpolate between these data points by using these small line
segments. Its a fair thing to do but is it the right thing to do? Maybe nature doesnt
like straight lines! The resulting graph of c(t) is now the graph of a continuous
function (there are no breaks).

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2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 35

Table 2.1: The Mathematics of Solar Flares

ct
As you can gather from Fig. 15, the size of the break in the graph of ( ) is given
c
by subtracting neighbouring values of the function around = . t a
Figure 16.

y
To make this idea more precise we dene the limit from the left and the limit
from the right of function f at the point x = a, see Tables 2.2 & 2.3 (and an

nl
optional chapter for the rigorous denitions).

O
2.1 One-Sided Limits of Functions
on
Limits from the Right

f x a
We say that the function has a limit from the right at = (or the right-
si

hand limit of f exists at x = a) whose value is L and denote this symbolically


by
r
Ve

f (a + 0) = lim f (x) = L
xa+

if BOTH of the following statements are satised:


1. Let x > a and x be very close to x = a.
2. As x approaches a (from the right because x > a), the values of
TA

f (x) approach the value L.

(For a more rigorous denition see the Advanced Topics, later on.)

Table 2.2: One-Sided Limits From the Right

 1,
For example, the function H dened by
f or x 0
H(x) =
0, f or x < 0

called the Heaviside Function (named after Oliver Heaviside, (1850 - 1925) an
electrical engineer) has the property that
lim H(x) = 1
x0+

Why? This is because we can set a = 0 and f (x) = H(x) in the denition (or in
Table 2.2) and apply it as follows:

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36 2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS

a) Let x > 0 and x be very close to 0;


b) As x approaches 0 we need to ask the question: What are the values, H(x),
doing?

Well, we know that H(x) = 1 for any x > 0, so, as long as x = 0, the values
H(x) = 1, (see Fig. 17), so this will be true in the limit as x approaches 0.

Limits from the Left

f x a
We say that the function has a limit from the left at = (or the left-
hand limit of f exists at x = a) and is equal to L and denote this symbolically
by

f (a 0) = lim f (x) = L
xa

if BOTH of the following statements are satised:


1. Let x < a and x be very close to x = a.

y
2. As x approaches a (from the left because x < a), the values of f (x)

nl
approach the value L.

O
Table 2.3: One-Sided Limits From the Left

Returning to our Heaviside function, H(x), (see Fig. 17), dened earlier we see that
on
lim H(x) = 0
x0
si

The graph of the Heaviside Func- Why? In this case we set a = 0, f (x) = H(x) in the denition (or Table 2.3), as
tion, H(x). before:
r
Ve

Figure 17.
a) Let x < 0 and x very close to 0;
b) As x approaches 0 the values H(x) = 0, right? (This is because x < 0, and by
denition, H(x) = 0 for such x). The same must be true of the limit and so
we have
TA

lim H(x) = 0
x0

OK, but how do you nd these limits?

In practice, the idea is to choose some specic values of x near a (to the right
or to the left of a) and, using your calculator, nd the corresponding values of
the function near a.

Example 44. Returning to the Taxi problem, Example 42 above, nd the


values of c(1 + 0), c(2 0) and c(4 0), (See Fig. 15).

Solution By denition, c(1 + 0) = limt1+ c(t). But this means that we want
the values of c(t) as t 1 from the right, i.e., the values of c(t) for t > 1 (just
slightly bigger than 1) and t 1. Referring to Fig. 15 and Example 42 we see
that c(t) = 3.1 for such ts and so c(1 + 0) = 3.1. In the same way we see that
c(2 0) = limt2 c(t) = 3.1 while c(4 0) = limt4 c(t) = 3.3.

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2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 37

Example 45.

The function f is dened by:


x + 1, x < 1
f (x) =
2x,
x , 2
1 x +1
x > +1

Evaluate the following limits whenever they exist and justify your answers. Numerical evidence for Example 45,
(iii). You can think of x as being
i) lim f (x); ii) lim f (x); iii) lim f (x) the name of an athlete and f (x)
x1 x0+ x1+
as being their record at running the
Solution i) We want a left-hand limit, right? This means that x < 1 and x should 100 m. dash.
be very close to 1 (according to the denition in Table 2.3).

Now as x approaches 1 (from the left, i.e., with x always less than 1) we see x f (x)
that x + 1 approaches 0, that is, f (x) approaches 0. Thus, 1.5000 2.2500
1.2500 1.5625

y
lim f (x) = 0. 1.1000 1.2100
x1

nl
1.0500 1.1025
ii) We want a right-hand limit here. This means that x > 0 and x must be very 1.0033 1.0067
close to 0 (according to the denition in Table 2.2). Now for values of x > 0 and 1.0020 1.0040

O
close to 0 the value of f (x) is 2x . . . OK, this means that as x approaches 0 then 1.0012 1.0025
2x approaches 0, or, equivalently f (x) approaches 0. So
1.0010 1.0020
1.0001 1.0002
on
lim f (x) = 0
x0+ ... ...
iii) In this case we need x > 1 and x very close to 1. But for such values, f (x) = x2
and so if we let x approach 1 we see that f (x) approaches (1)2 = 1. So,
si

Figure 18.
lim f (x) = 1.
r

x1+
Ve

See Figure 18, in the margin, where you can see the values of our function, f , in
the second column of the table while the xs which are approaching one (from the
right) are in the rst column. Note how the numbers in the second column get
closer and closer to 1. This table is not a proof but it does make the limit we
found believable.
TA

Example 46. Evaluate the following limits and explain your answers.
 x+4 x3
f (x) =
6 x>3

i) lim f (x) and ii) lim f (x)


x3+ x3

Solution i) We set x > 3 and x very close to 3. Then the values are all f (x) = 6, by
denition, and these dont change with respect to x. So

lim f (x) = 6
x3+

ii) We set x < 3 and x very close to 3. Then the values f (x) = x + 4, by denition,
and as x approaches 3, we see that x + 4 approaches 3 + 4 = 7. So

lim f (x) = 7
x3

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38 2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS

Example 47. Evaluate the following limits, if they exist.


 x2 x>0
f (x) =
x2 x0

i) lim f (x); ii) lim f (x)


x0 x0+

Solution i) Let x < 0 and x very close to 0. Since x < 0, f (x) = x2 and f (x) is
very close to 02 = 0 since x is. Thus

lim f (x) = 0
x0

ii) Let x > 0 and x very close to 0. Since x > 0, f (x) = x2 and f (x) is very close
to 0 too! Thus

lim f (x) = 0
x0+

y
NOTE: In this example the graph of f has no breaks whatsoever since f (0) = 0.. In

nl
this case we say that the function f is continuous at x = 0. Had there been a break
Figure 19. or some points missing from the graph we would describe f as discontinuous

O
whenever those breaks or missing points occurred.

Example 48. Use the graph in Figure 19 to determine the value of the
on
required limits.

i) lim f (x); ii) lim f (x); iii) lim f (x)


x3 x3+ x18+
si

Solution i) Let x < 3 and let x be very close to 3. The point (x, f (x)) which is
on the curve y = f (x) now approaches a denite point as x approaches 3. Which
r

point? The graph indicates that this point is (3, 6). Thus
Ve

lim f (x) = 6
x3

ii) Let x > 3 and let x be very close to 3. In this case, as x approaches 3, the points
(x, f (x)) travel down towards the point (3, 12). Thus
TA

lim f (x) = 12
x3+

iii) Here we let x > 18 and let x be very close to 18. Now as x approaches 18 the
points (x, f (x)) on the curve are approaching the point (18, 12). Thus

lim f (x) = 12
x18+

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2.1. ONE-SIDED LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 39

Exercise Set 4.

Evaluate the following limits and justify your conclusions.

1. lim (x + 2) 7. lim x sin x


x2+ x0+

 cos x 
2. lim (x2 + 1) 8. lim
x
x 2
x0+ x +

3 lim (1 x2 ) 9. lim
x1 x2+ x+2
1
x
4 lim 10. lim
t2+ t2 x1 |x 1|
x 1
5 lim (x|x|) 11. lim

y
x0+ x1 x+2
x3

nl
x
6 lim 12. lim
x0 |x| x3+ x2 9
(Hint: Factor the denominator)

O
13. Let the function f be dened as follows:
 1 |x| x<1
on
f (x) =
x x1

Evaluate i) lim f (x); ii) lim f (x)


si

x1 x1+

Conclude that the graph of f (x) must have a break at x = 1.


r
Ve

14. Let g be dened by


x + 1 2
x<0
1x x 0x1
2
g(x) =
x>1
TA

Evaluate
i). lim g(x) ii). lim g(x)
x0 x0+

iii). lim g(x) iv). lim g(x)


x1 x1+

v) Conclude that the graph of g has no breaks at x = 0 but it does have a break at
x = 1.

15. Use the graph in Figure 20 to determine the value of the required limits. (The
function f is composed of parts of 2 functions).

Evaluate Figure 20.

i). lim f (x) ii). lim f (x)


x1+ x1

iii). lim f (x) iv). lim f (x)


x1 x1+

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40 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

2.2 Two-Sided Limits and Continuity

At this point we know how to determine the values of the limit from the left (or
right) of a given function f at a point x = a. We have also seen that whenever

lim f (x) = lim f (x)


xa+ xa

then there is a break in the graph of f at x = a. The absence of breaks or


One of the key mathematical gures holes in the graph of a function is what the notion of continuity is all about.
during the rst millennium was a
monk called Alcuin of York (735 - Denition of the limit of a function at x = a.
804) who was Charlemagnes scribe
and general advisor. He wrote a
very inuential book in Latin which We say that a function f has the (two-sided) limit L as x approaches
contained many mathematical prob- aif
lems passed on from antiquity. In
this book of his youll nd the fol-
lim f (x) = lim f (x) = L
xa+ xa
lowing (paraphrased) problem:

y
When this happens, we write (for brevity)
A dog chases a rabbit who has a

nl
head-start of 150 feet. All you lim f (x) = L
xa
know is that every time the dog

O
leaps 9 feet, the rabbit leaps 7 feet.
and read this as: the limit of f (x) as x approaches a is L (L may be innite
here).
How many leaps will it take for the
dog to pass the rabbit?
on
NOTE: So, in order for a limit to exist both the right- and left-hand limits must
exist and be equal. Using this notion we can now dene the continuity of a function
f at a point x = a.
si

We say that f is continuous at x = a if all the following conditions are satised:


r
Ve

1. f is dened at x = a (i.e., f (a) is nite)


2. lim f (x) = lim f (x) (= L, their common value) and
xa+ xa

3. L = f (a).
TA

NOTE: These three conditions must be satised in order for a function f to be


continuous at a given point x = a. If any one or more of these conditions is not
satised we say that f is discontinuous at x = a. In other words, we see from
the Denition above (or in Table 2.7) that the one-sided limits from the left and
right must be equal in order for f to be continuous at x = a but that this equality,
in itself, is not enough to guarantee continuity as there are 2 other conditions
that need to be satised as well.

Example 49. Show that the given function is continuous at the given points,
x = 1 and x = 2, where f is dened by
x + 1 0x1
f (x) =
2x
x 2
1<x2
x>2

Solution To show that f is continuous at x = 1 we need to verify 3 conditions


(according to Table 2.7):

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 41

1. Is f dened at x = 1? Yes, its value is f (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 by denition.


2. Are the one-sided limits equal? Lets check this: (See Fig. 21)

lim f (x) = lim (x + 1) = 1 + 1 = 2


x1
  
x1

because f (x)=x+1 for x1

Moreover,

lim f (x) = lim (2x) = 2 1 = 2


x1+
  
x1+

because f (x)=2x for x>1, and close to 1

The one-sided limits are equal to each other and their common value is L = 2.
3. Is L
= f (1)? By denition f (1) = 1 + 1 = 2, so OK, this is true, because
L = 2.

Thus, by denition f is continuous at x = 1.

y
nl
We proceed in the same fashion for x = 2. Remember, we still have to verify 3
conditions . . .

O
1. Is f dened at x = 2? Yes, because its value is f (2) = 2 2 = 4.
2. Are the one-sided limits equal? Lets see:
on
lim f (x) = lim x2 = 22 = 4
x2+
  
x2+

because f (x)=x2 for x>2


si

and
r

lim (2x) = 2 2 = 4
Ve

lim f (x) =
x2 x2
because f (x)=2x for x2 and close to 2

So they are both equal and their common value, L = 4.


L = f (2)? We know that L = 4 and f (2) = 2 2 = 4 by denition so, OK.
TA

3. Is Figure 21.

Thus, by denition (Table 2.7), f is continuous at x = 2.

Remarks:

1. The existence of the limit of a function at = f x


is equivalent to a
requiring that both one-sided limits be equal (to each other).
2. The existence of the limit of a function f at x = a doesnt imply that f is
continuous at x = a.
Why? Because the value of this limit may be dierent from f (a), or, worse still,
f (a) may be innite.
3. It follows from (1) that

If lim f (x) = lim f (x), then lim f (x) does not exist,
xa+ xa xa

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42 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

so, in particular, f cannot be continuous at x = a.

Example 50. Show that the function f dened by f (x) = |x3| is continuous
at x = 3 (see Figure 22).

Solution By denition of the absolute value we know that


 x3 x3
f (x) = |x 3| =
3x x<3

(Remember: |symbol| = symbol if symbol 0 and |symbol| = symbol if symbol <


0 where symbol is any expression involving some variable. . . ) OK, now
The function f (x) = |x 3|
lim f (x) = lim (x 3) = 3 3 = 0
x3+ x3+
Figure 22.
and

lim f (x) = lim (3 x) = 3 3 = 0

y
x3 x3

nl
so lim f (x) exists and is equal to 0 (by denition).
x3

O
Is 0 = f (3) ? Yes (because f (3) = |3 3| = |0| = 0). Of course f (3) is dened. We
conclude that f is continuous at x = 3.

Remark: In practice it is easier to remember the statement:


on
f is continuous at x = a if
a f (x) = f (a)
si

xlim
r
Ve

whenever all the symbols here have meaning (i.e. the limit exists, f (a) exists etc.).

Example 51. Determine whether or not the following functions have a limit
TA

The Arabic numerals or those 10 at the indicated point.


basic symbols we use today in the
world of mathematics seem to have
a) f (x) = x2 + 1 at x = 0
been accepted in Europe and subse-
b) f (x) = 1 + |x 1| at x = 1
quently in the West, sometime dur-
ing the period 1482-1494, as can
1 for t 0
be evidenced from old merchant c) f (t) = at t = 0
0 for t < 0
records from the era (also known as
1
the High Renaissance in art). Prior d) f (x) = at x = 0
x
to this, merchants and others used
t
Roman numerals (X=10, IX=9, III e) g(t) = at t = 0
t+1
= 3, etc.) in their dealings.

Solution a) lim f (x) = lim (x2 + 1) = 02 + 1 = 1


x0+ x0+

lim f (x) = lim (x2 + 1) = 02 + 1 = 1


x0 x0

Thus lim f (x) exists and is equal to 1. i.e. lim f (x) = 1.


x0 x0

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 43

b) lim f (x) = lim (1 + |x 1|)


x1+ x1+
= lim (1 + (x 1)) (because |x 1| = x 1 as x > 1)
x1+
= lim x
x1+
= 1
lim f (x) = lim (1 + |x 1|)
x1 x1
= lim (1 + (1 x) (because |x 1| = 1 x as x < 1)
x1
= lim (2 x)
x1
= 21
= 1
Thus lim f (x) exists and is equal to 1, i.e. lim f (x) = 1.
x1 x1

c) lim f (t) = lim (1) (as f (t) = 1 for t > 0)

y
t0+ t0+
= 1

nl
lim f (t) = lim (0) (as f (t) = 0 for t < 0)
t0 t0
= 0

O
Since lim f (t) = lim f (t), it follows that lim f (t) does not exist. (In particular,
t0+ t0 t0
f cannot be continuous at t = 0.)
on
1
d) lim f (x) = lim = +
x0+ x0+ x
si

because division by zero does not produce a real number, in general. On the other
hand
r

1
= (since x < 0)
Ve

lim f (x) = lim


x0 x0 x

Since limx0+ f (x) = limx0 f (x) the limit does not exist at x = 0. The Sandwich Theorem states
that, if

g(x) f (x) h(x)


TA

t 0
e) lim g(t) = lim = =0
t0+ t0+ t + 1 0+1 for all (suciently) large x and for
t 0 some (extended) real number A, and
lim g(t) = lim = =0
t0 t0 t + 1 0+1 lim g(x) = A, lim h(x) = A
xa xa
and so lim g(t) exists and is equal to 0, i.e. lim g(t) = 0.
t0 t0 then f also has a limit at x = a and

The rigorous method of handling these examples is presented in an optional lim f (x) = A
xa
Chapter, Advanced Topics. Use of your calculator will be helpful in deter-
mining some limits but cannot substitute a theoretical proof. The reader is In other words, f is sandwiched

encouraged to consult the Advanced Topics for more details. between two values that are ulti-
mately the same and so f must also

Remark: have the same limit.

It follows from Table 2.4 that continuous functions themselves have similar proper-
ties, being based upon the notion of limits. For example it is true that:

1. The sum or dierence of two continuous functions (at x = a) is again continuous


(at x = a).

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44 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

2. The product or quotient of two continuous functions (at x = a) is also continuous


(provided the quotient has a non-zero denominator at x = a).
3. A multiple of two continuous functions (at x = a) is again a continuous function
(at x = a).

Properties of Limits of Functions

Let f , g be two given functions, x = a be some (nite) point. The


following statements hold (but will not be proved here):

Assume lim f (x) and lim g(x) both exist and are nite.
xa xa

Then

a) The limit of a sum is the sum of the limits.


lim (f (x) + g(x)) = lim f (x) + lim g(x)
xa xa xa

y
b) The limit of a dierence is the dierence of the limits.
lim (f (x) g(x)) = lim f (x) lim g(x)

nl
xa xa xa

c) The limit of a multiple is the multiple of the limit.

O
If c is any number, then lim cf (x) = c lim f (x)
xa xa

d) The limit of a quotient is the quotient of the limits.


f (x) limxa f (x)
on
If limxa g(x)
= 0 then lim =
xa g(x) limxa g(x)
e) The limit of aproduct is the product
 of the limits.
si

lim f (x)g(x) = lim f (x) lim g(x)


xa xa xa

f ) If f (x) g(x) then lim f (x) lim g(x)


r

xa xa
Ve

Table 2.4: Properties of Limits of Functions

Now, the Properties in Table 2.4 and the following Remark allow us to make some
very important observations about some classes of functions, such as polynomials.
TA

How? Well, lets take the simplest polynomial f (x) = x. It is easy to see that for
some given number x = a and setting g(x) = x, Table 2.4 Property (e), implies that
the function h(x) = f (x)g(x) = x x = x2 is also continuous at x = a. In the same
way we can show that k(x) = f (x)h(x) = x x2 = x3 is also continuous at x = a,
and so on.

In this way we can prove (using, in addition, Property (a)), that any polynomial
whatsoever is continuous at x a
= , where a
is any real number. We
summarize this and other such consequences in Table 2.8.

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 45

SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits from the Right

We say that the function f has a limit from the right at x = a (or
the right-hand limit of f exists at x = a) whose value is L and denote
this symbolically by

lim f (x) = L
xa+

if BOTH the following statements are satised:

1. Let x > a and x be very close to x = a.

2. As x approaches a (from the right because x > a), the values


of f (x) approach the value L.

(For a more rigorous denition see the Advanced Topics)

Table 2.5: SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits From the Right

y
nl
SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits from the Left

We say that the function f has a limit from the left at x = a (or

O
the left-hand limit of f exists at x = a) and is equal to L and denote this
symbolically by
on
lim f (x) = L
xa

if BOTH the following statements are satised:


si

1. Let x < a and x be very close to x = a.


r

2. As x approaches a (from the left because x < a), the values of


Ve

f (x) approach the value L.

Table 2.6: SUMMARY: One-Sided Limits From the Left


TA

Exercise Set 5.

Determine whether the following limits exist. Give reasons. Nicola Oresme, (1323-1382),

 x+2 x0
Bishop of Lisieux, in Normandy,
wrote a tract in 1360 (this is before
1. lim f (x) where f (x) = the printing press) where, for the
x0 x x>0
rst time, we nd the introduction

x + 2
2. lim (x + 3)
x1 of perpendicular xy-axes drawn
on a plane. His work is likely to
3. lim
x2 x have inuenced Rene Descartes

 sin (x 1)
4. lim x sin x (1596-1650), the founder of modern
x0
Analytic Geometry.
0x1
5. lim f (x) where f (x) =
x1
x + 1 |x 1| x>1

6. lim
x0
2 x
7. lim
x0 x

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46 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

SUMMARY: Continuity of f at x = a.

We say that f is continuous at x = a if all the following conditions are


satised:

1. f is dened at x = a (i.e., f (a) is nite)

2. lim f (x) = lim f (x) (= L, their common value) and


xa+ xa

3. L = f (a).

These three conditions must be satised in order for a function f to be


continuous at a given point x = a. If any one or more of these conditions
is not satised we say that f is discontinuous at x = a.

Table 2.7: SUMMARY: Continuity of a Function f at a Point x = a

x

8. lim

y
x1 x+1
9. lim (2 + |x 2|)

nl
x2
3 x0
10. lim f (x) where f (x) =

O
x0 2 x>0
11. Are the following functions continuous at 0? Give reasons.

a) f (x) = |x|
on
b) g(t) = t2 + 3t + 2
c) h(x) = 3 + 2|x|
si

2
d) f (x) =
x+1
x2 + 1
r

e) f (x) =
x2 2
Ve

12. Hard Let f be dened by


 x sin   1
x = 0
f (x) = x
0 x=0
TA

Show that f is continuous at x = 0.

  | |x|.
(Hint: Do this in the following steps:

a) Show that for x = 0, |x sin 1


x

b) Use (a) and the Sandwich Theorem to show that


 1 
0 lim x sin
x0
 x 
0

 1 
and so

lim x sin =0


x0 x 
1
c) Conclude that lim x sin = 0.
x0 x
d) Verify the other conditions of continuity.)

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 47

Some Continuous Functions


Let x = a be a given point.
a) The polynomial p of degree n, with xed coecients, given by

p(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0

is continuous at any real number x = a.


b) The rational function, r, where r(x) = p(x)
q(x)
where p, q are both polyno-
mials is continuous at x = a provided q(a) = 0 or equivalently, provided
x = a is not a root of q(x). Thus

an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0
r(x) =
bm xm + bm1 xm1 + . . . + b0
is continuous at x = a provided the denominator is not equal to zero at
x = a.
c) If f is a continuous function, so is its absolute value function, |f |, and
if

y
lim |f (x)| = 0, then

nl
xa

lim f (x) = 0

O
xa

(The proof of (c) uses the ideas in the Advanced Topics chapter.)
on
Table 2.8: Some Continuous Functions
si

What about discontinuous functions?


r

In order to show that a function is discontinuous somewhere we need to show that


Ve

at least one of the three conditions in the denition of continuity (Table 2.7) is not
satised.

Remember, to show that f is continuous requires the verication of all three condi-
TA

tions in Table 2.7 whereas to show some function is discontinuous only requires that
one of the three conditions for continuity is not satised.

Example 52. Determine which of the following functions are discontinuous


somewhere. Give reasons.

x x0
a) f (x) =
3x + 1 x>0

x
b) f (x) = , f (0) = 1
|x|
x 2
x = 0
c) f (x) =
1 x=0

1
d) f (x) = , x = 0
|x|

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48 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

Solution a) Note that lim f (x) = lim (x) = 0


x0 x0
while lim f (x) = lim (3x + 1) = 1
x0+ x0+

Thus the lim f (x) does not exist and so f cannot be continuous at x = 0, or, equiv-
x0
alently, f is discontinuous at x = 0.

How can a function f be discon-


tinuous at x = a? If any one (or
What about the other points, x = 0?
more) of the following occurs . . .
Well, if x = 0, and x < 0, then f (x) = x is a polynomial, right? Thus f is
1. f (a) is not dened (e.g., it is continuous at each point x where x < 0. On the other hand, if x = 0 and x > 0
innite, or we are dividing by then f (x) = 3x + 1 is also a polynomial. Once again f is continuous at each point
0, or extracting the root of a
negative number, . . . ) (See x where x > 0.
Example 52 (d))

2. If either one of the left- and Conclusion: f is continuous at every point x except at x = 0.
right-limits of f at x = a is
innite (See Example 52 (d))
b) Since f (0) = 1 is dened, lets check for the existence of the limit at x = 0.
3. f (a) is dened but the left- (Youve noticed, of course, that at x = 0 the function is of the form 00 which is

y
and right-limits at x = a are not dened as a real number and this is why an additional condition was added
unequal (See Example 52 (a),
there to make the function dened for all x and not just those x = 0.)

nl
(b))

4. f (a) is dened, the left- and


right-limits are equal to L
Now,

O
but L = x x
lim f (x) = lim = lim = lim (1)
5. f (a) is dened, the left- and
right-limits are equal to L
x0+ x0+ |x|

x0+ x

x0+

but L = f (a) (See Exam-
on
(because x=0)
ple 52 (c))
= 1
Then f is discontinuous at x = a.
x x
si

lim f (x) = lim = lim = lim (1)


x0 x0 |x| x0 (x) x0
= 1
r
Ve

(since |x| = x if x < 0 by denition). Since the one-sided limits are dierent it
follows that

lim f (x) does not exist.


x0
TA

Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0.

What about the other points? Well, for x = 0, f is nice enough. For instance,
if x > 0 then
x x
f (x) = = = +1
|x| x
for each such x > 0. Since f is a constant it follows that f is continuous for x > 0.
On the other hand, if x < 0, then |x| = x so that
x x
f (x) = = = 1
|x| (x)
and once again f is continuous for such x < 0.

Conclusion: f is continuous for each x = 0 and at x = 0, f is discontinuous.

The graph of this function is shown in Figure 23.

Figure 23. c) Lets look at f for x = 0 rst, (it doesnt really matter how we start). For x = 0,
f (x) = x2 is a polynomial and so f is continuous for each such x = 0, (Table 2.8).

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 49

What about x
= 0? We are given that f (0) = 1 so f is dened there. What
about the limit of f as x approaches x = 0. Does this limit exist?

Lets see

lim f (x) = lim x2 = 02 = 0


x0+ x0+

and

lim f (x) = lim x2 = 02 = 0


x0 x0

OK, so lim f (x) exists and is equal to 0. But note that


x0

lim f (x) = 0 = f (0) = 1


x0

So, in this case, f is discontinuous at x = 0, (because even though conditions (1)


and (2) of Table 2.7 are satised the nal condition (3) is not!)

d) In this case we see that

y
lim f (x) = lim f (x) = +

nl
x0+ x0

and f (0) = + as well! Ah, but now f (0) is not dened as a real number (thus
violating condition (1)). Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0 . . . and the other points?

O
Well, for x < 0, f (x) = x1 is a quotient of two polynomials and any x (since x = 0)
is not a root of the denominator. Thus f is a continuous function for such x < 0. A
similar argument applies if x > 0.
on
Conclusion: f is continuous everywhere except at x = 0 where it is discontinuous. The graph of Example 52(c)

We show the graph of the functions dened in (c), (d) in Figure 24.
r si

Exercise Set 6.
Ve

Determine the points of discontinuity of each of the following functions.

|x|
+ 1 for x = 0 and f (0) = 2
TA

1. f (x) =
x

x x<0
2. g(x) =
1 + x2 x 0
x2 + 3x + 3
3. f (x) =
x2 1
x
(Hint: Find the zeros of the denominator.)
3
+1 x = 0
4. f (x) =
2 x=0
1 1
5. f (x) = + 2 for x = 0, f (0) = +1 The graph of Example 52(d)
x
 x
1.62 x<0 Figure 24.
6. f (x) =
2x x0

Before proceeding with a study of some trigonometric limits lets recall some fun-
damental notions about trigonometry. Recall that the measure of angle called the
o
radian is equal to 360
2
57o . It is also that angle whose arc is numerically equal
to the radius of the given circle. (So 2 radians correspond to 360o , radians cor-
respond to 180o , 1 radian corresponds to 57o , etc.) Now, to nd the area of a

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50 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

Continuity of various trigonometric functions

(Recall: Angles x are in radians)


1. The functions f , g dened by f (x) = sin x, g(x) = cos x are continuous
everywhere (i.e., for each real number x).
2. The functions h(x) = tan x and k(x) = sec x are continuous at every point
which is not an odd multiple of 2 . At such points h, k are discontinuous.
(i.e. at 2 , 3
2
, 3
2
, 5
2
,. . . )
3. The functions csc and cot are continuous whenever x is not a multiple
of , and discontinuous whenever x is a multiple of . (i.e. at x = ,
, 2, 5, etc.)

