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Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE- 24th-25th January 2014)

Tension or Compression, Biaxial Bending, Shear in Both

Directions and Torsion

Santhosh Kumar P.T.*,

*(Principal, Axis College of Engineering and Technology, Affiliated to University of Calicut, Kerala, India

Email: drsanthosh2012@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Many analytical softwares do not support design of columns subjected to tension or compression, biaxial

bending, shear in both directions and torsion. Tension in columns occurs especially in columns of buildings

subjected to horizontal loads due to wind or earthquake forces. Hence, a simple method is developed using MS

excel sheet, from the existing Indian codal procedures. Results are compared with existing literature and

comparison graphs show that results are matching with the existing literature. Hence, these excel sheets can be

used in conjunction with the analytical softwares like STAAD and ETABS for the design of columns.

Importance of this procedure lies in the fact that modification or alteratation can be made at any step and can be

used for a vast number of columns in a short time during the design of mult-istoried buildings.

Keywords-Analytical softwares, Biaxial bending, columns,shear in both directions and torsion.

Columns contain very low volume of Column is a critical element in a structure

materials compared to the roof it supports. However, which need to have a high moment strength than

extreme care is required to construct columns since beams or tributary slab in the principal plane

failure of columns lead to sudden collapse of the considered. Ignoring shear and torsion in the design of

structure, when compared to the failure of the roofing columns reduces the safety factor for columns. Hence,

elements it supports. Hence, columns need to design a procedure is formulated using spreadsheets for the

in such a way that failure of beams occurs prior to design of columns. Spreadsheet facilitates design of

failure of columns. In order to achieve this objective, number of colums immediately upon entering design

the moment strength of beams or tributary slab shall data values. These are significant since many

be less than that of colums at a joint in a principal analytical softwares do not support design of columns

plane [1]. This fact shall be checked before the with axial force, moments, shear and torsion.

completion of analysis and if found not satisfying, Moreover, BS- 8110 [4] imposes the limitation of

column dimensions shall be increased to satisfy the design of columns using charts, that the longer side of

above condition. columns shall not be more than 4 times the shorter

Design of columns are carried over a group of side. This imposes limitation of using these charts.

columns having a low variation of design values. In Moreover SP 16 [3] also puts limitation of minimum

this group, design is carried for the highest values of of 8 bars (for bars places on all faces) for the charts.

axial force, moments about Y and Z directions, shear However, the spreadsheet developed has no such

about Y and Z directions as well as torsion. However, limitations, since it is developed from first principles,

it is a common practice among designers to ignore for application to rectangular columns.

shear and torsion in columns. This practice will All the individual concepts for design of this problem

reduce safety factor in columns which are critical are available in IS 456 : 2000 and SP : 16 1980 [2,3],

structural members responsible for the safety of the however, all these individual concepts are

structure. Hence, a method is proposed from existing systematically combined in this programme, which

literature [2,3,4] for the design of reinforced concrete takes care of all the relevant clauses concerning this

(RC) columns considering axial force, moment in Y problem and all the design result values received from

and Z direction, shear in Y and Z direction and analysis software STAADPRO V8 i series software

torsion. This method is presented in the excel sheet so [6]. Moreover, this programme can be used for the

that the calculations in each step can be verified. The design of hundreds of columns (considering grouping

results are compared with the literature and verified. number of columns also), in one or two days when

designing a multi-storey building.

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE- 24th-25th January 2014)

III. METHODOLOGY IS 456: 2000 [2]. As per this clause, for braced

Side parallel to local Y axis in Staadpro V8 i columns, the single moment is the sum of 0.4 Me1

series [6], is b, and that corresponding to local Z axis and 0.6 Me2 and not less than 0.4 Me2, where Me1 is

is D. Note that local Y axis corresponds to global X the smaller moment and Me2 is the larger moment.

axis and local Z axis corresponds to global Z axis. This needs to be found about Y and Z axis

Local X axis corresponds to the longitudinal axis of respectively. One of Me1 or Me2 is negative if

column. column is bent in double curvature. For unbraced

Step by step procedure for the design are as follows. columns, end moments shall be directly added to the

