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Chapter 9 Foundations of Individual Behavior

1) Attitudes are evaluative statements concerning objects, people, or events.


2) Cognitive dissonance arises when people feel that their behavior and attitudes are
consistent.
3) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® test can identify thousands of different basic
personality types.
4) Attribution theory is primarily concerned with identifying one's own behavior.
5) Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or
whether it's particular to one situation.
6) Individuals tend to attribute their own successes to external factors.
7) In stereotyping, observers use group characteristics to judge individuals.

8) Hidden aspects of an organization that OB provides insight into include ________.


A) strategies
B) attitudes
C) structure
D) objectives

9) Which of the following is a visible aspect of an organization?


A) attitudes
B) interpersonal conflicts
C) intergroup conflicts
D) objectives

10) Organizational behavior focuses on ________.


A) individual behavior and group behavior
B) group behavior only
C) individual behavior only
D) neither group behavior nor individual behavior

11) Which of the following are the goals of organizational behavior?


A) to explain, document, and control behavior
B) to control and influence behavior
C) to explain, predict, and influence behavior
D) to predict, understand, and document behavior

12) A manager would most likely be interested in employees' attitudes about which of the
following?
A) family responsibility
B) personal responsibility
C) job satisfaction
D) past jobs
13) ________ is the unique combination of psychological traits that describe a person.
A) Character
B) Intelligence
C) Behavior
D) Personality

14) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI® ) is based on ________ that are revealed in a
100-item questionnaire.
A) two dimensions
B) four dimensions
C) four personality types
D) eight personality types

15) The judging versus perceiving scale on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® determines
whether a person is oriented ________.
A) outwardly or inwardly
B) toward gathering data or the big picture
C) toward planning or flexibility
D) logically or emotionally

16) If you are a person who prefers to focus on gut feelings when you make a decision, you
would probably score high on which aspect of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® ?
A) sensing rather than intuition
B) intuition rather than sensing
C) thinking rather than feeling
D) feeling rather than thinking

17) The Big Five model of personality includes all of the following except ________.
A) extroversion
B) agreeableness
C) conscientiousness
D) intuitiveness

18) ________ is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions to give
meaning to the environment.
A) Attribution
B) Selection
C) Learning
D) Perception
19) Different people typically have ________.
A) the same perception of a single situation
B) the same perception of different situations
C) different perceptions of the same situation
D) an undistorted perception of a situation

20) Attribution theory is primarily concerned with explaining ________.


A) the behavior of groups
B) one's own perceptions
C) the behavior of others
D) the perceptions of others

21) In attribution theory, ________ behavior is largely beyond an individual's control.


A) externally caused
B) internally caused
C) consistent
D) inconsistent

22) In attribution theory, if everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the
same way, we can say the behavior shows ________.
A) consensus
B) high distinctiveness
C) low distinctiveness
D) medium distinctiveness

23) If a person who is always late for work is late once again and blames it on a traffic jam,
coworkers would probably attribute that person's lateness to ________.
A) traffic
B) an external source
C) an internal source
D) his or her car

24) The self-serving bias causes people to tend to attribute ________.


A) successes of others to external factors
B) failures of other to external factors
C) their own successes to internal factors
D) their own failures to internal factors

25) When people judge someone on the basis of the perception of a group they are a part of,
they are using the shortcut called ________.
A) stereotyping
B) selectivity
C) assumed similarity
D) the halo effect