Table 2.9: Continuity of Various Trigonometric Functions

sector of a circle of radius r subtending an angle at the center we note that the

y
area is proportional to this central angle so that

nl
2

O
=
Area of circle Area of sector

Area of sector = (r 2 )
2
on
r2
=
2
si

Figure 25. We conclude that the area of a sector subtending an angle at the center is given
r

2
by r2 where is in radians and summarize this in Table 2.10.
Ve

The area of a sector subtending an angle (in radians) at the center of a


circle of radius r is given by
TA

r2
Area of a sector = 2

Table 2.10: Area of a Sector of a Circle

Figure 26. Next we nd some relationships between triangles in order to deduce a


very important limit in the study of calculus.

We begin with a circle C of radius 1 and a sector subtending an angle, x < 2 in


radians at its center, labelled O. Label the extremities of the sector along the arc
by A and B as in the adjoining gure, Fig. 27.

At A produce an altitude which meets OB extended to C. Join AB by a line


segment. The gure now looks like Figure 28.

We call the triangle whose side is the arc AB and having sides AO, OB a curvi-
linear triangle for brevity. (It is also a sector!)

Figure 27.

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 51

Lets compare areas. Note that

Area of ACO > Area of curvilinear triangle


> Area of ABO
1 1
Now the area of ACO = (1)|AC| = tan x
2 2
Area of curvilinear triangle = Area of the sector with central angle x
1 2
= (1 ) x (because of Table 2.10 above)
2
x
=
2

Finally, from Figure 28,

1 Figure 28.
Area of triangle ABO = (altitude from base AO)(base length)
2
1 1
= (length of BD) (1) = (sin x) (1)
2 2
sin x
=

y
2

nl
(by denition of the sine of the angle x.) Combining these inequalities we get

1 x sin x

O
tan x > > (for 0 < x < , remember?)
2 2 2 2
or
on
sin x < x < tan x

from which we can derive


si

sin x
r

cos x < <1 for 0 < x


x 2
Ve

since all quantities are positive. This is a fundamental inequality in trigonometry.

We now apply Table 2.4(f) to this inequality to show that


TA

sin x
lim cos x lim lim 1
  
x0+ x0+ x
  
x0+

1 1

and we conclude that

sin x
lim =1
x0+ x

If, on the other hand, 2 < x < 0 (or x is a negative angle) then, writing x = x0 ,
we have 2 > x0 > 0. Next

sin x sin(x0 ) sin(x0 ) sin x0


= = =
x x0 x0 x0

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52 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

where we have used the relation sin(x0 ) = sin x0 valid for any angle x0 (in
radians, as usual). Hence
sin x sin x0
lim = lim
x0 x x0 x0
sin x0
= lim
x0 0 x0
sin x0
= lim (because if x0 < 0 then x0 > 0
x0 0+ x0
and x0 approaches 0+ )
= 1.

Since both one-sided limits are equal it follows that


sin x
lim =1
x0 x
Another important limit like the one in Table 2.11 is obtained by using the basic

y
If the symbol 2 represents any continuous function then, so long as we can let

nl
2 0, we have
sin 2
lim =1

O
2 0 2
on
Table 2.11: Limit of (sin 2)/2 as 2 0

identity
si

1 cos2 sin2
1 cos = =
1 + cos 1 + cos
r

Dividing both sides by and rearranging terms we nd


Ve

1 cos sin sin


=
1 + cos
Now, we know that
TA

1 cos 2
lim = 0.
2 0 2

Table 2.12: Limit of (1 cos 2)/2 as 2 0

sin
lim =1
0


and
sin
lim
0 1 + cos

exists (because it is the limit of the quotient of 2 continuous functions, the denomi-
nator not being 0 as 0). Furthermore it is easy to see that
sin
sin 0 0
lim = = =0
0 1 + cos 1 + cos 0 1+1

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 53

It now follows from Table 2.4(e) that

1 cos
sin
sin

lim = lim lim = 10
0 0 0 1 + cos
= 0

and we conclude that


1 cos
lim =0
0
If you want, you can replace by x in the above formula or any other symbol
as in Table 2.11. Hence, we obtain Table 2.12,

NOTES:

y
nl
O
on
r si
Ve
TA

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54 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

Example 53. Evaluate the following limits.

sin (3x)
a) lim
x0 x
1 cos (2x)
b) lim
x0 x
sin (2x)
c) lim
x0 sin (3x)

sin ( x)
d) lim
x0+ x
One of the rst complete introduc-
tions to Trigonometry was writ-
ten by one Johannes Muller of
Solution a) We use Table 2.11. If we let 2 = 3x, we also need the symbol 2 in the
denominator, right? In other words, x = 23 and so
Konigsberg, (1436 - 1476), also
known as Regiomontanus. The sin 3x sin (2 ) sin (2 )
= =3
work, written in Latin, is entitled x ( 23 ) 2
De Triangulis omnimodus rst ap-
Now, as x 0 it is clear that, since 2 = 3x, 2 0 as well. Thus

y
peared in 1464.
sin (3x) sin (2 )

nl
lim = lim 3
x0 x 2 0 2
sin (2 )
= 3 lim (by Table 2.4(c))

O
2 0 2
= 3 1 (by Table 2.11)
= 3
on
2
b) We use Table 2.12 because of the form of the problem for 2 = 2x then x = 2
.
So
si

1 cos (2x) 1 cos 2 1 cos 2


= 2
=2
x 2
2
r

As x 0, we see that 2 0 too! So


Ve

1 cos (2x) 1 cos (2 )


lim = lim (2 )
x0 x 2 0 2
1 cos (2 )
= 2 lim ( )=20= 0
2 0 2
TA

c) This type of problem is not familiar at this point and all we have is Table 2.11 as
reference . . . The idea is to rewrite the quotient as something that is more familiar.
For instance, using plain algebra, we see that
sin 2x sin 2x 2x 3x
=( )( )( ),
sin 3x 2x 3x sin 3x
so that some of the 2xs and 3x-cross-terms cancel out leaving us with the original
expression.

OK, now as x 0 it is clear that 2x 0 and 3x 0 too! So,


sin 2x sin 2x 2x 3x
lim = ( lim )( lim )( lim )
x0 sin 3x x0 2x x0 3x 3x0 sin 3x

(because the limit of a product is the product of the limits cf., Table 2.4.) There-
fore
sin 2x sin 2x 2x 3x
lim = ( lim ) lim ( lim )
x0 sin 3x x0 2x x0 3x 3x0 sin 3x
2 2
= 1 1=
3 3

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 55

(by Tables 2.11& 2.4). Note that the middle-term, 2x


3x
= 2
3
since x = 0.

Using the Box method we can rewite this argument more briey as follows: We
have two symbols, namely 2x and 3x, so if we are going to use Table 2.11 we need
to introduce these symbols into the expression as follows: (Remember, 2 and 
are just symbols. . . ).

Let 2 = 2x and  = 3x. Then


sin 2x sin 2 sin 2 2 
= =( )( )( )
sin 3x sin  2  sin 
So that 2 s and s cancel out leaving the original expression.

OK, now as x 0 it is clear that 2 0 and  0 too! So


sin 2x sin 2 2 
lim = ( lim )( lim )( lim )
x0 sin 3x 2 0 2 x0  0 sin 

(because the limit of a product is the product of the limits , cf., Table 2.4.)

y
Therefore
sin 2x sin 2 2x 

nl
lim = ( lim ) lim ( lim )
x0 sin 3x 2
2 0 x0 3x 0 sin 

2 2
= 1 1=

O
3 3
(by Tables 2.11& 2.4).

on
d) In this problem we let 2 = x. As x 0+ we know that x 0+ as well.
Thus

sin x sin 2
lim = lim =1
si

x0+ x 2 0+ 2

(by Table 2.11).


r
Ve

Philosophy:

Learning mathematics has a lot to do with learning the rules of the interaction
between symbols, some recognizable (such as 1, 2, sin x, . . . ) and others not
(such as 2 , , etc.) Ultimately these are all symbols and we need to recall
TA

how they interact with one another.


Sometimes it is helpful to replace the commonly used symbols y, z , etc.
for variables, by other, not so commonly used ones, like 2 ,  or squiggle
etc. It doesnt matter how we denote something, whats important is how it
interacts with other symbols.

NOTES:

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56 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

Limit questions can be approached in the following way.

You want to nd

lim f (x).
xa

Option 1 Take the value to which x tends, i.e. x = a, and


evaluate the expression (function) at that value, i.e.
f (a).

Three possibilities arise:

A , with A
= 0 and the question
a) You obtain a number like B
is answered (if the function is continuous at x = a), the
answer being BA.
b) You get B0 , with B
= 0 which implies that the limit exists
and is plus innity (+) if B > 0 and minus innity ()
if B < 0.

y
c) You obtain something like 00 which means that the limit

nl
being sought may be in disguise and we need to move
onto Option 2 below.

O
Option 2 If the limit is of the form 00 proceed as follows:
We need to play around with the expression, that is you may
have to factor some terms, use trigonometric identities, sub-
on
stitutions, simplify, rationalize the denominator, multiply and
divide by the same symbol, etc. until you can return to Option
1 and repeat the procedure there.
si

Option 3 If 1 and 2 fail, then check the left and right limits.
r

a) If they are equal, the limit exists and go to Option 1.


Ve

b) If they are unequal, the limit does not exist. Stop here,
thats your answer.

Table 2.13: Three Options to Solving Limit Questions


TA

Exercise Set 7.

Determine the following limits if they exist. Explain.

sin x
1. lim
x x
(Hint: Write 2 = x . Note that x = 2 + and as x , 2 0.)

2. lim (x )tan x
x 2 2
(x 2 )
(Hint: (x )tan x = sin x. Now set 2 = x 2 ,so that x = 2 +
2
2 cos x
and note that, as x 2 , 2 0.)

sin (4x)
3. lim
x0 2x

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2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 57

1 cos (3x)
4. lim
x0 4x
sin (4x)
5. lim
x0 sin (2x)

sin x 1
6. lim
x1+ x1

Web Links

For a very basic introduction to Limits see:


en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Calculus/Limits

Section 2.1: For one-sided limits and quizzes see:

www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/onesided/learn.htm

More about limits can be found at:

y
www.plu.edu/heathdj/java/calc1/Epsilon.html (a neat applet)

nl
www.ping.be/ping1339/limth.htm

The proofs of the results in Table 2.4 can be found at:

O
www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/addition/learn.htm
www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/conmult/learn.htm
on
www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/divide/learn.htm
www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/estlimit/multiply/learn.htm
r si
Ve

Exercise Set 8.

Find the following limits whenever they exist. Explain.


TA

x2
1. lim 6. lim sin (x)
x2 x x2

sin (3x)
2. lim x cos x 7. lim
x0+ x0 x
x3 cos x
3. lim 8. lim
x3 x2 9 x + x
  cos x
4. lim x sec x 9. lim
x 2 2 x x
2x
5. lim 10. lim x | x |
x 2 cos x x0+

Hints:
3) Factor the denominator (Table 2.13, Option 2).
4) Write 2 = x 2 , x = 2 + 2 and simplify (Table 2.13, Option 2).

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58 2.2. TWO-SIDED LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

5) Let 2 = x 2 , x = 2 + 2 and use a formula for the cosine of the sum of two
angles.
9) See Table 2.13, Option 1(b).

Find the points of discontinuity, if any, of the following functions f :

cos x
11. f (x) =

x

sin x
x = 0
1
12. f (x) = x

x=0
13. f (x) = x + x 1
3 2

x2 + 1
14. f (x) =
x2 1
x2
15. f (x) =
| x2 4 |

y
Evaluate the following limits, whenever they exist. Explain.

nl
cos x cos 2x
16. lim
x2

O
x0

(Hint: Use the trigonometric identity


A + B A B
on
cos A cos B = 2 sin sin
2 2

along with Table 2.11.)


tan x sin x
si

17. lim
x0 x2
r

(Hint: Factor the term tan x out of the numerator and use Tables 2.11 &
Ve

2.12.)
x2 + 1
18. lim
x1 (x 1)2

19. Find values of a and b such that


TA

ax + b
lim =
x 2 sin x 4

(Hint: It is necessary that a + b = 0, why? Next, use the idea of Exercise Set 7
#1.)
1
20. lim
x0+ x+1 x

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2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 59

2.3 Important Theorems About Continuous Func-


tions

There are two main results (one being a consequence of the other) in the basic
study of continuous functions. These are based on the property that the graph of a
continuous function on a given interval has no breaks in it.

Basically one can think of such a graph as a string which joins 2 points, say (a, f (a))
to (b, f (b)) (see Figure 29).

In Figure 29(a), the graph may have sharp peaks and may also look smooth
and still be the graph of a continuous function (as is Figure 29(b)).

The Intermediate Value Theorem basically says that if you are climbing a
mountain and you stop at 1000 meters and you want to reach 5000 meters, then
at some future time you will pass, say the 3751 meter mark! This is obvious, isnt
it? But this basic observation allows you to understand this deep result about

y
continuous functions.

nl
For instance, the following graph may represent the uctuations of your local Stock (a)
Exchange over a period of 1 year.

O
on
r si
Ve
TA

(b)

Assume that the index was 7000 points on Jan. 1, 1996 and that on June 30 it was Figure 29.
7900 points. Then sometime during the year the index passed the 7513 point mark
at least once . . .

OK, so what does this theorem say mathematically?

Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT)

Let f be continuous at each point of a closed interval [a, b]. Assume


1. f (a) = f (b);
2. Let z be a point between f (a) and f (b).
Then there is at least one value of c between a and b such that

f (c) = z

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60 2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

The idea behind this Theorem is that any horizontal line that intersects the graph
of a continuous function must intersect it at a point of its domain! This sounds
and looks obvious (see Figure 30), but its NOT true if the graph is NOT that of a
continuous function (see Example 31). One of the most important consequences of
this Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) is sometimes called Bolzanos Theorem
(after Bernhard Bolzano (1781-1848) mathematician, priest and philosopher).

Theorem 2.3.1. Let f be continuous on a closed interval [a, b] (i.e., at each


point x in [a, b]). If f (a)f (b) < 0, then there is at least one point c between a and b
such that f (c) = 0.

Bolzanos Theorem is especially useful in determining the location of roots of


polynomials or general (continuous) functions. Better still, it is also helpful in
determining where the graphs of functions intersect each other.

For example, at which point(s) do the graphs of the functions given by y = sin x
and y = x2 intersect? In order to nd this out you need to equate their values, so

y
that sin x = x2 which then means that x2 sin x = 0 so the points of intersection
are roots of the function whose values are given by y = x2 sin x.

nl
Figure 30.

O
Example 54. Show that there is one root of the polynomial p(x) = x3 + 2 in
the interval 2 x 1.

Solution We note that p(2) = 6 and p(1) = 1. So let a = 2, b = 1 in


on
Bolzanos Theorem. Since p(2) < 0 and p(1) > 0 it follows that p(x0 ) = 0 for
some x0 in [2, 1] which is what we needed to show.
si

Remark:
r
Ve

If youre not given the interval where the root of the function may be you need
to nd it! Basically you look for points a b
and where ( ) fa < 0 and
fb >
( ) 0 and then you can rene your estimate of the root by narrowing
down your interval.
TA

Figure 31.
Example 55. The distance between 2 cities A and B is 270 km. Youre driving
along the superhighway between A and B with speed limit 100 km/h hoping to get
to your destination as soon as possible. You quickly realize that after one and one-
half hours of driving youve travelled 200 km so you decide to stop at a rest area
to relax. All of a sudden a police car pulls up to yours and the ocer hands you a
speeding ticket! Why?

Solution Well, the ocer didnt actually see you speeding but saw you leaving A.
Had you been travelling at the speed limit of 100 km/h it should have taken you

2 hours to get to the rest area. The ocer quickly realized that somewhere along the
200 km

highway you must have travelled at speeds of around 133 km/hr = 60min .
90min
As a check notice that if you were travelling at a constant speed of say 130 km/h
then you would have travelled a distance of only 130 1.5 = 195 km short of your
mark.

A typical graph of your journey appears in Figure 32. Note that your speed
must be related to the amount of steepness of the graph. The faster you go, the

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2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 61

steeper the graph. This motivates the notion of a derivative which youll see in
the next chapter.

Philosophy

Actually one uses a form of the Intermediate Value Theorem almost daily. For
instance, do you nd yourself asking: Well, based on this and that, such and such
must happen somewhere between this and that ?

When youre driving along in your car you make decisions based on your speed, Figure 32.
right? Will you get to school or work on time? Will you get to the store on time?
Youre always assuming (correctly) that your speed is a continuous function of
time (of course youre not really thinking about this) and you make these quick Another result which you know
mental calculations which will verify whether or not youll get there on time. about continuous functions is this:

y
Basically you know what time you started your trip and you have an idea about If f is continuous on a closed in-

nl
when it should end and then gure out where you have to be in between. . . terval [a, b], then it has a max-
imum value and a minimum

O
value, and these values are at-
tained by some points in [a, b].
on
r si
Ve
TA

Since total distance travelled is a continuous function of time it follows that there
exists at least one time t at which you were at the video store (this is true) and
some other time t at which you were speeding on your way to your destination
(also true!). . . all applications of the IVT.

Finally, we should mention that since the denition of a continuous function depends
on the notion of a limit it is immediate that many of the properties of limits should
reect themselves in similar properties of continuous functions. For example, from
Table 2.4 we see that sums, dierences, and products of continuous functions are
continuous functions. The same is true of quotients of continuous functions provided
the denominator is not zero at the point in question!

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62 2.3. IMPORTANT THEOREMS ABOUT CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

Web Links

For an application of the IVT to Economics see :

http://hadm.sph.sc.edu/Courses/Econ/irr/irr.html

For proofs of the main theorems here see:

www.cut-the-knot.com/Generalization/ivt.html
www.cut-the-knot.com/fta/brodie.html

NOTES:

y
nl
O
on
r si
Ve
TA

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2.4. EVALUATING LIMITS AT INFINITY 63

2.4 Evaluating Limits at Innity

In this section we introduce some basic ideas as to when the variable tends to plus
innity (+) or minus innity (). Note that limits at innity are always
one-sided limits, (why?). This section is intended to be a prelude to a later section
on LHospitals Rule which will allow you to evaluate many of these limits by a
neat trick involving the functions derivatives.

For the purposes of evaluating limits at innity, the symbol has the following
properties:

PROPERTIES
1. It is an extended real number (same for ).
2. For any real number c (including 0), and r > 0,
c
lim =0
x xr

y
(Think of this as saying that c
r
= 0 and r = for r > 0.)

nl
3. The symbol
is undened and can only be dened in the limiting
sense using the procedure in Table 2.13, Stage 2, some insight and maybe
a little help from your calculator. Well be using this procedure a little

O
later when we attempt to evaluate limits at using extended real
numbers.
on
Table 2.14: Properties of

Basically, the limit symbol x means that the real variable x can be made
si

larger than any real number!

A similar denition applies to the symbol x except that now the real
r
Ve

variable x may be made smaller than any real number. The next result is very
useful in evaluating limits involving oscillating functions where it may not be easy
to nd the limit.

The Sandwich Theorem (mentioned earlier) is also valid for limits at in-
TA

nity, that is, if

g(x) f (x) h(x)

for all (suciently) large x and for some (extended) real number A,

lim g(x) = A, lim h(x) = A


x x

then f has a limit at innity and

lim f (x) = A
x

Table 2.15: The Sandwich Theorem

Example 56. Evaluate the following limits at innity.

sin(2x)
a) lim
x x

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64 2.4. EVALUATING LIMITS AT INFINITY

3x2 2x + 1
b) lim
x x2 + 2
1
c) lim

d) lim (
x
x x3 + 1

2 + x + 1 x)
x

sin(2x) | sin(2x)| 1
Solution a) Let f (x) = . Then |f (x)| = and |f (x)| since
x x x
| sin(2x)| 1 for every real number x. Thus

1
0 lim |f (x)| lim =0
x x x
1
(where we have set g(x) = 0 and h(x) = in the statement of the Sandwich
x
Theorem.) Thus,

lim |f (x)| = 0
x

y
which means that

nl
lim f (x) = 0
x

O
(See Table 2.8 (c)).

b) Factor the term x2 out of both numerator and denominator. Thus


on
3x2 2x + 1 x2 (3 x2 + x12 )
=
x2 + 2 x2 (1 + x22 )
(3 x2 + x12 )
si

=
(1 + x22 )
r

 
Now
Ve

lim
x
3x2 2x + 1
x2 + 2
= 
limx 3 x2 + x12
limx 1 + x22

(because the limit of a quotient is the quotient of the limits )

30+0
=
TA

1+0
= 3

where we have used the Property 2 of limits at innity, Table 2.14.

1
c) Let f (x) = . We claim lim f (x) = 0 . . . Why?
x3 + 1 x

Well, as x , x3 too, right? Adding 1 wont make any dierence, so


x3 +1 too (remember, this is true because x ). OK, now x3 +1
which means (x3 + 1)1 0 as x .

d) As it stands, letting x in the expression x2 + x + 1 also gives . So



x2 + x + 1 as x . So we have to calculate a dierence of two innities
i.e.,


f (x) = x2 + x + 1 x

as x as x

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2.4. EVALUATING LIMITS AT INFINITY 65

There is no way of doing this so we have to simplify the expression (see Table 2.13,
Stage 2) by rationalizing the expression . . . So,

x2 + x + 1 x =

( x2 + x + 1 x)( x2 + x + 1 + x)

x2 + x + 1 + x
(x + x + 1) x2
2
=
x2 + x + 1 + x
x+1
=
x2 + x + 1 + x

The form still isnt good enough to evaluate the limit directly. (We would be getting
a form similar to
if we took limits in the numerator and denominator separately.)

OK, so we keep simplifying by factoring out xs from both numerator and denomi-
nator . . . Now,
x 2 +x+1x =
x+1
x2 +x+1+x

y
=  x(1 + x1 )


nl
1 1
x 1+ x
+ x2
+1
1
1+ x

O
=
1 1
1+ x
+ x2
+1
on
OK, now we can let x and we see that

lim (
x 2 + x + 1 x) = lim
1+ 1
x
x x
si

1 1
1+ x
+ x2
+1
1+0
=
r

1+0+0+1
Ve

1
=
2

As a quick check lets use a calculator and some large values of x: e.g. x = 10,
100, 1000, 10000, . . . This gives the values: f (10) = 0.53565, f (100) = 0.50373,
TA

f (1000) = 0.50037, f (10000) = 0.500037, . . . which gives a sequence whose limit


appears to be 0.500... = 12 , which is our theoretical result.

Exercise Set 9.

Evaluate the following limits (a) numerically and (b) theoretically.

sin(3x)
1. lim (Remember: x is in radians here.)
x 2x
x
2. lim
x x3 + 2

x3 + 3x 1
3. lim
x x3 + 1

4. lim x( x + 1 x)
x
cos x
5. lim
x x2

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66 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

6. Hard Show that


lim sin x
x

does not exist by giving a graphical argument.


(Hint: Use the ideas developed in the Advanced Topics to prove this theo-
retically.)

2.5 How to Guess a Limit

We waited for this part until you learned about limits in general. Here well show
you a quick and quite reliable way of guessing or calculating some limits at innity
(or minus innity). Strictly speaking, you still need to prove that your guess is
right, even though it looks right. See Table 2.16. Later on, in Section 3.12, we will
see a method called LHospitals Rule that can be used eectively, under some mild
conditions, to evaluate limits involving indeterminate forms.

y
OK, now just a few words of caution before you start manipulating innities. If an
operation between innities and reals (or another innity) is not among those listed

nl
in Table 2.16, it is called an indeterminate form.

O
The most common indeterminate forms are:

0
on
0 (), , , ()0 , 1 , , 00
0
si

When you meet these forms in a limit you cant do much except simplify, rationalize,
factor, etc. and then see if the form becomes determinate.
r
Ve

FAQ about Indeterminate Forms

Lets have a closer look at these indeterminate forms: They are called indeterminate
because we cannot assign a single real number (once and for all) to any one of those
expressions. For example,
TA


Question 1: Why cant we dene
= 1? After all, this looks okay . . .

Answer 1: If that were true then,


2x
lim = 1,
x x
but this is impossible because, for any real number x no matter how large,
2x
= 2,
x
and so, in fact,

2x
lim = 2,
x x

and so we cant dene = 1. Of course, we can easily modify this example to show
that if r is any real number, then
rx
lim = r,
x x

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2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 67

which seems to imply that


= r. But r is also arbitrary, and so these numbers r
cant all be equal because we can choose the rs to be dierent! This shows that we
cannot dene the quotient
. Similar reasoning shows that we cannot dene the
quotient
.

Question 2: All right, but surely 1 = 1, since 1 1 1 ... = 1?

Answer 2: No. The reason for this is that there is an innite number of 1s here
and this statement about multiplying 1s together is only true if there is a nite
number of 1s. Here, well give some numerical evidence indicating that 1 = 1,
necessarily.

Let n 1 be a positive integer and look at some of the values of the expression
1

n
1+ , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., 10, 000
n

These values below:

y
1 + 

nl
1 n
n n
value

O
1 + 
1 + 
1 1
n=1 1
2
1 + 
1 2
n=2 2.25
on
2

1 + 
1 3
n=3 3
2.37
 
1 4
n=4 4
2.44
11++ 
1 5
n=5 5
2.48
 
si

1 10
n = 10 10
2.59
11++ 
1 50
n = 50 50
2.69
 
100
r

1
n = 100 100
2.7048
11++ 
Ve

1 1000
n = 1, 000 1000
2.7169
1 10000
n = 10, 000 10000
2.71814
... ... ...
TA

Well, you can see that the values do not appear to be approaching 1! In fact, they
seem to be getting closer to some number whose value is around 2.718. More on this
special number later, in Chapter 4. Furthermore, we saw in Exercise 17, of Exercise
Set 3, that these values must always lie between 2 and 3 and so, once again cannot
converge to 1. This shows that, generally speaking, 1 = 1. In this case one can
show that, in fact,
1

n
lim 1+ = 2.7182818284590...
n n

is a special number called Eulers Number, (see Chapter 4).

Question 3: What about = 0?

Answer 3: No. This isnt true either since, to be precise, is NOT a real number,
and so we cannot apply real number properties to it. The simplest example that
shows that this dierence between two innities is not zero is the following. Let n
be an integer (not innity), for simplicity. Then

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68 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

= lim [n (n 1)]
n
= lim [n n + 1]
n
= lim 1
n
= 1.
The same argument can be used to nd examples where = r, where r is any
given real number. It follows that we cannot assign a real number to the expression
and so this is an indeterminate form.

0
Question 4: Isnt it true that 0
= 0?

Answer 4: No, this isnt true either. See the example in Table 2.11 and the
discussion preceding it. The results there show that
0 sin 0
=
0 0
sin x
= lim

y
x0 x
= 1

nl
in this case. So we cannot assign a real number to the quotient zero over zero.

O
Question 5: Okay, but it must be true that 0 = 1!?

Answer 5: Not generally. An example here is harder to construct but it can be


done using the methods in Chapter 4.
on
The Numerical Estimation of a Limit
si

At this point well be guessing limits of indeterminate forms by performing numerical


calculations. See Example 59, below for their theoretical, rather than numerical
r

calculation.
Ve

Example 57. Guess the value of each of the following limits at innity:

sin(2x)
a) lim
x x
TA

x2
b) lim

c) lim

x x2 + 1

x+1 x

x

Solution a) Since x , we only need to try out really large values of x. So,
just set up a table such as the one below and look for a pattern . . .

sin 2x
Some values of x The values of f (x) =
x

10 .0913
100 .00873
1, 000 0.000930
10, 000 0.0000582
100, 000 0.000000715
1, 000, 000 0.000000655
... ...

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2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 69

We note that even though the values of f (x) here alternate in sign, they are always
getting smaller. In fact, they seem to be approaching f (x) = 0, as x . This is
our guess and, on this basis, we can claim that

sin 2x
lim = 0.
x x

See Example 59 a), for another way of seeing this.

Below youll see a graphical depiction (made by using your favorite software pack-
age or the Plotter included with this book), of the function f (x) over the interval
[10, 100].

y
nl
O
on
si

Note that the oscillations appear to be dying out, that is, they are getting smaller
and smaller, just like the oscillations of your car as you pass over a bump! We guess
r

that the value of this limit is 0.


Ve

b) Now, since x , we only need to try out really small (and negative) values
of x. So, we set up a table like the one above and look for a pattern in the values.
TA

x2
Some values of x The values of f (x) =
x2+1

10 0.9900990099
100 0.9999000100
1, 000 0.9999990000
10, 000 0.9999999900
100, 000 0.9999999999
1, 000, 000 1.0000000000
... ...

In this case the values of f (x) all have the same sign, they are always positive.
Furthermore, they seem to be approaching f (x) = 1, as x . This is our guess
and, on this numerical basis, we can claim that

x2
lim = 1.
x x2 +1

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70 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

See Example 59 b), for another way of seeing this.