1. Enter Py (axial force), My (moment about local Y) initial moments. Ie., Higher of the top or bottom

for top and bottom of column, Mz (moment about moments is required to be considered for design about

local Z) for top and bottom of column, Sy (shear Y and Z axis. Thus, the single moment which is

along local Y), Sz (shear along local Z) and Mx required to be added to the moments due to

(torsion). Enter also the breadth of the column along slenderness as given as above.Slenderness ratio of

Y (b) and the length of the side parallel to local Z (D). unbraced columns for a given storey shall be taken as

Enter the grade of steel and concrete. Enter also the the average of all columns in a single storey.

column as braced or unbraced. Column is braced, it it 7. The above obtained initial moments shall be

is laterally supported. compared with the moment due to minimum

2. As per table in IS: 456 2000 [2], effective length eccentricity as per cl. 39.2 of IS 456 : 2000 [2] and

is calculated. Slenderness ratio is calculated about Y maximum shall be considered.. Minimum eccentricity

and Z axis and if it is more than 12, column is corresponds to cl. 25.4 of IS 456 : 2000 [2], which is

designated as long column, else, short columns. equal to unsupported length of column/500 plus

3. If it is a long column, additional moment is lateral dimensions/30, subject to minimum of 20 mm.

calculated as per IS 456-2000 [2]. This needs to be checked about each axis at a time.

4. The above additional moment shall be reduced by 8. Thus, the initial moment obtained from above shall

multiplying with a factor k in accordance with IS 456- be added to the moment due to slenderness as given in

2000 [2]. This factor is a function of Pb, which is the step 5.

axial load corresponding to a strain of 0.0035 in 9. This moment shall be added to the fictitious

compression and 0.002 in tension. This Pb is found bending moment due to torsion given in cl. 41.4.2 of

from first principles. It is assumed that bars are IS 456 : 2000 [2]and this shall be added to above to

equally distributed on all faces. Since the strains are get the final moments for design. Since rebars are

given, neutral axis can be located as 0.6 times provided in compression and tension faces equally,

effective depth. Further, Pb is found based on the for columns, the condition of providing compression

method given in SP; 16- 1978 [3]. This is based on the rebars as per cl. 41.4.2.1 of IS 456 : 2000 [2], on

strains at each row of steel and the corresponding condition that Mt > Mu, is not applicable.

stresses in steel and the compressive force in concrete. 10. Design shear shall be found by adding input shear

Stress in steel is found from the stress stress relations with the fictitious shear due to torsion as per cl.

given in SP: 16- 1978 [3]. These are given for a bar 41.3.1. of IS 456 : 2000 [2].

configuration of four bars per face which is applicable 11. Design for uniaxial moment capacity about Y or

to 3 bars per face and 2 bars per face. This can be Z, and axial force shall be found by varying the

extended to any number of bars per face, provided, neutral axis depth, so that axial force and moment

the excel sheet is modified by simply copying the shall be greater than initial ones. If neutral axis lies

existing one and changing the bar number from the outside the section, section a of cl. 3.2.3.2 of SP 16

present to the required one. Having found Pb and Puz may be resorted to, and cl. b shall be referred to in

as per cl. 39.6 of IS 456 : 2000 [2], reduction factor k case, if neutral axis lies within the section. For this

can be determined as per cl. 39.7.1.1. of IS : 456 end, the coefficients for area of stress block (C1) and

2000 [2]. the distance of centroid of the concrete stress block,

5. Having found the reduction factor about Y and Z measured from the highly compressed edge, shall be

axis, additional moments May and Maz can be found from equations given in cl. 3.2.2 of SP 16 :

calculated. These moments shall be added to the 1980 [3]. Refer to the section for validation, for

initial moments which is required to be determined as further details.

in the further steps. 12. After determining the uniaxial moment capacities

6. Column has top and bottom moments initially about the individual axis, the check for combined

about Y and Z direction respectively. From this, a axial load and biaxial moments shall be checked as

single moment (Muy) and Muz) is required to be per cl. 39.6 of IS 456 : 2000 [2]. If O.K., proceed for

arrived which need to be added to the additional design for shear (which included shear due to input

moments due to slenderness so as to arrive at the final shear and torsion).

