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A popular way of classifying magmatic volcanoes is by their frequency of eruption, with

those that erupt regularly called active, those that have erupted in historical times but are now
quiet called dormant or inactive, and those that have not erupted in historical times called extinct.

Most scientists consider a volcano active if it has erupted in the last 10,000 years
(Holocene times). Most volcanoes are situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire. An estimated 500
million people live near active volcanoes.

Extinct volcanoes are those that scientists consider unlikely to erupt again because the
volcano no longer has a magma supply.

It is difficult to distinguish an extinct volcano from a dormant (inactive) one. Volcanoes

are often considered to be extinct if there are no written records of its activity. Nevertheless,
volcanoes may remain dormant for a long period of time. Climate change can reportedly trigger
volcanic activity in sensitive areas by changing pressure of ice or seawater and extreme weather.


Composite cone volcanoes, which are also called 'stratovolcanoes' or simply 'composite
volcanoes,' are cone-shaped volcanoes composed of layers of lava, ash and rock debris.
Composite cone volcanoes are grand sites and can grow to heights of 8,000 feet or more.

These steep-sided volcanoes erupt in an explosive manner. The explosiveness of their

eruptions is due to the thick, highly viscous lava that is produced by composite cone volcanoes.

And, this viscous lava has a lot to do with why they are shaped the way they are. The
thick lava cannot travel far down the slope of the volcano before it cools. This makes the sides of
the composite volcano steep. These explosive volcanoes also spew out eruptions of small rock
and ash, which gets deposited on the sides of the volcano. Therefore, we see that composite
volcanoes are composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, volcanic ash and rock fragments,
which is why they are called 'composite.'

Shield volcanoes are broad, domed-shaped volcanoes with long, gently sloped sides.
These volcanoes can cover large areas but never grow very tall. The reason these volcanoes tend
to flatten out is due to the composition of the lava that flows from them, which is very fluid. This
more fluid lava spreads out in all directions but cannot pile up in steep mounds.

Shield volcano eruptions are less explosive than composite volcanoes, as the lava tends to pour
out of the volcano's vent, creating the low-profile layers of lava that are characteristic of these

Cinder cone volcanoes are steep, cone-shaped volcanoes built from lava fragments
called 'cinders.' These volcanic cinders, also known as 'scoria,' are glassy volcanic fragments that
explode from the volcano and cool quickly. Therefore, they do not fall far from the vent of the
volcano, and this builds the steep sides of the cinder cone volcanoes fairly quickly.

Both strato/composite and shield volcanoes can lose their tops following a series of
tremendous explosions. The change in these volcanoes' structure is visible as a large depression
at the shield or stratovolcano summit. After enormous volumes of volcanic ash and dust are
expelled and swept down the slopes as ash and avalanches, these large volume explosions
rapidly drain in magma beneath the mountain and can no longer support the volcano top. The
collapsing top forms a large depression in the landscape, which may later fill with water to form
a lake. Similarly, the tops of shield volcanoes collapse when magma erupts as lava flows,
emptying the magma chambers. The steep-walled, basin-shaped depressions formed by the
collapse of volcanoes are called calderas. Calderas by definition are larger than 1.5 miles in
diameter and can range up to 15 miles wide or as huge elongated depressions as much as 60
miles long.

While ordinary volcanoes can kill thousands of people and destroy entire cities, scientists
believe that a supervolcano explosion is big enough to affect everyone on the planet. Although
they're called "super," most people would have trouble spotting a supervolcano before it erupts.
The main feature of supervolcanoes is a large magma chamber, which is an underground
reservoir filled with flowing, hot rock under huge pressures. Afer their eruption ash has been
blown so far away that no mountain exists, and commonly the area is low and lake-filled.


(i) Tectonic earthquake is induced by the movement (injection or withdrawal) of magma.

The movement results in pressure changes in the rock around where the magma has
experienced stress. At some point, the rock may break or move.
(ii) The non-tectonic earthquakes are mainly of three types due to surface causes, volcanic
causes and collapse of cavity roofs.
Superficial earthquake - The earthquakes which are caused by dynamic agencies
operating upon the surface of the earth.
Volcanic earthquake - The earthquake which occur due to different volcanic activities.


Earthquakes and volcanoes are evidence for plate tectonics. Energy is emitted in the form of
waves. A seismograph records these waves on a seismogram. When an earthquake is recorded it
is called an earthquake "event."

P waves or primary waves are the first waves that the seismogram records. The P wave is the
"fast" wave and can be called a push-pull wave, because it moves by contracting and expanding
along a horizontal path. A P-wave travels through a material as a compressional force. The
second major type of seismic wave is called an S-wave. S-waves are shear waves. S-waves are
slower than P-waves. The particle motion in shear waves is perpendicular to the direction of the