A graphical depiction of this function f (x) over the interval [100, 10] appears
below.

y
nl
In this example, the values of the function appear to increase steadily towards the

O
line whose equation is y = 1. So, we guess that the value of this limit is 1.

c) Once again x +, we only need to try out really large (and positive) values
of x. Our table looks like:
on

Some values of x The values of f (x) = x+1 x
r si

10 0.15434713
Ve

100 0.04987562
1, 000 0.01580744
10, 000 0.00499999
100, 000 0.00158120
1, 000, 000 0.00050000
TA

... ...

In this case the values of f (x) all have the same sign, they are always positive.
Furthermore, they seem to be approaching f (x) = 0, as x . We can claim that

lim
x + 1 x = 0.
x

See Example 59 d), for another way of seeing this. A graphical depiction of this
function f (x) over the interval [10, 100] appears below.

Note that larger values of x are not necessary since we have a feeling that theyll
just be closer to our limit. We can believe that the values of f (x) are always getting
closer to 0 as x gets larger. So 0 should be the value of this limit. In the graph
below we see that the function is getting smaller and smaller as x increases but it

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2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 71

always stays positive. Nevertheless, its values never reach the number 0 exactly, but
only in the limiting sense we described in this section.

y
Watch out!

nl
This numerical way of guessing limits doesnt always work! It works well

O
when the function has a limit, but it doesnt work if the limit doesnt exist (see
the previous sections).
on
For example, the function f (x) = sin x has NO limit as x . But how do you
know this? The table could give us a hint;
si

Some values of x The values of f (x) = sin x


r
Ve

10 0.5440211109
100 0.5063656411
1, 000 +0.8268795405
10, 000 0.3056143889
TA

100, 000 +0.0357487980


1, 000, 000 0.3499935022
... ...

As you can see, these values do not seem to have a pattern to them. They dont
seem to converge to any particular value. We should be suspicious at this point
and claim that the limit doesnt exist. But remember: Nothing can replace a
rigorous (theoretical) argument for the existence or non-existence of a
limit! Our guess may not coincide with the reality of the situation as the next
example will show!

Now, well manufacture a function with the property that, based on our nu-
merical calculations, it seems to have a limit (actually = 0) as x
, but,
in reality, its limit is SOME OTHER NUMBER!

Example 58. Evaluate the following limit using your calculator,


1
lim + 1012 .
x x

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72 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

Solution Setting up the table gives us:

1
Some values of x The values of f (x) = + 1012
x

10 0.100000000
100 0.010000000
1, 000 0.001000000
10, 000 0.000100000
100, 000 0.000001000
999, 999, 999 0.000000001
... ...

Well, if we didnt know any better we would think that this limit should be 0. But
this is only because we are limited by the number of digits displayed upon

y
our calculator! The answer, based upon our knowledge of limits, should be the
number 1012 (but this number would display as 0 on most hand-held calculators).

nl
Thats the real problem with using calculators for nding limits. You must be
careful!!

O
Web Links
on
More (solved) examples on limits at innity at:

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/Classes/CalcI/LimitsAtInnityI.aspx
http://www.sosmath.com/calculus/limcon/limcon04/limcon04.html
r si
Ve
TA

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2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 73

Finding Limits using Extended Real Numbers (Optional)

At this point well be guessing limits of indeterminate forms by performing a new


arithmetic among innite quantities! In other words, well dene addition and mul-
tiplication of innities and then use these ideas to actually nd limits at (plus or
minus) innity. This material is not standard in Calculus Texts and so can be omit-
ted if so desired. However, it does oer an alternate method for actually guessing
limits correctly every time! If you think that adding and multi-
plying innity is nuts, you should

Operations on the Extended Real Number Line look at the work of Georg Can-
tor (1845-1918), who actually de-
The extended real number line is the collection of all (usual) real numbers veloped an arithmetic of transnite
plus two new symbols, namely, (called extended real numbers) which cardinal numbers, (or numbers that
have the following properties: are innite). He showed that dier-
ent innities exist and actually set
Let x be any real number. Then
up rules of arithmetic for them. His
a) x + (+) = (+) + x = + work appeared in 1833.

b) x + () = () + x =

y
As an example, the totality of all the
c) x (+) = (+) x = + if x > 0 integers (one type of innite num-

nl
d) x () = () x = if x > 0 ber), is dierent from the totality of

e) x (+) = (+) x = if x < 0 all the numbers in the interval [0, 1]

O
(another larger innity). In a very
f) x () = () x = + if x < 0
specic sense, there are more real
The operation 0 () is undened and requires further investigation. numbers than integers.

and
on
Operations between +
g) (+) + (+) = +
h) () + () =
si

i) (+) (+) = + = () ()
j) (+) () = = () (+)
r


Ve

Quotients and powers involving


x
k) = 0 for any real x

 r>0
l) r =
 0 r<0
TA

a>1
m) a =
0 0 a<1

Table 2.16: Properties of Extended Real Numbers

The extended real number line is, by denition, the ordinary (positive and
negative) real numbers with the addition of two idealized points denoted by
(and called the points at innity). The way in which innite quantities interact with
each other and with real numbers is summarized briey in Table 2.16 above.

It is important to note that any basic operation that is not explicitly mentioned in
Table 2.16 is to be considered an indeterminate form, unless it can be derived from
one or more of the basic axioms mentioned there.

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74 2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT

Evaluating Limits of Indeterminate Forms

OK, now what? Well, you want

lim f (x)
x

Basically, you look at f () respectively.

This is an expression involving innities which you simplify (if you can) using the
rules of arithmetic of the extended real number system listed in Table 2.16. If you
get an indeterminate form you need to factor, rationalize, simplify, separate terms
etc. until you get something more manageable.

Example 59. Evaluate the following limits involving indeterminate forms:

sin 2x

y
a) lim
x x
x2

nl
b) lim 2
x x + 1

x3 + 1

O
c) lim
x x3 1

d) lim x + 1 x
x
x
on
e) lim
x0+ sin x

sin(2x) sin(2)
si

Solution a) Let f (x) = , then f () = . Now use Table 2.16 on the


x
previous page. Even though sin(2) doesnt really have a meaning, we can safely
take it that the sin(2) is something less than or equal to 1, because the sine of
r

something
Ve

any nite angle has this property. So f () = = 0, by property (k), in



Table 2.16.

We conclude our guess which is:


TA

sin 2x
lim =0
x x

Remember: This is just an educated guess; you really have to prove this to
be sure. This method of guessing is far better than the numerical approach of
the previous subsection since it gives the right answer in case of Example 58,
where the numerical approach failed!

2
b) Let f (x) = x2x+1 . Then f () =
by properties (l) and (a) in Table 2.16. So
we have to simplify, etc. There is no other recourse . . . Note that
x2 1
f (x) = =1 2
x2 +1 x +1
1
So lim f (x) = lim 1 2
x x x +1
1
= 1 (by property (l) and (a))

= 1 0 (by property (k))
= 1

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2.5. HOW TO GUESS A LIMIT 75

x3 + 1
c) Let f (x) = . Then
x3 1

()3 + 1 3 + 1 + 1
f () = = = = =
()3 1 3 1 1

is an indeterminate form! So we have to simplify . . . Dividing the numerator by the


denominator using long division, we get

x3 + 1 2
= 1+
x3 1 x3 1
x3 + 1 2
Hence lim = lim (1 + )
x x3 1 x x3 1
2
= 1+ (by property (e) and (a))

= 1 + 0 (by property (k), in Table 2.16)
= 1

y
d) Let f (x) = x+1 x. Then

nl
f () = +1

= (by property (a))

O
= (by property (k), in Table 2.16)

It follows that f () is an indeterminate form. Lets simplify . . . By rationalizing


the numerator we know that
on
(x + 1) x
x+1 x =
x+1+ x
si

1
= .
x+1+ x
r

So,
Ve

1
lim f (x) = lim
x x x+1+ x
1
=
+1+
TA

1
= (by property (a))
+
1
= (by property (h))
+
1
= (by property (g))

= 0 (by property (k))

d) In this case the function can be seen to be of more than one indeterminate form:
For example,
1 1
0 = 0 = 0 ,
sin 0 0
which is indeterminate (by denition), or
0 0
= ,
sin 0 0
which is also indeterminate. But we have already seen in Table 2.11 that when this
indeterminate form is interpreted as a limit, it is equal to 1.

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76 2.6. CHAPTER EXERCISES

2.6 Chapter Exercises

Use the methods of this Chapter to decide the continuity of the following
functions at the indicated point(s).

1. f (x) = 3x2 2x + 1, at x = 1
2. g(t) = t3 cos(t), at t = 0
3. h(z) = z + 2 sin(z) cos(z + 2) at z = 0
4. f (x) = 2 cos(x) at x =
5. f (x) = |x + 1| at x = 1

Evaluate the limits of the functions from Exercises 1-5 above and justify
your conclusions.

6. lim (3x2 2x + 1)
x1

y
7. lim t3 cos(t)
t0

nl
8. lim (z + 2 sin(z) cos(z + 2))
z0

9. lim 2 cos(x)

O
x

10. lim |x + 1|
x1
on
Evaluate the following limits

t 2
si

11. lim
t2+
t +x 2 4
r

12. lim
x 1 16
2
Ve

x4+

13. lim
t2+
tx2 1
14. lim
x1+
|x 11|
TA

15. lim 1+
x0+ x3

16. Let g be dened as


x + 1
2
x<0
g(x) =
1x |x| 0x1
x>1

Evaluate
i). lim g(x) ii). lim g(x)
x0 x0+

iii). lim g(x) iv). lim g(x)


x1 x1+

v) Conclude that the graph of g has no breaks at x = 0 but it does have a break at
x = 1.

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2.6. CHAPTER EXERCISES 77

Determine whether the following limits exist. Give reasons

 2x x0
17. lim f (x) where f (x) =
x0 x+1 x>0
18. lim |x 3|
x1
x + 2
19. lim
x2 x+1
2
20. lim x sin x
x0
sin (x 1)
x1 , 0x<1
21. lim f (x)
x1
where f (x) =
1, x=1
|x 1| x>1

Determine the points of discontinuity of each of the following functions.

|x|
1 for x = 0 and f (0) = 1

y
22. f (x) =
x
x

nl
x<0
|x|
23. g(x) =
1 + x 2
x0

O
x 3x + 2
2
24. f (x) = , f or x = 1; f (1) = 1/3.
x3 1
x
on
4
1 x = 0
25. f (x) =
0.99 x=0
1
26. f (x) = 1.65 + for x = 0, f (0) = +1
si

x2
r

Determine whether the following limits exist. If the limits exist, nd


their values in the extended real numbers.
Ve

sin (ax)
27. lim , where a = 0, b = 0
x0 bx
cos (2x)
28. lim
TA

x0 |x|
x sin (x)
29. lim
x0 sin (2x)

sin 3 x
30. lim
x3 3x
bx
31. lim , where a = 0, b = 0
x0 sin (ax)

cos 3x
32. lim
x 4x
33. lim x sin x
x

34. lim
x 2 +1x
x

35.Use Bolzanos Theorem and your pocket calculator to prove that the function f
dened by f (x) = x sin x + cos x has a root in the interval [5, 1].

36. Use Bolzanos Theorem and your pocket calculator to prove that the function
f dened by f (x) = x3 3x + 2 has a root in the interval [3, 0]. Can you nd it?

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78 2.6. CHAPTER EXERCISES

Are there any others? (Idea: Find smaller and smaller intervals and keep applying
Bolzanos Theorem)

37. Find an interval of x s containing the xcoordinates of the point of intersection


of the curves y = x2 and y = sin x. Later on, when we study Newtons Method
youll see how to calculate these intersection points very accurately.

Hint: Use Bolzanos Theorem on the function y = x2 sin x over an appropriate


interval (you need to nd it).

Suggested Homework Set 5. Problems 1, 9, 12, 17, 22, 27, 34, 36

y
nl
O
on
r si
Ve
TA

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Chapter 3

The Derivative of a
Function

y
nl
The Big Picture

O
This chapter contains material which is fundamental to the further study of Calculus.
Its basis dates back to the great Greek scientist Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) who
rst considered the problem of the tangent line. Much later, attempts by the key
on
historical gures Kepler (1571-1630), Galileo (1564-1642), and Newton (1642-1727)
among others, to understand the motion of the planets in the solar system and thus
the speed of a moving body, led them to the problem of instantaneous velocity which
translated into the mathematical idea of a derivative. Through the geometric notion
si

of a tangent line we will introduce the concept of the ordinary derivative of a


function, itself another function with certain properties. Its interpretations in the
r

physical world are so many that this book would not be sucient to contain them
Ve

all. Once we know what a derivative is and how it is used we can formulate many
problems in terms of these, and the natural concept of an ordinary dierential
equation arises, a concept which is central to most applications of Calculus to the
sciences and engineering. For example, the motion of every asteroid, planet, star,
comet, or other celestial object is governed by a dierential equation. Once we can
TA

solve these equations we can describe the motion. Of course, this is hard in general,
and if we cant solve them exactly we can always approximate the solutions which
give the orbits by means of some, so-called, numerical approximations. This is
the way its done these days ... We can send probes to Mars because we have a very
good idea of where they should be going in the rst place, because we know the
mass of Mars (itself an amazing fact) with a high degree of accuracy.

Most of the time we realize that things are in motion and this means that certain
physical quantities are changing. These changes are best understood through the
derivative of some underlying function. For example, when a car is moving its
distance from a given point is changing, right? The rate at which the distance
changes is the derivative of the distance function. This brings us to the notion
of instantaneous velocity. Furthermore, when a balloon is inated, its volume is
changing and the rate at which this volume is changing is approximately given
by the derivative of the original volume function (its units would be meters3 /sec).
In a dierent vein, the stock markets of the world are full of investors who delve
into stock options as a means of furthering their investments. Central to all this
business is the Black-Sholes equation, a complicated dierential equation, which
won their discoverer(s) a Nobel Prize in Economics a few years ago.

79
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80 3.1. MOTIVATION

Review
Look over your notes on functions in Chapter 1, especially the whole thing
dealing with functions f being evaluated at abstract symbols other than x, like
f (x + 2). To really understand derivatives you should review Chapter 2, in
particular the part on the denition of continuity and right/left- handed limits.

3.1 Motivation

We begin this chapter by motivating the notation of the derivative of a function,


itself another function with certain properties.

First, well dene the notion of a tangent to a curve. In the phrase that describes
it, a tangent at a given point P on the graph of the curve y = f (x) is a straight line
segment which intersects the curve y = f (x) at P and is tangent to it (think of the
ordinary tangents to a circle, see Figure 33).

y
Figure 33. Find the equation of the line tangent to the curve y = x2 at

nl
Example 60.
the point (1, 1).

O
Solution Because of the shape of this curve we can see from its graph that every
straight line crossing this curve will do so in at most two points, and well actually
show this below. Lets choose a point P, say, (1, 1) on this curve for ease of exposition.
on
Well nd the equation of the tangent line to P and well do this in the following
steps:
si

1. Find the equation of all the straight lines through P.


2. Show that there exists, among this set of lines, a unique line which is tangent
to P.
r
Ve

OK, the equation of every line through P(1, 1) has the form
y = m(x 1) + 1
where m is its slope, right? (Figure 34).
TA

Figure 34. Since we want the straight line to intersect the curve y = x2 , we must set y = x2 in
the preceding equation to nd
x2 = m(x 1) + 1
or the quadratic
x2 mx + (m 1) = 0
Finding its roots gives 2 solutions (the two x-coordinates of the point of intersection
we spoke of earlier), namely,
x = m 1 and x = 1
The second root x = 1 is clear to see as all these straight lines go through P(1, 1).
The rst root x = m 1 gives a new root which is related to the slope of the
straight line through P(1, 1).

OK, we want only one point of intersection, right? (Remember, were looking
for a tangent). This means that the two roots must coincide! So we set m 1 = 1
(as the two roots are equal) and this gives m = 2.

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3.1. MOTIVATION 81

Thus the line whose slope is 2 and whose equation is

y = 2(x 1) + 1 = 2x 1

is the equation of the line tangent to P(1, 1) for the curve y = x2 . Remember that
at the point (1, 1) this line has slope m = 2. This will be useful later.

OK, but this is only an example of a tangent line to a curve . . . . How do you dene
this in general?

Well, lets take a function f , look at its graph and choose some point P(x0 , y0 ) on
its graph where y0 = f (x0 ). Look at a nearby point Q(x0 + h, f (x0 + h)). What is
the equation of the line joining P to Q? Its form is

y y0 = m(x x0 )

But y0 = f (x0 ) and m, the slope, is equal to the quotient of the dierence between
the y-coordinates and the x-coordinates (of Q and P), that is,

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) f (x0 + h) f (x0 )

y
m= = .
(x0 + h) x0 h

nl
OK, so the equation of this line is

O
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
y={ }(x x0 ) + f (x0 )
h
From this equation you can see that the slope of this line must change with h.
on
So, if we let h approach 0 as a limit, this line may approach a limiting line and
it is this limiting line that we call the tangent line to the curve y fx
= ( ) at
P x ,y
( 0 0 ) (see the gure in the margin on the right). The slope of thistangent
si

line to the curve y = f (x) at (x0 , y0 ) dened by


r

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
Ve

m = lim
h0 h
(whenever this limit exists and is nite) is called the derivative of f at x0 .
It is a number!!
TA

Notation for Derivatives The following notations are all adopted universally for
the derivatives of f at x0 :

df
f  (x0 ), (x0 ), Dx f (x0 ), Df (x0 )
dx
All of these have the same meaning.

Consequences!
This graph has a vertical tangent
line, namely x = 0, at the origin.
1. If the limit as h 0 does not exist as a two-sided limit or it is innite we say
that the derivative does not exist. This is equivalent to saying that there is
no uniquely dened tangent line at (x0 , f (x0 )), (Example 63).
2. The derivative, f  (x0 ) when it exists, is the slope of the tangent line at
(x0 , f (x0 )) on the graph of f .
3. Theres nothing special about these tangent lines to a curve in the sense that
the same line can be tangent to other points on the same curve. (The
simplest example occurs when f (x) = ax + b is a straight line. Why?)

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82 3.1. MOTIVATION

In this book we will use the symbols f  (x0 ), Df (x0 ) to mean the derivative
of f at x0 where
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
f  (x0 ) = lim
h0 h
= The slope of the tangent line at x = x0
= The instantaneous rate of change of f at x = x0 .

whenever this (two-sided) limit exists and is nite.

Table 3.1: Denition of the Derivative as a Limit


4. If either one or both one-sided limits dened by f (x0 ) is innite, the tangent
line at that point P(x0 , f (x0 )) is vertical and given by the equation x = x0 ,
(See the margin).

y
The key idea in nding the derivative using Table 3.1, here, is always to

nl
SIMPLIFY rst, THEN pass to the LIMIT

O
The concept of a left and right-
derivative of f at x = x0 is dened
by the left and right limits of the
on
expression on the right in Table 3.1. Example 61. In Example 60 we showed that the slope of the tangent line
So, for example, 2
to the curve y = x at (1, 1) is equal to 2. Show that the derivative of f where
 f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) f (x) = x2 at x = 1 is also equal to 2 (using the limit denition of the derivative,
f (x0 ) = lim ,
h0 h Table 3.1).
si

 f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
f+ (x0 ) = lim ,
h0+ h Solution By denition, the derivative of f at x = 1 is given by
r

f (1 + h) f (1)
dene the left and right-derivative
f  (x) = lim
Ve

of f at x = x0 respectively, when- h0 h
ever these limits exist and are nite. provided this limit exists and is nite. OK, then calculate
f (1 + h) f (1) (1 + h)2 12
=
h h
TA

1 + 2h + h2 1
=
h
= 2+h

Since this is true for each value of h = 0 we can let h 0 and nd


f (1 + h) f (1)
lim = lim (2 + h)
h0 h h0
= 2

and so f (1) = 2, as well. Remember, this also means that the slope of the tangent
line at x = 1 is equal to 2, which is what we found earlier.

Example 62. Find the slope of the tangent line at x = 2 for the curve whose
equation is y = 1/x.

Solution OK, we set f (x) = 1/x. As we have seen above, the slopes value, mtan ,
is given by
f (2 + h) f (2)
mtan = lim .
h0 h

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3.1. MOTIVATION 83

Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519,


who has appeared in a recent lm
Remember to simplify this ratio as much as possible (without the lim symbol). on Cinderella, is the ideal of the
For h = 0 we have, Italian Risorgimento, the Renais-
sance: Painter, inventor, scientist,
f (2 + h) f (2)
1
(2+h)
1
2
= engineer, mathematician, patholo-
h h gist etc., he is widely accepted as a
2
2(2+h)
(2+h)
2(2+h) universal genius, perhaps the great-
=
h est ever. What impresses me the
2 (2 + h) most about this extremely versa-
=
2h(2 + h) tile man is his ability to assimilate
h nature into a quantiable whole,
=
2h(2 + h) his towering mind, and his insa-
1 tiable appetite for knowledge. He
= , since h = 0.
2(2 + h) drew the regular polytopes (three-
dimensional equivalents of the reg-
Since this is true for each h = 0, we can pass to the limit to nd,
ular polygons) for his friend Fra
f (2 + h) f (2) Luca Pacioli, priest and mathe-

y
mtan = lim matician, who included the hand-
h0 h

nl
1 drawn sketches at the end of the
= lim
h0 2(2 + h) original manuscript of his book on
1

O
the golden number entitled De div-
= .
4 ina proportione, published in 1509,
and now in Torino, Italy.
on
Example 63. We give examples of the following:

a) A function f whose derivative does not exist (as a two-sided limit).


si

b) A function f with a vertical tangent line to its graph y = f (x) at x = 0,


(innite derivative at x = 0, i.e., both one-sided limits of the derivative exist
r

but are innite).


Ve

c) A function f with a horizontal tangent line to its graph y = f (x) at x = 0, (the


derivative is equal to zero in this case).

Solution a) Let
TA

 x if x 0
f (x) =
x if x < 0

This function is the same as f (x) = |x|, the absolute value of x, right? The idea is
that in order for the two-sided (or ordinary) limit of the derivative to exist at some
point, it is necessary that both one-sided limits (from the right and the left) each
exist and both be equal, remember? The point is that this functions derivative
has both one-sided limits existing at x = 0 but unequal. Why? Lets use
Table 3.1 and try to nd its limit from the right at x = 0.

For this we suspect that we need h > 0, as we want the limit from the right,
and were using the same notions of right and left limits drawn from the theory of
continuous functions.
f (0 + h) f (0) f (h) f (0)
=
h h
h0
= (because f (h) = h if h > 0)
h
= 1, (since h = 0).

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84 3.1. MOTIVATION

This is true for each possible value of h > 0. So,


f (h) f (0)
lim = 1,
h0+ h
and so this limit from the right, also called the right derivative of at = 0, f x
exists and is equal to 1. This also means that as h 0, the slope of the tangent
line to the graph of y = |x| approaches the value 1.

OK, now lets nd its limit from the left at x = 0. For this we want h < 0, right?
Now
f (0 + h) f (0) f (h) f (0)
=
h h
h 0
= (because f (h) = h if h < 0)
h
= 1 (since h = 0)

This is true for each possible value of h < 0. So,


f (h) f (0)
lim = 1.

y
h0 h
This, so-called, left-derivative of f at x = 0 exists and its value is 1, a dierent

nl
value than 1 (which is the value of the right derivative of our f at x = 0). Thus

Figure 35. f (0 + h) f (0)

O
lim
h0 h
does not exist as a two-sided limit. The graph of this function is shown in Figure
35. Note the cusp/ sharp point/v-shape at the origin of this graph. This graphical
on
phenomenon guarantees that the derivative does not exist there.

Note that there is no uniquely dened tangent line at x = 0 (as both y = x


and y = x should qualify, so there is no actual tangent line).
si

Solution b) We give an example of a function whose derivative is innite at x = 0,


r

say, so that its tangent line is x = 0 (if its derivative is innite at x = x0 , then its
Ve

tangent line is the vertical line x = x0 ).


SIMPLIFY rst, then


GO to the LIMIT Dene f by

x, x 0,
f (x) =
TA

x, x < 0.

The graph of f is shown in Figure 36.

Lets calculate its left- and right-derivative at x = 0. For h < 0, at x0 = 0,


f (0 + h) f (0) f (h) f (0)
=
h h

h 0
= ( because f (h) = h if h < 0)
h

h
=
(h)
1
= .
h
So we obtain,

Figure 36. f (0 + h) f (0) 1


lim = lim
h0 h h0 h
= +,

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3.1. MOTIVATION 85

f
(x0 ) Tangent Line Direction Remarks

+  rises, bigger means steeper up

 falls, smaller means steeper down

0 horizontal tangent line

 vertical tangent line

Table 3.2: Geometrical Properties of the Derivative

and, similarly, for h > 0,


f (0 + h) f (0) 1
lim

y
lim =
h0+ h h0 +
h
= +.

nl
Finally, we see that

O
f (0 + h) f (0) f (0 + h) f (0) Figure 37.
lim = lim
h0 h h0+ h
both exist and are equal to +.
on
Note: The line x = 0 acts as the tangent line to the graph of f at x = 0.
si

Solution c) For an example of a function with a horizontal tangent line at some


point (i.e. f  (x) = 0 at, say, x = 0) consider f dened by f (x) = x2 at x = 0, see
Figure 37. Its derivative f  (0) is given by
r

f (0 + h) f (0)
Ve

f  (0) = lim =0
h0 h
and since the derivative of f at x = 0 is equal to the slope of the tangent line there,
it follows that the tangent line is horizontal, and given by y = 0.
TA

Example 64. On the surface of our moon, an object P falling from rest will fall
a distance of approximately 5.3t2 feet in t seconds. Find its instantaneous velocity
at t = a sec, t = 1 sec, and at t = 2.6 seconds.

Solution Well need to calculate its instantaneous velocity, lets call it, v, at t = a
seconds. Since, in this case, f (t) = 5.3t2 , we have, by denition,
f (a + h) f (a)
v = lim .
h0 h
Now, for h = 0,
f (a + h) f (a) 5.3(a + h)2 5.3a2
=
h h
5.3a2 + 10.6ah + 5.3h2 5.3a2
=
h
= 10.6a + 5.3h

So,

v = lim (10.6a + 5.3h) = 10.6a


h0

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86 3.1. MOTIVATION

f
(x0 ) does not exist (right and left derivatives not equal)

f
(x1 ) = 0, (horizontal tangent line).
f
(x2 ) does not exist (left derivative at x = x2 is innite).
f
(x3 ) < 0, (tangent line falls)
f
(x4 ) = 0, (horizontal tangent line)
f
(x5 ) > 0, (tangent line rises).

Table 3.3: Dierent Derivatives in Action: See Figure 38

feet per second. It follows that its instantaneous velocity at t = 1 second is given
by (10.6) (1) = 10.6 feet per second, obtained by setting a = 1 in the formula for
v. Similarly, v = (10.6) (2.6) = 27.56 feet per second. From this and the preceding
discussion, you can conclude that an object falling from rest on the surface of the

y
moon will fall at approximately one-third the rate it does on earth (neglecting air
resistance, here).

nl
Figure 38. Example 65. How long will it take the falling object of Example 64 to reach

O
an instantaneous velocity of 50 feet per second?

Solution We know from Example 64 that v = 10.6a, at t = a seconds. Since, we


on
50
want 10.6a = 50 we get a = 10.6 = 4.72 seconds.

Example 66. Dierent derivatives in action, see Figure 38, and Table 3.3.
si

Example 67. Evaluate the derivative of the function f dened by f (x) =



r

5x + 1 at x = 3.
Ve

Solution By denition,

f (3 + h) f (3)
TA

f  (3) = lim .
h0 h

Now, we try to simplify as much as possible before passing to the limit.


For h = 0,

f (3 + h) f (3)
5(3 + h) + 1 5(3) + 1
=
h h

16 + 5h 4
= .
h

Now, to simplify this last expression, we rationalize


the numerator (by multiplying
Think BIG here: Remember that ra- both the numerator and denominator by 16 + 5h + 4). Then well nd,
tionalization gives

2 16 + 5h 4 16 + 5h 4 16 + 5h + 4
2 = = { }{ }
2+  h h 16 + 5h + 4
16 + 5h 16
for any two positive symbols, 2, . =
h( 16 + 5h + 4)
5
= , since h = 0.
16 + 5h + 4

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3.1. MOTIVATION 87

We cant simplify this any more, and now the expression looks good if we set
h = 0 in it, so we can pass to the limit as h 0, to nd,
f (3 + h) f (3)
f  (3) = lim
h0 h
5
= lim
h0 16 + 5h + 4
5
=
16 + 4
5
= .
8

Summary

The derivative of a function f at a point x = a, (or x = x0 ), denoted by f  (a), or


df
dx
(a), or Df (a), is dened by the two equivalent denitions

y
f (a + h) f (a)
f  (a)

nl
= lim
h0 h
f (x) f (a)
= lim .
xa

O
xa

whenever either limit exists (in which case so does the other). You get the second
denition from the rst by setting h = x a, so that the statement h 0 is the
same as x a.
on
SIMPLIFY rst, then
The right-derivative (resp. left-derivative) is dened by the right- (resp. left- GO to the LIMIT
hand) limits
si

 f (a + h) f (a)
f+ (a) = lim
h
r

h0+

f (x) f (a)
Ve

= lim ,
xa+ xa
and
 f (a + h) f (a)
f (a) = lim
TA

h0 h
f (x) f (a)
= lim .
xa xa
NOTES

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88 3.1. MOTIVATION

Exercise Set 10.