moments. This is based on notes given in cl. 39.7.1 of 13. Use cl. 40 if the shear do not include torsion and

use cl. 41 of IS 456 : 2000 [2] if the shear include the

Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering 88 | P a g e

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE- 24th-25th January 2014)

14. Further, the design is checked for the limiting THE DESIGN

values of design as per IS 456 : 2000 [2]. Effect of torsion was converted in to

15. Check for crack width is also performed equivalent bending moment in Y and Z directions

considering the serviceability loads, as per Annexure respectively through equations given in IS : 456-2000

F of IS 456 : 2000 [2]. (Bending in Y and Z directions were considered based

upon b and D values compatible to the moment

IV. DETAIL OF SOME OF THE direction). Further this moment was added to the other

INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTIONS bending moments due to initial staad results (or

Details of come of important constructs are moments due to minimum eccentricity as per IS: 456-

given below. 2000 [2]) and slenderness. Further, this moment was

Table A of SP 16 : 1980 [3], for finding stress from carried over to the input for design for biaxial

strain of cold-worked bars, are implemented in MS moments.

excel using the following construct. Note that additional rebars in the opposite face of the

IF(AND((ABS(G78)>0.0038),($G$23=415)),360.9,IF tension longitudinal steel phase on condition that the

(AND((ABS(G78)>0.00276),($G$23=415)),351.8+(3 bending moment equivalent of torsion is more than

60.9-351.8)/(0.0038-0.00276)*(ABS(G78)- the actual bending moment, is not considered. This is

0.00276),IF(AND((ABS(G78)>0.00241),($G$23=415 because, rebars are provided equally on all faces.

)),342.8+(351.8-342.8)/(0.00276- Effect of torsion was converted in to equivalent shear

0.00241)*(ABS(G78)- also in Y and Z directions as per the equations of IS

0.00241),IF(AND((ABS(G78)>0.00192),($G$23=415 456-2000. Separate design was provided in the event

)),324.8+(342.8-324.8)/(0.00241- of actual shear only, and shear combined with

0.00192)*(ABS(G78)- equivalent shear due to torsion.

0.00192),IF(AND((ABS(G78)>0.00163),($G$23=415

)),306.7+(324.8-306.7)/(0.00192- VI. VERIFICATION OF SPREADSHEET

0.00163)*(ABS(G78)- It is required to make sure that the results of

0.00163),IF(AND((ABS(G78)>0.00143),($G$23=415 long constructs give the same values as in code.

)),288.7+(306.7-288.7)/(0.00163- Hence, the comparison of results obtained from excel

0.00144)*(ABS(G78)- sheet was made with the results from literature to

0.00144),IF(AND((ABS(G78)<0.00144),($G$23=415 make sure that each constructs are correct. Results of

)),200000*ABS(G78)))))))) major constructs are given in Table 1.

Where G78 cell denote the strain in the bar. G23 There is another reason also that, since it is observed

denotes characteristic strength of steel. that available literature do not have the results for the

Total axial force in any row of reinforcement is found design of columns under compression/tension, biaxial

as follows. bending, shear and torsion, each of the constructs are

IF(AND(G57<0,$G$23=415),$G$53*$G$55*- verified with the standard codes or literature.

G58,IF(AND(G57>0,$G$23=415),$G$53*$G$55*G5

8,(IF(AND(G57<0,$G$23=500),$G$53*$G$55*- Table 1a Comparison of steel stresses from strains,

G59,(IF(AND(G57>0,$G$23=500),$G$53*$G$55*G for various stress levels (fyd = fy/1.15), for Fe415

59)))))) Strain fs as per excel(fs as per

Where, G57 denotes strain in the bar, G53 and G55 SP 16 : 1980)

denotes number of bars in each face and cross 0.00380 fyd (fyd)

sectional area of one bar. G59 denotes absolute stress 0.00276 0.974fyd(0.975fyd)

in the bar. 0.00241 0.949fyd (0.95fyd)

The above was used for finding out Pb. Here, absolute 0.00192 0.9fyd (0.0.90fyd)

stress in the bar was considered and for negative value 0.00163 0.849fyd (0.0.85fyd)

of strains (tensile), the construct gets switched over 0.00144 0.8fyd (0.8fyd)

through if condition. Table 1b Comparison of steel stresses from strains,

However, for evaluation of Puy,Puz,Muy1 and Muz1, for various stress levels (fyd = fy/1.15), for Fe500

absolute and relative value of stress in the bar was

Strain fs as per excel(fs as per

considered respectively for calculation of moment and

SP 16 : 1980)

axial force respectively. This is to avoid two negative

0.00417 fyd (fyd)

signs of stress and moment arm to become positive

0.00312 0.974fyd(0.975fyd)

sign in case of moment caused due to tensile axial

0.00277 0.949fyd (0.95fyd)

force in any row of steel.