Evaluate the following limits


f (2 + h) f (2)
1. lim where f (x) = x2
h0 h
f (1 + h) f (1)
2. lim where f (x) = |x|
h0 h
0 x=0

f (0 + h) f (0)
3. lim where f (x) = 1
h0 h x = 0
x
f (1 + h) f (1)
4.a) lim
h0 h
f (1 + h) f (1) x+1
 x1
b) lim wheref (x) =
h0+ h x 0x<1
f (2 + h) f (2)
5. lim where f (x) = x
h0 h

y
HINT : Rationalize the numerator and simplify.
f (2 + h) f (2)
where f (x) = x2

nl
6. lim
h0 h

O
Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at the given point.

7. f (x) = 3x + 2 at x = 1
on
8. f (x) = 3 4x at x = 2
9. f (x) = x2 at x = 3
10. f (x) = |x| at x = 1
si

11. f (x) = x|x| at x = 0



HINT: Consider the left and right derivatives separately.
r

1 x0
12. f (x) = (at x = 0. Remember Heavisides function?)
Ve

0 x<0

Determine whether or not the following functions have a derivative at the indicated
point. Explain.


TA

1 x0
13. f (x) = at x = 0
1 x<0

14. f (x) = x + 1 at x = 1
HINT: Graphing this function may help.
15. f (x) = |x2 | at x = 0

16. f (x) = 6 2x at x = 1
1
17. f (x) = x2
at x = 1

x
18. A function f is dened by
0x<1
f (x) =
8x + x2 2
1x<2
2 x < 3.
a) What is f  (1)? Explain.
b) Does f  (2) exist? Explain.
c) Evaluate f  ( 52 ).

NOTES:

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3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES 89

3.2 Working with Derivatives

By now you know how to nd the derivative of a given function (and you can
actually check to see whether or not it has a derivative at a given point). You also
understand the relationship between the derivative and the slope of a tangent line
to a given curve (otherwise go to Section 3.1).

Sometimes it is useful to dene the derivative f  (a) of a given function at x = a as

f (x) f (a)
f  (a) = lim (3.1)
xa xa
provided the (two-sided) limit exists and is nite. Do you see why this denition is
equivalent to
f (a + h) f (a)
f  (a) = lim ?
h0 h
Simply replace the symbol h by x a and simplify. As h 0 it is necessary
that x a 0 or x a.

y
nl
Notation
When a given function f has a derivative at x = a we say that f is dierentiable

O
at x = a or briey f is dierentiable at a.
on
If f is dierentiable at every point x of a given interval, I, we say that f is dier-
entiable on I.

Example 68. The function f dened by f (x) = x2 is dierentiable everywhere


si

on the real line (i.e., at each real number) and its derivative at x is given by f  (x) =
2x.
r
Ve

Example 69. The Power Rule. The function g dened by g(x) = xn where
n 0 is any given integer is dierentiable at every point x. If n < 0 then it is
dierentiable everywhere except at x = 0. Show that its derivative is given by
d n
x = nxn1 .
TA

dx

Solution We need to recall the Binomial Theorem: This says that


n(n 1) n2 2
(x + h)n = xn + nxn1 h + x h + + nxhn1 + hn
2
for some integer n whenever n 1, (there are (n + 1) terms in total). From this we
get the well-known formulae

(x + h)2 = x2 + 2xh + h2 ,
(x + h)3 = x3 + 3x2 h + 3xh2 + h3 ,
4
(x + h) = x4 + 4x3 h + 6x2 h2 + 4xh3 + h4 .

OK, by denition (and the Binomial Theorem), for h = 0,

g(x + h) g(x) nxn1 h + n(n1) n2 2


2
x h + + nxhn1 + hn
=
h h
n(n 1) n2
= nx n1
+ x h + + nxhn2 + hn1 .
2

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90 3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES

Since n 1 it follows that (because the limit of a sum is the sum of the limits),

g(x + h) g(x) n(n 1) n2


lim (nxn1 + h + + hn1 )

lim = x
h0 h h0 2
n(n 1) n2
= nxn1 + lim x h + + hn1
h0 2
= nxn1 + 0
= nxn1 .

Thus g  (x) exists and g  (x) = nxn1 .

Remark! Actually, more is true here. It is the case that for every number a
(integer or not), but a is NOT a variable like x, sin x, ...,

y
d a
x = axa1 if x > 0.

nl
dx

O
This formula is useful as it gives a simple expression for the derivative of any power
on
of the independent variable, in this case, x.

QUICKIES
si

a) f (x) = x3 ; f  (x) = 3x31 = 3x2


= t1 , so f  (t) = (1)t2 = t12
r

1
b) f (t) = t
Ve

c) g(z) = 1
z2
= z 2 , so g  (z) = (2)z 3 = z23
1 1
d) f (x) = x = x 2 , so f  (x) = 12 x 2 = 1

2 x
2 5
e) f (x) = x 3 ; f  (x) = 23 x 3
TA

f ) f (x) = constant, f  (x) = 0

Quick summary
Notation:

1. By cf we mean the function


whose values are given by
a
A function f is said to be dierentiable at the point if its derivative f  (a) exists
there. This is equivalent to saying that both the left- and right-hand derivatives exist
(cf )(x) = cf (x) at a and are equal. A function f is said to be dierentiable everywhere if it is
dierentiable at every point a of the real line.
where c is a constant.

2. By the symbols f + g we For example, the function f dened by the absolute value of x, namely, f (x) = |x|,
 
mean the function whose val- is dierentiable at every point except at x = 0 where f (0) = 1 and f+ (0) = 1. On
ues are given by
the other hand, the function g dened by g(x) = x|x| is dierentiable everywhere.
(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) Can you show this ?

Properties of the Derivative


Let f, g be two dierentiable functions at x and let c be a constant. Then cf , f g,
f g are all dierentiable at x and

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3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES 91

d df
a) (cf ) = c = cf  (x), c is a constant.
dx dx

d df dg
(f g) = , Sum/Dierence Rule
b) dx dx dx
= f (x) g  (x)


d
c) (f g) = f  (x) g(x) + f (x) g  (x), Product Rule
dx

y
d) If for some x, the value g(x) = 0 then f
g
is dierentiable at x and

nl

Note that the formula
 
d f f (x) g(x) f (x) g (x) d
(f g) =
df dg
= , Quotient Rule

O
dx g g 2 (x) dx dx dx

is NOT TRUE in general. For


example, if f (x) = x, g(x) = 1, then
on
where all the derivatives are evaluated at the point x. Hints to the proofs or f (x)g(x) = x and so (f g) (x) = 1.
verication of these basic Rules may be found at the end of this section. They On the other hand, f  (x)g (x) = 0,
are left to the reader as a Group Project. and so this formula cannot be true.
r si

Example 70. Find the derivative, f  (x) of the function f dened by


Ve

f (x) = 2x3 5x + 1. What is its value at x = 1?


Solution We use Example 69 and Properties (a) and (b) to see that

d d d d d
f  (x) = (2x3 ) + (5x) + (1) = 2 (x3 ) + (5) (x) + 0
dx dx dx dx dx
TA

= 2 3x2 + (5) 1
= 6x2 5.

So, f  (x) = 6x2 5 and thus the derivative evaluated at x = 1 is given by


f  (1) = 6 (1)2 5 = 6 5 = 1.

The tangent line at x = 1 to the

curve f (x) dened in Example 70.


Example 71. Given that f (x) = 3
x+ 3
2 1 nd f  (x) at x = 1.
Figure 39.
Solution We rewrite all roots as powers and then use the Power Rule. So,

d  
f  (x) x+ 21
3 3
=
dx
d  d d    
= x1/3 + 21/3 1 = x1/3 + 21/3 1
dx dx dx
1 31 1
= x +00
3
1 23
= x .
3

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92 3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES

Finally, f  (1) =
1 2
(1) 3 =
1 3
1

2 1
= (1)2 = .
1
3 3 3 3
Example 72. Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve dened by
the function h(x) = (x2 + 1)(x 1) at the point (1, 0) on its graph.
Solution Using the geometrical interpretation of the derivative (cf., Table 3.1),
we know that this slope is equal to h (1). So, we need to calculate the derivative
of h and then evaluate it at x = 1. Since h is made up of two functions
we can use the Product Rule (Property (c), above). To this end we write
f (x) = (x2 + 1) and g(x) = x 1. Then h(x) = f (x)g(x) and we want h (x).
So, using the Product Rule we see that

d
h (x) = f (x)g(x) = f  (x) g(x) + f (x) g  (x)

=
dx
d  
x2 + 1 (x 1) + (x2 + 1)
d
(x 1)
dx dx
= (2x + 0) (x 1) + (x2 + 1) (1 0) = 2x(x 1) + x2 + 1
= 3x2 2x + 1.

The required slope is now given by h (1) = 3 2 + 1 = 2. See Figure 40.

y
nl
The graph of the function h and its Example 73. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve dened
tangent line at x = 1. The slope of by
t

O
this straight line is equal to 2
h(t) =
t2 + 1
Figure 40.
at the point (0, 0) on its graph.
on
Solution Since the function h is a quotient of two functions we may use the
Quotient Rule, (d). To this end, let f (t) = t and g(t) = t2 + 1. The idea is that
we have to nd h (t) at t = 0 since this will give the slope of the tangent line
at t = 0, and then use the general equation of a line in the form y = mx + b
si

in order to get the actual equation of our tangent line passing through (0, 0).
OK, now
r

f  (t) g(t) f (t) g  (t)


h (t)
Ve

=
g 2 (t)
(1) (t2 + 1) (t) (2t)
=
(t2 + 1)2
1 t2
= .
TA

(t2 + 1)2

Next, it is clear that h (0) = 1 and so the tangent line must have the equation
y = x + b for an appropriate point (x, y) on it. But (x, y) = (0, 0) is on it,
The tangent line y = x through
by hypothesis. So, we set x = 0, y = 0 in the general form, solve for b, and
conclude that b = 0. Thus, the required equation is y = x + 0 = x, i.e., y = x,
(0, 0) for the function h in Exam-
see Figure 41.
ple 73.

Figure 41. Example 74. At which points on the graph of y = x3 + 3x does the
tangent line have slope equal to 9?
Solution This question is not as direct as the others, above. The idea here is
to nd the expression for the derivative of y and then set this expression equal
 2  2
to 9 and then solve for x. Now, y (x) = 3x + 3 and so 9 = y (x) = 3x + 3
implies that 3x = 6 or x = 2. Note the two roots here. So there are two
2

points on the required graph where


the slope is equal to 9. The ycoordinates
are
then given by setting
x
= 2 into
the expression
for y. We nd the points
( 2, 5 2) and ( 2, 5 2), since ( 2)3 = 2 2.

Example 75. If f (x) = (x2 x + 1)(x2 + x + 1) nd f  (0) and f  (1).

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3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES 93

Solution Instead of using the Product Rule we can simply expand the product
noting that f (x) = (x2 x + 1)(x2 + x + 1) = x4 + x2 + 1. So, f  (x) = 4x3 + 2x
by the Power Rule, and thus, f  (0) = 0, f  (1) = 6.

Exercise Set 11.

Find the derivative of each of the following functions using any one
of the Rules above: Show specically which Rules you are using at
each step. There is no need to simplify your nal answer.
x0.3
Example: If f (x) = , then
x+1

D(x0.3 )(x + 1) x0.3 D(x + 1)


f  (x) = , by the Quotient Rule,
(x + 1)2

y
(0.3)x0.7 (x
+ 1) x0.3 (1)

= , by the Power Rule with a = 2/3

nl
(x + 1) 2

(0.3)x0.7 (x
+ 1) x0.3
= .

O
(x + 1)2 on
1. f (x) = x1.5
2. f (t) = t2
si

3. g(x) = 6
2
r

4. h(x) = x 3
Ve

1
5. k(t) = t 5
6. f (x) = 4.52
7. f (t) = t4
8. g(x) = x3
TA

9. f (x) = x1
10. f (x) = x
11. f (t) = t2 6
12. f (x) = 3x2 + 2x 1


13. f (t) = (t 1)(t2 + 4)

14. f (x) = x 3x2 + 1

x0.5
15. f (x) =
2x + 1
x1
16. f (x) =
x+1
x3 1
17. f (x) =
x2 +x1
2
x3
18. f (x) = 3
x + 3x 4

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94 3.2. WORKING WITH DERIVATIVES

Group Project on Dierentiation

Prove the Dierentiation Rules in Section 3.2 using the denition of the derivative as
a limit, the limit properties in Table 2.4, and some basic algebra. Assume throughout
that f and g are dierentiable at x and g(x) = 0. In order to prove the Properties
proceed as follows using the hints given:

1. Property a)

Show that for any real number c, and h = 0, we have


f (x + h) f (x)
(cf ) (x) = c lim ,
h0 h
and complete the argument.
2. Property b) The Sum/Dierence Rule: Show that for a given x and h = 0,

y
(f + g)(x + h) (f + g)(x) f (x + h) f (x) g(x + h) g(x)
= + .
h h h

nl
Then use Table 2.4, a) and the denition of the derivatives.
3. Property c) The Product Rule: Show that for a given x and h = 0,

O
(f g)(x + h) (f g)(x) f (x + h) f (x) g(x + h) g(x)
= g(x) + f (x + h) .
h h h
on
Then use Table 2.4 e),the denition of the derivatives, and the continuity of f
at x.
4. Property d) The Quotient Rule: First, show that for a given x and any h,
f f
si

f (x + h) f (x)
(x + h) (x) = .
g g g(x + h) g(x)
r
Ve

Next, rewrite the previous expression as

f (x + h) f (x) f (x + h)g(x) f (x)g(x + h)


= ,
g(x + h) g(x) g(x + h)g(x)
and then rewrite it as,
TA

f (x + h)g(x) f (x)g(x + h)
=
g(x + h)g(x)

(f (x + h) f (x))g(x) f (x)(g(x + h) g(x))


.
g(x + h)g(x)
Now, let h 0 and use Table 2.4, d) and e), the continuity of g at x, and the
denition of the derivatives.

Suggested Homework Set 6. Problems 1, 3, 6, 8, 18

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3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 95

3.3 The Chain Rule

This section is about a method that will enable you to nd the derivative of com-
plicated looking expressions, with some speed and simplicity. After a few examples
youll be using it without much thought ... It will become very natural. Many ex-
amples in nature involve variables which depend upon other variables. For example,
the speed of a car depends on the amount of gas being injected into the carburator,
and this, in turn depends on the diameter of the injectors, etc. In this case we could
ask the question: How does the speeed change if we vary the size of the injectors
only ? and leave all the other variables the same. We are then led naturally to a
study of the composition (not the same as the product), of various functions and
their derivatives.

We recall the composition of two functions, (see Chapter 1), and the limit-
denition of the derivative of a given function from Section 3.2. First, lets see
if we can discover the form of the Rule that nds the derivative of the composition
of two functions in terms of the individual derivatives. That is, we want an explicit
Rule for nding

y
d d
(f g)(x) = f (g(x)),

nl
dx dx
in terms of f and g(x).

O
We assume that f and g are both dierentiable at some point that we call x0 (and
so g is also continuous there). Furthermore, we must assume that the range of g is
contained in the domain of f (so that the composition makes sense). Now look at
on
the quantity
k(x) = f (g(x)),

which is just shorthand for this composition. We want to calculate k (x0 ). So, we
si

need to examine the expression


r

k(x0 + h) k(x0 ) f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 ))


Ve

= ,
h h

and see what happens when we let h 0. Okay, now lets assume that is not g
identically a constant function near x x
= 0 . This means that g(x) = g(x0 )
for any x in a small interval around x0 . Now,
TA

k(x0 + h) k(x0 ) f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 ))


=
h h
f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 )) g(x0 + h) g(x0 )
= .
g(x0 + h) g(x0 ) h

As h 0, g(x0 + h) g(x0 ) because g is continuous at x = x0 . Furthermore,

g(x0 + h) g(x0 )
g  (x0 ),
h

since g is dierentiable at the point x = x0 . Lastly,

f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 ))


f  (g(x0 ))
g(x0 + h) g(x0 )

since f is dierentiable at x = g(x0 ) (use denition 3.1 with x = g(x0 + h) and


a = g(x0 ) to see this). It now follows by the theory of limits that

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96 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

k(x0 + h) k(x0 ) f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 )) g(x0 + h) g(x0 )


lim = lim ,
h0 h h0
g(x0 + h) g(x0 )
f (g(x0 + h)) f (g(x0 ))
h

= lim
h0
g(x
g(x0 + h) g(x0 )
0 + h) g(x0 )

lim ,
h0 h
= f  (g(x0 )) g  (x0 ),
= k (x0 ).

In other words we can believe that

k (x0 ) = f  (g(x0 )) g  (x0 ),

and this is the formula we wanted. Its called the Chain Rule.

The Chain Rule: Summary

y
Let f, g be two dierentiable functions with g dierentiable at x and g(x) in
the domain of f  . Then y = f g is dierentiable at x and

nl
The Chain Rule also says
d d
(f g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f  (g(x)) g  (x)

O
dx dx
Df (2) = f
(2) D2 ,

where Df = df/dx = f(x). You


on
can read this as: Dee of f of box Lets see what this means. When the composition (f g) is dened (and the range
is f prime box dee box. We call of g is contained in the domain of f  ) then (f g) exists and
this the Box formulation of the
d df
Chain Rule. (f g)(x) = (g(x)) g  (x)
si

dx dx
d
f (g(x)) g (x)
 

  
f (g(x)) =
r

dx
Ve

derivative of composition derivative of f at g(x) derivative of g at x

In other words, the derivative of a composition is found by dierentiating the outside


function rst, (here, f ), evaluating its derivative, (here f  ), at the inside function,
TA

(here, g(x)), and nally multiplying this number, f  (g(x)), by the derivative of g at
x.

The Chain Rule is one of the most useful and important rules in the theory of dif-
ferentiation of functions as it will allow us to nd the derivative of very complicated-
looking expressions with ease. For example, using the Chain Rule well be able to
show that
d
(x + 1)3 = 3(x + 1)2 .
dx
Without using the Chain Rule, the alternative is that we have to expand

(x + 1)3 = x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1

using the Binomial Theorem and then use the Sum Rule along with the Power Rule
to get the result which, incidentally, is identical to the stated one since
d 3
(x + 3x2 + 3x + 1) = 3x2 + 6x + 3 = 3(x + 1)2 .
dx

An easy way to remember the Chain Rule is as follows:

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3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 97

Replace the symbol g(x) by our box symbol, 2 . Then the Chain Rule says that
d
f (2) 2 
 

  
f (2 ) =
dx
derivative of a composition derivative of f at 2 derivative of 2 at x

Symbolically, it can be shortened by writing that

Df (2 ) = f  (2 ) D2 , The Chain Rule

where the 2 may represent (or even contain) any other function(s) you wish. In
words, it can be remembered by saying that the

Derivative of f of Box is f prime Box dee-Box

like a famous brand name for sneakers, (i.e. dee-Box).

y
Consequences of the Chain Rule! Its NOT TRUE that

nl
Let g be a dierentiable function with g(x) = 0. Then 1
is dierentiable and by the
Quotient Rule,
g
Df (g(x)) = f
(x) g
(x),

O
d
1
1
1. = g  (x), or,
dx g(x) (g(x))2
on
d
2. (g(x))a = a(g(x))a1 g  (x) The Generalized Power Rule
dx
si

whenever a is a real number and g(x) > 0. This Generalized Power Rule follows
easily from the Chain Rule, above, since we can let f (x) = xa , g(x) = 2 . Then the
composition (f g)(x) = g(x)a = 2 a . According to the Chain Rule,
r
Ve

d
f (2 ) = f  (2 ) 2  .
dx
But, by the ordinary Power Rule, Example 69, we know that f  (x) = axa1 . Okay,
now since f  (2 ) = a2 a1 , and 2  = g  (x), the Chain Rule gives us the result.
TA

An easy way to remember these formulae, once and for all, is by writing


D 2 power
1
= power 2 (power)1 D 2
1
Generalized Power Rule

D = D 2, Reciprocal Rule
2 (2 )2

where 2 may be some dierentiable function of x, and we have used the modern
notation D for the derivative with respect to x. Recall that the reciprocal of
something is, by denition, 1 divided by that something.

The Chain Rule can take on dierent forms. For example, let y = f (u) and assume
that the variable u is itself a function of another variable, say x, and we write this
as u = g(x). So y = f (u) and u = g(x). So y must be a function of x and it
is reasonable to expect that y is a dierentiable function of x if certain additional
conditions on f and g are imposed. Indeed, let y be a dierentiable function of u

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98 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

and let u be a dierentiable function of x. Then y is, in fact, a dierentiable function


of x. Now the question is:

How does y vary with x? The result looks like this ...
dy dy du
=
dx du dx
or
y  (x) = f  (u) g  (x)
where we must replace all occurrences of the symbol in the above by u
gx
the symbol ( ) after the dierentiations are made.

1
Sophie Germain, 1776-1831, was Example 76. Let f be dened by f (x) = 6x 2 + 3. Find f  (x).
the second of three children of a
1
middle-class Parisian family. Some- Solution We know f (x) = 6x 2 + 3. So, if we let x = 2 we get
what withdrawn, she never married,
d 1/2 d
and by all accounts lived at home f  (x) = 6 2 + 3 (by Properties (a) and (b)),
dx dx
where she worked on mathematical
1
= 6 2 1/2 + 0,

y
problems with a passion. Of the
2
3x1/2
many stories which surround this
=

nl
gifted mathematician, there is this 3
one ... Upon the establishment of = .
x

O
the Ecole Polytechnique in 1795,
women were not allowed to attend
the lectures so Sophie managed to Example 77. Let g be dened by g(t) = t5 4t3 2. What is g  (0), the
derivative of g evaluated at t = 0?
on
get the lecture notes in mathemat-
ics by befriending students. She
then had some great ideas and wrote Solution
d 5 d d
this big essay called a memoire and g  (t) = (t ) 4 (t3 ) 2 (by Property (b))
si

then submitted it (under a male dt dt dt


name) to one of the great French = 5t4 4(3)t2 0 (Power Rule)
r

mathematcians of the time, Joseph = 5t4 12t2 .


Ve

Lagrange, 1736-1813, for his ad-


But g  (0) is g  (t) with t = 0, right? So, g  (0) = 5(0)4 12(0)2 = 0.
vice and opinion. Lagrange found
much merit in the work and wished
Example 78. Let y be dened by y(x) = (x2 3x + 1)(2x + 1). Evaluate
to meet its creator. When he did
y  (1).
nally meet her he was delighted
TA

that the work had been written by


Solution Let f (x) = x2 3x + 1, g(x) = 2x + 1. Then y(x) = f (x)g(x) and we want
a woman, and went on to intro-
y  (x). . . So, we can use the Product Rule (or you can multiply the polynomials
duce her to the great mathemati- out, collect terms and then dierentiate each term). Now,
cians of the time. She won a prize
in 1816 dealing with the solution of
y  (x) = f  (x)g(x) + f (x)g  (x)
a problem in two-dimensional har- = (2x 3 + 0)(2x + 1) + (x2 3x + 1)(2 + 0)
monic motion, yet remained a lone = (2x 3)(2x + 1) + 2(x2 3x + 1), so,
genius all of her life.

y  (1) = (2(1) 3)(2(1) + 1) + 2((1)2 3(1) + 1)


= 5.

x2 + 4
Example 79. Let y be dened by y(x) = . Find the slope of the
x3 4
tangent line to the curve y = y(x) at x = 2.

f (x)
Solution We write y(x) = where f (x) = x2 + 4, g(x) = x3 4. We also need
g(x)
f  (x) and g  (x), since the Quotient Rule will come in handy here.

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3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 99

The next Table may be useful as we always need these 4 quantities when using the
Quotient Rule:

f (x) f  (x) g(x) g  (x)

x2 + 4 2x x3 4 3x2

Now, by the Quotient Rule,

f  (x)g(x) f (x)g  (x)


y  (x) =
(g(x))2
2x(x3 4) (x2 + 4)(3x2 )
= .
(x3 4)2

No need to simplify here. Were really asking for y  (2), right? Why? Think slope
of tangent line derivative. Thus,

4(4) 8(12)

y
y  (2) =
16

nl
= 5

and the required slope has value 5.

O
6
Example 80. Let y(x) = x2 . Evaluate y  (0).
x4
on
Solution Now
d 2 d 1
y  (x) = (x ) 6 ( )
dx dx x 4
si

 
(where we used Property (a), the Power Rule, and Consequence 1.)
1 d
r

= 2x 6 (x 4)
(x 4)2 dx
1 1
Ve

d 1 d
since ( )= = 2
dx x-4 dx 2 22
where 2 = (x 4).
All right, now
TA

6
y  (x) = 2x + ,
(x 4)2
and so
6
y  (0) = 2(0) + ,
(4)2
3
= .
8

4 x2
Example 81. Let y be dened by y(x) = . Evaluate y  (x) at
x2 2x 3
x = 1.

f (x)
Solution Write y(x) = . We need y  (1), right ? OK, now we have the table . . .
g(x)

f (x) f  (x) g(x) g  (x)

4 x2 2x x2 2x 3 2x 2

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100 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

f  (1)g(1) f (1)g  (1)


y  (1) =
(g(1))2
(2)(1 2 3) (3)(2 2)
=
(1 2 3)2
80
=
16
1
= .
2

1.6
Example 82. Let y be dened by y(x) = . Evaluate y  (0).
(x + 1)100

Solution Write y(x) = (1.6)(x + 1)100 = 1.6f (x)100 where f (x) = x + 1 (or,
replace f (x) by 2 ). Now use Property (a) and Consequence (2) to nd that

y  (x) = (1.6)(100)f (x)101 f  (x)

y
= 160(x + 1)101 (1)
160

nl
= ,
(x + 1)101
so y  (0) = 160.

O
On the other hand, you could have used Consequence (1) to get the result. . . For
on
example, write y(x) as y(x) = f1.6
(x)
where f (x) = (x + 1)100 . Then

1.6
y  (x) = f  (x) (by Consequence (1))
(f (x))2
si

1.6
= (100(x + 1)99 (1)) (by Consequence (2))
(x + 1)200
r

160
= (x + 1)99
Ve

(x + 1)200
160
=
(x + 1)101
and so y  (0) = 160, as before.
TA

Example 83. Let y = u5 and u = x2 4. Find y  (x) at x = 1.

Solution Here f (u) = u5 and g(x) = x2 4. Now f  (u) = 5u4 by the Power Rule
and g  (x) = 2x. . . So,

y  (x) = f  (u) g  (x)


= 5u4 2x
= 10xu4
= 10x(x2 4)4 , since u = x2 4.

At x = 1 we get

y  (1) = 10(1)(3)4
= 810.

Since this value is large for a slope the actual tangent line is very steep, close to
vertical at x = 1.

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3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 101

SHORTCUT
Write y = 2 5 , then y  = 5 2 4 2  , by the Generalized Power Rule. Replacing
the 2 by x2 4 we nd, y  = 5 (x2 4) 2x = 10x(x2 4)4 , as before.
4

The point is, you dont have to memorize another formula. The Box formula
basically gives all the dierent variations of the Chain Rule.

Example 84. Let y = u3 and u = (x2 + 3x + 2). Evaluate y  (x) at x = 0 and


interpret your result geometrically.

Solution The Rule of Thumb is:

Whenever you see a function raised to the power of some number (NOT a vari-
able), then put everything between the outermost parentheses, so to speak,
in a box, 2 . The whole thing then looks like just a box raised to some power,
and you can use the box formulation of the Chain Rule on it.

y
nl
Chain Rule approach: Write y = u3 where u = x2 + 3x + 2. OK, now y = f (u)
and u = g(x) where f (u) = u3 and g(x) = x2 + 3x + 2. Then the Chain Rule gives

O
y  (x) = f  (u)g  (x)
= 3u2 (2x + 3)
= 3(x2 + 3x + 2)2 (2x + 3).
on
Since u = x2 + 3x + 2, we have to replace each u by the original x2 + 3x + 2. Dont
worry, you dont have to simplify this. Finally,
y  (0) = 3(3)(2)2
si

= 36
r
Ve

and this is the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = y(x) at x = 0.