0.00226 0.9fyd (0.0.90fyd)

0.00195 0.85fyd (0.0.85fyd)

0.00174 0.8fyd (0.8fyd)

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE- 24th-25th January 2014)

Table 2 gives comparison of Pu/(fckbD) of given spreadsheet. This is applicable for rectangular

excel sheet and as per SP 16 : 1980, corresponding to columns only. For circular columns and odd shaped

p/fck and Mu/(fckbD2) for various dimensions of columns, this spreadsheet can be modified and could

columns as shown below. be adopted. All notations corresponds to ref [2] and

[3]. The above analysis is also in line with ref [7],

Table 2 Comparison of Pu/(fckbD) of excel sheet and regarding column parameters.

SP 16 : 1980, corresponding to p/fck and Mu/(fckbD 2)

Colum Neutral Mu Pu/(fckbD)(Pu/ REFERENCES

n size axis /(fckbD2) fckbD) as per [1] Park and Paule, Reinforced concrete structures(

in mm factor, SP 16 : 1980) NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969).

(squar k [2] IS 456-2000, Indian standard code of practice

e col.) for plain and reinforced concrete code of

600 1.4 0.015 0.481 (0.48) practice (Bureau of Indian Standards, New

1.2 0.024 0.456(0.45) Delhi,2000).

1.0 0.041 0.406(0.4) [3] SP 16-1980,Design aids for reinforced concrete

0.8 0.065 0.315 (0.3) to IS 456-1978 (Bureau of Indian Standards,

0.6 0.077 0.219(0.2) New Delhi, 1980).

0.4 0.071 0.129(0.14) [4] BS 8110- Part 1, 1985,Structural use of

0.2 0.05 0.04(0.04) concrete, Part 1 code of practice for design and

0.05 0.009 -0.064(-0.06) construction (British standards institution,

500 1.4 0.017 0.509 (0.48) London).

1.2 0.027 0.48(0.48) [5] Punmia. B.C., Limit state design of reinforced

1.0 0.046 0.425(0.44) concrete (Laxmi Publications Pvt. Limited,

0.8 0.071 0.323 (0.3) New Delhi, first edition 2007, reprint 2011).

0.6 0.086 0.22(0.2) [6] STAAD Pro V8i- select series 1, Structural

0.4 0.08 0.12(0.12) analysis and design (BENTLY systems

0.2 0.058 0.024(0.02) international limited, United States).

0.05 0.009 -0.1(-0.1) [7] James K. Wight, James G. McGregor,

400 1.4 0.02 0.56 (0.58) Reinforced concrete, mechanics and design

1.2 0.032 0.456(0.48) (Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2009).

1.0 0.053 0.46(0.46)

0.8 0.083 0.345(0.36)

0.6 0.099 0.219(0.22)

0.4 0.094 0.102(0.10)

0.2 0.065 -0.019(-0.02)

0.05 0.009 -0.168(-0.16)

300 1.4 0.026 0.67 (0.65)

1.2 0.04 0.621(0.64)

1.0 0.066 0.53(0.50)

0.8 0.102 0.383(0.38)

0.6 0.125 0.208(0.20)

0.4 0.118 0.052(0.06)

0.2 0.066 -0.15(-0.14)

0.05 0.009 -0.312(-0.3)

Table 2 indicate that comparison is satisfactory.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

From the above sections, it is clear that, the

spreadsheet developed for the design of columns

subjected to compression/tension, biaxial bending,

shear in both directions and torsion, can be used

effectively.

VIII. LIMITATIONS

At present, column with four bars per face is

considered, which can be increased to any number of

bars per face by a little modification in the

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