Power Rule/Box approach: Write y = 2 3 where 2 = x2 + 3x + 2 and a = 3.


Then
y  (x) 32 2 2 
TA

=
= 3(x2 + 3x + 2)2 (2x + 3)
and so y  (0) = 36, as before.

Example 85. Let y be dened by y(x) = (x + 2)2 (2x 1)4 . Evaluate y  (2).

Solution We have a product and some powers here. So we expect to use a combi-
nation of the Product Rule and the Power Rule. OK, we let f (x) = (x + 2)2 and
g(x) = (2x 1)4 , use the Power Rule on f, g, and make the table:

f (x) f  (x) g(x) g  (x)

(x + 2)2 2(x + 2) (2x 1)4 4(2x 1)3 (2).

Using the Product Rule,


y  (x) = f  (x)g(x) + f (x)g  (x)
= 2(x + 2)(2x 1)4 + 8(x + 2)2 (2x 1)3

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102 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

Finally, it is easy to see that y  (2) = 0.

Example 86. Find an expression for the derivative of y =


f (x) where
f (x) > 0 is dierentiable.

Solution OK, this square root is really a power so we think Power Rule. We can
speed things up by using boxes, so write 2 = f (x). Then, the Generalized Power
Rule gives us,
d 1
y  (x) = 2 2
dx
1 12 1
= 2 2 (PowerRule)
2
1 12 
= 2 2
2
1 
= 1 2
22 2
2
=
2 2

y
= f  (x)

nl
2 f (x)

O
SNAPSHOTS
on
Example 87. f (x) = (x2/3 + 1)2 , f  (x) ?

Solution Let 2 = (x2/3 + 1) = x2/3 + 1. So, f (x) = 2 2 and


si

 
D(2 2 )
   
D(2 )
r

f  (x) = (2) (x2/3 + 1)1 (2/3) x1/3


Ve

4
= (x2/3 + 1) x1/3
3
4
= (x1/3 + x1/3 ).
3
TA


Example 88. f (x) = x + 1. Evaluate f  (x).


Solution Let 2 = ( x + 1) = x1/2 + 1. Then f (x) = 2 so

     

D( 2 ) D(2 )

 1/2
f (x) = (1/2) (x + 1) 1/2
(1/2) x1/2
1
= (x1/2 + 1)1/2 x1/2
4
=  1

4 x (1 + x)


x
Example 89. f (x) = . Find f  (1).
1 + x2


Solution Simplify this rst. Note that

x x
= = 2 1/2
1 + x2 1 + x2

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3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 103

x
where 2 = . So f (x) = 2 , and
1 + x2

 x  (x  
D(2 )
D( 2 )

 1/2
2
+ 1) 1 (x) (2x)
f (x) = (1/2) ( )
1 + x2 (1 + x2 )2
x 1/2 1 x2
= (1/2) ( )
1 + x2 (1 + x2 )2
x1/2 (1 x2 )
= ,
2 (1 + x2 )3/2

where we used the Generalized Power Rule to get D( 2 ) and the Quotient Rule
to evaluate D(2 ). So, f  (1) = 0.
1 2.718
Example 90. f (x) = , where = 3.14159.... Find f  (1).
x

Solution Simplify this rst, in the sense that you can turn negative exponents
into positive ones by taking the reciprocal of the expression, right? In this case,
note that (1/x)2.718 = x2.718 . So the question now asks us to nd the derivative

y
of f (x) = x2.718 . The Power Rule gives us f  (x) = (2.718) x1.718 . So,

nl
f  (1) = (2.718) = 8.53882.

O
Example 91. Find an expression for the derivative of y = f (x3 ) where f is
dierentiable.

Solution This looks mysterious but it really isnt. If you dont see an x for the
on
variable, replace all the symbols between the outermost parentheses by 2 . Then
The Generalized Power Rule takes
y = f (2 ) and you realize quickly that you need to dierentiate a composition of the form
two functions. This is where the Chain Rule comes into play. So,
si

d r d
2 = r 2r1 2,
y  (x) = Df (2 ) dx dx

= f  (2 ) D2 where the box symbol, 2, is just an-


r

d 3 other symbol for some dierentiable


f  (x3 )
Ve

= (x ) (because 2 = x3 ) function of x.
dx
= f  (x3 ) 3x2
So, we have shown that any function f for which y = f (x3 ) has a derivative y  (x) =
3x2 f  (x3 ) which is the desired expression. Remember that f  (x3 ) means that you
TA

nd the derivative of f , and every time you see an x you replace it by x3 .

OK, but what does this f (x ) really mean?


3

Lets look at the function f , say, dened by f (x) = (x2 + 1)10 . Since f (2 ) =
(2 2 + 1)10 it follows that f (x3 ) = ((x3 )2 + 1)10 = (x6 + 1)10 , where we replaced 2
by x3 (or you put x3 IN the box, remember the Box method? ).

The point is that this new function y = f (x3 ) has a derivative given by
y  (x) = 3x2 f  (x3 ),
which means that we nd f  (x), replace each one of the xs by x3 , and simplify (as
much as possible) to get y  (x). Now, we write f (2 ) = 2 10 , where 2 = x2 + 1. The
Generalized Power Rule gives us
f  (x) = D(2 10 ) = (10)2 9 (d2 ) = (10)(x2 + 1)9 (2x),
= (20x)(x2 + 1)9 . So,

y (x) = 3x2 f  (x3 ) = (3x2 ) (20 x3 ) (x6 + 1)9
= 60 x5 (x6 + 1)9 .

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104 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

Example 91 represents a, so-called, transformation of the independent vari-


able (since the original x is replaced by x3 ) and such transformations appear
within the context of dierential equations where they can be used to simplify
very dicult looking dierential equations to simpler ones.

A Short Note on Dierential Equations


More importantly though, examples like the last one appear in the study of
dierential equations which are equations which, in some cases called linear,
look like polynomial equations

an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x1 + a0 = 0
n
and each x is replaced by a symbol D = dx d
where the related symbol Dn = dx
d
n
th d
means the operation of taking the n derivative. This symbol, D = dx , has a
special name: its called a dierential operator and its domain is a collection
of functions while it range is also a collection of functions. In this sense, the
concept of an operator is more general than that of a function. Now, the symbol
D2 is the derivative of the derivative and it is called the second derivative; the

y
derivative of the second derivative is called the third derivative and denoted
by D3 , and so on. The coecients am above are usually given functions of the

nl
independent variable, x.

O
Symbolically, we write these higher-order derivatives using Leibnizs notation:

d2 y d dy
= = y  (x)
dx2 dx dx
on
for the second derivative of y,

d3 y d d2 y
= = y  (x)
si

dx 3 dx dx2
for the third derivative of y, and so on. These higher order derivatives are very
r

useful in determining the graphs of functions and in studying a functions behavior.


Ve

Well be seeing them soon when we deal with curve sketching.

Example 92. Let f be a function with the property that f  (x) + f (x) = 0
for every x. Well meet such functions later when we discuss Eulers constant,
e 2.71828..., and the corresponding exponential function.
TA

Show that the new function y dened by y(x) = f (x3 ) satises the dierential
equation y  (x) + 3x2 y(x) = 0.

Solution We use Example 91. We already know that, by the Chain Rule, y(x) =
f (x3 ) has its derivative given by y  (x) = 3x2 f  (x3 ). So,

y  (x) + 3x2 y(x) = 3x2 f  (x3 ) + 3x2 f (x3 )


= 3x2 (f  (x3 ) + f (x3 ))

But f  (x) + f (x) = 0 means that f  () + f () = 0, right? (Since it is true for any
x and so for any symbol ). Replacing  by x3 gives f  (x3 ) + f (x3 ) = 0 as a
consequence, and the conclusion now follows . . .

The function y dened by y(x) = f (x3 ), where f is any function with f  (x) + f (x) =
0, satises the equation y  (x) + 3x2 y(x) = 0.

Example 93. Find the second derivative f  (x) given that f (x) = (2x + 1)101 .
Evaluate f  (1).

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3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 105

Solution We can just use the Generalized Power Rule here. Let 2 = 2x + 1. Then
2  = 2 and so f  (x) = 101 2 100 2  = 101 2 100 2 = 202 2 100 . Doing this one
more time, we nd f  (x) = (202) (100) 2 2 99 = 40, 400 2 99 = 40, 400 (2x + 1)99 .

Finally, since (1)odd number = 1, we see that f  (1) = 40, 400(1)99 = 40, 400.

Example 94. Find the second derivative f  (x) of the function dened by
3 1
f (x) = (1 + x ) . Evaluate f  (0).

Solution Use the Generalized Power Rule again. Let 2 = x3 + 1. Then 2  = 3x2
and so f  (x) = (1) 2 2 2  = (1) 2 2 (3x2 ) = (3x2 ) 2 2 = (3x2 )
2
(1 + x3 ) . To nd the derivative of THIS function we can use the Quotient Rule.
So,

(1 + x3 )2 (6x) (3x2 ) (2)(1 + x3 )1 (3x2 )


f  (x) = { }
(1 + x3 )4

6x 18x4
= +
(1 + x3 )2 (1 + x3 )3

y
6x (2x3 1)
=

nl
(1 + x3 )3

It follows that f  (0) = 0.

Exercise Set 12.

O
on
Find the indicated derivatives.
si

1. f (x) = , f  (x) =?
2. f (t) = 3t 2, f  (0) =?
r

2
3. g(x) = x 3 , g  (x) =? at x = 1
(x 4) , y (x) =?
Ve

3 
4. y(x) =
1
5. f (x) = , f  (x) =?
t
x5
TA

+ t 2, g  (t) =?
3 2
6. g(t) =
d2 f
7. f (x) = 3x2 , =?
dx2
8. f (x) = x(x + 1)4 , f  (x) =?
x2 x + 3 
9. y(x) = , y (1) =?
x
10. y(t) = (t + 2)2 (t 1), y  (t) =?
2
11. f (x) = 16x2 (x 1) 3 , f  (x) =?
12. y(x) = (2x + 3)105 , y  (x) =?

13. f (x) = x + 6, f  (x) =?
14. f (x) = x3 3x2 + 3x 1, f  (x) =?
1 
15. y(x) = + x2 1, y  (x) =?
x
1
16. f (x) = , f  (x) =?
1+ x
17. f (x) = (x 1)2 + (x 2)3 , f  (0) =?

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106 3.3. THE CHAIN RULE

18. y(x) = (x + 0.5)1.324 , y  (x) =?


d
19. Let f be a dierentiable function for every real number x. Show that f (x2 ) =
dx
2xf  (x2 ).

d 3
20. Let g be a dierentiable function for every x with g(x) > 0.
g(x) = 3 
g  (x)
.
Show that

dx 3 g(x)2
21. Let f be a function with the property that f is dierentiable and

f  (x) + f (x) = 0.

Show that y = f (x2 ) satises the dierential equation

y  (x) + 2xy(x) = 0.

22. Let y = f (x) and assume f is dierentiable for each x in (0, 1). Assume that
f has an inverse function, F , dened on its range, so that f (F (x)) = x for
every x, 0 < x < 1. Show that F has a derivative satisfying the equation

y
1
F  (x) =  at each x, 0 < x < 1.

nl
f (F (x))
(Hint: Dierentiate both sides of f (F (x)) = x.)
dy

O
23. Let y = t3 and t = u + 6. Find when u = 9.
du
24. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve y = (x2 3)8 at the point
(x, y) = (2, 1).
on
25. Given y(x) = f (g(x)) and that g  (2) = 1, g(2) = 0 and f  (0) = 1. What is the
value of y  (2)?
2
si

26. Let y = r + and r = 3t 2 t. Use the Chain Rule to nd an expression for


r
dy
.
r

dt

Ve

df
27. Hard. Let f (x) = x + x. Evaluate f  (9). If x = t2 , what is ?
dt

28. Use the denition of x2 as x2 = |x| for each x, to show that the function
x
y = |x| has a derivative whenever x = 0 and y  (x) = for x = 0.
|x|
TA

29. Hard Show that if f is a dierentiable at the point x = x0 then f is continuous


at x = x0 . (Hint: You can try a proof by contradiction, that is you assume
the conclusion is false and, using a sequence of logically correct arguments, you
deduce that the original claim is false as well. Since, generally speaking, a state-
ment in mathematics cannot be both true and false, (aside from undecidable
statements) it follows that the conclusion has to be true. So, assume f is not
continuous at x = x0 , and look at each case where f is discontinuous (unequal
one-sided limits, function value is innite, etc.) and, in each case, derive a
contradiction.)
Alternately, you can prove this directly using the methods in the Advanced
Topics chapter. See the Solution Manual for yet another method of showing
this.

Suggested Homework Set 7. Do problems 4, 10, 16, 23, 25, 27

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3.3. THE CHAIN RULE 107

Web Links

For more information and applications of the Chain Rule see:

people.hofstra.edu/Stefan Waner/tutorials3/unit4 2.html


www.math.hmc.edu/calculus/tutorials/chainrule/
www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/derivative/chainap.html
math.ucdavis.edu/kouba/CalcOneDIRECTORY/chainrulesoldirectory/
(contains more than 20 solved examples)

NOTES:

y
nl
O
on
r si
Ve
TA

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108 3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

3.4 Implicit Functions and Their Derivatives

You can imagine the variety of dierent functions in mathematics. So far, all the
functions weve encountered had this one thing in common: You could write them as
y = f (x) (or x = F (y) ) in which case you know that x is the independent variable
and y is the dependent variable. We know which variable is which. Sometimes it is
not so easy to see which variable is which especially if the function is written as,
say,

x2 2xy + tan(xy) 2 = 0.

What do we do? Can we solve for either one of these variables at all? And if we can,
do we solve for x in terms of y, or y in terms of x? Well, we dont always have to
solve for any variable here, and well still be able to nd the derivative so long as we
agree on which variable x, or y is the independent one. Actually, Newton was the
In his Method of Fluxions, (1736), rst person to perform an implicit dierentiation. Implicit functions appear very
Isaac Newton was one of the rst often in the study of general solutions of dierential equations. Well see later
to use the procedure of this sec-
tion, namely, implicit dierentia- on that the general solution of a separable dierential equation is usually given by
tion. He used his brand of deriva- an implicit function. Other examples of implicit functions include the equation of

y
tives though, things he called ux-
ions and he got into big trouble
closed curves in the xy-plane (circles, squares, ellipses, etc. to mention a few of the

nl
because they werent well dened. common ones).
In England, one famous philosopher
by the name of Bishop Berkeley
criticized Newton severely for his
Review

O
inability to actually explain what
these uxions really were. Nev-
erthless, Newton obtained the right You should review the Chain Rule and the Generalized Power Rule in
answers (according to our calcula- the preceding section. A mastery of these concepts and the usual rules for
tions). What about Leibniz? Well,
on
even Leibniz got into trouble with dierentiation will make this section much easier to learn.
his, so-called, dierentials because
he really couldnt explain this stu
well, either! His nemesis in this
case was one Bernard Nieuwen-
si

We can call our usual functions explicit because their values are given explicitly
tijt of Amsterdam (1694). Appar-
ently, neither Berkeley nor Nieuwen- (i.e., we can write them down) by solving one of the variables in terms of the other.
tijt could put the Calculus on a rig- This means that for each value of x there is only one value of y. But this is the
r

orous foundation either, so, even-


same as saying that y is a function of x, right? An equation involving two variables,
Ve

tually the matter was dropped. It


would take another 150 years un- say, x, y, is said to be an explicit relation if one can solve for y (or x) uniquely in
til Weierstrass and others like him terms of x (or y).
would come along and make sense
out of all this Calculus business with
rigorous denitions (like those in the Example 95. For example, the equation 2y = 2x6 4x is an explicit relation
Advanced Topics chapter).
because we can easily solve for y in terms of x. In fact, it reduces to the rule
TA

y = x6 2x which denes a function y = f (x) where f (x) = x6 2x.Another


example is given by the function y whose values are given by y(x) = x + x whose
values are easily calculated: Each value of x gives a value of y = x + x and so
on, and y can be found directly using a calculator. Finally, 3x + 6 9y 2 = 0 also
denes an explicit relation because now we can solve for x in terms of y and nd
x = 3y 2 2.

In the same spirit we say that an equation involving two variables, say, x, y, is said
to be an implicit relation if it is not explicit.

Example 96. For example, the relation dened by the rule y 5 + 7y = x3 cos x
is implicit. Okay, you can isolate the y, but whats left still involves y and x, right?
The equation dened by x2 y 2 + 4 sin(xy) = 0 also denes an implicit relation.

Such implicit relations are useful because they usually dene a curve in the xy-
plane, a curve which is not, generally speaking, the graph of a function. In fact,
you can probably believe the statement that a closed curve (like a circle, ellipse,
etc.) cannot be the graph of a function. Can you show why? For example, the circle
dened by the implicit relation x2 + y 2 = 4 is not the graph of a unique function,

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3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES 109

(think of the, so-called, Vertical Line Test for functions).

So, if y is obscured by some complicated expression as in, say, x2 2xy + tan(xy)


2 = 0, then it is not easy to solve for y given a value of x; in other words, it
would be very dicult to isolate the ys on one side of the equation and group the
xs together on the other side. In this case y is said to be dened implicitly or y is
an implicit function of x. By the same token, x may be considered an implicit
function of y and it would equally dicult to solve for x as a function of y. Still, it is
possible to draw its graph by looking for those points x, y that satisfy the equation,
see Figure 42.

Other examples of functions dened implicitly are given by:

(x 1)2 + y 2 = 16 A circle of radius 4 and center at (1, 0).


(x2)2 (y6)2
9
+ 16
=1 An ellipse centered at (2, 6).
(x 3)2 (y 4)2 = 5 A hyperbola.

OK, so how do we nd the derivative of such functions dened implic-

y
An approximate plot of the implicit
itly?

nl
relation
x2 2xy + tan(xy) 2 = 0.
1. Assume, say y, is a dierentiable function of x, (or x is a dierentiable function This plot fails the vertical line test

O
of y).
and so it cannot be the graph of a
2. Write y = y(x) (or x = x(y)) to show the dependence of y on x, (even though function.
we really dont know what it looks like).
Figure 42.
on
3. Dierentiate the relation/expression which denes y implicitly with respect to
x (or y - this expression is a curve in the xy-plane.)
dy
4. Solve for the derivative dx
explicitly, yes, explicitly!
si

Note: It can be shown that the 4 steps above always produce an expression
for dy
dx which can be solved
r

explicitly. In other words, even though y is


dy
Ve

given implicitly, the function dx is explicit, that is, given a point P(x, y) on the
dy
dening curve described in (3) we can actually solve for the term dx .

This note is based on the assumption that we already know that y can be written
as a dierentiable function of x. This assumption isnt obvious, and involves an
TA

important result called the Implicit Function Theorem which we wont study here
but which can be found in books on Advanced Calculus. One of the neat things
about this implicit function theorem business is that it tells us that, under certain
conditions, we can always solve for the derivative dy/dx even though we cant solve
for y! Amazing, isnt it?

dy
Example 97. Find the derivative of y with respect to x, that is, dx
, when
x, y are related by the expression xy y = 6. 2

Solution We assume that y is a dierentiable function of x so that we can write


y = y(x) and y is dierentiable. Then the relation between x, y above really says
that

xy(x) y(x)2 = 6.

OK, since this is true for all x under consideration (the xs were not specied, so
dont worry) it follows that we can take the derivative of both sides and still get
equality, i.e.
d d
(xy(x) y(x)2 ) = (6).
dx dx

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110 3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

d
Now, dx
(6) = 0 since the derivative of a constant is always 0 and

d d d
(xy(x) y(x)2 ) xy(x) y(x)2
 
=
dx dx dx
dy d(x) dy
= x + y(x) 2y(x)
dx dx dx
dy
= [x 2y(x)] + y(x)
dx
where we used a combination of the Product Rule and the Generalized Power Rule
(see Example 86 for a similar argument). So, we have

dy d
[x 2y(x)] + y(x) = (6) = 0,
dx dx
dy
and solving for dx
we get

dy y(x)
= .
dx x 2y(x)
y(x)
= .

y
2y(x) x

nl
dy
OK, so we have found dx
in terms of x and y(x) that is, since y = y(x),

dy y

O
=
dx 2y x

provided x and y are related by the original expression xy y 2 = 6 which describes


a curve in the xy-plane. This last display then describes the values of the derivative
on
y  (x) along this curve for a given point P(x,y) on it.

To nd the slope of the tangent line to a point P(x0 , y0 ) on this curve we calculate
si

dy y0
=
dx 2y0 x0
r
Ve

where x0 y0 y02 = 6, thats all. So, for example the point (7, 1) is on this curve
because x0 = 7, y0 = 1 satises x0 y0 y02 = 6. You see that the derivative at this
point (7, 1) is given by

dy 1 1
= =
2(1) 7
TA

dx 5

Example 98. Let x3 + 7x = y 3 dene an implicit relation for x in terms of y.


Find x (1).

Solution Well assume that x can be written as a dierentiable function of y.We


take the derivative of both sides (with respect to y this time!). We see that

dx dx
3x2 +7 = 3y 2 ,
dy dy
since
d 3 dx
x = 3x2
dy dy

by the Generalized Power Rule. We can now solve for the expression dx/dy and nd
a formula for the derivative, namely,

dx 3y 2
= .
dy 3x2 + 7

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3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES 111

Now we can nd the derivative easily at any point (x, y) on the curve x3 + 7x = y 3 .
For instance, the derivative at the point (1, 2) on this curve is given by substituting
the values x = 1, y = 2 in the formula for the derivative just found, so that

dx (3)(2)2 12 6
= = = .
dy (3)(1)2 + 7 10 5
For a geometrical interpretation of this derivative, see Figure 43 on the next page.

Example 99. Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = y(x) given
implicitly by the relation x2 + 4y 2 = 5 at the point (1, 1).

Solution First, you should always check that the given point (1, 1) is on this curve,
otherwise, there is nothing to do! Let x0 = 1, y0 = 1 and P(x0 , y0 ) =P(1, 1). We
see that (1)2 + 4(1)2 = 5 and so the point P(1, 1) is on the curve.

Since we want the slope of a tangent line to the curve y = y(x) at x = x0 , we need
to nd its derivative y  (x) and evaluate it at x = x0 .

y
OK, now

nl
d 2 d
(x + 4y(x)2 ) = (5)
dx dx
d
(y(x)2 )

O
  
2x + 4 = 0
dx

2x + 4 2y(x) y  (x) = 0
on
2x x
y  (x) = = , (if y(x) = 0)
8y(x) 4y(x)

and this gives the value of the derivative, y  (x) at any point (x, y) on the curve, that
si

is y  = 4y
x
where (x, y) is on the curve (remember y = y(x)). It follows that at
(1, 1), this derivative is equal to
r

(1) 1
Ve

y  (1) = (1) = .
4(1) 4

Example 100.
A curve in the xy-plane is given by the set of all points (x, y)
TA

satisfying the equation y 5 + x2 y 3 = 10. Find dx


dy
at the point (x, y) = (3, 1).

Solution Verify that (3, 1) is, indeed, on the curve. This is true since 15 +
(3)2 (1)3 = 10, as required. Next, we assume that x = x(y) is a dierentiable
function of y. Then
d 5 d
(y + x2 y 3 ) = (10)
dy dy

5y 4 + 2x(y) x (y) y 3 + x(y)2 (3y 2 ) = 0,

(where we used the Power Rule and the Product Rule). Isolating the term x (y) = dx
dy
gives us the required derivative,

dx 3x2 y 2 5y 4
= .
dy 2xy 3
When x = 3, y = 1 so,
dx 27 5 16
= = .
dy 6 3

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112 3.4. IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

dy 3
Remark If we were to nd dx at (3, 1) we would obtain 16 ; the reciprocal of
dx
dy
. Is this a coincidence? No. It turns out that if y is a dierentiable function
of x and x is a dierentiable function of y then their derivatives are related by
the relation
dy 1
= dx .
dx dy

if dx
dy
= 0, at the point P(x, y) under investigation. This is another consequence
of the Implicit Function Theorem and a result on Inverse Functions.

dy
O.K., we know what dx means geometrically, right ? Is there some geometric mean-
ing for dy ? Yes, the value of dx
dx
dy
at P(x, y) on the given curve is equal to the negative
of the slope of the line perpendicular to the tangent line through P. For
example, the equation of the tangent line through P(3, 1) in Example 100 is given
by y = (3x + 25)/16, while the equation of the line perpendicular to this tangent
line and through P is given by y = (16x + 51)/3. This last (perpendicular) line is

y
called the normal line through P. See Figure 43.
Figure 43. Geometric mean-

nl
dx
ing of dy
Exercise Set 13.

O
Use implicit dierentiation to nd the required derivative.
on
dy
1. x2 + xy + y 2 = 1, dx
at (1, 0)
2. 2xy 2 y 4 = x3 , dy
dx
and dx
dy
dy
3. x + y + xy = 4, at (16, 0)
si

dx
4. x y 2 = 4, dy
dx
dy
5. x2 + y 2 = 9, at (0, 3)
r

dx
Ve

Find the equation of the tangent line to the given curve at the given point.

6. 2y 2 x2 = 1, at (1, 1)
7. 2x = xy + y 2 , at (1, 1)
TA

8. x2 + 2x + y 2 4y 24 = 0, at (4, 0)
9. (x + y)3 x3 y 3 = 0, at (1, 1)

Suggested Homework Set 8. Problems 1, 2, 4, 7, 9

Web Links

For more examples on implicit dierentiation see:

www.math.ucdavis.edu/kouba/CalcOneDIRECTORY/implicitdidirectory/
www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/derivative/implicit.html
(the above site requires a Java-enabled browser)

NOTES:

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3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 113

3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Our modern world runs on electricity. In these days of computers, space travel and
robots we need to have a secure understanding of the basic laws of electricity and
its uses. In this realm, electric currents both alternating (as in households), and
direct (as in a ashlight battery), lead one to the study of sine and cosine functions
and their interaction. For example, how does an electric current vary over time?
We need its rate of change with respect to time, and this can be modeled using its
derivative.
An integrated circuits board
In another vein, so far weve encountered the derivatives of many dierent types of
functions; polynomials, rational functions, roots of every kind, and combinations of
such functions. In many applications of mathematics to physics and other physical
and natural sciences we need to study combinations of trigonometric functions and
other changes, the shapes of their graphs and other relevant data. In the simplest
of these applications we can mention the study of wave phenomena. In this area
we model incoming or outgoing waves in a uid (such as a lake, tea, coee, etc.)
as a combination of sine and cosine waves, and then study how these waves change

y
over time. Well, to study how these waves change over time we need to study
their derivatives, right? This, in turn, means that we need to be able to nd the

nl
derivatives of the sine and cosine functions and thats what this section is all about.

O
There are two fundamental limits that we need to recall here from an earlier chapter,
namely
on
sin x
lim = 1, (3.2)
x0 x
1 cos x
lim = 0, (3.3)
x0 x
r si

Lets also recall some fundamental trigonometric identities in Table 3.4.


Ve

All angles, A, B and x are in radians in the Table above, and this is customary in
calculus.

180
Recall that 1 radian =
degrees.
TA

I1 sin(A + B) = sin(A) cos(B) + cos(A) sin(B)


I2 cos(A + B) = cos(A) cos(B) sin(A) sin(B)
I3 sin2 x + cos2 x = 1
I4 sec2 x tan2 x = 1
I5 csc2 x cot2 x = 1
I6 cos 2x = cos2 x sin2 x
I7 sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x
I8 cos2 x = 1+cos 2x
2
I9 sin2 x = 1cos 2x
2

Table 3.4: Useful Trigonometric Identities

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114 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

The rst result is that the derivative of the sine function is the cosine function, that
is,

d
sin x = cos x.
dx

This is not too hard to show; for example, assume that h = 0. Then

sin(x + h) sin x sin x cos h + cos x sin h sin x


= , (by I1)
h h
cos h 1 sin h
= sin x + cos x , (re-arranging terms)
h h
Now we use a limit theorem from Chapter 2: Since the last equation is valid for
each h = 0 we can pass to the limit and nd

sin(x + h) sin x cos h 1 sin h


lim = sin x lim ( ) + cos x lim ( )
h0 h h0 h h0 h
= (sin x) (0) + (cos x) (1), (by (3.3) and (3.2))

y
= cos x.

nl
A similar derivation applies to the next result;

O
d
cos x = sin x
dx
on
For example,

cos(x + h) cos x cos x cos h sin x sin h cos x


si

= , (by I2)
h h
cos h 1 sin h
sin x (re arranging terms)
r

= cos x ,
h h
Ve

As before, since this last equation is valid for each h = 0 we can pass to the limit
and nd
cos(x + h) cos x cos h 1 sin h
lim = cos x lim ( ) sin x lim ( )
h0 h h0 h h0 h
TA

= (cos x) (0) (sin x)(1), (by (3.3) and (3.2))


= sin x.

Since these two limits dene the derivative of each trigonometric function we get
the boxed results, above.

OK, now that we know these two fundamental derivative formulae for the sine and
cosine functions we can derive all the other such formulae (for tan, cot, sec, and csc)
using basic properties of derivatives.

For example, lets show that


d 1
tan x =
dx cos2 x
or, since 1
cos2 x
= sec2 x, we get

d
tan x = sec2 x
dx

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3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 115

sin x
as well. To see this we use the Quotient Rule and recall that since tan x = cos x
,

d d sin x
tan x = ( ) (by denition)
dx dx cos x
cos x dx (sin x) ( dx
d d
cos x) sin x
= (Quotient Rule)
cos2 x
2 2
cos x + sin x
= (just derived above)
cos2 x
1
= (by I3).
cos2 x
By imitating this argument its not hard to show that

d 1
cot x = 2 ,
dx sin x

or, equivalently,

y
d
cot x = csc2 x

nl
dx

a formula which we leave to the reader as an exercise, as well.

There are two more formulae which need to be addressed, namely, those involving
the derivative of the secant and cosecant functions. These are:
O
on
d
sec x = sec x tan x
dx
d
si

csc x = csc x cot x


dx
r

Each can be derived using the Quotient Rule. Now armed with these formulae and
Ve

the Chain Rule we can derive formulae for derivatives of very complicated looking
functions, see Table 3.5.

Example 101.
Find the derivative of f where f (x) = sin2 x + 6x.
TA

Solution The derivative of a sum is the sum of the derivatives. So


d d
f  (x) = (sin x)2 + (6x)
dx dx
d
= (sin x)2 + 6
dx
Now let 2 = sin x. We want d
dx
22 so well need to use the Generalized Power Rule
here. . . So,
d d 2
(sin x)2 = 2
dx dx
d2
= 22 1 (Power Rule)
dx
= 22 2 
= 2 (sin x) (cos x), (since 2  = cos x)
= sin 2x, (by I7)

The nal result is f  (x) = 6 + sin 2x.

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116 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Example 102. d
Evaluate 1 + cos x at x = 0.
dx

Solution We write f (x) = 1 + cos x and convert the root to a power (always do
Joseph Louis (Comte de) La- this so you can use the Generalized Power Rule).
grange, 1736 -1813, was born in
1 1
Torino, Italy and died in Paris, We get f (x) = (1 + cos x) 2 = 2 2 if we set 2 = 1 + cos x so that we can put the
France. His main contributions to original function into a more recognizable form. So far we know that
mathematics were in the elds of
1
analysis where he studied analytical f (x) = 1 + cos x = 2 2

and celestial mechanics, although


he excelled in everything that he So, by the Power Rule, we get
studied. In 1766, Lagrange became
1 12 
the successor of Euler in the Berlin f  (x) = 2 2
Academy of Science, and during the 2
next year he was awarded the rst
where 2  is the derivative of 1 + cos x (without the root), i.e.
of his many prizes for his studies
on the irregularities of the motion
d

y
of the moon. He helped to found 2 = (1 + cos x)
dx

nl
the Academy of Science in Torino in d d
1757, and the Ecole Polytechnique
= (1) + (cos x)
dx dx
in 1795. He also helped to create = 0 sin x

O
the rst commission on Weights and = sin x
Measures and was named to the Le-
gion dHonneur by Napoleon and Combining these results we nd
on
elevated to Count in 1808.
1 1
f  (x) = (1 + cos x) 2 ( sin x)
2
sin x
si

=
2 1 + cos x
r

after simplication. At x = 0 we see that


Ve

sin 0 0
f  (0) = =
2 1 + cos 0 2 2
= 0
TA

which is what we are looking for.

Example 103. d cos x


Evaluate ( ).
dx 1 + sin x

Solution Write f (x) = cos x, g(x) = 1 + sin x. We need to nd the derivative of the
quotient fg and so we can think about using the Quotient Rule.

Now, recall that

d f  (x)g(x) f (x)g  (x)


(f (g(x)) =
dx g(x)2

In our case,

f (x) f  (x) g(x) g  (x)

cos x sin x 1 + sin x cos x

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3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 117

Combining these results we nd, (provided 1 + sin x = 0),


d cos x ( sin x)(1 + sin x) (cos x)(cos x)
( ) =
dx 1 + sin x (1 + sin x)2
sin x (sin2 x + cos2 x)
=
(1 + sin x)2
1 + sin x
= (by I3)
(1 + sin x)2
1
= .
1 + sin x

Example 104. 3
Let the function be dened by f (t) = . Evaluate f  ( 4 ).
sin(t)

Solution OK, we have a constant divided by a function so it looks like we should


use the Power Rule (or the Quotient Rule, either way youll get the same answer).
So, lets write f (t) = 32 1 where 2 = sin(t) then

f  (t) = (1) 3 2 2 2 

y
nl
by the Generalized Power Rule. But we still need 2  , right? Now 2 = sin(t), so
2  = cos t. Combining these results we nd

O
f  (t) = 3(sin t)2 (cos t)
cos t
= 3 .
(sin t)2
on
Note that this last expression is also equal to 3 csc t cot t. At t = ( 4 ), (which is
45 degrees expressed in radians), cos( 4 ) = sin( 4 ) = 12 and so

( 12 ) 1 ( 2)2
si


f ( ) = 3 = 3 ,
4 ( 12 )2 2 1

r

= 3 2.
Ve

3
Note: Notice that we could have written f (t) = sin(t) as f (t) = 3 csc t and use the
derivative formula for csc t mentioned above. This would give f  (t) = 3 csc t cot t
and we could then continue as we did above.
TA

Example 105.
Lets look at an example which can be solved in two dierent
ways. Consider the implicit relation

y + sin2 y + cos2 y = x.

We want y  (x).

The easy way to do this is to note that, by trigonometry (I3), sin2 y + cos2 y = 1
regardless of the value of y. So, the original relation is really identical to y + 1 = x.
From this we observe that dy/dx = 1.

But what if you didnt notice this identity? Well, we dierentiate both sides as is the
case whenever we use implicit dierentiation. The original equation really means

y + {sin(y)}2 + {cos(y)}2 = x.

Use of the Generalized Power Rule then gives us,


dy d d
+ 2{sin(y)}1 sin(y) + 2{cos(y)}1 cos(y) = 1,
dx dx dx

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118 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions: Summary


Let 2 denote any dierentiable function, and D denote the operation of dier-
entiation. Then

D sin 2 = cos 2 D2 D cos 2 = sin 2 D2


D tan 2 = sec2 2 D2 D cot 2 = csc2 2 D2
D sec 2 = sec 2 tan 2 D2 D csc 2 = csc 2 cot 2 D2

Table 3.5: Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

or
dy dy dy
+ 2{sin(y)}1 cos(y) + 2{cos(y)}1 ( sin(y)) = 1.
dx dx dx
But the second and third terms cancel out, and we are left with
dy
= 1,

y
dx
as before. Both methods do give the same answer as they should.

nl
Example 106.
Evaluate the following derivatives using the rules of this Chap-

O
ter and Table 3.5.
on
a) f (x) = sin(2x2 + 1)

b) f (x) = cos 3x sin x
c) f (t) = (cos 2t)2 , at t = 0
si

d) f (x) = cos(sin x) at x = 0
t
e) h(t) = at t = /4
r

sin 2t
Ve

Solution a) Replace the stu between the outermost brackets by a box, 2 . We


want D sin 2 , right? Now, since 2 = 2x2 + 1, we know that D2 = 4x, and so
Table 3.5 gives
D sin 2 cos 2 D2
TA

=
= cos(2x2 + 1) 4x
= 4x cos(2x2 + 1).

b) We use a combination of the Product Rule and Table 3.5. So,



f  (x) = D(cos 3x) sin x + cos(3x) D sin x

cos( x)
= (3 sin(3x)) (sin x) + cos(3x) ,
2 x)

since D sin x = cos( x) D( x) = cos( x) ((1/2) x1/2 ) = cos( x)/(2 x).

c) Let 2 = cos 2t. The Generalized Power Rule comes to mind, so, use of Table 3.5
shows that
f  (t) = 22 D2 ,
= (2 cos 2t) (2 sin 2t)
= 4 cos 2t sin 2t
= 2 sin 4t, (where we use Table 3.4, (I7), with x = 2t).

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3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 119

So f  (0) = 2 sin(0) = 0.

d) We need to nd the derivative of something that looks like cos 2 . So, let 2 =
sin x. We know that D2 = D sin x = cos x, and once again, Table 3.5 shows that

f  (x) = sin 2 D2 ,
= sin(sin x) cos x,
= cos x sin(sin x).

So f  (0) = cos(0) sin(sin(0)) = 1 sin(0) = 0.

e) We see something that looks like a quotient so we should be using the Quotient
Rule, right? Write f (t) = t, g(t) = sin 2t. We need to nd the derivative of the
quotient fg . Now, recall that this Rule says that (replace the xs by ts)

y
nl
d f  (t)g(t) f (t)g  (t)

O
(f (g(t)) = .
dt g(t)2
on
In our case,
si

f  (t) g  (t)
r

f (t) g(t)
Ve

t 1 sin 2t 2 cos 2t
TA

Substituting these values into the Quotient Rule we get

d 1 sin 2t t 2 cos 2t
(f (g(t)) = ,
dt (sin 2t)2
sin 2t 2t cos 2t
= .
(sin 2t)2


At /4, sin(/4) = 2/2, so, sin(2 /4) = 1, cos(2 /4) = 0, and the required
derivative is equal to 1.

Exercise Set 14.

Evaluate the derivative of the functions whose values are given below, at the indi-

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120 3.5. DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

cated point.
x+1
1. sin x, at x = 1 11. , at x = /2
sin x

2. sec(2x) sin x 12. sin(2x2 )

3. sin x cos x, at x = 0 13. sin2 x, at x = /4

cos x
4. 14. cot(3x 2)
1 sin x
2x + 3
5. 1 + sin t, at t = 0 15.
sin x

6. sin(cos(x2 )) 16. cos(x sin x)



7. x2 cos 3x 17. x sec( x)

8. x2/3 tan(x1/3 ) 18. csc(x2 2) sin(x2 2)

y
9. cot(2 + x + sin x) 19. cos2 (x 6) + csc(2x)

nl
10. (sin 3x)1 20. (cos 2x)2

O
21. Let y be dened by
sin x
tan x x = 0
on
y(x) =
1 x=0
,
si

a) Show that y is continuous at x = 0,


b) Show that y is dierentiable at x = 0 and,
r

c) Conclude that y  (0) = 0.


Ve

Suggested Homework Set 9. Do problems 1, 4, 6, 13, 20


TA

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3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 121

3.6 Important Results About Derivatives

This section is about things we call theorems. Theorems are truths about things
mathematical ... They are statements which can be substantiated (or proved) using
the language of mathematics and its underlying logic. Its not always easy to prove
something, whether it be mathematical or not. The point of a proof is that it
makes everything youve learned come together, so to speak, in a more logical,
coherent fashion.

The results here form part of the cornerstones of basic Calculus. One of them, the
Mean Value Theorem will be used later when we dene the, so-called, anti-
derivative of a function and the Riemann integral.

We will motivate this rst theorem by looking at a sample real life situation. Figure 44.

A ball is thrown upwards by an outelder during a baseball game. It is clear to


everyone that the ball will reach a maximum height and then begin to fall again,
hopefully in the hands of an inelder. Since the motion of the ball is smooth (not

y
jerky) we expect the trajectory produced by the ball to be that of a dierentiable

nl
function (remember, there are no sharp corners on this ight path). OK, now since
the trajectory is dierentiable (as a functions graph) there must be a (two-sided)
derivative at the point where the ball reaches its maximum, right? What do you

O
think is the value of this derivative? Well, look at an idealized trajectory. . . it has to
be mainly parabolic (because of gravity) and it looks like the path in the margin.
on
Tangent lines to the left (respectively, right) of the point where the maximum height
is reached have positive (respectively, negative) slope and so we expect the tangent
line to be horizontal at M (the point where the maximum value is reached). This
is the key point, a horizontal tangent line means a zero derivative mathe-
si

matically. Why? Well, you recall that the derivative of f at a point x is the slope
of the tangent line at the point P (x, f (x)) on the graph of f . Since a horizontal line
r

has zero slope, it follows that the derivative is also zero.


Ve

OK, now lets translate all this into the language of mathematics. The curve has an
equation y = f (x) and the ball leaves the hand of the outelder at a point a with
a height of f (a) (meters, feet, . . . we wont worry about units here). Lets say that
the ball needs to reach b at a height f (b), where f (b) = f (a), above the ground.
TA

The fastest way of doing this, of course, is by throwing the ball in a straight line
path from point to point (see Figure 45), but this is not realistic! If it were, the
tangent line along this ight path would still be horizontal since f (a) = f (b), right!?

So, the ball cant really travel in a straight line from a to b, and will always reach Figure 45.
a maximum in our case, a maximum where necessarily y  (M ) = 0, as there is
a horizontal tangent line there, see Figure 45. OK, now lets look at all possible
(dierentiable) curves from x = a to x = b, starting at height f (a) and ending at
height f (b) = f (a), (as in Figure 46). We want to know Is there always a point
between a and b at which the curve reaches its maximum value ?

A straight line from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)), where f (b) = f (a), is one curve whose
maximum value is the same everywhere, okay? And, as we said above, this is
necessarily horizontal, so this line is the same as its tangent line (for each point x
between a and b). As can be seen in Figure 46, all the other curves seem to have
a maximum value at some point between a and b and, when that happens, there is
a horizontal tangent line there.

It looks like we have discovered something here: If f is a dierentiable function on

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122 3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES

an interval I = (a, b) (recall (a, b) = {x : a < x < b}) and f (a) = f (b) then f  (c) = 0
for some c between a and b; at least one c, but there may be more than one. Actually,
this mathematical statement is true! The result is called Rolles Theorem and it
is named after Michel Rolle, (1652-1719), a French mathematician.

Of course we havent proved this theorem of Rolle but it is believable! Its proof
can be found in more advanced books in Analysis, a eld of mathematics which
includes Calculus.)

We will state it here for future reference, though:

Rolles Theorem (1691)


Let f be a continuous function on [a, b] and let f be dierentiable at each point
in (a, b). If f (a) = f (b), then there is at least one point c between a and b at
which f  (c) = 0.

y
Remark

nl
1. Remember that the point c, whose existence is guaranteed by the theorem, is
not necessarily unique. There may be lots of them. . . but there is always at

O
least one. Unfortunately, the theorem doesnt tell us where it is so we
need to rely on graphs and other techniques to nd it.
2. Note that whenever the derivative is zero it seems that the graph of the function
on
has a peak or a sink at that point. In other words, such points appear to be
related to where the graph of the function has a maximum or minimum value.
This observation is very important and will be very useful later when we study
the general problem of sketching the graph of a general function.
r si

Example 107.
Show that the function whose values are given by f (x) = sin(x)
Ve

on the interval [0, ] satises the assumptions of Rolles Theorem. Find the required
value of c explicitly.

Figure 46. Solution We know that sin as well as its derivative, cos, are continuous every-
TA

where. Also, sin(0) = 0 = sin(). So, if we let a = 0, b = , we see that we can


apply Rolles Theorem and nd that y  (c) = 0 where c is somewhere in between 0
and . So, this means that cos c = 0 for some value of c. This is true! We can
choose c = /2 and see this c exactly.

We have seen Rolles Theorem in action. Now, lets return to the case where the
baseball goes from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)) but where f (a) = f (b) (players of dierent
heights!). What can we say in this case?

Well, we know that there is the straight line path from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)) which,
unfortunately, does not have a zero derivative anywhere as a curve (see Figure 47).
But look at all possible curves going from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)). This is only a
thought experiment, OK? They are dierentiable (lets assume this) and they bend
this way and that as they proceed from their point of origin to their destination.
Look at how they turn and compare this to the straight line joining the origin
and destination. It looks like you can always nd a tangent line to any one
of these curves which is parallel to the line joining ( a, f a
( )) to ( b, f b
( ))!
(see Figure 48). Its almost like Rolles Theorem (graphically) but it is not Rolles
Theorem because f (a) = f (b). Actually, if you think about it a little, youll see that
Figure 47. its more general than Rolles Theorem. It has a dierent name . . . and it too is a

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3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 123

true mathematical statement! We call it the Mean Value Theorem and it says
the following:

Mean Value Theorem


Let f be continuous on the interval a x b and dierentiable on the interval
a < x < b. Then there is a point c between a and b at which
f (b) f (a)
= f  (c).
ba

Remark The number on the left of the equation, namely, f (b)f ba


(a)
is really the

slope of the line pointing from (a, f (a)) to (b, f (b)). Moreover, f (c) is the slope of
the tangent line through some point (c, f (c)) on the graph of f . Since these slopes
are equal, the corresponding lines must be parallel, which is what we noticed above.

Example 108.
Show that the function whose values are given by f (x) = cos 2x

y
on the interval [0, /2] satises the assumptions of the Mean Value Theorem. Show

nl
that there is a value of c such that sin 2c = 2/.

O
Solution Here, cos 2x as well as its derivative, 2 sin 2x, are continuous every-
where. Also, cos(0) = 1 and cos() = 1. So, if we let a = 0, b = /2, we see that
we can apply the Mean Value Theorem and nd that y  (c) = 0 where c is somewhere
in between 0 and /2. This means that 2 sin 2c = 4/, or for some value of c,
on
we must have sin 2c = 2/. We may not know what this value of c is,

exactly, but it does exist! In fact, in the next section well show you how to nd
this value of c using inverse trigonometric functions.
si

Applications
r
Ve

Example 109.
Let y be continuous in the interval a x b and a dierentiable
function on an interval (a, b) whose derivative is equal to zero at each point x, a <
x < b. Show that y(x) = constant for each x, a < x < b. i.e. If y  (x) = 0 for all
x then the values y(x) are equal to one and the same number (or, y is said to be a
TA

constant function).

Solution This is one very nice application of the Mean Value Theorem. OK, let
t be any point in (a, b). Since y is continuous at x = a, y(a) is nite. Re-reading
the statement of this example shows that all the assumptions of the Mean Value
Theorem are satised. So, the quotient
y(t) y(a)
= y  (c)
ta
where a < c < t is the conclusion. But whatever c is, we know that y  (c) = 0 (by
hypothesis, i.e. at each point x the derivative at x is equal to 0). It follows that
y  (c) = 0 and this gives y(t) = y(a). But now look, t can be changed to some other
number, say, t . We do the same calculation once again and we get
y(t ) y(a)
= y  (c )
t a
where now a < c < t , and c is generally dierent from c. Since y  (c ) = 0 (again,
by hypothesis) it follows that y(t ) = y(a) as well. OK, but all this means that
y(t) = y(t ) = y(a). So, we can continue like this and repeat this argument for

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124 3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES

every possible value of t in (a, b), and every time we do this we get that y(t) = y(a).
It follows that for any choice of t, a < t < b, we must have y(t) = y(a). In other
words, we have actually proved that y(t) = constant (= y(a)), for t in a < t < b.
Since y is continuous at each endpoint a, b, it follows that y(b) must also be equal
to y(a). Finally, we see that y(x) = y(a) for every x in [a, b].

Example 110.
The function dened by y = |x| has y(1) = y(1) but yet

y (c) = 0 for any value of c. Explain why this doesnt contradict Rolles
Theorem.

Solution All the assumptions of a theorem need to be veried before using the
theorems conclusion. In this case, the function f dened by f (x) = |x| has no
derivative at x = 0 as we saw earlier, and so the assumption that f be dierentiable
over (1, 1) is not true since it is not dierentiable at x = 0. So, we cant use the
Theorem at all. This just happens to be one of the many functions that doesnt
satisfy the conclusion of this theorem. You can see that theres no contradiction to
Rolles Theorem since it doesnt apply.

y
Figure 48. Example 111.
The function f is dened by

nl
 x, 2 x 0

O
f (x) =
1 x, 0 < x 3.

In this example, the function f is dened on [2, 3] by the 2 curves in the graph
on
and f (3)f (2)
3(2)
= 45 but there is no value of c, 2 < c < 3 such that f  (c) = 54 ,
because f  (c) = 1 at every c except c = 0 where f  (0) is not dened. Does this
contradict the Mean Value Theorem?
si

Solution No, there is no contradiction here. Once again, all the assumptions of
the Mean Value Theorem must be veried before proceeding to its conclusion. In
r

this example, the function f dened above is not continuous at x = 0 because its
Ve

left-hand limit at x = 0 is f (0) = 0, while its right-hand limit, f+ (0) = 1. Since


these limits are dierent f is not continuous at x = 0. Since f is not continuous at
x = 0, it cannot be continuous on all of [2, 3]. So, we cant apply the conclusion.
So, theres nothing wrong with this function or Rolles Theorem.
TA

Example 112.
Another very useful application of the Mean Value Theorem/Rolles
Theorem is in the theory of dierential equations which we spoke of earlier.

Let y be a dierentiable function for each x in (a, b) = {x : a < x < b} and


continuous in [a, b] = {x : a x b}. Assume that y has the property that for
every number x in (a, b),

dy
+ y(x)2 + 1 = 0.
dx
Show that this function y cannot have two zeros (or roots) in the interval [a, b].

Solution Use Rolles Theorem and show this result by assuming the contrary. This
is called a a proof by contradiction, remember? Assume that, if possible, there
are two points A, B in the interval [a, b] where y(A) = y(B) = 0. Then, by Rolles
Theorem, there exists a point c in (A, B) with y  (c) = 0. Use this value of c in the
equation above. This means that

dy
(c) + y(c)2 + 1 = 0,
dx

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3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 125

Summary
Rolles Theorem
Let f be continuous at each point of a closed interval [a, b] and dier-
entiable at each point of (a, b). If f (a) = f (b), then there is a point c
between a and b at which f
(c) = 0.
Remark Dont confuse this result with Bolzanos Theorem (Chapter 2).
Bolzanos Theorem deals with the existence of a root of a continuous
function f while Rolles Theorem deals with the existence of a root of the
derivative of a function.
Mean Value Theorem
Let f be continuous on the interval a x b and dierentiable on the
interval a < x < b. Then there is a point c between a and b at which
f (b)f (a)
ba = f
(c).

y
Table 3.6: Rolles Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem

nl
O
right? Now, since y  (c) = 0, it follows that y(c)2 + 1 = 0. But y(c)2 0. So, this
is an impossibility, it can never happen. This last statement is the contradiction.
The original assumption that there are two points A, B in the interval [a, b] where
on
y(A) = y(B) = 0 must be false. So, there cant be two such points. It follows
that y cannot have two zeros in a x b.

Remark This is a really interesting aspect of most dierential equations: We really


si

yx
dont know what ( ) looks like either explicitly or implicitly but still, we can
get some information about its graph! In the preceding example we showed that
r

y(x) could not have two zeros, for example. This sort of analysis is part of an area
Ve

of dierential equations called qualitative analysis.

Note The function y dened by y(x) = tan(c x) where c is any xed number,
dy
has the property that dx + y(x)2 + 1 = 0. If c = , say, then y(x) = tan( x)
TA

is such a function whose graph is reproduced in Figure 49.


Note that this function has lots of zeros! Why does this graph not contradict
the result of Example 112? Its because on this interval, [0, ] the function f
is not dened at x = /2 (so it not continuous on [0, ]), and so Example 112
does not apply.

Example 113.
In a previous example we saw that if y is a dierentiable function

on [a, b] and y (x) = 0 for all x in (a, b) then y(x) must be a constant function.

The same ideas may be employed to show that if y is a twice dierentiable function Figure 49.
on (a, b) (i.e. the derivative itself has a derivative), y and y  are each continuous on
[a, b] and if y  (x) = 0 for each x in (a, b) then y(x) = mx + b, for each a < x < b,
for some constants m and b. That is, y must be a linear function.

Solution We apply the Mean Value Theorem to the function y  rst. Look at the
 
interval [a, x]. Then y (x)y
xa
(a)
= y  (c) where a < c < x. But y  (c) = 0 (regardless
of the value of c) so this means y  (x) = y  (a) = constant. Since x can be any

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126 3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES

Intermediate Value Theorem


Let f be continuous at each point of a closed interval [a, b] = {x : a
x b}. Assume,
1. f (a)
= f (b)

2. z is a point between the numbers f (a) and f (b).


Then there is at least one value of c between a and b such that f (c) = z
Remark This result is very useful in nding the root of certain equations,
or the points of intersection of two or more curves in the plane.
Bolzanos Theorem
Let f be continuous on a closed interval [a, b] (i.e., at each point x
in [a, b]).
If f (a)f (b) < 0, then there is at least one point c between a and b such
that f (c) = 0. In other words there is at least one root of f in the
interval (a, b).

y
nl
Table 3.7: Main Theorems about Continuous Functions

O
number, x > a, and the constant above does not change (it is equal to y  (a)), it
follows that y  (x) = y  (a) for any x in (a, b).
on
Now, apply the Mean Value Theorem to y, NOT y  . . . Then

y(x) y(a)
= y  (c)
si

xa

where a < c < x (not the same c as before, though). But we know that y  (c) = y  (a)
r

(from what we just proved) so this means that y(x) y(a) = y  (a)(x a) or
Ve

y(x) = y  (a)(x a) + y(a)


= mx + b

if we chose m = y  (a) and b = y(a) ay  (a). Thats all!


TA

Two other big theorems of elementary Calculus are the Intermediate Value Theorem
and a special case of it called Bolzanos Theorem, both of which we saw in our chapter
on Limits and Continuity. We recall them here.

Example 114.
Show that there is a root of the equation f (x) = 0 in the interval
Bernhard Bolzano, 1781-1848, [0, ], where f (x) = x sin x + cos x .
Czechoslovakian priest and mathe-
matician who specialized in Analysis Solution OK, whats this question about? The key words are root and function
where he made many contributions and at this point, basing ourselves on the big theorems above, we must be dealing
to the areas of limits and continuity with an application of Bolzanos Theorem, you see? (Since it deals with roots
and, like Weierstrass, he produced
of functions, see Table 3.7.) So, let [a, b] = [0, ] which means that a = 0 and
b = . Now the function whose values are given by x sin x is continuous (as it is
a method (1850) for constructing a
the product of two continuous functions) and since cos x is continuous it follows
continuous function which has no
that x sin x + cos x is continuous (as the sum of continuous functions is, once again
derivative anywhere! He helped to
continuous). Thus f is continuous on [a, b] = [0, ].
establish the tenet that mathemat-
ical truth should rest on rigorous What about f (0)? Well, f (0) = 1 (since 0 sin 0 + cos 0 = 0 + (+1) = +1).
proofs rather than intuition.

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3.6. IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 127

And f ()? Here f () = 1 (since sin + cos = 0 + (1) = 1).


So, f () = 1 < 0 < f (0) = 1 which means that f (a)f (b) = f (0)f () < 0. So, all
the hypotheses of Bolzanos theorem are satised. This means that the conclusion
follows, that is, there is a point c between 0 and so that f (c) = 0.

Remark Okay, but where is the root of the last example?

Well, we need more techniques to solve this problem, and there is one, very useful
method, called Newtons method which well see soon, (named after the same
Newton mentioned in Chapter 1, one of its discoverers.)

Exercise Set 15.

Use Bolzanos theorem to show that each of the given functions has a root in the
given interval. Dont forget to verify the assumption of continuity in each
case. You may want to use your calculator. In the rst few exercises show 1)

y
that the function is continuous,

nl
and 2) that there are two points
1. y(x) = 3x 2, 0 x 2
a, b inside the given interval with
2. y(x) = x2 1, 2 x 0 f (a)f (b) < 0. Then use Bolzanos

O
3. y(x) = 2x2 3x 2, 0 x 3 Theorem.
4. y(x) = sin x + cos x, 0 x
5. y(x) = x cos x + sin x, 0 x
on
6. The function y has the property that y is three-times dierentiable in (a, b) and
continuous in [a, b]. If y  (x) = 0 for all x in (a, b) show that y(x) is of the form
y(x) = Ax2 + Bx + C for a suitable choice of A, B, and C.
si

dy
7. The following function y has the property that dx + y(x)4 + 2 = 0 for x in (a, b).
Show that y(x) cannot have two zeros in the interval [a, b].
r

8. Use the Mean Value Theorem to show that sin x x for any x in the interval
Ve

[0, ].
9. Use Rolles Theorem applied to the sine function on [0, ] to show that the cosine
function must have a root in this interval.
10. Apply the Mean Value Theorem to the sine function on [0, /2] to show that
TA

x sin x 2 1. Conclude that if 0 x 2 , then 0 x sin x 2 1.


11. Use a calculator to nd that value c in the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem
for the following two functions:
a) f (x) = x2 + x 1, [a, b] = [0, 2]
b) g(x) = x2 + 3, [a, b] = [0, 1]
Hint In (a) calculate the number f (b)f ba
(a)
explicitly. Then nd f  (c) as a
function of c, and, nally, solve for c.
12. An electron is shot through a 1 meter wide plasma eld and its time of travel
is recorded at 0.3 108 seconds on a timer at its destination. Show, using the
Mean Value Theorem, that its velocity at some point in time had to exceed the
speed of light in that eld given approximately by 2.19 108 m/sec. (Note
This eect is actually observed in nature!)

Suggested Homework Set 10. Do problems 1, 3, 6, 8, 11

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128 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

3.7 Inverse Functions

One of the most important topics in the theory of functions is that of the inverse
of a function, a function which is NOT the same as the reciprocal (or 1 divided
by the function). Using this new notion of an inverse we are able to back-track in
a sense, the idea being that we interchange the domain and the range of a function
when dening its inverse and points in the range get associated with the point in
the domain from which they arose. These inverse functions are used everywhere
in Calculus especially in the topic of nding the area between two curves, or
calculating the volume of a solid of revolution two topics which we will address
later. The two main topics in Calculus namely, dierentiation and integration of
functions, are actually related. In the more general sense of an inverse of an op-
erator, these operations on functions are almost inverses of one another. Knowing
how to manipulate and nd inverse functions is a necessity for a thorough under-
standing of the methods in Calculus. In this section we will learn what they are,
how to nd them, and how to sketch them.

Review

y
You should be completely familiar with Chapter 1, and especially how to nd

nl
the composition of two functions using the box method or any other method.

O
We recall the notion of the composition of two functions here: Given two func-
tions, f, g where the range of g is contained in the domain of f , (i.e., R=Ran(g)
f g
Dom(f)=D) we dene the composition of and , denoted by the symbol f g,
on
a new function whose values are given by (f g)(x) = f (g(x)) where x is in the
domain of g (denoted briey by D).
si

Example 115.
Let f (x) = x2 + 1, g(x) = x 1. Find (f g)(x) and (g f )(x).
r
Ve

Solution Recall the box methods of Chapter 1. By denition, since f (x) = x2 + 1


we know that f (2 ) = 2 2 + 1. So,
2 2
f ( g(x) ) = g(x) + 1 = (x-1) + 1 = (x 1)2 + 1 = x2 2x + 2.
TA

On the other hand, when the same idea is applied to (gf )(x), we get (gf )(x) = x2 .

Note: This shows that the operation of composition is not commutative, that
is, (g f )(x) = (f g)(x), in general. The point is that composition is not the
same as multiplication.

Let f be a given function with domain, D=Dom(f), and range, R=Ran(f). We say
that the function F is the inverse of f if all these four conditions hold:

Dom(F ) = Ran(f )
Dom(f ) = Ran(F )
(F f )(x) = x, for every x in Dom(f)
(f F )(x) = x, for every x in Dom(F)

Thus, the inverse functions domain is R. The inverse function of f is usually written
f 1 whereas the reciprocal function of f is written as f1 so that ( f1 )(x) = f (x)
1
=
1
f (x). This is the source of much confusion!

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3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 129

Example 116.
Find the composition of the functions f, g where f (x) = 2x + 3,

g(x) = x , and show that (f g)(x) = (g f )(x).


2

Solution Using the box method or any other method we nd

(f g)(x) = f (g(x)) = 2g(x) + 3 = 2x2 + 3

while

(g f )(x) = g(f (x)) = (f (x))2 = (2x + 3)2 = 4x2 + 12x + 9

So we see that

(f g)(x) = (g f )(x)

as the two expressions need to be exactly the same for equality.

Example 117. Figure 50.


Show that the functions f, F dened by f (x) = 2x + 3 and

y
F (x) = x3
2
are inverse of one another. That is, show that F is the inverse of f and
f is the inverse of F .

nl
Solution As a check we note that Dom(F) = Ran(f) = (, ) and

O
x3
f (F (x)) = 2F (x) + 3 = 2( ) + 3 = x,
2
which means that (f F )(x) = x. On the other hand, Dom(f) = Ran(F) = (, )
on
and
f (x) 3 (2x + 3) 3
F (f (x)) = = = x,
2 2
si

which now means that (F f )(x) = x. So, by denition, these two functions are
inverse functions of one another.
r
Ve

How can we tell if a given function has an inverse function?. In order that
two functions f, F be inverses of one another it is necessary that each function be
one-to-one on their respective domains. This means that the only solution of the
equation f (x) = f (y) (resp. F (x) = F (y)) is the solution x = y, whenever x, y are
in Dom(f ), (resp. Dom(F )). The simplest geometrical test for deciding whether
TA

a given function is one-to-one is the so-called Horizontal Line Test. Basically, one
looks at the graph of the given function on the xy-plane, and if every horizontal line
through the range of the function intersects the graph at only one point, then the
function is one-to-one and so it has an inverse function, see Figure 50. The moral
here is Not every function has an inverse function, only those that are one-to-one!

Example 118.
Show that the function f (x) = x2 has no inverse function if we
take its domain to be the interval [1, 1].

Solution This is because the Horizontal Line Test shows that every horizontal
line through the range of f intersects the curve at two points (except at (0,0),
see Figure 51). Since the Test fails, f is not one-to-one and this means that f
cannot have an inverse. Can you show that this function does have an inverse if
its domain is restricted to the smaller interval [0, 1] ?

Example 119.
Figure 51.
Find the form of the inverse function of the function f dened
by f (x) = 2x + 3, where x is real.

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130 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

How to nd the inverse of a function


1. Write y = f (x)

Solve for x in terms of y


Then x = F (y) where F is the inverse.

2. Interchange the xs and ys.

Solve for the symbol y in terms of x.


This gives y = F (x) where F is the inverse.

It follows that the graph of the inverse function, F , is obtained by reect-


ing the graph of f about the line y = x. More on this later.

y
nl
Table 3.8: How to Find the Inverse of a Function

O
Solution Use Table 3.8. Write y = f (x) = 2x + 3. We solve for x in terms of y.
Then
y3
on
y = 2x + 3 means x = = F (y).
2
x3
Now interchange x and y. So the inverse of f is given by F where F (x) = .
2
si

Example 120.
f (x) = x4 , x 0, what is its inverse function F (x) (also denoted
r
Ve

by f 1 (x)) ?

The graph of f (x) = x4 . If x 0 Solution Lets use Table 3.8, once again. Write y = x4 . From the graph of f
(Figure 52) we see that it is one-to-one if x 0. Solving for x in terms of y, we get
this function is one-to-one.It is not
x = 4 y since x is real, and y 0. So f 1 (y) = F (y) = 4 y or f 1 (x) = F (x) = 4 x
TA

true that f is one-to-one if the do-


is the inverse function of f .
main of f contains negative points,
since in this case there are horizon-
Example 121.
tal lines that intersect the graph in If f (x) = x3 + 1, what is its inverse function, f 1 (x)?
TWO points.

Figure 52. Solution We solve for x in terms of y, as usual. Since y = x3 + 1 we know y 1 = x3


= 3 y 1 (and y can
or x be any real numberhere). Interchanging x and y we get
y = 3 x 1, or f 1 (x) = 3 x 1, or F (x) = 3 x 1

The derivative of the inverse function f 1 of a given function f is related to


the derivative of f by means of the next formula

dF df 1 1 1
(x) = (x) =  1 =  (3.4)
dx dx f (f (x)) f (F (x))

where the symbol f  (f 1 (x)) means that the derivative of f is evaluated at the point
f 1 (x), where x is given. Why?

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3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 131

The simplest reason is that the Chain Rule tells us that since f (F (x)) = x we can
dierentiate the composition on the left using the Box Method (with F (x) in the
box...). By the Chain Rule we know that

Df (2 ) = f  (2 ) D(2 ).

Applying this to our denition of the inverse of f we get

x = f (F (x))
Dx = Df (F (x)) = Df (2 )
1 = f  (2 ) D(2 )
= f  (F (x)) F  (x).

Now solving for the symbol F  (x) in the last display (because this is what we want)
we obtain
1
F  (x) =  ,
f (F (x))
where F (x) = f 1 (x) is the inverse of the original function f (x). This proves our
claim.

y
Another, more geometrical, argument proceeds like this: Referring to Figure 53 in

nl
the margin let (x, y) be a point on the graph of y = f 1 (x). We can see that the
tangent line to the graph of f has equation y = mx + b where m, its slope, is also
the derivative of f at the point in question (i.e., f  (y)). On the other hand, its

O
reection is obtained by interchanging x, y, and so the equation of its counterpart
(on the other side of y = x) is x = my + b. Solving for y in terms of x in this one
we get y = m x
mb
. This means that it has slope equal to the reciprocal of the rst
on
one. Since these slopes are actually derivatives this means that
1 1
(f 1 ) (x) = =  1
f  (y) f (f (x))
si

since our point (x, y) lies on the graph of the inverse function, y = f 1 (x).
r

Example 122. df 1
Ve

For Example 120 above, what is (16)? i.e., the derivative The two tangents are reections of
dx one another, and so their slopes
of the inverse function of f at x = 16? must be the reciprocal of one an-
other (see the text).
Solution Using Equation 3.4, we have
TA

1 Figure 53.
(f 1 ) (16) =
f  (f 1 (16))

But f 1 (x) = 4 x means that f 1 (16) = 4 16 = 2. So, (f 1 ) (16) = f 1(2) and
now we need f  (2). But f (x) = x4 , so f  (2) = 4(2)3 = 32. Finally, we nd that
(f 1 ) (16) = 32
1
.

Example 123.
A function f with an inverse function denoted by F has the
property that F (0) = 1 and f  (1) = 0.2. Calculate the value of F  (0).

Solution We dont have much given here but yet we can actually nd the answer
as follows: Since
1
F  (0) = 
f (F (0))
by (3.4) with x = 0, we set F (0) = 1, and note that f  (F (0)) = f  (1). But since
f  (1) = 0.2 we see that
1 1 1
F  (0) = =  = = 5.
f  (F (0)) f (1) 0.2

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132 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

Example 124.
Let g be a function dened by

x+2
g(x) =
x2
with Dom(g) = {x : x = 2}. Show that g has an inverse function, G, nd its form,
and describe its Domain and Range.

Solution Lets denote its inverse function by G. The rst question you should be
asking yourself is: How do we know that there is an inverse function at all? In
other words, we have to show that the graph of g satises the Horizontal Line Test
mentioned above (see Fig. 50), or, in other words, g is one-to-one. To do this we can
do one of two things: We can either draw the graph as in Fig. 54 (if you have that
much patience), or check the condition algebraically by showing that if g(x) = g(y)
then x = y must be true (for any points x, y in the domain of g). Since the graph
is already given in the margin we are done, but lets look at this using the algebraic
test mentioned here.

y
In order to prove that g is one-to-one algebraically, we have to show that if g(x) =

nl
g(y) then x = y. Basically, we use the denitions, perform some algebra, simplify
and see if we get x = y at the end. If we do, were done. Lets see.

O
The graph of the function g in Ex- We assume that g(x) = g(y) (here y is thought of as an independent variable, just
ample 124. Note that any horizon-
like x). Then, by denition, this means that
on
tal line intersects the graph of g in x+2 y+2
=
only one point! This means that g is x2 y2
one-to-one on its domain. The ver-
for x, y = 2. Multiplying both sides by (x 2)(y 2) we get (x + 2)(y 2) =
si

tical line across the point x = 2 is


(y + 2)(x 2). Expanding these expressions we get
called a vertical asymptote (a line
on which the function becomes in- xy + 2y 2x 4 = yx + 2x 2y 4
r

nite). More on this in Chapter 5.


Ve

from which we easily see that x = y. Thats all. So g is one-to-one. Thus, its inverse
function G exists.
Figure 54.
Next, to nd its values, G(x), we replace all the xs by ys and solve for y in terms
of x, (cf., Table 3.8). Replacing all the xs by ys (and the only y by x) we get
TA

y+2
x= .
y2
Multiplying both sides by (y 2) and simplifying we get
2x + 2
y= .
x1
This is G(x).

Its domain is Dom(G) = {x : x = 1} = Ran(g) while its range is given by Ran(G) =


Dom(g) = {x : x = 2} by denition of the inverse.

Now that we know how to nd the form of the inverse of a given (one-to-one)
function, the natural question is: What does it look like?. Of course, it is simply
another one of those graphs whose shape may be predicted by means of existing
computer software or by the old and labor intensive method of nding the critical
points of the function, the asymptotes, etc. So, why worry about the graph of an
inverse function? Well, one reason is that the graph of an inverse function is
related to the graph of the original function (that is, the one for which it is
the inverse). How? Lets have a look at an example.

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3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 133

Example 125.
Lets look at the graph of the function f (x) = x, for x in
2
(0, 4), and its inverse, the function, F (x) = x , for x in (0, 2), Figure 55.

When we study these graphs carefully, we note, by denition of the inverse function,
that the domain and the range are interchanged. So, this means that if we
interchanged the x-axis (on which lies the domain of f ) and the y-axis, (on which
we nd the range of f ) we would be in a position to graph the inverse function of f .

This graph of the inverse function is simply the reection of the graph for y = x,
about the line y = x. Try it out ! Better still, check out the following experiment!

EXPERIMENT:

1. Make a copy of the graph of f (x) = x, below, by tracing it onto some
tracing paper (so that you can see the graph from both sides). Label the
axes, and ll in the domain and the range of f by thickening or thinning
the line segment containing them, or, if you prefer, by colouring them in.
2. Now, turn the traced image around, clockwise, by 90 degrees so

y
that the x-axis is vertical (but pointing down) and the y-axis is horizontal
(and pointing to the right). Figure 55.

nl
The graphs of y =

3. Next, ip the paper over onto its back without rotating the x2 and its inverse, y = x super-

paper! What do you see? The graph of the inverse function of imposed on one another

O
f (x) = x, that is, F (x) = x2 .
on
REMARK This technique of making the graph of the inverse function by rotating
the original graph clockwise by 90 degrees and then ipping it over always works!
You will always get the graph of the inverse function on the back side (verso), as if
si

it had been sketched on the x and y axes as usual (once you interchange x and y).
Heres a visual summary of the construction . . .
r
Ve
TA

Why does this work? Well, theres some Linear Algebra involved. (The au-
thors module entitled The ABCs of Calculus: Module on Inverse Functions has a
thorough explanation!)

We summarize the above in this

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134 3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

RULE OF THUMB. We can always nd the graph of the inverse function


by applying the above construction to the original graph

or, equivalently,

by reecting the original graph of f about the line y = x and eliminating the
original graph.

Example 126.
We sketch the graphs of the function f , and its inverse, F , given

by f (x) = 7x + 4 and F (x) = x4


7
, where Dom(f ) = , where  = (, +). The
graphs of f and its inverse superimposed on the same axes are shown in Figure 56.

NOTE THAT if you are given the graph of the inverse function, F (x), of a
function f (x), you can nd the graph of f (x) by applying the preceding rule of
thumb with f and F interchanged. Furthermore, the inverse of the inverse function
of a function f (so, were looking for the inverse) is f itself. Why? Use the denition
of the inverse! We know that F (f (x)) = x, for each x in Dom(f ), and x = f (F (x))
for each x in Dom(F ); together, these relations say that F is the inverse of f . If

y
we interchange the symbols F and f in this equation we get the same equation

nl
with the interpretation f is the inverse of F , which is what we wanted!

O
Exercise Set 16.
on
Sketch the graphs of the following functions and their inverses. Dont
forget to indicate the domain and the range of each function.
si

Figure 56. The graphs of


f (x) = 7x + 4 and its inverse 1. f (x) = 4 x2 , 0x2
r

x4 1
F (x) = 7 superimposed on one 2. g(x) = (x 1) , 1<x<
Ve

another.
3. f (z) = 2 z ,
3
< z <

4. h(x) = 5 + 2x, 52 x <
1
5. f (y) = (2 + y) 3 , 2 < y <
TA

6. Let f be a function with domain D = . Assume that f has an inverse function,


F , dened on  (another symbol for the real line) also.

(i) Given that f (2) = 0 , what is F (0)?

(ii) If F (6) = 1, what is f (1)?

(iii) Conclude that the only solution of f (x) = 0 is x = 2.

(iv) Given that f (2) = 8 , what is the solution y, of F (y) = 2? Are there
any other solutions ??

(v) We know that f (1) = 6. Are there any other points, x, such that
f (x) = 6?

7. Given that f is such that its inverse F exists, f  (2.1) = 4, F (1) = 2.1,
nd the value of the derivative of F at x = 1.

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3.7. INVERSE FUNCTIONS 135

Find the form of the inverse of the given functions on the given domain
and determine the Domain and the Range of the inverse function. Dont
forget to show that each is one-to-one rst.

8. f (x) = x, < x < +


1
9. f (x) = , x = 0
x
10. f (x) = x3 , < x < +
11. f (t) = 7t + 4, 0t1
1
12. g(x) = 2x + 1, x
2
1
13. g(t) = 1 4t2 , 0t
2
2 + 3x 3
14. f (x) = , x =
3 2x 2
1
15. g(y) = y 2 + y, y < +
2

y
nl
O
Suggested Homework Set 11. Work out problems 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15.
on
Web Links

More on Inverse Functions at:


si

library.thinkquest.org/2647/algebra/ftinvers.htm
r

(requires a Java-enabled browser)


Ve

www.sosmath.com/algebra/invfunc/fnc1.html
www.math.wpi.edu/Course Materials/MA1022B95/lab3/node5.html
(The above site uses the software Maple)
www.math.duke.edu/education/ccp/materials/intcalc/inverse/index.html
TA

NOTES:

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136 3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

3.8 Inverse Trigonometric Functions

When you think of the graph of a trigonometric function you may have the general
feeling that its very wavy. In this case, the Horizontal Line Test should fail as
horizontal lines through the range will intersect the graph quite a lot! So, how can
they have an inverse? The only way this can happen is by making the domain small
enough. It shouldnt be surprising if it has an inverse on a suitable interval. So,
every trigonometric function has an inverse on a suitably dened interval.

At this point we introduce the notion of the inverse of a trigonometric function.


The graphical properties of the sine function indicate that it has an inverse when
Dom(sin) = [/2, /2]. Its inverse is called the Arcsine function and it is dened
for 1 x 1 by the rule that
y = Arcsin(x) means that y is an angle whose sine is x.

Since sin(/2) = 1, it follows that Arcsin(1) = /2. The cosine function with
Dom(cos) = [0, ] also has an inverse and its called the Arccosine function, This

y
Arccosine function is dened for 1 x 1, and its rule is given by y = Arccos(x)
which means that y is an angle whose cosine is x. Thus, Arccos(1) = 0, since

nl
cos(0) = 1. Finally, the tangent function dened on (/2, /2) has an inverse
called the Arctangent function and its dened on the interval (, +) by

O
the statement that y = Arctan(x) only when y is an angle in (/2, /2) whose
tangent is x. In particular, since tan(/4) = 1, Arctan(1) = /4. The remaining
inverse trigonometric functions can be dened by the relations y = Arccot(x), the
Arccotangent function, which is dened only when y is an angle in (0, ) whose
on
cotangent is x (and x is in (, +)). In particular, since cot(/2) = 0, we see
that Arccot(0) = /2. Furthermore, y = Arcsec(x), the Arcsecant function, only
when y is an angle in [0, ], dierent from /2, whose secant is x (and x is outside
si

the open interval (1, 1)). In particular, Arcsec(1) = 0, since sec(0) = 1. Finally,
y = Arccsc(x), the Arccosecant function, only when y is an angle in [/2, /2],
dierent from 0, whose cosecant is x (and x is outside the open interval (1, 1)). In
r

particular, since csc(/2) = 1, Arccsc(1) = /2.


Ve

NOTE: sin, cos are dened for all x (in radians) but this is not true for their
inverses, arcsin (or Arcsin), arccos (or Arccos). Remember that the inverse of a
function is always dened on the range of the original function.
TA

Example 127.
Evaluate Arctan(1).

Solution By denition, we are looking for an angle in radians whose tangent is 1.



So y = Arctan(1) means tan y = 1 or y = .
4

Function Domain Range


y = Arcsin x 1 x +1 2 y + 2
y = Arccos x 1 x +1 0y
y = Arctan x < x < + 2 < y < + 2
y = Arccot x < x < + 0<y<
y = Arcsec x | x | 1 0 y , y = 2
y = Arccsc x | x | 1 2 y + 2 , y = 0

Table 3.9: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions

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3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 137

Example 128. 1
Evaluate Arcsin( ).
2

1
Solution By denition, we are looking for an angle in radians whose sine is . So
2
1 1
y = Arcsin( ) means sin y = or y = (see Figure 57).
2 2 6

Example 129. 1
Evaluate Arccos( ).
2
Figure 57.
1
Solution By denition, we seek an angle in radians whose cosine is . So y =
2
1 1
Arccos( ) means cos y = or y = .
2 2 4

Example 130.
Evaluate Arcsec( 2).

y
Solution By denition,we are looking for anangle in radians whose secant is 2.

So y = Arcsec( 2) means sec y = 2 (= 12 ). The other side has length s2 =

nl

( 2)2 12 = 2 1 = 1. So s = 1. Therefore, the  is isosceles and y = (see
4
Figure 58).

O

Example 131. 2
Find the value of sin(Arccos( )).
2
on
Figure 58.
2 2
Solution Let y = Arccos( ) then cos y = . But we want sin y. So, since
2 2
2 2
si

cos y + sin y = 1, we get

1 cos  1 1
sin y = y= 1 = .
r

2
2 2
Ve

Hence

2 1 2
sin(Arccos( )) = (= ).
2 2 2
TA

Example 132. 1
Find sec(Arctan( )).
2

1 1
Solution Now y = Arctan( ) means tan y = but we want sec y. Since sec2 y
2  2
tan2 y = 1 this means sec y = 1 + tan2 y = 1 + 14 = 54 = 25 . Now we
use Table 3.10, above.

Now, if we have an angle whose tangent is 12 then the angle is either in II or IV.
But the angle must be in the interval ( 2 , 0) of the domain of denition ( 2 , 2 )

of tangent. Hence it is in IV and so its secant is > 0. Thus, sec y = 5/2 and were
done.

Example 133. 1
Find the sign of sec(Arccos( )).
2

1 1
Solution Let y = Arccos( ) cos y = > 0, therefore y is in I or IV. By denition,
2 2

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138 3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Other Method: Signs of Trigonometric Functions

Quadrant sin cos tan cot sec csc


I + + + + + +
II + - - - - +
III - - + + - -
IV - + - - + -

Table 3.10: Signs of Trigonometric Functions


Arccos( 21 ) is in [0, ]. Therefore y is in I or II, but this means that y must be in I.
1
So, sec y > 0 by Table 3.10, and this forces sec Arccos = sec y > 0.
2

Example 134.
Determine the sign of the number csc(Arcsec(2)).

y
Solution Let y = Arcsec(2). Then sec y = 2 > 0. Therefore y is in I or IV. By

nl
denition, Arcsec(2) is in I or II. Therefore y is in I, and from the cosecant property,
csc y > 0 if y is in [0, 2 ). So, csc(Arcsec(2)) = csc y > 0.

O
Example 135. 1
Find the sign of tan(Arcsin( )).
2
on
1
Solution Let y = Arcsin( ). Then sin y = 12 y in III or IV. By denition
2
1
of Arcsin; But, y = Arcsin( ) must be in I or IV. Therefore y is in IV. So
2
si

1
tan(Arcsin( )) < 0 (because tan < 0 in IV).
2
r
Ve

CAREFUL!!
Many authors of Calculus books use the following notations for the inverse
trigonometric functions:
TA

Arcsin x sin1 x
Arccos x cos1 x
Arctan x tan1 x
Arccot x cot1 x
Arcsec x sec1 x
Arccsc x csc1 x

The reason we try to avoid this notation is because it makes too many readers
associate it with the reciprocal of those trigonometric functions and not their
inverses. The reciprocal and the inverse are really dierent! Still, you should
be able to use both notations interchangeably. Its best to know what
the notation means, rst.

NOTE: The inverse trigonometric functions we dened here in Table 3.9, are called
the principal branch of the inverse trigonometric function, and we use the notation
with an upper case letter A for Arcsin, etc. to emphasize this. Just about every-

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3.8. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 139

thing you ever wanted know about the basic theory of principal and non-principal
branches of the inverse trigonometric functions may be found in the authors Mod-
ule on Inverse Functions in the series The ABCs of Calculus, The Nolan Company,
Ottawa, 1994.

Finally, we emphasize that since these functions are inverses then for any symbol,
2 , representing some point in the domain of the corresponding inverse function (see
Table 3.9), we always have

sin(Arcsin 2 ) = 2 cos(Arccos 2 ) = 2
tan(Arctan 2 ) = 2 cot(Arccot 2 ) = 2
sec(Arcsec 2 ) = 2 csc(Arccsc 2 ) = 2

Exercise Set 17.

Evaluate the following expressions.


1
cos(Arcsin(0)) 3. sec(sin1 ( ))

y
1. sin(Arccos(0.5)) 2.
2

nl
1 3
4. csc(tan1 ( )) 5. sec(sin1 ) 6. Arcsin(tan(/4))
2 2

O
NOTES:
on
r si
Ve
TA

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140 3.9. DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

3.9 Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Func-


tions

Now that we know what these inverse trigonometric functions are, how do we nd
the derivative of the inverse of, say, the Arcsine (sin1 ) function? Well, we know
from equation 3.4 that

dF 1
(x) = 
dx f (F (x))

where F (x) = f 1 (x) is the more convenient notation for the inverse of f . Now let
f (x) = sin x, and F (x) = Arcsin x be its inverse function. Since f  (x) = cos x, we
see that
d dF
Arcsin x = (x)
dx dx
1
=
f  (F (x))

y
1
=
cos(F (x))

nl
1
=
cos(Arcsin x)

O
Now, let = Arcsin x, where is a lowercase Greek letter pronounced thay-ta. It is
used to denote angles. Then, by denition, sin = x, and were looking for the
value
of cos , right? But since sin2 () + cos2 () = 1, this means that cos = 1 x2 .
on
So, which is it? There are two choices, here.

Figure 59. Look at the denition of the Arcsin function in Table 3.9. Youll see that this
function is dened only when the domain of the original sin function is restricted
si

to [/2, /2]. But, by denition, Ran(Arcsin ) = Dom(sin) = [/2, /2]. So,


cos = cos Arcsin x 0 because Arcsin x is in the interval [/2, /2] and the cos
r

function is either 0 or positive in there. So we must choose the + sign. Good. So,
1 x .
Ve

cos(Arcsin x) = 2

For another argument, see Figure 59. Finally, we see that

d 1
TA

Arcsin x =
dx cos(Arcsin x)
1
= .
1 x2

The other derivatives are found using a similar approach.

d 1 du d 1 du
sin1 (u) = cos1 (u) = , | u |< 1,
dx 1 u2 dx dx 1 u2 dx

d 1 du d 1 du
tan1 (u) = cot1 (u) =
dx 1 + u2 dx dx 1 + u2 dx

d 1 du d 1 du
sec1 (u) = , csc1 (u) = , | u |> 1
dx | u | u2 1 dx dx | u | u2 1 dx

Table 3.11: Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

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3.9. DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 141

If we let u = u(x) = 2 be any dierentiable function, then we can use the basic
derivative formulae and derive very general ones using the Chain Rule. In this way
we can obtain Table 3.11.

Example 136. 1
Evaluate the derivative of y = cos1 ( ), (or Arccos( x1 )).
x

Solution You can use any method here, but it always comes down to the Chain
1 du 1
Rule. Let u = , then = 2 . By Table 3.11,
x dx x

dy d 1 du
= cos1 u =
dx dx 1 u dx
2
1
1 1 x2
= ( )=
1 ( x1 )2 x2 1 1
x2

1 x2
= =
1 |x|2
x2 1

y
1
x2 x2

|x|

nl
=
|x|2 x2 1
1

O
= , (|x| > 1).
|x| x2 1


on
Example 137.
Evaluate the derivative of y = cot1 ( x).

du 1
si

Solution Let u = x, then = . So,


dx 2 x
r

dy d 1 du
= cot1 u =
Ve

dx dx 1 + u2 dx
1 1 1
= = .
1 + ( x)2 2 x 2 x(1 + x)


TA

Example 138.
If y = csc1 ( x + 1) , what is y  (x)?

du 1
Solution Let u = x + 1, then = . So,
dx 2 x+1

dy d 1 du
= csc1 u =
dx dx | u | u2 1 dx
1 1
=
x + 1( x + 1 1) 2 x + 1
1
= .
2(x + 1) x

NOTES:

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142 3.9. DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Exercise Set 18.

Use Table 3.11 and the Chain Rule to nd the derivatives of the functions
whose values are given here.

1. Arcsin(x2 ), at x = 0 6. sec1 x

2. x2 Arccos(x) 7. sin(2Arcsin x), at x = 0



3. tan1 ( x) 8. cos(sin1 (4x))

1
4. Arcsin(cos x) 9.
Arctanx

sin1 x
5. 10. x3 Arcsec(x3 )
sin x

y
nl
Suggested Homework Set 12. Do problems 1, 4, 5, 7, 9

Web Links
O
on
On the topic of Inverse Trigonometric Functions see:
si

www.math.ucdavis.edu/kouba/CalcOneDIRECTORY/
invtrigderivdirectory/InvTrigDeriv.html
r
Ve

NOTES:
TA

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3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 143

3.10 Relating Rates of Change

There are many situations in life where things depend on other things which in turn
depend upon time. For example, the rate at which a balloon grows depends upon
the rate at which we blow into it, among other things. Similarly, the rate at which
we can stop an automobile by braking depends upon our reaction rate; these rates
are clearly related although it may be dicut to quantify them. In order to get
an understanding on how to model such situations we need to develop some basic
knowledge about how to model it rst! Lets start with an example.

Example 139.
As a spherical balloon is being inated with Helium gas it is
noted that its radius is increasing at the rate of 1 in./sec. How fast is its volume
changing when its radius is 5 in.?

Solution In order to model this and come up with a solution we need to relate the
quantities given (its the whole point of this section!). For example, we are talking
about a spherical balloon, that is one shaped like a sphere, at all times! We are

y
asking a question about its volume; so this means that we need to rst know what
its volume is, in general. We recall that the volume of a sphere is V = 43 r 3 , where

nl
r is its radius. The question asked is about the quantity dV dt
, in other words, we
want to know how fast the volume is changing.

O
Okay, now another part of the question deals with the fact that the radius is in-
creasing at the rate .... This tells us that we know something about the derivative,
on
dr
dt
, too! Lets put all this together. We know the volume V is a function of time
t and so r is a function of time too. Since both V and r are functions of t we can
dierentiate both sides of the volume formula with respect to t! Lets see... From
si

4 3
V = r
3
r

we nd by implicit dierentiation that


Ve

dV 4 dr dr
= 3 r2 = 4 r2 ,
dt 3 dt dt
since the implicit derivative of r 3 is really 3r 2 dr
dt
and NOT just 3r2 . Watch out for
this, its just the Chain Rule, remember?
TA

Now, lets see if we can get any further. Lets look at the expression
dV dr
= 4 r2 .
dt dt
We are given that the quantity drdt
= 1 (inch per second) and we need to nd the
rate of change of the volume. This means we still need the quantity r, but this is
given too! You see, we are asking for these rates of change at the time t when r = 5
(inches). So, thats about it. We just insert r = 5 and dr
dt
= 1 into the last display
and we get the required volume rate ... that is,
dV
= 4 (5)2 1 = 100 314 in3 /sec.
dt

Note The neat thing about this previous example is that we could have replaced
the word balloon by a red giant and determine the rate of expansion of such a

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144 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

dying star at times t in the future! An example of such a star is Betelgeuse (one of
the stars at the corner of the Orion constellation; it even looks red, check it out!).

In working on problems involving such rates of change we need to think about how
to relate the quantities and rates given. To do this we need to be able to recall
some basic formulae about geometry, or just have some common sense. Ultimately
though, all we do is we relate what we want to what is given, use some
formulae, then usually an application of the Chain Rule, then use some
logic, and nally the ideas in this section.

Example 140.
A swimming pool is being drained through an opening at its
deepest end and it is noticed that it will take about 960 minutes to drain the pool
if its volume is 10, 000 gallons. Now, the volume V of water left in the pool after t
minutes is given by Torricellis Law:
t
2
V = 10, 000 1 .

y
960

nl
How fast is the water draining from the pool after 30 minutes?

Solution This one isnt hard. The point is that we are asking the question, How

O
fast is the water draining from the pool .... This is really a question about how
the volume of water is changing, you see? That is, these words at the end of the
problem are really asking us to compute the derivative dVdt
at time t = 30 minutes,
on
thats all. In our case,

dV
t
1
= 2 (10, 000) 1 .
dt 960 960
si

So, after t = 30 minutes, the volume is changing at the rate of


1
r

dV 30
Ve

= 2 (10, 000) 1 ,
dt 960 960
31 1
= 20, 000
32 960
= 20.182 gallons per minute.
TA

Example 141.
A sunbather is lying on a tropical beach, with her head 1 m
away from a palm tree whose height is 4 m. The sun is rising behind the tree as it
casts a shadow on the sunbather (see the gure in the margin). Experience indicates
that the angle between the beach surface and the tip of the shadow is changing at

the rate of 36 rads/hr. At what rate is the shadow of the palm tree moving across
the sunbather when = 6 ?

Solution Now, lets analyze this problem carefully. You can see that this question
is about a triangle, right? Actually, we are really asking how the angle of the
triangle is changing with time. We are given the height (call it y, so that y = 4) of
the palm tree (or, the length of the opposite side of the triangle), and we need to
know the distance of the tip of the shadow from the base of the tree (we call this
x, and we know it varies with t). We also know that the required angle is called .
So, we have to relate x, the height of the palm tree and . How? Use trigonometry.
We know that y = x tan or equivalently,

x = y cot = 4 cot .

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3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 145

From this we see that we require some information about the rate dx/dt, since
this gives information on the rate of the motion of the shadow. So, using implicit
dierentiation and the Chain Rule we get,

dx d
= 4 csc2 .
dt dt
But we know that d/dt = /36 and we want information about dx/dt when =
/6. Feeding this information into the last display we get

dx   4
= 4 csc2 = 4(4) = 1.4 m/hr.
dt 6 36 36 9

Example 142.
A strip of hard bristle board is rolled up into a cylinder and
held together temporarily by means of a rubber band. Once released, the bristle
board expands and the rubber band exes in a circular fashion. Determine how fast
the length of the band is changing when its length is 30 cm and the rate of change
of the cross sectional area of the bristle board cylinder is 60 cm2 .

y
Solution Now this problem looks tough because there are so many words and so

nl
few formulae, or even numbers for that matter! Lets analyze the data carefully and
see if we can work this through logically.

O
A picture like the one in the margin (or a similar experiment that is also easy to
on
perform) will help us understand the event. Basically, we roll up some board, try
to hold it together using a rubber band but it doesnt work well because the rubber
band isnt strong enough to hold it together. So, it starts to unravel forcing the
band to expand in a circular fashion. OK, this makes sense and we can imagine
si

this.
r
Ve

What are we given and what are we asked to nd?

We note that we are given that the length of the band (or its perimeter) at some
TA

time t (unknown to us) is equal to 30. We can write this mathematically using the
formula P = 30, where P stands for the perimeter of the band at that particular
time. Furthermore, we are given that the cross-sectional area of the cylindrical
board is changing at the rate of 60. Mathematically, this is saying that

dA
= 60,
dt
where A is approximately equal to the area of the circle outlined by the rubber
band. Now what? We have to nd how fast the length of the band is changing, that
is, what is the quantity

dP dA
equal to, when P = 30 and = 60?
dt dt
This means we have to relate all these quantities somehow. . . . That is, we
need to nd some formula that relates the perimeter of a circle to its area when
each one of these in turn depends upon time. Well, the only formulae we can think
of right now are the obvious ones that relate P and A but in terms of the radius!
In other words, we know that A = r 2 and P = 2 r. Now we need to write A in
terms of P (we relate A to P ). We can do this if we eliminate the variable r

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146 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

from these two simple equations! Its easy to see that this elimination of the usual
variable r gives us the new relation
P2
A= .
4
Of course, you see that this isnt a formula we usually learn in school, but it can be
found using formulae we already know!

Now both A and P depend upon t so we can nd the derivative of both sides of the
last display with respect to t (using implicit dierentiation). We then nd,
dA
=
1 d  
P2 =
P dP
.
dt 4 dt 2 dt
Thats it!! We have found a relation between the three main quantities in this
problem, P, dP/dt, dA/dt! All we have to do now is feed in what is known, and solve
for what is unknown. Solving for dP/dt (the unknown) we get
dP 2 dA
= .

y
dt P dt

nl
But P = 30 and dA/dt = 60, so the required rate of change of the perimeter (at
that unspecied moment in time t) is equal to 4 12.57 cm/sec.

O
Example 143.
An economic concept called the Earnback Period was intro-
duced by Reijo Ruuhela back in 1987. Basically, this is the number of years required
on
for a company with a constant growth rate to earn back its share price. Now, this
quantity, lets call it R, is a function of E, its expected earnings; P , the price of a
stock at some specic time, usually t = 0; and G, its expected growth rate (usually
given by a quantity called the ROE: its return on equity). The relationship between
 
si

these variables is given by


P
ln 1 + g E
R= .
r

ln(1 + g)
Ve

Lets assume that the P/E ratio varies with time (it usually does). Then R is
essentially a function of the one variable P/E (since g is assumed constant in the
model).
TA

Determine the rate at which the Earnback Period changes when g = 38%, P/E =
27.3 and the rate of change of P/E = 0.6 (This is actual data drawn from a famous
cellular telephone manufacturer).

Solution Since R is given explicitly, all we need to do is dierentiate that expression

 
implicitly with respect to t. This gives

1 + g 
P
dR g d E
= P
dt E
ln(1 + g) dt
(0.38)
= (0.6)
(1 + (0.38)(27.3)) ln(1 + 0.38)
= 0.57608

This quantity, being positive, means it will take longer for the company to earnback
its original share price under these conditions.

NOTE: For this company, the actual earnback ratio for the given data above, was
equal to 7.54. This means that it would take about seven and one-half years for it
to earn back its stock price (assuming this expected constant growth rate).

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3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 147

A matter/antimatter collision will occur in a laboratory when a particle and an


antiparticle collide. One such attempt was undertaken by the Nobel Prize-winning
physicist, Carlo Rubbia. His experimental work veried the theoretically predicted
particles called the Z and W particles predicted by others. the unication of the
electromagnetic force with the weak nuclear force, the rst step towards a grand
unication of the fundamental forces of nature.

Example 144.
An electron and a positron (a positively charged electron) are
approaching a common target along straight line paths that are perpendicular to
each other. If the electron is 1000 meters away from the target and is travelling
at a speed of 299, 000, 000 meters/sec while the positron is 900 meters away and
travelling at a speed of 272, 727, 000 meters/sec, determine how fast the distance
between them is changing as they approach the target.

Solution Lets think about this: We are given that the two particles are travelling
along the sides of a right-angled triangle towards the vertex containing the right
angle (see the gure). Their distance from each other is simply the length of the

y
hypotenuse of this imaginary triangle and we want to nd out how fast this distance

nl
is changing. Lets call y the vertical distance and x the horizontal distance from
the target. Lets also denote by D, the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle
formed by the two particles and their common target. In other words, we are given

O
x, the speed x = dx/dt, the distance y and the speed y  = dy/dt. We really want
dD/dt. This means we have to relate this time derivative of D to x and y and their
derivatives.
on
Lets see. We have a right triangle, we have its two sides and we want its hypotenuse.
This must have something to do with Pythagoras Theorem! Lets try it. The
si

relation
D 2 = x2 + y 2
r

must hold for all time t, by hypothesis, since the particles are assumed to be moving
Ve

in a straight line. But now, each one of these quantities is varying with t, so we can
takwe the implict derivative of each side to nd:
dD dx dy
2D = 2x + 2y ,
dt dt dt
TA

or, solving for dD/dt we nd


dx dy
dD x dt
+y dt
= .
dt D

Substituting the values given above should do it. But wait! Were missing D here.

Anyhow, this isnt bad because we know (from Pythagoras) that D = x2 + y 2 =
(1000)2 + (900)2 = 1345.36 meters at the given moment of our calculation. Fi-
nally, we get
dD (900) (272, 727, 000) + (1000) (299, 000, 000)
= = 4.047 108 meters/sec.
dt 1345.36

Example 145.
We recall the Ideal Gas Law from chemistry texts. It says that
for an ideal gas,
P V = nRT
where R is the ideal gas constant (0.08206 liter-atmospheres/mole/degree Kelvin,
and T is the temperature in Kelvins), P is the pressure (in atmospheres), V is its

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148 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

volume (in liters), and n is the number of moles of the gas. Generally, all these
variables, P, V, n, T , can vary with time with the exception of R. If there is a
constant 2 moles of gas; the pressure is 5 atmospheres and is increasing at the rate
of 0.02 atmospheres per hour; the volume is decreasing at the rate of 0.05 liters per
hour; the temperature is given to be 300K and is decreasing at the rate of 1.5K per
hour, nd the volume V of gas at this time.

Solution You can see that theres a lot of data here. The rates being discussed
are all rates of change with respect to time (given in hours). This tells us that we
should be looking at our Law and dierentiate it with respect to time so that we
can use the information given. You cant use the original Law (P V = nRT ) to nd
V because this is a dynamic problem; all the quantities are generally changing with
time (except for n, R in this case). Okay, so lets dierentiate everything in the basic
Law to nd
P  V + P V  = nR T  .
Solving for the volume, V , we get a formula like
nRT  P V 
V = .
P

y
Now we just substitute in all the given information, but be careful with the rate
of change of temperature and volume: T  = 1.5 (note the negative sign!) and

nl
V  = 0.05. In the end we nd,
2 (0.08206) (1.5) 5 (0.05)
V = 0.191 liters.

O
0.02

Example 146.
A senior league baseball eld is in the form of a square whose
on
sides are 90 ft long. During a game a player attempts to steal third base by sprinting
at a constant speed of 9.2 ft/sec. At what rate is the players distance from home
plate changing when the player is 20 ft from third base?
si

Solution A picture will be helpful here (see the margin). Let y denote the distance
r

from the second base (denoted by the point A) to the player (denoted by the point
Ve

B) at a given time and x be the distance from the player to home plate (denoted
by the point O). We are given that y  = 9.2 and that the player is 90 20 = 70 ft
from second base so that y = 70. Now we want some information about x . This
means that we have to relate x and its derivative to y and its derivative. Looks like
well have to use some basic trigonometry in order to relate x to y. To do this, we
base to home plate and look at ABO. Since angle
TA

draw the diagonal from second



BAO = /4 and AO = 16, 200 127.28 (by Pythagoras) we can use the Cosine
Law to nd x. How? Recall that the Cosine Law is a more general form of the
theorem of Pythagoras. When the Law is applied to ABO we get
x2 = (AO)2 + y 2 2 (AO) y cos(/4),
or

2
x2 = 16, 200 + y 2 2 (127.28) y
2
= 16, 200 + y 2 180y.
We have just derived the basic formula relating x to y. Now we can nd the derivative
of both sides:
2 x x = 2 y y  180y  ,
and solve for x . This gives
(y 90) y 
x = .
x
But we know y = 70 and y  = 9.2 so all we need is to nd x. But this is easy because
of Pythagoras again. In other words, it is easy to see that x2 = (20)2 + (90)2 . Thus,
x 92.2 ft. It follows that x = (7090)
92.2
(9.2)
2 ft/sec..

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3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE 149

Special Exercise Set

1. As a spherical snowball is melting its radius is changing at the rate of 2 mm/min.


How fast is its volume changing when the radius is 2 cm?
2. A large cubical room in an old pyramid is being compressed uniformly from all
sides in such a way that its volume is changing at the rate of 6 m3 /min. How
fast is the length of one of its walls changing when it is equal to 2 m.?
3. A rectangular screen saver is changing, while maintaining its shape, in such a
way that, at all times, the ratio of its sides is equal to the Golden number,

51
= .
2
How fast is its area changing when one of its sides varies at the rate of 2.1 cm/sec
and that same sides length is 6.2 cm?
4. Two Formula 1 racing cars are at rest and facing away from each other at a
cross-shaped intersection on a desert highway. As the race begins they quickly
reach top speeds of 281 and 274 km/hr, respectively. How fast is the distance

y
between them changing when they are 4 and 6.7 km away from the intersection,

nl
respectively?
5. The area of a plane circular region is changing at the rate of 25 cm2 /sec. How
fast is its circumference changing when it is equal to 67 cm?

O
6. A rotating star (or our own planet) can be more accurately modelled by means
of a solid object called an oblate spheroid. This solid can be thought of as
a tangible sphere compressed from its poles thus forcing its equatorial section
on
out. In the case of a rotating sar (or the Earth) this bulging out at the equator
is caused by its rapid rotation rate and the inherent tidal forces.
The resulting object has an equatorial radius given by a and a polar radius, c.
si

It follows that a > c (since the sphere is compressed at the poles).


Now, the volume of an oblate spheroid with polar radius c and equatorial radius
a is given by
r

4
V = a2 c.
Ve

3
If a star rotates in such a way that its polar radius is a constant 50, 000 km while
its equatorial radius is changing at the rate of 1300 km/hr, determine the rate
at which its volume is changing when a = 50, 500 km.
TA

7. Two airplanes at the same altitude are moving towards an airport along straight
line ight paths at a constant angle of 120o = 2
3
rads and at speeds of 790 and
770 mph respectively. How fast is the distance between them changing when
they are respectively, 30 and 46 miles away from the airport?
8. A computer manufacturer found the cost of manufacturing x computers to be
given approximately by the function

C(x) = (3.2 105 ) x3 0.002 x2 (2.1) x + 2000 dollars.

Find the rate of change in cost over time given that dx/dt = 10 PC s/wk and
x = 100 P C  s.
9. PROJECT.
In the gravitational 3 body problem in Celestial Mechanics there is a concept
known as a central conguration. It is clear that any three point masses (such
as spherical planets, or stars) form a triangle.
When this triangle (or system of three bodies) has the property that if the three
masses are released with zero initial velocity subject only to Newtons Laws of
motion, then they all collide at the center of mass simultaneously, we call such
a triangle a central conguration in the problem of three bodies. Of
course, this is bad news if you happen to live on one of them!

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150 3.10. RELATING RATES OF CHANGE

a) Look up the subject of central congurations on the Web and determine


who discovered the fact that any three point masses at the vertices of an
equilateral triangle is necessarily a central conguration. When was this
discovered?
b) At a xed time t, three massive spherical bodies are positioned at the ver-
tices of a large equilateral triangle in space. Given that the area enclosed
by this celestial triangle is decreasing at the rate of 237, 100 km2 /sec, de-
termine the rate at which their mutual distances is changing when the
enclosed area is 500, 000 km2 .

y
nl
O
on
r si
Ve
TA

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3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS 151

3.11 Newtons Method for Calculating Roots

The Big Picture


In many applications of Calculus to mathematics and the real world well need to nd
out where things are: For instance, if we have two curves which may be describing
some complicated trajectory for a system of two particles, we may want to know at
which point they will meet (if ever). If they do meet, where do they meet? Its not
always possible to do this theoretically meaning that we need to resort to some sort
of numerical procedure (using a computer or a calculator) to estimate their location.
Recently, many Hollywood movies have been produced whose subject matter deals
with an imminent collision of an asteroid with the earth. Thats just one such
example. Each one of these celestial bodies moves according to Newtons Laws of
Motion and their trajectories are usually well known to astronomers. If there is a
collision then it must happen at some point along their mutual trajectories and this
means that their curves will intersect! The nding of the roots of a poly-
nomial equation is a very old prob-
The method which well be studying below is due to Sir Isaac Newton and is dated lem. Everyone knows the quadratic

y
1669 in an unpublished work of his where he applied the technique to nding the formula for a quadratic (or polyno-
roots of a cubic equation (by hand, no calculator!). In fact, if the polynomial is of

nl
mial of degree two), but few know
degree greater than or equal to 5 then there is no general formula for nding its or can remember the formula for the
roots. Newtons method, however, can be used to estimate its real roots. Another
roots of a cubic equation! The for-

O
application of this method can be found in the study of populations. The decline of
mula for the roots of some special
the species Amospitza Maritima Nigrescens, known as the Seaside Dusky Sparrow
cases of the cubic had been found by
can be modelled, in hindsight, by a power function P where P (t), the total world
population of Duskies at time t, is given by Omar Khayyam (ca. 1079) and ob-
on
tained generally by Nicolo Tartaglia
sin(10t) + 3
P (t) = 1000 , (ca. 1543) and Hieronimo Cardano
(1 + 32t )
(1501-1576). The formula for the
so that, in 1955, there were, lets say, approximately 3000 Duskies. The Dusky
si

roots of a quartic (polynomial of


Sparrow was a local species of sparrows which thrived near St. Johns River close to
degree 4) was discovered by Lu-
Cape Canaveral, the cradle of the U.S. Space Program. This species became extinct
dovico Ferrari (1522-1565) and Raf-
r

with the the passing of Orange Band (whose name was inspired by a distinctive
faello Bombelli (ca. 1530 - 1572?)
Ve

marking around one of its legs), the last remaining Dusky Sparrow, in 1986, at
Disney World, Florida, alone, behind a cage. If the model were right and you needed while the impossibility of nding a
to predict the extinction date you would need to solve an equation like P (t) = 0.99 formula for the roots of the gen-
or, equivalently, you would need to nd a root of the equation P (t) 0.99 = 0. eral quintic is due to Evariste Galois
Models like this one can be used to make predictions about the future development (1811-1832) and Niels Abel (1802-
TA

of populations of any kind and this is where the method we will study will lead to 1829). In this case we have to use
some numerical results with hopefully less disastrous consequences. Newtons Method or something
similar in order to nd the actual
Review real roots.

Review the methods for nding a derivative and Bolzanos Theorem (in
Chapter 2) and check your calculator batterys charge, youll really need to
use it in this section! Think BIG, in the sense that youll be making many
numerical calculations but only the last one, is the one you care about. It is
helpful if you can develop a feel for what the answer should be, and well
point out some ways of doing this.

The idea behind this method is that it uses our knowledge of a function and its
derivative in order to estimate the value of a so-called zero (or root) of the
function, that is, a point x where f (x) = 0. So, the rst thing to remember is
that this method applies only to dierentiable functions and wont work for
functions that are only continuous (but not dierentiable).

Remark Newtons method is based on the simple geometrical fact that if the

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152 3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS

graph of a dierentiable function has a zero at x = a (i.e., f (a) = 0), then its tangent
line at the point P(a, f (a)) must cross the xaxis at x = a too! In other words,
the tangent line must also have a zero at x = a. If the tangent line happens to be
horizontal at a zero, then it must coincide with the x-axis itself! (see Figure 60).

OK, so lets see what this simple remark tells us about the graph and about the
root, itself. We know that the equation of this tangent line at a generic point
P(xm , ym ) = P (xm , f (xm )) along the graph of f is given by

y = ym + (slope) (x xm ),
= f (xm ) + f  (xm ) (x xm ),

since the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at the point xm is equal to the
derivative of f at xm . Now, for this tangent line to cross the xaxis we must set
y = 0, (because the point in question must look like (a, 0) there). Setting y = 0 in
the last display and solving for x, the root were looking for, we nd x = xm ff(x m)
(xm )
,
or, since x = a is our root,

f (xm )
xm (if f  (xm ) = 0)

y
a = ,
f  (xm )

nl
is the value of the root we need. The problem with this is we dont know the value
of xm . The way this is resolved is by starting with some arbitrary value which
x

O
we call 0 . Ideally, you should choose x0 close to the root x = a, that youre trying
to approximate.

x
Next, you use this value of 0 to dene a new value, which we call x1 , (and
on
which depends on x0 ). This new value of x1 is dened explicitly by

f (x0 )
x1 = x0 ,
f  (x0 )
si

so youll need your calculator to nd it. OK, once youve done this, you now realize
r

you have two values, namely, x0 , x1 . Now, using our calculator once again, well
Ve

generate a new value ,which well call x2 , by setting

Figure 60. The graph of y = f (x1 )


x2 = x1 .
x2 showing its tangent at x = 0 f  (x1 )
TA

Since you just found x1 , youll be able to nd x2 . Alright, now you found three
values, x0 , x1 , x2 . Youre probably getting the general idea, here. So, we continue
this method by dening another value x3 by

f (x2 )
x3 = x2 .
f  (x2 )

This now gives us the four values x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 . We just keep doing this until the
numbers in the sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , . . . seem to level o, i.e., the last ones in
this list are very close together numerically. Of course, we can only do this a nite
number of times and this is OK, since an approximation which is accurate to 15
decimal places is accurate enough for the most precise applications. In general, the
(m + 1)st number we generated using this technique called an iteration is dened
by using the previous m numbers by, you guessed it, Table 3.12, above.

Now, if the sequence {x } {x , x , x , x , x , . . .}


m = 0 1 2 3 4 converges to a value
say, L, (see the Advanced Topics chapter for a precise meaning to this), then we can

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3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS 153

f (xm )
xm+1 = xm ,
f
(xm )

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .. This formula gives every term in the whole


sequence, which is denoted by {xm }, for brevity.

Table 3.12: Netwons Method: Denition of the Iteration

use some Limit Theorems from Chapter 2 and see that

f (xm )
L = lim xm+1 = lim {xm },
m m f  (xm )
limm f (xm )
= lim xm

y
m limm f  (xm )
f (L)

nl
= L  ,
f (L)

O
since both f, f  are continuous everywhere in their domain, and so at x = L.
on
Remark 1. This last equation shows that if
si

lim xm = L,
r

m
Ve

then L is a root of f , that is, f (L) = 0. But it doesnt have to be the root we
are actually looking for! This is one of the problems with this method: When the
sequence {xm }, dened in Table 3.12, converges to a value (i.e., it has a nite limit
as m ) that value is not necessarily equal to a, UNLESS we know something
TA

more about the root x = a. Well see some examples below.

Remark 2. If you think about this preamble carefully and you remember the stu
we learned in Chapter 2, then youll realize that the above arguments should work on
functions that have a derivative which is continuous over some interval I containing
the root. In addition, we should require that the root be a so-called, simple root.
This means that the derivative of f evaluated at the root is not zero. The reason
for this is to avoid those crazy results which occur when you try to divide by 0 in
the formula for some iterate xm .

What do the Newton iterates mean geometrically?

For this we refer to Figure 61 in the margin. There we have sketched the graph
of the function y = x4 1 over the interval [0, 5] in an attempt to understand the
nature of the iterates, or the points x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 . . . dened by the process outlined
in Table 3.12, above. Now we know that the zero of this function is at x = 1, so it
must be the case that xn 1 as n .

We choose the starting point x0 = 5 so that x1 , dened by Table 3.12 with m = 0,

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154 3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS

falls near 3.75 as in the graph. Why 3.75? Because

f (x0 )
x1 = x0
f  (x0 )
f (5)
= 5 
f (5)
624
= 5
500
3.75.

Now, at this point x1 = 3.75 we draw a perpendicular which intersects the graph at
P : (x1 , f (x1 )). Draw the tangent line at P . We claim that this line now intersects
the xaxis at x2 . It must, really! This is because the equation of the tangent line
at P is given by

y f (x1 ) = (slope)(x x1 )

y
= f  (x1 )(x x1 )
f (x1 ) + f  (x1 )(x x1 ).

nl
y =

O
This tangent line intersects the xaxis when y = 0, and so, solving for x, we nd
that
Figure 61. f (x1 )
x = x1  = x2 ,
f (x1 )
on
by denition. So x2 is the zero of this tangent line and its value is given by
si

f (x1 )
x2 = x1
f  (x1 )
r

f (3.75)
= 3.75 
Ve

f (3.75)
196.7
= 3.75
210.9
2.82.
TA

Now we just keep doing this over and over again. At this point x2 = 2.82 we draw
a perpendicular which intersects the graph at Q : (x2 , f (x2 )). Draw the tangent
line at Q and we claim that this line intersects the xaxis at x3 . Use the same
argument as the one above to convince yourself of this. So, you see, the string of
iterates x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . is really a string of roots of a collection of tangent lines to
the graph of f . When this sequence converges, it converges to a root of the original
function, f .

Now lets look at some examples.

Example 147.
Find an approximation to the root of the polynomial given by

f (x) = 2 x2 3 x + 1 in the interval [0.75, 2].

Solution Why the interval [0.75, 2]? We chose this one because f (0.75) f (2) =
(0.125) 3 = 0.375 < 0 and so by Bolzanos Theorem (Chapter 2), it follows that
f has a root in this interval. For a starting value, x0 , well choose the point half-way
between the end-points of our interval, namely the point x0 = (0.75 + 2)/2 = 1.375.

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3.11. NEWTONS METHOD FOR CALCULATING ROOTS 155

m xm f (xm ) f  (xm ) xm+1

0 1.375 0.656 2.5 1.1125


1 1.1125 0.1378 1.45 1.0175
2 1.0175 0.0181 1.0698 1.0006
3 1.0006 0.0006 1.0023 1.0000
4 1.0000 .0000 1.0000 1.0000
... ... ... ... ...
  
Column 3   
Column 5

Use your calculator or soft-


ware to verify the numbers in
Lets look at how this table was generated in the rst place. The rest of the examples
this Table!
follow a similar procedure. In this case, f (x) = 2 x2 3 x + 1, while f  (x) = 4x 3.
Substituting these values into Table 3.12 and expanding the terms on the right well
nd,
f (xm ) 2 xm 2 3 xm + 1
xm+1 = xm = xm , f or m 0.